Free counter and web stats A Welsh to English Dictionary in page format

http://www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_vortaroy/geiriadur_cymraeg_saesneg_BAEDD_gw_1042e.htm 09-08-2012

Yr Hafan / Home Page

..........2659e Y Porth Saesneg / English Gateway to this Website

.....................
0010e Y Gwegynllun / Siteplan

..............................
0417e Geiriaduron / Dictionaries

........................................
1813e Geiriaduron yn Saesneg / Dictionaries in English

....................................................1818e Y mynegai i'r geiriadur arlein hwn / Index to this online dictionary

.................................................................Y Tudalen Hwn / This Page

 

 

0003g_delw_baneri_cymru_catalonia_050111
(delw 0003)

 

 

 

 

 

Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website


Y Gwe-eiriadur
An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

 

GW-GYTHREL

1853e Ein llyfr ymwelwyr / OUR GUESTBOOK

Archwiliwch y wefan hon
SEARCH THIS WEBSITE
---
Adeiladwaith y wefan
SITE STRUCTURE
---
Beth sydd yn newydd?
WHATS NEW?

Chwiliwch y wefan hon yn unig

Noms cerqueu awuest web

Search only this website

 

4666_map_cymru_a_chatalonia_alguer_trefi

(delw 4666)



 

...

 

7000_kimkat1580e.jpgA

 

7000_kimkat2709e.jpgAR

7000_kimkat1039e.jpgBA

7000_kimkat1735e.jpgBR

7000_kimkat1018e.jpgCA

7000_kimkat1071e.jpgCE

7000_kimkat1675e.jpgCI

 

7000_kimkat1040e.jpgCR

 

7000_kimkat1075e.jpgCY

7000_kimkat1020e.jpgDA

7000_kimkat1674e.jpgDI

7000_kimkat1072e.jpgE

7000_kimkat1077e.jpgF

7000_kimkat1021e.jpgGA

 

GWA

 

7000_kimkat2902e.jpgGWI

7000_kimkat1038e.jpgH

7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K

7000_kimkat1865e.jpgL

7000_kimkat1022e.jpgMA

7000_kimkat1677e.jpgMI

 

7000_kimkat1047e.jpgN

 

7000_kimkat1600e.jpgO

7000_kimkat1023e.jpgPA

7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q

7000_kimkat1026e.jpgR

7000_kimkat1070e.jpgS

7000_kimkat1024e.jpgTA

 

7000_kimkat1076e.jpgTR

 

7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z

 

 

 

 

gw-
In words derived from Common Celtic, initial gw in the British languages (Welsh, Cornish, Breton) corresponds to an initial f in the Hibernian languages (Irish, Scottish, Manx)

 

Welsh

Irish

 

greddf (= instinct) (older Welsh gwreddf)

framh (= root)

 

gwair (= grass)

fer (= grass)

 

gwared (= riddance)

fir (= help)

 

gwas (= residence, mansion)

fos (= stopping, staying)

 

gwasgod (= shelter, shade)

foscadh (= shelter)

 

gwasgu (= squeeze, press, crush)

fisc (= squeeze, press)

 

gwastad (= flat, even)

fosaidh (= steady, firm)

 

gwaun (= marshy land)

fna (= downward slope, hollow)

 

gwawd (= praise, eulogy, song of praise; scorn, derision)

fth (= cause, reason)

 

gwawl > Y Wawl in Scotland, southern Roman Wall between Gweryd (Forth) and Clud (Clyde)

fl (= hedge, fence)

 

gwawr (= dawn)

fir (= sunrise, dawn) (literary word)

 

gwayw (= ache, pain)

fogha (= dart, javelin)

 

gwchi (= wasp)

foiche (= wasp)

 

gwe (= spiders web)

f (= texture)

 

gwedd (= yoke)

feadhain [fa:n] (= company, group of people) (apparently the original sense was yoke)

 

gweili (= empty) (older Welsh gweilydd)

 

 

gwg (= frown; disapproval)

foch (= anger, fury)

 

gwern (= alder trees)

fearn (alder tree; mast of a ship)

 

gwerthyd (= spindle)

fearsaid (= spindle, axle)

 

gwledd (= banquet, feast)

fle < fleadh (= banquet, feast)

 

gŵr (= man)

fear (= man)

 

gwrug (= heather) (now grug in standard Welsh, but still gwrug in South Wales colloquial Welsh)

fraoch (= heather)

 

gŵydd (= wild)

fia (= deer, originally wild animal; wilderness)

 

gwŷdd (= trees)

fiodh (= wood - in the sense of material)

 

gŵydd (element in the word gwybod = to know < *gwyddfod)

fios (= knowledge)

 

gwyn (= white)

fionn (= white)




gw-
Forms with initial w- were historically always soft-mutated forms of gw- (gwasg = press, y wasg = the press).

