kimkat0231e Geiriadur Cymraeg (Gwenhwyseg)-Saesneg / Welsh (Gwentian dialect) English Dictionary.


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(delwedd 0003j)



Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Catalunya i Galles

Geiriadur Cymraeg (Gwenhwyseg) - Saesneg
Welsh (Gwentian dialect) - English Dictionary

A - D



Beth syn newydd yn y wefan hon?
Whats new in this webste?

(delwedd 7282)


(delwedd 5781)

The main purpose of this dictionary is to give an approximation of Gwentian Welsh (the Welsh of the former counties of Sir Forgannwg / Glamorganshire and Sir Fynwy / Monmouthshire) which might serve to read texts written in the dialect.
Prif amcan y geiriadur hwn yw rhoi fraslun neu amlinelliad or Wenhwyseg (Cymraeg hen siroedd Morgannwg and Mynwy) a all fod o fudd wrth ddarllen ysgrifau yn y dafodiaith honno.

Here is a list of material in Gwentian or about Gwentian on this website : Dyma restr o ddeunydd yn y dafodiaith neu sydd yn ymwneud hi:



mwn bri mawr in great favour, very much esteemed

yn y prentra 'yn

dynnon diarth


Dici ni

oodar ma fa yn y ffactri

yn y colij

dod i fri yto regain its popularity

odd bri mawr ar steddfota very popular

torri i lawr yn i ddagra




Final-syllable [a] corresponds to
1/ etymological E [ɛ] in the standard language: llygoden > llygōtan (= mouse)

2/ in other dialects, [ɛ] which is a reduction of the diphthong AI [ai] in the standard language: cadair > cātar (= chair)
3/ in other dialects, [ɛ] which is a reduction of the diphthong AE [ai] in the standard language: gafael > gāfal (= to grasp)
4/ in other dialects, [ɛ] which is a reduction of the diphthong AU [ai] in the standard language: darnau > darna (= pieces)


(pronoun) he

o*dd i*sha i* fi * fynd i*r shop newydd he wanted me to go to the new shop

A form of f

In standard Welsh and in standardised Gwentian, this represents a short vowel [a] in an environment where the vowel would be long. Usually these are words taken from Enlgish bg, pŵr db, etc.


1/ In this form of standardised Gwentian, at least for the purposes of this dictionary, the vowel in open syllables in monosyllables (i.e. no final consonant or consonant cluster) is also marked in this way

[a] he

b [ab] (in patronymics) son

f [va] he

ch [xa] bring (< dewch )

dd [a] I shall (< dd i < bydda i)

m [ma] clipped form of yma = here

m [ma] clipped form of dyma = heres (literally: here you see)

m [ma] = mae there is, is

n [na] clipped form of yna = there

n [na] clipped form of dyna = theres (literally: there you see)

s as if

wyrthin fel s collad arno laugh as though he was mad (as if there was a madness on him)

sh [ʃa] to, towards

t pīn however

t prȳd [ta pri:d] whenever


2/ Also in words with an original long vowel but which is not usually emphasised i.e. a vowel shortened in a pretonic syllable

b [ab] son (in patronymics) < fāb [va:b] < māb [ma:b]


3/ And in common with standard Welsh spelling (though usually not adhered to except in dictionaries) where an a is short though the orthographical pattern or orthographical environment suggests it should be long. Such words are usually loans from English.

pr db [pu:r ˡdab] poor creature, poor thing


ā [a:] (conj) and (= a, ac [a:, a:g])

In Gwentian, a often used instead of standard ac [a:g] (i.e. before a vowel)

nawr ā yn y man now and then

[ab] (nm) son (= ab) [ab]]
Origin: māb [ma:b] (= son) > b [ab] (son, in patronymics) (or ap [ap], an archaic spelling of b).

b Gwīlym (Son of Gwilym / William)
Pseudonym of a bard who was the author of an English-language poem A Song To Mr David Davies. In commemoration of his Purchase of the Penydarren Iron Works. "We praise the gallant soldier who wins undying fame, We laud the skilful statesman who preserves the British name;...
The Merthyr Telegraph and General Advertiser for the Iron Districts of South Wales. 28th November 1863

[ˡābɛr] (nm) 1/ confluence (where a minor stream joins a larger stream) 2/ river mouth (where a river enters the sea) (= ambell [ [ˡambɛɬ]]
In place-names beginning with aber in Gwentian the initial vowel, which is unaccented, drops away (a very common phenomenon in spoken Welsh) 

(2) the vowel in the pretonic syllable drops away to give a consonant cluster br- before a vowel
Aberaman > Beraman > Braman

Aberōgwr / Aberōcwr > BerōcwrBrōcwr

Before a consonant, aber > ber > byr
Byr-dɛ̄r for Aber-dɛ̄r

Abercannid [abɛrˡkanɪd] (nf) village name (= Abercannaid [abɛrˡkanaɪd])

Clipped form: Bercannid [bɛrˡkanɪd]

(Other spellings: Abercanid, Bercanid)

[ax] (suffix) diminutive; plural or collective; usually added to plural forms
pēthach things, little things (?pthau + ach > pethuach > pthach)
merchētach young women

acha [ˡaxa] (prep) on, on top of (= ar [ar])
See: ar uchaf 
(on, on top of)
acha pen ty = on the top of a house
Used only with indefinite nouns. With definite nouns ar is used.
Cf the preposition mewn = in (with indefinite nouns), yn (with definite nouns) ar uchaf [ar--khav] (preposition)
From ar + uchaf = on + (the) topmost (part) (of)

āchwn [ˡaxʊn] (v) complain (= achwyn [ˡaxuin])
Also achwin [

ācor [ˡakɔr] (v) open (= agor [ˡagɔr])

ācor i llycid open her eyes, open their eyes

(Other spellings and forms: acor, acoras)


ācos [ˡakɔs] (adj) near (= agos [ˡagɔs]
(Other spellings and forms: acos)

acshwn [ˡakʃʊn] (eg) action (= gweithrediad [gwəɪθˡrɛdjad])

acshwna [akˡʃʊna] (pl) (= gweithrediadau [gwəɪθrɛdˡjadaɪ])
dōd ī acshwn come into action
From English ACTION



adfertismant [adˡvətismant] (nm) advertisement (= hysbyseb [həsˡbəsɛb])

adfertismants [adˡvətismants] (= hysbysebion [həsbəˡsɛbjɔn])



ai [aɪ] in a final-syllable in standard Welsh is often i [ɪ] in Gwentian

Abercannaid > Abercannid / Bercannid

darllain (= darllen) > darllin

defaid > defid (= sheep, ovine animals)

enaid > enid (= soul)

mantais > montish (= advantage)

noswaith > noswith (= evening)

tamaid > tamid (= little bit)

