kimkat0193e. Geiriadur Cymraeg (Gwenhwyseg)-Saesneg / Welsh (Gwentian dialect) English Dictionary.
13-07-2017

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Geiriadur Cymraeg (Gwenhwyseg) - Saesneg
Welsh (Gwentian dialect) - English Dictionary


AR Y GWEILL GENNYM Y MAE GWALLAU HEB EU CYWIRO

UNDER CONSTRUCTION THERE ARE UNCORRECTED ERRORS


(delwedd 7282)


The main purpose of this dictionary is to give an approximation of Gwentian Welsh (the Welsh of the former counties of Sir Forgannwg / Glamorganshire and Sir Fynwy / Monmouthshire) which might serve to read texts written in the dialect.

Prif amcan y geiriadur hwn yw rhoi fraslun neu amlinelliad or Wenhwyseg (Cymraeg hen siroedd Morgannwg and Mynwy) a all fod o fudd wrth ddarllen ysgrifau yn y dafodiaith honno.


Follow this link to see a list of material in Gwentian, or about Gwentian, in this website.

Dilynwch y ddolen-gyswllt hon i weld rhestr o ddeunydd yn nafodiaith Gwent, neu yn ymwneud r dafodiaith, sydd yn y wefan hon.
www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/gwenhwyseg_deunydd_mynegai_1048e.htm

 


(delwedd 5781)

 

LETTERS A-D

www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/geiriadur-gwenhwyseg-saesneg_A_0231e.htm

 

LETTERS E-M

www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/geiriadur-gwenhwyseg-saesneg_E_0237e.htm

 

LETTERS N-R

www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/geiriadur-gwenhwyseg-saesneg_N_0240e.htm

 

LETTERS S-Z

www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/geiriadur-gwenhwyseg-saesneg_S_0241e.htm

 



There is (or was) of course no uniform dialect called Gwentian. In the east the Welsh-speaking area ended abruptly in present-day England (in Herefordshire) where it met the English-speaking regions of England; and in the west there exists a continuum where the further one goes to the Morgannwg (Glamorgan) border and into the county of Caerfyrddin (Carmarthenshire) defining features of Gwentian became fewer and cease. They are above all phonological.
1/ the slender a: the a* of south-western Welsh is A-E in Gwentian (ba*ch > bA-Ech) (= little, small)
2/ calediad or hardening of certain initial consonants [k, p, t] of the tonic syllable (ca*dair > ca*tar) (= chair), (tri*go > tri*co) (= die), (dwbwl > dwpwl) (= double)
3/ final-syllable [a] instead of the [e] found in south-western Welsh (cefen > cefan) (= back),
4/ Loss of initial [h] is also a notable feature
5/ Also in some areas there was (5) palatalisation of initial [k] cefan > ciefan, etc (< cefn = back).

Ni fu, wrth gwrs, tafodiaith unffurf o dan yr enw Gwenhwyseg. Yn y dwyrain daeth tiriogaeth y Gymraeg i ben yn swta yn nhiroedd Lloegr (Swydd Henffordd) wrth gwrdd ag ardaloedd Lloegr Saesneg eu hiaith; yn y gorllewin y mae continwwm lle yr nodweddion diffiniol y Wenhwyswg yn llai ac yn pallu mwyaf yn y byd yr eir tuag at ffin Morgannwg ac i mewn i Sir Gaerfyrddin. Maent yn anad dim nodweddion ffonolegol (1) yr s fain, (2) calediad, sef caledu cytsain gyntaf [k, p, t] y goben, i (3) [a] yn y sillaf olaf yn lle yr [e] a geir yng Nghymraeg y de-orllewin. (4) mae collir [h] gychwynnol hefyd yn nodwedd nodedig. (5) Bu hefyd yn rhai ardaloedd dafladoli y [k] gychwynnol: cefan > ciefan, etc (< cefn).