As a result some loans from English with initial w- developed an initial g in Welsh as the radical form

gwal (plural gwelydd) = wall (though wal is the usual radical form in modern Welsh)

gwasgod = waistcoat

gwast = waist

gwidw = widow

Gwersyllt
(SJ3152) locality in the county of Wrecsam. From the English name Wershull (1315) apparently gallows hill (Llafar Gwlad, Haf 1985, Rhif 9)

Gwesbyr (SJ1183) locality in the county of Y Fflint. Recorded in the year 1086 as Westberie (an English name = western farmstead; corresponds to modern English west, and bury = in place names: fort)

Gwilym = William

We can also compare words of British origin which are similar to words in other languages to see this initial g- in Welsh

1) gwo- (= under, sub-, hypo-) (an obsolete prefix, now generally go) < British wo
Equivalent to English hypo- < Greek hupo (this p was lost in Celtic equivalents)

2) gwerth (= value) cf. English worth (Note: despite the similarity in form, gwerth is not a borrowing from English worth)

3) gwydd (element = knowing, found in gwybod = to know) related to English wit (= intelligence)

Compare also Latin words which were borrowed into British (v was pronounced as u / w)
4) Latin vennum (= poison) > Welsh gwenwyn (= poison)
5) Latin viridem (= green) > vird- > Welsh gwyrdd (= green)

:_______________________________.

gw-
1
In South-east Wales, in the tradional dialect which was widely spoken a century ago but is now moribund, a couple of words which in the standard language begin with chw- (chwarae and chwerw) occur with gw-.

In the case of the word chwarae this is similar to the Cornish word, though not the Breton form; and in the case of chwerw, this gw- is not found in Cornish.


(delwedd 7476)

(
1) gwara = standard Welsh chwarae (= to play; a game) ;
Cornish gwari (= game; theatrical play), Breton choari (= to play)


(delwedd 7477)


(2) gwerw = standard Welsh chwerw (= sharp, bitter) ;
Cornish hwerow (= bitter), Breton chwerv (= bitter)

:_______________________________.

gwaad <GWAAD> [gwɑːd]
1 A proposed informal spelling for the southern pronunciation of gwaed (= blood)
Usually spelt gwd / gwad in dialogues

See aa

:_______________________________.

gwd <GWD> [gwd]
1 A proposed informal spelling for the south-eastern pronunciation of gwaed (= blood)
Usually spelt gwd / gwd in dialogues

See aa
See gwaad

:_______________________________.

gwaath <GWAATH> [gwɑːθ]
1 A proposed informal spelling for the southern pronunciation of gwaeth (= worse)
Usually spelt gwth / gwath in dialogues

See aa
:_______________________________.

gwth <GWTH> [gwθ]
1 A proposed informal spelling for the south-eastern pronunciation of gwaeth (= worse)
Usually spelt gwth / gwth

See aa
See gwaath

:_______________________________.

gwacd <gwa-KAAD> [gwaˡkɑːd] masculine noun
1
emptying, depletion
2
evacuation = (of an area) removal of people (from danger, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaca-, stem of gwacu = to empty) + (-ad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwacu <gwa-KAI> [gwaˡkaɪ] verb
1
empty
Gwacaodd y botel i lawr y sinc He emptied the bottle down the sink

2
Physics Chemistry, pump out, create a vacuum

3
empty = become empty
Yn sgl gwacur capeli yng Nghymru...
As a consequence of the emptying (= fall in attendance of religious services) of the chapels in Wales...

ETYMOLOGY: (gwag = empty) + (-hau suffix for forming verbs from adjectives)
gwag-hu > gwacu (the combination g + h produces c)

NOTE: gwacu is generally a southern word; in the north gwagio and gwagu are used


(delwedd 7478)

:_______________________________.

gwachal <GWAA-khel> [ˡgwɑˑxɛl] verb
South-east Wales
1
(infinitive) avoid, beware, shun

2 (imperative) take care not to...!, mind you dont (fall, etc)!

See: gochel (= beware)


(delwedd 7479)
:_______________________________.

gwachel
<GWAA-khel> [ˡgwɑˑxɛl] verb
South-west Wales
1
(infinitive) avoid, beware, shun

2 (imperative) take care not to...!, mind you dont (fall, etc)! (North Wales: tenda is to be heard used in this sense)
See: gochel (= beware)

:_______________________________.