Tonyrefail > Tonrefil (place name; greensward by the smithy)

unwaith > inwith (= once)

ɛ̄th [ɛ:θ] (v) went (= aeth [θ])

āla [ˡala] (v) send (= anfon [ˡanvɔn], hel [hɛl])

Origin: hāla > *ala

ālan [ˡalan] (nm) salt (= halen [ˡhalɛn])
Origin: hālen > *hālan > *alan

aliar [ˡaljar] (nm) haulier; mineworker in charge of mine carts (or mine tubs) and horses (= halier [ˡhaljɛr])
aliarz [
ˡaljarz] (pl) hauliers (= haliers [ˡhaljɛrs])

From English HALLIER

1/ Gallier or hallier: one who keeps teams for hire. Glossary Of Provincial Words Used In Herefordshire And Some Of The Adjoining Counties. Sir George Cornewall Lewis. 1839.


2/ (Worcestershire): Upton on Severn Words and Phrases. Robert Lawson. English Dialect Society. 1884. HĂLLIER, or ĂLLIER, n. One

who draws coal, timber, bricks, etc.



(delwedd B0440)

(Other spellings: halier, alier, haliar: English: hallier, allier, gallier)


alibalŵ [alɪbaˡlu:] (nf) hullabaloo (= cynnwrf [ˡkənʊrv])



alio [ˡaljɔ] (v) 1/ lead a horse in a coalmine 2/ haul, draw, pull (= halio [ˡhaljɔ])

alio glō haul coal
alio dramz haul coal trams / coal carts / coal trucks / coal tubs

Origin: HALIO > ALIO.

From English HALE older pronunciation [ha:l], now [heɪl] (v) 1/ force, compel, oblige (sb) to go (to a place); she was haled out of her cottage by the mob; he was haled before a judge; he was haled to prison, etc 2/ haul, pull (especially in nautical language). They haled the net full of fish onto the deck; to hale the ropes in a ship. In English (HALEN) 1100+ < Middle French HALER < Germanic. Cf Dutch HALEN (= bring, fetch, get), German HOLEN (= fetch), Old English GEHOLIAN (= get, obtain). Modern French HALER (v) (= tow (e.g. a canal boat with horses on a towpath); pull hard on a rope.


altro [ˡaltrɔ] (v) alter, change (= newid [ˡnewɪd])

English ALTER (older pronunciation [ˡaltər], now [ˡɔltə, ˡɔːltə]) (ALTER) + (-IO) > LTRIO > ALTRO / ALTRO.

Also oltro [ˡɔltrɔ], showing the later (and present-day) English pronunciation.

am [am] (nm) ham (= ham [ham])
From English HAM (= cut of meat from a pigs hindquarters) < HAM (= back part of the leg above the knee) < Old English HAMM (= bend of the knee, back of the knee) < a Germanic root meaning bent, crooked. Cf Welsh CAM (= crooked).


ama [ˡama] (v) 1/ doubt 2/ suspect 3/ disbelieve, not accept as true (= amau [ˡamaɪ])

amal [ˡamal] (adj) frequent (= aml [ˡamal])

amball [ˡambaɬ] (adj) occasional (= ambell [ [ˡambɛɬ]]

amrantad [amˡrantad] (nm) instant (= amrantiad [ [amˡrantjad])

Also: rantad [ˡrantad]

amrantad llycad blink of an eye

ORIGIN: (= blink of an eyelid) (AMRANT = eyelid) + (-IAD suffix). See GPC:


amrentyn [amˡrɛntɪn] (nm) instant (= eiliad [ˡəiljad])

ORIGIN: (= blink of an eyelid) (AMRANT = eyelid) + (vowel affection A > E) + (-YN diminutive suffix). See GPC:

amsar [ˡamsar] (nm) time (= amser [ˡamsɛr])

bōb amsar always (very time)

ar amsar fel yn at a time like this

ānas [ˡanas] (nf) story; history (= hanes [ˡhanɛs])
nm in North Wales and standard Welsh

andlo [ˡandlɔ] (v) handle (= trafod [ˡtravɔd])

From English HANDLE (HANDL) + (-O) > HANDLO (> Gwentain ANDLO)


anesmwth [anˡɛsmʊθ] (adj) ill at ease, anxious (= anesmwyth [anˡɛsmʊiθ])
timlon anesmwth reit feel very anxious

angal [ˡaŋgal] (nm) angle (= angl [ˡaŋgal]


angladd [ˡaŋla] (nm) angle (= angladd [ˡaŋla], cynhebrwng, claddedigaeth)
Also: angl [

angladda [aŋˡlaa] (pl) (= angladd [aŋˡla])

annar [ˡanar] (nm) half (= hanner [ˡhanɛr])

HANNER (> Gwentian final e > a HANNAR > loss of initial h ANNAR)



annepyg [aˡnepɪg] (adj) unlike (= annhebyg [aˡnhebɪg])

mōr annepyg dŵr ā thɛ̄n as different as chalk and cheese (as different as water and fire)

Welsh (AN- = negative prefix) + (nasal mutation T > NH) + (TEBYG = like) > ANNHEBYG (> Gwentian ANNHEPYG > ANNEPYG)


annipan [aˡnipan] (adj) untidy, disordered, messy (= aflr [aˡvle:r], anniben [aˡnibɛn])

Welsh (AN- = negative prefix) + (nasal mutation D > N) + (DIBEN = end, conclusion) > ANNIBEN (> Gwentian ANNIPAN)

annwd [ˡanʊd] (nm) a cold (= annwyd [ˡanuɪd])
cɛ̄l annwd catch a cold, get a cold

annwl [ˡanʊl] (adj) dear (= annwyl [ˡanuɪl])

ap [ap] (nm) son. See b


āpal [ˡapal] (adj) able, having the ability to, capable (= abl [ˡabal])
aplach [ˡaplax] more able

ar [ar] (prep) 1/on (= ar [ar]) 1/ on
2/ used with the names of certain places where standard Welsh would use yn (= in). This usage has sometimes passed over into Wenglish (the transition English dialect of the Gwentian areas which retains features of Gwentian Welsh)
ar y Coica in Coica / Coetgae (Wenglish on the Coica)

ar y Bēdda in Y Beddau (Tarian y Gweithiwr / 20 Chwefror 1908: ar y Beddau)

ar y Cēfan in Cefncoedycymer / in Cefncribwr

ar Donrefil in Tonyrefail


āra [ˡara] (adj) slow (= araf [ˡarav])