Other features which differentiate it from standard or literary Welsh are common to the Welsh language in South Wales as a whole.
Maer nodweddion eraill sydd yn ei gwhanaethu o Gymraeg llenyddol neu safonol yn gyffredin i Gymraeg y De fel ei gilydd.

As we have stated, within the Gwentian area there were many local variations. In the nineteenth century the original language of the people of Sir Forgannwg and Sir Fynwy (Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire) became confined to the hill farms and the sparsely-inhabited areas. The industrial settlements saw the immigration of Welsh people from other parts of Wales, and this influenced to a degree the Gwentian Welsh spoken there.
Fel yr ydym wedi sylwi, o flaen ardal y Wenhwyseg yr oedd llawer o amrywiadau neu fathau lleol. Yn y ddeunawfed ganfrif cyfyngwyd iaith frodorol trigolion Sir Forgannwg a Sir Fynwy ir ffermydd mynydd ar lleoedd llai eu poblogaeth. Gwelwyd yn y pentrefi diwydiannol fewnlifiad o Gymru o barthau eraill o Gymru, ac i ryw raddau dylanwadodd hyn ar y Gymraeg Wenhwyseg a siaredid yno.


The headwords are Gwentian, in a regularised spelling (initial h is omitted (heol > ewl), long vowels are marked with a macron (glō = glo, cōd = coed), as are half-long vowels (ffēnast = ffenestr). In polysyllables, in the tonic syllable oe > oi (coedydd > coidydd), ae > ei (blaenau > bleina). The long a in this part of South Wales becomes the a fain [a: ˡvaɪn] (Welsh for slender a) characteristic of the dialect (tǣn = tn, cː= cae).
Yn Wenhwyseg y maer prifeiriau, wedi eu sillafu yn l orgraff safonedig (hepgorir yr h gychwynnol
(heol > ewl), dangosir y llafariaid hir macron (glō = glo, cōd = coed), ac yn ur un modd y llafariaid hanner-hir (ffēnast = ffenestr). Mewn lluosillau, yn y goben, oe > oi (coedydd > coidydd), ae > ei (blaenau > bleina). Yr a fain ywr a hir yn y rhan hon or wlad (tǣn = tn, cː= cae).

Many features of Gwentian are found throughout South Wales that is, they are not unusual and specific to this dialect, although some commentators on the dialect (in writings on local history, genealogy, etc) who perhaps do not speak Welsh fail to realise this.
Mae llawer o nodweddion y Wenhwyseg iw gweld yn Ne Cymru benbaladr hynny yw, nid ydynt yn anerferol ac yn rhan or dafodiaith hon yn unig, er bod rhai syn trin y dafodiaith (mewn ysgrifau ar hanes lleol, achyddaeth, ayyb) ac nad ydynt o bosibl yn medrur Gymraeg, yn methu gweld hyn.

The standard Welsh word is indicated.
For simplicity, devoiced [b, d, g] are indicated as [p, t, k], though they are not the same as original [p,t,k] which have, as in English, post-aspiration.

Thre is a tendency for pretonic vowels to become neutral ffenestri > ffynestri, crefyddol > cryfeddol, etc. This is found in varying degrees in spoken Welsh generally throughout the country.

The forms in this dictionary are those to be found generally in the representations of the dialect in various writings from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Words with spellings which diverge from the ones used in this dictionary might be found in a list appended at the end of this page
e.g. bech is sometimes found written (standard bach = small, little) (the spelling with e is to suggest the Gwentian slender a), and represents what we spell as
bǣch

In the alphabetical ordering of the words the long ash or the grapheme ːis listed as if a + e.

 

w in a tonic syllable indicates [wɪ] where traditionally [wә] or [ui] were used (though these pronunciations are maintained in standard Welsh)

In a final syllable, wy [ui] which colloquially has become [wɪ] is spelt wi

annwyl [ˡanuil] > annwl [ˡanʊl] , but also anwil [ˡanwɪl]

Gwynfi [ˡgwәnvi] > Gwnfi [ˡgwɪnvɪ]

Gwynedd [ˡgwәnɛ] > Gwnedd [ˡgwɪne] (would be Gwnadd [ˡgwɪna] in Gwentian)

gwyddoch > gwddoch

 



# = postulated form no example found, but the local form would be this
....

In traditional dialect spelling
i often replaces u. For example cwnnu is found spelt a cwnni (or cwni), since in the south and are pronounced the same.