Gwachel Foddi <GWAA-khel VOO-dhi> [ˡgwɑˑxɛl ˡvoˑɪ] -
1
Colloquial name for the inn in central Pontardawe (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan, south-east Wales); (Mind you dont drown) (English name: Pontardawe Inn)

:_______________________________.

gwachla <GWAKH-la> [ˡgwaxla] verb
South-west Wales
1
(imperative) take care not to...!, mind you dont (fall, etc)!
See: gochel (= beware)

:_______________________________.

gwachlwch
<GWAKH-lukh> [ˡgwaxlʊx] verb
South-west Wales
1
(imperative) take care not to...!, mind you dont (fall, etc)!
See: gochel (= beware)

:_______________________________.

gwachlyd
<GWAKH-lid> [ˡgwaxlɪd] verb
South-west Wales
1
(infinitive) avoid, beware, shun
See: gochel (= beware)

:_______________________________.

gwachul
<GWAA-khil> [ˡgwɑˑxɪl] adjective
1 thin, gaunt, lean

2 weak, sickly

3 feeble, poor, substandard
Cwynent am iaith wachul y radio, llawn o ymadroddion Saesneg
They complained of the poor language of the radio, full of English expressions

4 or gwych ir gwachul from the sublime to the ridiculous

5 mynd trwyr gwych ar gwachul take the bitter with the sweet, have ups and downs (go through the splendid (period) and the lean (period))

ETYMOLOGY: gwachul < goachul (go intensifying suffix)+ (achul = thin)

:_______________________________.

gwacsiol <GWAK-shol> [ˡgwakʃɔl] adjective
1
empty-headed

ETYMOLOGY: gwacsiol > gwagsiol (gwag = empty) + (siol = head)

:_______________________________.

gwad <GWAAD> [gwɑːd]
1 usual informal spelling for the southern form of gwaed (= blood)
Also spelt (less correctly) gwd

See aa and gwaad

:_______________________________.

gwadd, gwaddod
<GWAADH, GWAA-dhod> [ˡgwɑː, gwɑˑɔd] (feminine noun)
1
mole
y wadd the mole
cysgu fel gwadd sleep like a log, sleep like a baby (sleep like a mole)
mynd i wlad y gwaddod die, kick the bucket (go to the land of the moles)
bod mor ddall r wadd be as blind as a bat (be as blind as the mole)

:_______________________________.

gwaddod
<GWAA-dhod> [ˡgwɑˑɔd] masculine noun
PLURAL gwaddodion
<gwa-DHOD-yon> [gwaˡodjɔn]
1 sediment, dregs

2 llifwaddod alluvium, alluvial deposit (llif = flow) + soft mutation + (gwaddod = sediment)

3 adjective, sedimentary
creigiau gwaddod sedimentary rocks

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwaddod < gwaddawd < *gwoddawd < British *wo-dt-
From the same British root: Cornish godhes (= sediment)

NOTE: In some places (eg Llanrhaeadr): addod

:_______________________________.

gwaddod
<GWAA-dhod> [ˡgwɑˑɔd]
1 Plural of gwadd (= mole)

:_______________________________.

gwaddodi
<gwa-DHOO-di> [ˡgwaoˑdɪ] verb
1
precipate, settle, leave a sediment

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaddod = sediment) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

gwaddodlyd
<gwa-DHOD-lid> [gwaˡodlɪd] adjective
1
full of sediment, dregs; feculent

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaddod = sediment) + (-lyd suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwadn, gwadnau
<GWADN, GWAD-nai, -e> [gwadn, gwadnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
South Wales: gwaddan , plural gwandde (= gwaddnau)
<GWAA-dhan> [ˡgwɑˑan] <GWAN-dhai, -e> [ˡgwanaɪ, -ɛ]
Also gwaddan > gwaddon in the South

1 sole

2 inner sole, insole = insert in shoe
mewnwadn = inner sole, insole

ETYMOLOGY
: Welsh gwadn < *gwodn < British *wotn- < Celtic

South Wales:
1/
gwaddon < gwaddan < *gwaddn, from the plural form gwaddneu < gwadneu
2/ Plural gwandde (= gwaddnau) < gwaddne < gwaddneu < gwadneu

From the same British root: Cornish gwodn

NOTE: South Wales (metathesis DD-N > N-DD)
gwaddne (soles of a shoe / boot > gwandde and Rhoddne > Rhonnde, Rhondda

Cf the river name Llynfi, originally Llyfni, and Dynfant < Dyfnant showing metathesis V-N > N-V)

:_______________________________.

gwadu
<GWAA-di> [ˡgwɑˑdɪ] (verb)
1 deny

2 gwadu rhywbeth yn grwn ac ar groes completely deny something (roundly and across)
gwadu rhywbeth ar ei ben completely deny something

:_______________________________.

gwae
<gwai> [gwaɪ] (masculine noun) (obsolete)

1 woe (obsolete, except in exclamations)

gwae fi!
<gwai-VII> [gwaɪ ˡviː]
(phrase) woe is me!