Yn āra dēg mā mynd ymhēll slowly does it (slowly and steadily there is going far) (literally: slow + fair)


ārath [ˡaraθ] (nf) speech (= araith [ˡaraɪθ])

areitha# [aˡrəɪθa] (pl) (= areithiau aˡrəɪθjaɪ])

traddōti āarth give a speech (= standard: traddodi araith)

ārath nt a fine speech

arfadd [ˡarva] (nf) custom, usage (= arfer [ˡarvɛr])

arfar [ˡarvar] (nf) custom, usage (= arfer [ˡarvɛr])
Also: arfadd [

rgiwo [ˡargjuɔ] (v) argue = state your opinion (= ymresymu [əmrɛˡsəmɪ])

arian [ˡarjan] (nm) money (= arian [ˡarjan])


ariōd [arˡjo:d] (adv) ever (= arian [ɛrˡjoɪd])

y pēth ryfēdda wēlas i ariōd the strengest thing I ever saw


arlwdd [ˡarlʊ] (nm) sign (= arglwydd [ˡarglui])

arlwyddon# [arˡluɪɔn]) (= arglwyddion [arˡgluɪjɔn])

Graig yr Arlwdd (= craig yr arglwydd)

arn [ˡarn] (nm) iron (= haearn [ˡhəɪarn])
Y Bont Arn the iron bridge (= Y Bont Haearn). This was a Merthyrtudful landmark It had been designed and built by the principal engineer of the Cyfarthfa Iron Works, Watkyn George. It was completed in the year 1800. It was demolished after 164 years of existence by the town council in 1964.
From a southern form haern. Cf the change aer > ar in 1/ Maerdy > Mardy (various places have this name), 2/ Llanilltud Faerdre > Llanilltud Fardra; 3/ Trahaearn / Trahaern > Trehaearn / Trehern > Trehrn > Trern.

āros [ˡarɔs] (v) stay, wait (= aros [ˡarɔs])

fyswn i*n leico a*ros yno Id like to stay there

arswydis [arˡsuɪdɪs] (adj, adv) terrible, terribly (= arswydus [arˡsuɪdɪs])
ōdd īn ōr arswydis it was terribly cold


arwdd [ˡarʊ] (nm) sign (= arwydd [ˡarui])

arwddon# [arˡwɪɔn]) (= arwyddion [arˡuɪjɔn])

asgwrn [ˡasgʊrn] (nm) bone (= asgwrn [ˡasgʊrn])

esgyrn [ˡɛsgɪrn]) (= esgyrn [ˡɛsgɪrn])

(Other forms and spellings: ascwrn, escyrn)

āth [a:θ]. See ɛ̄th [ɛ:θ]

arti [ˡartɪ] (nm) hearty (= harti [ˡhartɪ])

ātag [ˡatag] (nf) time, occasion, period (= adeg [ˡadɛg])
adēca [a
ˡdeka] (pl) (= adegau [aˡdegaɪ])

atryd undress tynnu i amdanoch, ymddihatryd

(Source: GYA. S.E.: atryd) Cf south-western matryd, matru, datryd

aw [au]
In Welsh in general, in a tonic syllable, it may be found as o [o, ɔ]
holi (= to ask, question, interrogate) < hawl (= a right)

bāch [ba:x] small, little. See bɛ̄ch [bɛ:x]

bāchan [ˡbaxan] (nm) fellow (= bachgen [ˡbaxgɛn] = boy)
MEANING: (1) fellow; (2) used also in addressing somebody; (3) in addressing somebody in disbelief at what has been asked or said, equivalent to an English expression of surprise followed by man, boy, my lad, my friend, etc Good heavens, man! 
NOTE: Typically south-eastern, though it is found in other areas of Wales

shẁd i* chi*, ba*chan? how are you, my friend?
-Bēth yw reina? Bāchan! Ond tortha Ffrengig yw reina! 
(-Beth yw y rheina? -Bachan! Ond torthau Ffrengig ywr rheina!) 
-What are those? Good heavens man! Cant you see theyre French loaves? (but (it is) French loaves (that-are) those)

There is also a form of address with the soft mutation of b > f
[ˡvaxan] Compare fechgyn! [ˡvɛxgɪn] (= boys, lads), ferch! [vɛrx] (= girl)

Also with the loss of this intial [v]
Compare mab [ma:b] (= son) > ab [ab] (son, in patronymics)
(or ap [ab], an archaic spelling of ab).


bachgan [ˡbaxgan] (nm) boy, lad (= bachgen [ˡbaxgɛn])
bechgyn [
ˡbɛxgɪn] (pl) boys. (= bechgyn [ˡbɛxgɪn])

bechgynach [bɛxˡgənax] lads (the plural diminutive suffix -ach suggests disapproval, criticism)

bād [ba:d]. See bɛ̄d [bɛ:d] (= boat)


ba*cad [ˡbakad] (nm) 1/ crowd (= torf [tɔrv]) 2/ large number (= nifer mawr [ˡnivɛr ˡmaur])

Also ba*gad [ˡbagad]

ba*cad o* ddinnon a crowd of men

am fa*gad o* resyma for a host of reasons


balch [balx] (adj) 1/ proud 2/ glad (= balch [balx])

o*dd n falch iawn i* ngweld i*, a* o*n i*n falch i* weld ynta d he was very glad to see me, and I was very glad to see him too

bambŵzlo [bamˡbuzlɔ] (v) bamboozle, deceive, trick (= twyllo [ˡtuiɬɔ])


banc [baŋk] (nm) 1/ bank = moneyhouse (= banc [baŋk]) 2/ side of a canal

banca [ˡbaŋkja] (pl) (= banciau [ˡbaŋkjaɪ])

banc y cnel the canal side


bap [bap] (nm) large soft bread roll, South Wales English bap (= wicsen gron [ˡwɪksɛn ˡgrɔn])

baps [baps] (pl) (= wicsen gron [ˡwɪks ˡkrənjɔn])

bap brecwast breakfast bap

From south-eastern Wales English BAP < English BAP, first noted in English in 1505.


bar- [ba] (n) a form of aber (= estuary) in some place names. Also byr- [bər]