In Northern dialect writing, y is often replace by i to show that in certain cases the orthographic y does not represent the northern pronunciation of y, but rather i.

In the South, this is not necessary since y and i are pronounced the same the y has lost the peculaiarity conserved in northern Welsh.



.......................................

Divergent spellings:

(1) uncodified dialect spelling > Gwentian Dictionary spelling


eetha >
ītha (= eithaf)
enill > ennill (= ennill)
enith > ennill
eth >
ǣth (= aeth)
jobin > jōbyn (= jobyn)
llath > llāth / llǣth
Llundan > Llindan
Monpridd > Pom-prīdd (= Pont-y-pridd)
nhw >
nw (= nhw, hwy)
neeshad bock > nīshad boc (= neisiad)
ngwraig (= fy ngwraig) > gwraig

nyttwdd >
nytwdd (= nodwydd)
otti > otī (= ydy, ydyw)
peeto > pīto (= peidio)
rotin > (yr) ōtyn (= yr odyn)
sar > sār / s
ǣr
sath > sāth / s
ǣth
sbonio > sbonio
scupor >
sgipor (= ysgubor)
scitsha > esgidiau
(= shoes). See esgid(= shoe)
sgupor > sgipor (= ysgubor)
shony hoi > shōni-oi

sgitche > sgitsha (= esgidiau / shoes). See esgid (= shoe)
skitsha > sgitsha (= esgidiau
/ shoes). See esgid (= shoe)
slimin > slimyn
sopin > sopyn (= llawer iawn)
spel > sbel (= sbel)
spio > sbio (= edrych TO LOOK)
spo > sbō (=
stim > sdim (nid oes dim = there is not)
ticcyn >
ticyn (= tipyn)
treelo > treilo (= treulio TO SPEND)
tu > ti (= tu)
urtiff / urto > irto (= hurtio / hurto)
Wbre > *Wbra (Aubrey)

weetha > wītha (= weithiau SOMETIMES)
wetin >
wētyn (= wedyn)
yscetin > yscetyn (= ers cetyn)

(2) Standard spellings > Gwentian Dictionary spelling
cau > ceiad

cadair > ca*tar
campus > campis
coetgae > coica
crecyn >
crēcyn
cuddio > cīddo
darren > darran (see tarran)

esbonio > sbonio
esgidiau > sgitsha

geiriau > gi*ra

glanhu > cnai
Llundain > Llindan, Llyndan
hurtio / hurto > irto
hyn > yn
prysur > prysir
tarren > tarran

wythnos > wthnos


Sumbolau: Ǣ A-E ǣ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū ː ǣ ā ē ī ō ū W̄ ȳ/ ˡ ɑ ɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ ə ɑˑ eˑ iˑ oˑ uˑ ɑː ː eː iː oː uː / ɥ / ˡ ɬ ŋ N-G ʃ ʧ θ ʒ ʤ / aɪ ɔɪ əɪ uɪ ɪʊ aʊ ɛʊ əʊ / ә ʌ ẃ ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ ẅ ẁ Ẁ ŵ ŷ ỳ Ỳ [ә g:r]

ːːā ē ī ō ū W̄ w̄ ȳ/ ˡ ɑ ːɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ ə ɑˑ eˑ iˑ oˑ uˑ ɑː ː eː iː oː uː / ɥ / ˡ ɬ ŋ ʃ ʧ θ ʒ ʤ / aɪ ɔɪ əɪ uɪ ɪʊ aʊ ɛʊ əʊ / ә ʌ ẃ ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ ẅ ẃ ẁ Ẁ ŵ ŷ ỳ Ỳ [ә g:r]
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