:_______________________________.

gwaed
<GWAID> [gwaɪd] (masculine noun)

1 blood
Mae drygioni yng ngwaed y teulu
Delinquency runs in the family (badness is in the blood of the family)

2 rhoddwr gwaed blood donor

3 bod am waed (rhywun) be out to get somebody, be after somebodys blood (USA: be gunning for somebody); be angry with someone and to be looking for the person to inflict a punishment (to be for / to be wanting the blood of somebody)

Mae e am dy waed di Hes out for your blood

4 gwaetgar bloodthirsty
gwaetgar < gwed-gar (gwaed = blood) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)

NOTE: South Wales gwaed
<GWAID> [gwaɪd]> gwad <GWAAD> [gwɑːd]
:_______________________________.

gwaedd, gwaeddau
<GWAIDH, GWEI-dhai, -dhe> [ˡgwaɪ, ˡgwəɪaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1 shout
y waedd the shout

:_______________________________.

gwaedlif
<GWEID-liv> [ˡgwəɪdlɪv] masculine noun
PLURAL gwaedlifau <gweid-LII-vai, -e> [gwəɪdˡliˑvaɪ, -ɛ]
1 haemorrhage

ETYMOLOGY: blood-flow (gwaed = blood ) + soft mutation + ( llif = flow)
:_______________________________.

gwaedlyd
<GWEID-lid> [ˡgwəɪdlɪd] (adj)
1 bloody

Y Nant Waedlyd Name of a brook in Caer-dydd
bloody brook / stream
(
nant = brook, stream) + soft mutation + (gwaedlyd = bloody)

Y Rhyd Waedlyd Name of a former ford in Caer-dydd
bloody ford
(
rhyd = ford) + soft mutation + (gwaedlyd = bloody)

The second element however is unlikely to be
gwaedlyd, and seems to have replaced another word to make the name more picturesque.

John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911):

The great battle between the Welsh and Norman forces on Cardiff Heath is supposed to have an echo in the names Nant Waedlyd (Bloody Brook) and Rhyd Waedlyd (Bloody Ford) which still remain in that locality. The word Waedlyd is there, however, commonly pronounced "Watla."

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaed = blood ) + (-lyd = adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwaed yr ael <gwaid ər AIL> [gwaɪd ər ˡaɪl] (adjective)
1 (North) covered in blood

ETYMOLOGY: A remodelled word, now as if meaning blood of the brow / forehead (gwaed = blood) + (yr definite article) + (ael = brow, forehead).
In fact,
gwaed yr ael < gwaedryal < gwaedryar

:_______________________________.

gwael <GWAIL> [gwaɪl] (adjective)
1 bad; poor (= unsatisfactory, substandard, bad)
ansawdd gwael bad quality
arferion bwyta gwael bad eating habits
cael adwaith gwael i
suffer / have an adverse reaction to
cael diwrnod gwael have a bad day
canlyniadau gwael poor results
dull gwael o wneud rhywbeth a poor method of doing something
iechyd gwael bad health
dewis gwael a bad choice
medrau gwael poor skills
mynd yn hen beth gwael become a tawdry affair
peth gwael a bad thing
gwasanaeth gwael bad service
safon glendid gwael poor standard of cleanliness
safon hylendid gwael poor standard of hygiene
tai gwael poor houses, poor housing
tywydd gwael bad weather

2 collwr gwael bad loser, person who cannot accept defeat or loss

3 dod allan ohonin wael come out of it badly

4 mewn cyflwr gwael in a serious condition, very poorly, in a pretty bad way, in quite a bad state, in bad shape (health) (mewn = in) + (cyflwr = condition, state) + (gwael = bad)

5 gwaelach waelach (worse-worse) increasingly ill, worse and worse (in health)
mynd yn waelach waelach get worse and worse
Ond yn lle dod yn well mynd yn waelach waelach a wnaeth
But instead of getting better he got worse and worse ([it is] get worse and worse that he did)

:_______________________________.

*gwael
<GWAIL> [gwaɪl] (m)
1 obsolete word for wolf, corresponding to Irish faol (= wolf).

It occurs in the compound gweilgi (= ocean, originally wolf)

ETYMOLOGY: gwael < British < Celtic *wai-los howler, animal which howls < *wai- (= howl)

NOTE: gwaelgi is literally wolf dog (*gwael = wolf) + soft mutation + (ci = dog); gweilgi
[ˡgwəɪlgɪ] is a respelling of gwaelgi [ˡgwəɪlgɪ]

:_______________________________.

gwaelbeth
<GWEIL-beth> [ˡgwəɪlbɛθ] masculine noun
PLURAL gwaelbethau
<gweil-BEE-thai, -e> [gwəɪlˡbeˑθaɪ, -ɛ]
1 shoddy product, shoddy piece of work, bad thing

ETYMOLOGY: bad-thing (gwael = bad) + soft mutation + (peth = thing )

:_______________________________.

gwaeledd
<GWEI-ledh> [ˡgwƏɪlɛ] masculine noun
1
illness

Bun rhaid iddo roi gorau iw gwaith oherwydd gwaeledd
He had to give up his job because of illness