Barti*fi (= Aberteifi; English: Cardigan). Also Byrti*fi

Bar-dɛ̄r (= Aber-dr; English: Aberdare). Also Byr-dɛ̄r

(Other possible forms or spellings: Bardr, Bardare, Byrdr, Byrdare, Bartifi, Byrtifi, Barteifi, Barteifi)

bāra [ˡbara] (nm) bread (= bara [ˡbara])
bāra brīth [ˡbara ˡbri: θ] currant bread (literally speckled bread)
bāra mēnyn bread and butter [ˡbara ˡmenɪn] (literally bread (of) butter)

bāra lawr laver bread, also known in English as black butter

bāra llɛ̄th [ˡbara ˡɬɛ:θ]) bread and milk, or bread and buttermilk

bāra llechwan [ˡbara ˡɬɛxwan] griddle bread; bread baked on a griddle or bakestone (either with yeast or unleavened)

barn [barn] (nf) 1/ opinion 2/ verdict (= barn [ˡbarn])

barna [ˡbarna] (pl) (= barnau [ˡbarnaɪ])

This word is feminine in South Wales. (Cymraeg safonol / standard Welsh, and northern Welsh: masculine)

(delwedd 3204b)


barnwr [ˡbarnʊr] (nm) 1/ judge (= barnwr [ˡbarnʊr]) 2/ adjudicator in an eisteddfod (= beirniad [ˡbəɪrnjad])

barnwrz [ˡbarnʊrz] (pl) (= barnwyr [ˡbarnwɪr], beirniaid [ˡbəɪrnjaɪd])

barnwrz Steddfod Car-dydd the adjudicators in the Caer-dydd / Cardiff Eisteddfod (barnwrs Steddfod Cardydd Tarian y Gweithiwr 27-07-1899)

basa [ˡbasa] (v) it would be (= buasai [bɪˡasaɪ])

Also bysa

Also in the reduced form s

basa fawr nā... 
I wish that, if only... (= buasai fawr na [bɪˡasaɪ ˡvaur na:])
Basa fawr nā nēlach chī rw̄path ī elpi = I wish youd do something to help
(Buasai fawr na wnelech chwi rywbeth i helpu) 
(Source: Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, tudalen 2830) 


bɛ̄ch [bɛ:x] (adj) little, small (= bach [ba:x])

(Other spellings: bach, bech, bch, bch, bch, baech)


bechgyn [ˡbɛxgɪn] (pl) boys. See bachgan [ˡbaxgan])

bɛ̄d [bɛ:d] (nm) boat (= bad [ba:d]; cwch [ku:x])
āta [ˡbata] (pl) (= badau [ˡbadaɪ]; cychod [ˡkəxɔd])

(Other spellings: bad, bed, bd, bd, bd, baed, bta, bata)

beidy [ˡbəɪdɪ] (nm) cowhouse, cowshed (= beudy [ˡbəɪdɪ])


beili [ˡbəɪlɪ] (nm) 1/ farmyard (= buarth [ˡbiarθ]) 2/ yard, front yard, back yard (= cowrt [koʊrt], iard [jard], libart [ˡlibart])

beila [ɪˡlia] (pl) (= cowrtiau [ˡkoʊrtjaɪ], ierdydd / iardiau [ˡjɛrdɪ, ˡjardjaɪ], libartiau [lɪˡbartjaɪ])

Y Beili-glɛ̄s [ə ˡbəɪlɪ ˡglɛ:s] SO4708 (spelt as Bailey Glace) (nearby is Beili-gls Wood, in [almost] standard spelling (= Beili-glas, without the circumflex). An eighteenth-century farmhouse in Cwmcarfan, s.s.e of Llanddingad / Dingestow, Sir Fynwy / Monmouthshire.

Y Beili-glas, SO3010 s.s.e of Llanelen, Sir Fynwy / Monmouthshire on the Ordnance Survey map, was undoubtedly also Y Beili-glɛ̄s

Mynydd Beili-glas
SN9202, (= Mynydd y Beili-glas) south of Y Ricos / Y Rhigos, perpetuates the name of a lost farm (= upland of / hillside grazing of Y Beili-glas farm). This too was most undoubtedly Y Beili-glɛ̄s


ber- [bɛr] clipped form of aber [aˡbɛr] in place names

Bercannid < Abercannid [bɛrˡkanɪd, abɛrˡkanɪd]. Standard: Abercannaid [abɛrˡkanaɪd].

Ber-dɛ̄r < Aber-dɛ̄r [bɛrˡdɛ:r, abɛrˡdɛ:r]. Standard: Aber-dr [abɛrˡda:r].

Ber-nant < Aber-nant [bɛrˡnant, abɛrˡnant]. Standard: Aber-dr [abɛrˡnant].

Shīr Berteifi < Sir Aberteifi


Before a vowel loses the vowel to become the consonant cluster [br].

Aberafan > Berafan > Brafan

Aberaman > Beraman > Braman

Beronddi [bɛˡrɔnɪ] (nf) town name; English = Brecon (= Aberhonddu [abɛrˡhɔnɪ])
(Beronddu Tarian y Gweithiwr 06-12-1888)

Bethlam [ˡbɛθlam] (nmf) 1/ Bethlehem 2/ Bethlehem as a chapel name (= Bethlehem [ˡbɛθlɛhɛm])


bīdir [ˡbidɪr] (adj) dirty; remarkable, splendid, wonderful (= budr, budur [ˡbidɪr] = dirty)

bāchan bidir a splendid fellow, a wonderful man

own ī wēti blīno'n fidir I was tired out

Though one might expect [d] > [t]; bītir [ˡbitɪr] does not occur as the [d] is from an expanded consonant cluster and in such cases provection does not occur.