2
final illness
Diolch i ffrindiau a chymdogion am eu cefnogaeth yn ystod gwaeledd Dewi
Thanks to friends and neighbours for their support during Dewis illness

ETYMOLOGY: (gwael = bad; ill) (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwell / gwaell
<GWAA-elh, GWAILH> [ˡgwɑˑɛɬ, gwaɪɬ]
PLURAL: gwyll, gweill, gweillion <GWEE-ilh, GWEILH, GWEILH-yon> [gweˑɪɬ, gwəɪɬ, ˡgwəɪɬjɔn] (feminine or masculine noun)

1 knitting needle
y well, y gwell the knitting needle

2
gwell ў ffr / gweўllen ў ffr Achilles tendon (needle of the ankle)

:_______________________________.

gwaelod, gwaelodion
<GWEI-lod, gwei-LOD-yon> [ˡgwəɪlɔd, gwəɪˡlodjɔn] (masculine noun)
1 bottom

2
ar waelod
<ar WEI-lod> [ar ˡwəɪlɔd] (preposition) at the bottom of; at the end of
ar waelod y rhestr at the bottom of the list
ar waelod yr ardd at the bottom of the garden

3
cyrraedd y gwaelod eitha un reach rock bottom, hit rock bottom (reach the extreme bottom)

4
gwaelodion = sediment (Morwriaeth) gwaelodion llong bilge; bilge water; = filth which collects in the bottom of a boat (sediment(s) (of) ship)
dŵr gwaelodion bilge water

5 diwaelod bottomless
y pydew diwaelod the bottomless pit

Datguddiad 20:3 Ac a'i bwriodd ef i'r pydew diwaelod, ac a gaeodd arno, ac a seliodd arno ef, fel na thwyllai efe'r cenhedloedd mwyach, nes cyflawni'r mil o flynyddoedd: ac ar l hynny rhaid yw ei ollwng ef yn rhydd dros ychydig amser.
Revelation 20:3 And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season

:_______________________________.

Gwaelod-y-garth
GWEI-lod ə GARTH [ˡgwəɪlɔd ə ˡgarθ]
1 village in Caer-dydd / Cardiff county (since 1996)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/87713

(
The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

2 farm in Merthyrtudful

ETYMOLOGY: (the) bottom (of) Y Garth
(gwaelod = bottom) + (Y Garth name of a hill)
(y definite article) + (garth = hill)
:_______________________________.

gwaered
GWEI-red [ˡgwəɪrɛd]
PLURAL: gwaeredydd<gwe-REE-didh > [gwəɪˡreˑdɪ] (masculine noun)
1 slope

Variants are gwared, (south-east) gwered

2 (Ceredigion) gwared steep slope

3 i wared downwards, downhill

NOTE: gwaered > gwared through the simplification of the diphthong ae
EI [əɪ] > a A [a]

:_______________________________.

gwaetgar
<GWEIT-gar> [ˡgwəɪtgar] adjective
1 bloodthirsty

ETYMOLOGY: gwaetgar < gwed-gar (gwaed = blood) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)

:_______________________________.

gwaetgi
<GWEIT-gi> [ˡgwəɪtgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL gwaetgwn
<GWEIT-gun> [ˡgwəɪtgʊn]
1 bloodhound = large dog with an acute sense of smell used in tracking

Gwaetgwn Gwent (former) nickname for the inhabitants of Gwent ((the) bloodhounds (of) Gwent)

ETYMOLOGY: blood-dog gwaetgi < gwaed-gi (gwaed = blood) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)
gwaetgi < gwaed-gi (gwaed = blood) + soft mutation + (ci = dog, hound)

:_______________________________.

gwaeth
<GWAITH> [gwaɪθ] (adjective)
1 worse

2
mewn gwaeth cўflwr in a worse state

Ўr oedd ў tŷ newўdd ar ў prўd mewn llawer gwaeth cўflwr nar hen dy
At the time the new house was in a far worse state then the old house

3 ni waeth... it does not matter...

ni waeth pa mor... no matter how... > waeth pa mor...

Waeth pa mor gўflym ў rhedwch, ddaliwch chi mohono No matter how fast you run, you wont catch him

y diwrnod hwnnw aethom i _____, wel, ni waeth i ba le, i holi hanes y Cymry yno
That day we went to _______, well, it does not matter to where, to ask about the Welsh people there

4 Po hynaf y dyn, gwaeth ei bwyll The older a man is, the less sense he has; No fool like an old fool (the older the man, worse his reason )

5 newid er gwaeth a change for the worse
newid er gwaeth to change for the worse

6 gwaethwaeth worse and worse
mynd yn waethwaeth get worse and worse (gwaeth = worse) + soft mutation + (gwaeth = worse )

:_______________________________.

gwaethaf (gwaetha)
[ˡgwəɪθav, ˡgwəɪθa] (adjective)
1 worst (superlative of drwg = bad)