(Other spellings: bidir, fidir, budur, budir, fudur, fudir)


bīcal [ˡbikal] (nm) 1/ shepherd 2/ minister (= bugail [ˡbigaɪl])
bigeilid (pl) [
biˡgəɪlɪd] (pl) (= bugeiliaid [biˡgəɪljaɪd])

Also: bigilid# [biˡgilɪd]

bishi [ˡbɪʃɪ] (adj) busy (= prysur [ˡprəsɪr])
Rw̄ ī wēti bōd yn sōbor ō fishin ddiwēddar Ive been really busy recently

m m lē bishi iawn things are very busy here (m = mae = there is; m = ym = here; there is a very busy place here)

mr ddoi di*cyn yn fishi jyst nawr the two of them are a bit busy at the moment
From the English word BUSY [ˡbizi], pronounced as [ˡbisi] in Welsh since [z] was not part of the Welsh sound-system at the time of the borrowing. Palatalisation later in contact with [i] characteristic of southern Welsh (bi*si > bi*shi)


bisnesan [bɪˡsnɛsan] (adj) go about ones business (= ymbrysuro [əmbrəˡsirɔ])
From Welsh (BUSNES = business) + (-AN verb suffix) > BUSNESAN (Gwentian spelling BISNESAN)

bita [ˡbɪta] (v) eat (= bwyta [ˡbuita])

blacpatan [blakˡpatan] (nm) blackpat, cockroach (= chwilen ddu [ˡxwilɛn ˡi:] = black beetle)
blacpats [ˡblakpats] (pl) (= chwilod duon [ˡxwilɔd ˡdiɔn] = black beetle)

yn ddu o flacpats covered in blackpats, black with blackpats


(delwedd B0463b)



(delwedd B0443)

Duw a helpo pob eglwys sydd a'r "dyn croes" ynddi! "Pwt y gynnen" y gelwir ef yn fwyaf cyffredin, ond darluniodd hen weinidog profiadol ef fel hwyad yn y ffynnon, yn tryblu ac yn llygru dwfr t y cymdogion; neu fel "black patan" mewn "tarten jam" fyddys yn ei chnoi yn y genau



(delwedd B0464)

Fe startas o dan y pwll gyta'r fireman - bachan ifanc a mwstash coch; odd a yn wilia yn dawal right, a chap bach crop ar i ben a. Ar y ffordd i weld y talcan, fe etho i trwy ryw lefydd rhyfedd iawn gyta fa yn ddou ddwbwl, nes odd y nghefan i just a thori yn ddou a amser on i'n mynd mlan rodd y wys yn dropan lawr fel pistyll oddiar y nhrwyn i. O'r diwadd, fe welas y talcan odd i fod i fi. Talcan bach piwr yn wir; ond fe geso i ofan gwitho ynddo - rodd y blackpats bron a llanw'r lle, a'r colliars mor dduad a Zulus, ac yn gwitho heb i crysa. Ma nhw yn dweyd fod...

Childhood memories

By Joan Rees, Cwmaman, Aberdare

I was born in 1938. My parents often told stories of how they lived through the 1920s. Glanaman Road was virtually on the mountain, and yet almost in a coal yard for Fforchaman Colliery (Brown's pit). Its trucks of coal and stockpile of timber logs were on our doorstep.

We all bathed in turn in the same tin bath in front of the huge coal fire using water boiled on our living room coal fire grate.

The blackleaded grate was the essential part of living. It heated the water, cooked the food, toasted our bread, warmed our chilblained toes, dried the sticks for next day's fire and aired the clothes. There was a darker side to the comfort of our fireplace - at night the blackpats (beetles) invaded our 'territory'. Coal House AT war.

...across the street wasa public bakehouse where cockroaches (we called them blackpats) bred like flies and often sent out raiding parties across the road to colonise us Knock 'Em Cold, Kid. Elaine Morgan. 2012

ORIGIN: From West-Midland English BLACKBAT (BLACK) + (BAT?) > south-eastern-Wales English BLACKPAT > Welsh BLACPAT

(or else English BLACKBAT > Welsh BLACBAT > BLACPAT > south-eastern-Wales English BLACKPAT.


BAT is a short form in English of the name Bartholomew; this might be the origin of BAT in the insect name.

Cf BLACK-BOB. A black beetle. A Glossary Of Berkshire Words And Phrases. Major B. Lowsley, Royal Engineers. London. Published For The English Dialect Society. 1888. (All [words and expressions] as now submitted I have heard spoken in Mid-Berkshire.).


In the Berkshire name Bob is presumably the short form of Robert.


Also, in Worcestershire, another beetle is referred to as a bat a rainbatwhich appears when it is about to rain.



(delwedd B0439a)


Why PAT istead of BAT?

Possibly this is the influence of Welsh consonant cluster [kp] which has replaced [kb]

e.g. deg + punt > (degbunt / ten pounds [in money]) > decpunt,

deg + pwys > (degbwys / ten pounds [in weight]) > decpwys,


However [kb] is also current:

crog + pren (hang- + tree) has given crocbren (though in Cornish krokprenn, and Middle Breton (in modern Breton spelling) 'kroukprenn'), and

crog + pris (hang- + price = extortionate price) is crocbris;

ffacbys (= lentils) from English vatch < vetch + Welsh pys = peas.


In English, PAT is also a fond form of MARTHA, though it seems unlikely to be the final element in BLACPAT, since BLACKBAT seems to be the original form.


(Other spellings and forms: blac-pat, blac-pad, blacpaten, blacpaden, blacpadyn, blac-pats, blac-pads, flacpat, flacpats, flacpaten, flacpatan, flacpadyn, flac-pats, flac-pads, black patan; in English: blackpat, blackpats, black pat, black pats, black pad, black pads, blackpad, blackpads)


(delwedd B0404)



(delwedd B0403)

Tarian y Gweithiwr. 1 October 1908.

...ond nis gallai Wil siarad gair. Yr oedd y cyfan megys breuddwyd; ond chwareu teg iddo, yr oedd yn medru gweled os nad allai siarad, ac meddai wedi hyn, ar ol cyrhaedd terra firma, onid oedd pethau yn edrych yn rhyfedd wrth edrych i lawr arnynt? Yr oedd y dynion yn y gwaelod yn edrycb lawer yn llai nar blackpats sydd yn stabl ochr South, ac yn wir, Mr Go., mae yna egwyddor o wirionedd amlwg yn y dywediad, un bach yw dyn pan edrychir i lawr arno; ac efallai fod ambell un yn bur hoff o fanteisio ar fan priodol i gael good look down ar rywun, neu rhywrai; ac, yn wir, dyma ei unig gyfle, tra ar bob adeg a safle arall rhaid iddynt ymostwng i edrych i fyny.


But Wil couldnt speak a word. It was all like a dream; but to give him his due / fair play to him, he could see that if he couldnt speak, and he said this afterwards, after reaching terra firma, didnt things look strange looking down on them? The men at the bottom looked a lot smaller than the blackpats that are in the stable at the side of the South [shaft], and indeed, mr. Editor, there is a principle of obvious truth in the saying, a man is small when he is looked down upon; and maybe some people are very fond of taking advantage of an appropiate place to have a good look down on someone, or some other people; and, indeed, that is his only opportunity, as on every other occasion or in every other position they must bend down / submit to look up.