2
ar waethaf = in spite of
ar eich gwaethaf in spite of yourself
bod wedi eich denu at rywbeth ar eich gwaetha be irresistibly attracted to something (be after your attracting towards something on your worst)

3
cael y gwaethaf ohoni come out of it badly

4
or math gwaethaf of the worst sort

cnaf or math gwaethaf the worst of rogues, a rogue of the first order

5 po hynaf y dyn, gwaethaf ei bwyll > po hynar dyn, gwaethai bwyll the older a man is, the less sense he has, no fool like an old fool (the older the man, worse his reason )

:_______________________________.

gwaethar modd
<gwei-thar MOODH> [ˡgwəɪθar moː]
(adverb)
1 unfortunately

ETYMOLOGY: gwaethar modd < gwaethaf y modd (it-is) worst the manner (gwaethaf = worst, superlative form of drwg = bad) + (y definite article) + (modd = manner, way, means)

_________________________.

gwaeth eich cўfarth nach brath
<GWAITH əkh -varth nakh BRAATH> [ˡgwaɪθ əx ˡkƏvarθ nɑx ˡbrɑːθ]

1 your bark is worse than your bite; a persons angry words are worse than any action he may do, a person can be very angry but he wont really carry out any threats he makes (she) gwaeth ei chўfarth nai brath (he) gwaeth ei gўfarth nai frath

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaeth = worse) + (eich = your) + (cўfarth = bark) + (na = than) + (eich) + (brath = bark)

:_______________________________.

gwaeth-waeth
<gwaith-WAITH> [gwaɪθˡwaɪθ] adjective
1 worse and worse
mynd yn waeth-waeth get worse and worse

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaeth = worse) + soft mutation + (gwaeth = worse )

:_______________________________.

gwaethygu
<gwei-THƏ-gi> [gwəɪˡθəgɪ] (verb)
1 get worse, deteriorate

:_______________________________.

gwag, gweigion
<GWAAG, GWEIG-yon> [gwɑːg, ˡgwəɪgjɔn]
(adjective)
1 empty
2
(chair, seat) free, vacant, empty, unoccupied

Odir sedd man wag? Is this seat free? Is this seat going free?Is anybody sitting in this seat?


:_______________________________.

gwagbacio
<gwag-BAK-yo> [gwagˡbakjɔ] verb
1
to vacuum-pack, to vacuumize
wedi ei gwagbacio vacuum-packed (with a feminine noun)

wedi ei wagbacio vacuum-packed (with a masculine noun)
reis wedi ei wagbacio
vacuum-packed rice

wedi eu gwagbacio vacuum-packed (with a plural noun)
penwaig mwg wedi ei gwagbacio vacuum-packed smoked herrings, vacuum-packed smoked kippers

ETYMOLOGY: (gwag = empty) + soft mutation + (pacio = to pack)

:_______________________________.

gwahn
<gwa-HAAN> [gwaˡhɑːn] (masculine noun) (obsolete) (adverb) separation;
ar wahn = separately
<ar-wa-HAAN> [ar waˡhɑːn]

:_______________________________.

gwahanglaf
[gwaˡhaŋglaf] masculine noun
PLURAL gwahangleifion
<gwa-han-GLEIV-yon> [gwahaŋˡgləɪvjɔn]
1 leper = person with leprosy

ETYMOLOGY: (gwahan- = different, separate ) + soft mutation + ( claf = sick person)
gwahanglwyf
<gwa-HAN-gluiv> [gwahaŋˡglʊɪv] masculine noun
1 (Elephantiasis graecorum) leprosy

2 (Bible) skin disease (references in the Bible are probably to various skin ailments )

Lefiticus 13:49 Os gwyrddlas neu goch fydd yr anafod yn y dilledyn, neu yn y croen, neu yn yr ystof, neu yn yr anwe, neu mewn dim o groen; plar gwahanglwyf yw efe; a dangoser ef ir offeiriad
Leviticus 13:49 And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp or in the woof, or anything of skin; it is a plague of leprosy and shall be showed unto the priest

ETYMOLOGY (gwahan- = different, separate ) + soft mutation + ( clwyf = wound)

:_______________________________.

gwahaniaeth, gwahaniaethau
<gwa-HAN-yaith, -yeth; gwa-han-YEI-thai, -the> [gwaˡhanjaɪθ, gwaˡhanjɛθ, gwahanˡjəɪθaɪ, -θɛ] (masculine noun)
1 difference

2
os nad oes gwahaniaeth gennych chi if you dont mind
if there isnt any difference with you (os = if) + (nad = no, not) + (oes = is) + (gwahaniaeth = difference) + (gennych chi = with you)

NOTE: South Wales: gwahanieth > gwanieth (gwanieth)

:_______________________________.

gwahaniaethol
<gwa-han-YEI-thol> [gwahanˡjƏɪθɔl] adjective
1 distinctive, distinguishing, differential
cyfradd wahaniaethol = differential rate
toll wahaniaethol = differential duty

2 discriminatory
anwahaniaethol nondiscriminatory

ETYMOLOGY: (gwahaniaeth = difference) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwahaniaethu <gwa-han-YEI-thi> [gwahanˡjƏɪθɪ] (verb)
1
differentiate
2
discriminate
gwahaniaethu ar sail rhyw sexual discrimination

:_______________________________.

gwahanol <gwa-HAA-nol> [gwaˡhɑˑnɔl] (adjective)
1 different

2 Maen nhw mor wahanol ml a menyn
Theyre as different as chalk and cheese (as different as honey and butter)

:_______________________________.

gwahardd <GWA-hardh> [ˡgwahar] masculine noun
PLURAL gwaharddau, gwaharddon
<gwa-HAR-dhau, -dhe, gwa-HAR-dhon> [ˡgwaharaɪ, -ɛ, gwaharɔn]

NOTE: South Wales gwardd; cf gwahaniaeth > gwanieth / gwanieth

1 restriction, prohibition
bod gwahardd ar be prohibited (be a prohibition on)

2
control
cadw gwardd ar to keep control of, to control (e.g. children)
Does dim gwardd ar y plentyn
The child has no discipline (there is no prohibition / control on the child)

3
suspension = barring, exclusion
gwahardd aelod (parliament) suspension of a member

4
Y Gwahardd The Prohibition, the USA law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages in force from 1920 to 1933

5
cyfnod y Gwahardd Prohibition, the Prohibition period = the period from when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

ETYMOLOGY: from the verb gwahardd = to prohibit

:_______________________________.

gwahardd <GWA-hardh> [ˡgwahar] verb
NOTE: South Wales gwardd
1 prohibit, disallow, forbid, ban
gwahardd rhywun i wneud rhywbeth forbid somebody to do something
gwahardd rhywun rhag gwneud rhywbeth forbid somebody to do something
gwaharddwyd ni rhag siarad amdani we were forbidden to speak about it

2
gwahardd (rhywun) oi waith dros dro suspend (someone) from a job (prohibit someone from his job temporarily)

gwahardd (rhywun) or brifysgol dros dro rusticate = suspend temporarily from a college or university (prohibit someone from the university temporarily)

3 gwahardd rhag gyrru suspend from driving

gwahardd rhag dreifio suspend from driving

Fei gwaharddwyd rhag dreifio am bum mlynedd
He was banned from driving for five years

4
gwaherddir ysmygu smoking prohibited (it-is-prohibited + smoking)

5
cael eich gwahardd (football) be banned = be suspended from playing in football matches

ETYMOLOGY: ??

:_______________________________.

gwaharddeb
<gwa-HAR-dheb> [gwaˡharɛb] feminine noun
PLURAL gwaharddebau
<gwa-har-DHEE-bai, -e> [gwaharˡeˑbaɪ, -ɛ]
1 injunction = order issued by a court to prevent somebody doing something
y gwaharddeb the injunction

ETYMOLOGY: (gwahardd- stem of gwahardd = to prohibit) + (-eb suffix, indicating some kind of document)

:_______________________________.

gwaharddiad
<gwa-HARDH-yad> [gwaˡharjad] masculine noun
PLURAL gwaharddiadau
<gwa-hardh-YAA-de> [gwaharˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 prohibition, ban; veto, embargo; interdict

bod gwaharddiad ar be a ban on

Yn y cartref henoed mae gwaharddiad ar siarad Cymreg
In the old peoples home speaking Welsh is banned theres a prohibition on speaking Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: (gwahardd-, stem of gwaharddu = to prohibit) + (-iad, suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwaherddir
<gwa-HER-dhir> [ˡgwahɛrɪr]
1 it is prohibited
Gwaherddir ysmygu Smoking prohibited
Gwaherddir ei atgynhyrchu Reproduction prohibited

ETYMOLOGY: present passive; (gwahardd-, stem of gwahardd = to prohibit) + (-ir present passive termination). The i causes a change in the vowel in the tonic syllable a > e

:_______________________________.

gwahodd
<GWAA-hodh> [ˡgwɑˑhɔ]
(verb)
1 to invite

:_______________________________.

gwahoddiad, gwahoddiadau
<gwa-HODH-yad, gwa-hodh-YAA-dai, -e> [gwaˡhɔjad, gwahɔˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 invitation

ETYMOLOGY: (gwahodd--, stem of gwahodd = to invite) + (-iad noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwain
<GWAIN> [gwaɪn] feminine noun
PLURAL gweiniau
<GWEIN-yai, -ye> [ˡgwəɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]