(delwedd 5827)

Words and Phrases Used in South-east Worcestershire. Jesse Sailisbury. 1893.

Blackbat, (substantive). The blackbeetle, or cockroach. West Worcestershire, and elsewhere.


A memory of Sparkbrook in 1950 by Janet Devine. Colville Road, Sparkbrook [Birmingham; formerly Worcestershire]. I was born at 4 Back, 34 Colville Road in January 1950. These back houses were very small with a shared outside toilet. We had all manner of creatures that lived there too, massive spiders, blackbats and beetles that lived the coal cupboard which was in the kitchen....



(delwedd 5972)

Evening Express (Cardiff) 3 June 1898. Ah! said a summer visitor, who had heard a great deal of the universality of music in Wales. "Ah!" he said to his landlady at Penarth, I should so like to see the country cottages of your Welsh Valleys. with Mozart in the parlour and Beethoven in the kitchen. Beetoving in the kitching?" cried his landlady with disgust; "just let me ketch Beetovings in my kitching! I'd go for em with shovel, I would. We calls em 'black pats' in Wales, sir, the nasty things!


Sometimes a minister, wishing to chide those who didnt attend the morning service, would facetiously refer to them as black pads, a colloquial name for a species of cockroach which came out only at night... I think that perhaps my parents fell into the black pad category of chapelgoers when I was a child... (Childhood in a Welsh Mining Valley. Vivian Jones. 2017).

thanks very much mikjee . i didnt have it quite right so that helps and now i know where it is. and i can see the vinegar factory [Westley Street, Birmingham] where the blackbats (beetles) came out from at night. (chinnychinn, Jul 8, 2009)

Our house was crawling with Blackbats, we had Mice, the occasional Rat, silverfish, Nits and at least 4 million Spiders...I actually went to Dudley Zoo to get AWAY from wildlife not see it. (Kandor, Apr 14, 2004)

Re: Old Brummie sayings got any?... check ya boot for blackbats. (Ray Harrison, January 03, 2014).



blagard [ˡblagard] (nm) villain, scoundrel, bully (= adyn [ˡadɪn], dihiryn [dɪˡhirɪn], blagard [ˡblagard])

blagardz# [ˡblagardz] (nm) villain, scoundrel, bully (= adynod [aˡdənɔd], blagardiaid [blaˡgardjaid])

Also blagiar (pl) blagiarz [ˡblagjar, ˡblagjarz]


Origin: English BLAGGARD < BLACKGUARD (BLACK + GUARD). Used originally of kitchen workers in a large house, probably ironically in the sense of an army of servants or workers. Later the sense developed to person of the criminal classes; low, contemptuous, vile individual.


(Worcestershire): Upton on Severn Words and Phrases. Robert Lawson. English Dialect Society. 1884. BLAGGERD, n. Pron. (pronunciation) of blackguard. One addicted to swearing and low language.

blagardath [blaˡgardaθ] (v) abuse, insulting language (= difrio [dɪˡfriɔ], blagardiaeth blaˡgardjaɪθ])

(Merthyr Times 19-03-1896)


blagardo [blaˡgardɔ] (v) abuse, insult (= difrio [dɪˡfriɔ])

blagardo dȳn yn ī gēfan insult somebody or talk disparaginly of somebody behind his back

(BLAGARD) + (verbal suffix -IO) > BLAGARDIO > BLAGARDO

blān [bla:n. See blɛ̄n [blɛ:n]

blasto [ˡblastɔ] (v) blast (= blastio [ˡblastjɔ])
From the English word BLAST (+ verb suffix -IO) > BLASTIO > BLASTO


blēcid [ˡblekɪd] (conj) because (= oherwydd [ˡblastjɔ])


bleina [ˡbləɪna] (adj) first, foremost (= blaenaf [bləɪnav])

y ddwy lein fleina the first two lines


bleina [ˡbləɪna] (pl) See blaen [blaɪn] top; source of a river

Y Bleina [ə ˡbləɪna] town in Gwent (Y Blaenau [ə ˡbləɪnaɪ])

Y Bli*na might be expected; the spelling occurs but in English contexts, and seems to represent an English pronunciation [blaɪnə]

Bleina Morgannwg [ˡbləɪna mɔrˡganʊg] the uplands of Morgannwg (in contradistinction to Brō Morgannwg (= the lowlands of Morgannwg, Englished as the Vale of Glamorgan) (= Blaenau Morgannwg [ˡbləɪnaɪ mɔrˡganʊg])

blɛ̄n [blɛ:n] (nm) top; source of a river (= blaen [blaɪn])
bleina, blīna# [ˡbləɪna, ˡblina] (= blaenau [ˡbləɪnaɪ])


bli*na [ˡbli*na]. See blaen [blaɪn] = top; source of a river; Y Bleina (town in Gwent); bleina (= foremost, first)


blc [blo:k] (nm) bloke, fellow (= dyn [di:n])
[blo:ks] (pl) (= dynion [ˡdənjɔn])
From the English word BLOKE


blongad [ˡblɔŋad] (v) belong (= perthyn [ˡpɛrθɪn])

popath sy*n blongad i* ni* everything that belongs to us

blōtyn [ˡblotɪn] (nm) flower (= blodyn [ˡblodɪn], blodeuyn [blɔˡdəɪɪn])
blōta [
ˡblota] (pl) flowers (= blodau [ˡblodaɪ])

blōtyn gwyn a white flower

blōta cawl marigolds (flowers [of] broth, broth flowers)

m di*con o* flo*tan yr ardd there are plenty more fish in the sea



(delwedd B0407)

Carmarthen Weekly Reporter. 18 Mai 1917. (Misprints corrected) We are apt to think that a good many kinds of grain which have not been much used in this country during the last thirty years are complete novelties. How many people in this country have ever thought of millet being used as a human food? Yet it has been used as human food in this country in the 18th century at the Bluecoat School at any rate. Charles Lamb, the famous essayist, was at the Bluecoat School from 1783 until 1790. He speaks of "Monday's milk porridge blue and tasteless" and of "Wednesday's mess of millet." Nothing in the way of food appeared to be very acceptable to him for he did not even like Thursday's fresh boiled beef because it had "detestable marigolds floating in the pail to poison the broth." There is something very homely to people in the rural districts of Wales about the reference to marigolds. There is a peculiar variety of marigolds which is used for broth and whose value is so recognised in this respect that they are known as "Blodau Cawl" (broth flowers) or even "Cawl" for short. There are marigolds of course which are "florists' flowers" but any stranger who grows them in a Welsh neighbourhood need not be hurt if his friends congratulate him on the fine display and tell him that he can make beautiful broth out of that lot. In Lamb's time marigold was recognised in England as a "savoury"; it had not been ousted by Indian curries and other foreign spices. In English gardens the marigold now rivals the aster; but in Welsh country gardens it rivals the onion.


blynydda [bləˡnəa] (years. See blwyddyn.



blynydda [bləˡnəa] (years. See blwyddyn.


boi-sgwt [bɔɪˡsgout] (nm) boy scout (= sgowt [sgout])
boi-sgwts [
bɔɪˡsgouts] (pl) boy scouts (= sgowtiaid [ˡsgoutjaɪd])

bonēddig [bɔˡneɪg] (adj) gentlemanly, gentlewomanly, noble (= bonheddig [bɔˡnheɪg])
Also bynēddig [b


bla [ˡbɔla] (nm) stomach (= bol [ˡbɔl])

cɛ̄l caws ō fla cī be impossible, to futilely try to get back something which has been lost for ever (get cheese from (the) stomach (of) (a) dog [once the dog has eaten it])

bopa [ˡbɔpa] (nf) 1/ auntie (sister of a father or mother); term of address 2/ auntie = wife of an uncle; term of address 3/ auntie = term of address for a woman who is not a member of the family but is, for example, a neighbour or friend of the parents (= modryb [ˡmɔdrɪb])

A word confined to the south-east; in origin, a childs word for an aunt
, evidently a form of modryb.
A possible explanation is: 
(1) modryb / motryb probably reduced to mb
(2) with the addition of a diminutive -a; (moba). 
(3) In Welsh initial b and m can interchange (boba). 
(4) In the south-east, a b- at the beginning of a final syllable is devoiced to p- (bopa).


bōra [ˡbora] (nm) morning (= bore [ˡborɛ]])
bora [
bɔˡria] (= boreuau [bɔˡrəɪaɪ])

Also boreia# [bɔˡrəɪa]

bōra dɛ̄ good morning

bo*ra dy* Sa*twn on Saturrday morning


(Other spellings: bora, borua, boria, boreia, boreua)


bord [bɔrd] (nf) table (= bwrdd [bʊr], bord [bɔrd])
bordydd [
ˡbɔrdɪ] (= byrddau [ˡbəraɪ], bordydd [ˡbɔrdɪ])

botas [ˡbɔtas] (nf) boot (= botasen [bɔˡtasɛn])
botasa [
bɔˡtasa] (pl) boot (= botasau [bɔˡtasaɪ])
Gwestyr Fotas Boot Inn, Merthyrtudful (Y Darian 25-06-1916)


brgo [ˡbragɔ] (v) 1/ brag, boast (= ymffrostio [əmˡfrɔstjɔ]) 2/ extol the virtues of, talk about admiringly
(Other spellings: brago, braggo)

braich [braɪx] (nm) arm (= braich [braɪx])

breicha [ˡbrəɪxa] (pl) (arms) (= breichiau [ˡbrəɪxjaɪ])
Also br
īcha [ˡbrixa]

braith [braɪθ] (adj) feminine form of brīth [bri:θ])

Braman [ˡbraman] (nf) place name (= Aberaman [aberˡaman])
Village in the Cynon valley (the confluence of Aman, place where the Aman stream flows into the river Cynon; 
aber = confluence (used with the name of a tributary) + Aman (river name)
In Gwentian, Aberaman > Beraman > Braman
(1) the initial vowel, which is unaccented, drops away (a very common phenomenon in spoken Welsh) 
(2) the vowel in the pretonic syllable drops away to give a consonant cluster br-

brāti [ˡbratɪ] (v) to waste, to use needlessly (= afradu [aˡvradi], gwastraffu [gwasˡtrafi])
From afradu = to waste; af- = negative prefix, rhad = grace, -u = suffix to form verbs. Afradu > fradu. Because f [v] is often a soft-mutated form of in some words there is a temptation to restore this b, even where it is unjustified. Hence fradu > bradu. In the south-east, a d- at the beginning of a final syllable is devoiced to t- (bratu). Here in this dictionary we use i for u, thus brati.

(Other spellings: bratu)


brawd [braud] (nm) 1/ brother = relative 2/ brother = comrade (= brawd [braud])

brōtyr [ˡbrotɪr] (pl) (= brodyr [ˡbrodɪr])

m nn ddoi frawd theyre brothers (they are two brothers)

(Other spellings: brotyr, brotir)

breicha [ˡbrəɪxa] (pl) (arms). See braich (= arm)


brɛ̄n [brɛ:n] (nf) crow (= brn [bra:n])

brain [braɪn] (pl) (= brain [braɪn])

swno fel brɛ̄n sound like a crow

ca*ni fel brɛ̄n sing like a crow

brnz [bre:nz] (nm) brains = intellectual capability (= ymenydd [əˡmenɪ])
From English BRAINS

(Other spellings: brns)


brēthyn [ˡbreθɪn] (nm) cloth (= ybrethyn [ˡbreθɪn])

(Other spellings: brethyn)

brīcha [ˡbrixa] (pl) (arms) > braich (= arm)

(Other spellings: bricha)


bricsan [ˡbrɪksan] (nf) brick (= bricsen [ˡbrɪksɛn], priddfaen [ˡprɪvaɪn])
brycs [brɪks] (pl) (= briciau [ˡbrɪkjaɪ], priddfeini [prɪˡvəɪnɪ])

gwaith brics [gwaɪθ ˡbrɪks] brickworks

English BRICKS > Welsh BRICS. (BRICS) + (-EN sigulative suffix) > BRICSEN (> BRICSAN)


Brigro [ˡbrɪgrɔ] (nm) Birchgrove Colliery, Llansamlet (1845-1932) (= Llwynbedw [ɬuɪnˡbedʊ])

bripsyn [ˡbrɪpsɪn] (nm) pice, fragment, bit; tiny amount (= darn [darn])

Also bripshin [ˡbrɪpʃɪn]

From Norman-French BRIBE (f) (= fragment, scrap). Plural BRIBES > Welsh (BRIPS) + singulative suffix YN) > BRIPSYN.

Modern French has the same word (BRIBE = fragment)

brīth [bri:θ] (adj)
Feminine form braith [
braɪθ], plural brithion [ˡbrɪθjɔn]
(1) speckled 
(2) (bread) speckled with currants

bāra brīth currant bread
(literally speckled bread)
(3) (person) shady, dubious, unsavoury, not to be trusted; bachan brith = shady type, shady character.


broc [brɔk] (adj) dappled (= cymysgliw [kəˡməsglɪu])

casag froc a dappled mare

Probably from English BROCK = an inferior horse; if not Irish BROC [brok] = speckled..



(delwedd 5904)


A Dictionary of the Kentish Dialect and Provincialisms in Use in the County of Kent

by William Douglas Parish, William Francis Shaw and John White Masters. 1888.

BROK, BROCK [brok] sb. An inferior horse. The word is used by Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, 7125


broc [brɔk] (nm) dappled horse (= ceffyl brith [ˡkɛfɪl bri:θ])

brocs [brɔks] (pl) (= ceffylau brithion [kɛˡfəlaɪ ˡbrɪθkjɔn])



(delwedd 5902)


Y Darian. 28 Hydref 1915. Brocs y Rhicos.Yr oedd y Rhicos yn enwog un amser am y Merlynod Brocs," cymysg-liw, tywyll a goleu, a phan y byddai ymryson rhwng pobol y cyffiniau, gelwid gwyr Rhicos yn ' 'Frocs," a hynny mewn digofaint.


The Rugos Brocks. Y Rugos was once famous for the Brock Ponies, of variegated colours, dark and light, and when there was contention among people of the vicinity the inhabitants of Y Rugos were called Brocks in anger.

Brōcwr [ˡbrokʊr] (nf) place name (= Aberogwr [aber ˡogʊr])]
Name of the the village at the estuary of this river (called by the English Ogmore on Sea). 
In Gwentian, Aberōgwr > Aberōcwr > Berōcwr > Brōcwr
(1) In Gwentian, [b d g] as the initial syllable of the final syllable are devoiced to give [p t k] 
(2) the initial vowel, which is unaccented, drops away (a very common phenomenon in spoken Welsh)
(3) the vowel in the pretonic syllable drops away to give a consonant cluster br-


bron (1) [brɔn] (nf) breast (= bron [brɔn])
bronna [ˡbrɔna] (pl) (= bronnau [ˡbrɔnaɪ])

bron (2) [brɔn] (adv) almost (= bron [brɔn])
bron pawb almost everybody

bryn [brɪn] (nm) hill (= bryn [brɪn])
brynna [ˡbrəna] (pl) (= bryniau [ˡbrənjaɪ])

Y Brynna [ə ˡbrəna] village name (the official name is the Gwentian form, rather than the literary Welsh form which would be Y Bryniau [ə ˡbrənjaɪ])


bwa [bua] (nm) 1/ bow 2/ arch (= bwa [bua])

bwar wibran rainbow (bow (of the) sky)

From Old English or Middle English

Cf Dialect Words from North Somerset

Bow = Hump-backed stone bridge over water-course


bw̄cwth [ˡbukʊθ] (v) threaten (= bygwth [ˡbəgəθjɔ], bygwth [ˡbəgʊθ])

bŵl [bu:l] (nm) bowl (in game of bowling) (= bŵl [bu:l])
Ynys-y-bŵl meadow of the bowl, bowling field
Note the use of the singular for the plural in Gwlad y Sais (Land of the Englishman = England), Gwlad y Basg (Land of the Basque man, the Basque Country).

bwm [bʊm] (nm) county court bailiff (= bwmbeili [bʊmˡbəɪlɪ]) (Y Darian 25-06-1916)
bwms (pl) [
bʊmz] (pl) bailiffs (= bwmbeiliaid [bʊmbəɪˡliaɪd])
From English BUM, a short form for BAILIFF



(delwedd 5830)

Bum, or Bum-bailey, n. a brokers man. I heerd uz how jack ud got the bums in is ouse for rent. A Glossary of Words and Phrases used in S.E. Worcestershire / Jesse Salisbury / 1893.


bwria*ti [bʊrˡjatɪ] (v) intend (= bwriadu [bʊrˡjadɪ])



bwtshwr [ˡbʊʧʊr], (nm) butcher (= cigydd [ˡkigɪ])

bwtshwrz [ˡbʊʧʊrz] (pl) (= cigyddion [kɪˡgəjɔn])

From English BUTCHER, with the Welsh agent suffix -WR.

bȳd [bi:d] (nm) world (= byd [bi:d])

bynēddig [bəˡneɪg]. See boneddig [bɔˡneɪg]

Byr- shortened form of aber in some place names
Byr-dɛ̄r for Aber-dɛ̄r
for Abertāwa

bysa [ˡbəsa] (v) it would be > basa [ˡbasa]


bth [bɪθ] (adv) ever; (with negative) never

fyswn ī bth yn... Id never... (= ni fuaswn byth yn.... [ni: vɪˡasʊn bɪθ ən..])

am bth for ever

Cymri am bth Wales for ever

NOTE: the indicates a short i sound [ɪ] where normally in such a pattern (here a monosyllable with vowel + final th) the vowel would be long. Cf nȳth [ni:θ] = a nest


bythewnos [bəˡθɛʊnɔs] (nm). Soft-mutated form p > b. See the radical form pythewnos (= fortnight, two weeks)


byti [ˡbətɪ] butty, buddy, friend, mate (= cyfaill [ˡkəvaɪɬ])
bytiz [
ˡbətɪz] (pl) (= cyfeillion [kəˡvəɪɬjɔn])
Also b
ỳt [bət] as a term of address.

NOTE: byti, b
t are recent forms in south-eastern Welsh from English butty, butt.
In the case of byti, the older expression was partnar [
ˡpartnar] or pantnar [ˡpantnar] (= partner).
Rather than
bt men were addressed as āchan of fāchan (= boy).

Also used as a term of address was brawd (without mutation, although the soft-mutated form frawd might be expected)


Byti is not listed in GPC (Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru) but in GYA (Geiradur yr Academi), under buddy, there is S: F: (= South Wales, Familiar / Colloquial) byti m[asculine noun] (bytis).

1/ The word butty was used by Forest of Dean miners in Gloucestershire, in England, just over the Welsh border.

Keith Morgan / BBC Where I Live Gloucestershire / 'Ow bist thee awld butty?', the butty zyztem wuz a woy o' payment in the pit wer the Butty Mon ould poy out a group o' miners workin' under 'im. But the word 'Butty' wuz alzo uzed az a word ver yer vrend ar mate. (= How are you, old butty / old mate? the butty system was a way of payment in the pit where the Butty Man would pay out a group of miners working under him. But the word butty was also used as a word for your friend or mate.)