1
sheath
y wain the sheath

3
Rho dy dwca yn ei gwain
Put a sock in it, Shut your trap, Shut up (put your knife in its sheath)

ffitio fel gwain am dwca
be a perfect fit, fit like a glove (fit like a sheath round a knife)

2
scabbard = sheath for a sword
gwain addurniedig ynghlwm wrth ei wregys a decorated sheath attached to his belt

3vagina

4
nut (of a screw)

5
Sometimes (usually in an English-language context) gwain is a misspelling of gwaun = heath, moor; moor field

E.g. Pen-y-Wain Lane, Pen-y-Wain Road, Pen-y-Wain Place in Caer-dydd, named after the former Pen-y-waun farm (moor end, end of the moor field). (Correctly: Ln Pen-y-waun, Heol Pen-y-waun, Maes Pen-y-waun)

6
gweinio sheathe = place a knife in a sheath, a sword in a scabbard, etc (gwein- < gwain = sheath) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

7
dadweinio unsheathe, draw (dad- = negative prefix) + soft mutation + (gweinio = sheathe)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwain < gwein < gwe-in < British < Latin vagna (= sheath, vagina)
From the same British root:

Cornish goen (= sheath, vagina),

Breton gouin (= sheath, vagina)

:_______________________________.

gwair, gweiriau
<GWAIR, GWEIR-yai, -ye> [gwaɪr, ˡgwəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 hay, grass

2
cae gwair
hay meadow

3
lladd gwair
<lhaadh GWAIR> [ɬɑː ˡgwaɪr] cut hay, cut grass

4 (Philaenus spumarius) llyffant y gwair froghopper ((the) frog (of) the grass)

:_______________________________.

gwair
1
obsolete element meaning turn, bend, circle found in a number of compound words in modern Welsh

anniwair (= unchaste) < diwair

Caer-weir Durham, English city situated in a bend of the river Wear.
Origin: (
caer = fortress) + (Gweir, older form of gwair).
The river name is of British origin, and probably gets its name from the river bends where Durham is situated.

cellwair (= a joke, to joke)

cyniwair (= to frequent, to gather)

diwair (= chaste)

genwair (= fishing rod)

Gwerful (= womans name, historically Gweirful)

mynwair (= torque, wreath, horse collar)

ETYMOLOGY:
gwair < gweir < British

:_______________________________.

..1 gwaith, gweithiau <GWAITH, GWEITH-yai, -ye> [gwaɪθ, ˡgwəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ] (masculine noun)
1 work, activity
bod at eich clustiau mewn gwaith be up to ones eyes in work (be to your ears in work)

ymroddi eich holl egni ir gwaith o (wneud rhywbeth)
devote all ones efforts to (doing something)

Does dim gwaith yn eich croen chi
Youre workshy; Youre bone lazy (theres no work in your skin)

esgidiau gwaith work shoes

bod dan faich trwm o waith be snowed under with work (be under a heavy burden of work)

torri cefn y gwaith break the back of the work

2
work = an occupation for which you receive payment
cael gwaith hawdd
get a cushy job

3 gweithgar (adjective) diligent, industrious
gweithio
(verb) to work
gweithiwr, gweithwyr
(masculine noun) worker

4 works = factory
gwaith alcam
tin mine, stannary, (also tinworks)
ardal gweithiau alcam stannery (district (of) tinworks)
gwaith tn tinworks
gwaith chwalu carthion sewage works, sewage farm (work / works (of) destroying excrements)

5 works = mine
gwaith alcam
<gwaith AL-kam> [gwaɪθ ˡalkam] tin mine, stannary, (also tinworks)
ardal gweithiau alcam stannery (district (of) tinworks)
gwaith glo mine
gwaith glo brig (Englandic: opencast mine) (USA: strip mine) (mine (of) outcrop coal)

6
Gwaith Coed
<gwaith KOID> [gwaɪθ ˡkɔɪd]
(school subject) woodwork

Gwaith Metel
(school subject) metalwork

7 gwaith dosbarth
class work, work done in class in a school

8
difficult task
Fe gaiff e waith dal i fyny Hell have a bit of a job to catch up
Cўthraul o waith yw e Its a devil of a job, Its one devil of a job ((it-is) (a) devil of (a) job that-is it)

9 Eitha gwaith iti! Tough shit, hard cheese, hard lines, hard luck (extreme + work + to you)

10
as a second element in a compound word: (= work, deed, action; product)

..a/ anfadwaith atrocity, evil deed, foul play, crime (anfad = atrocious ) + soft mutation + ( gwaith = act, work )

..b/ erchyllwaith atrocity, atrocities (erchyll- < erchyll = horrible ) + soft mutation + ( gwaith = act)

..c/ crochenwaith (see below)

..d/ gleinwaith (see below)

..e/ metelwaith metalwork, object or objects made of metal

..f/ rhwydwaith network (a literal translation of the English word (net + work)

..g/ trymwaith toil, hard work (trym- penult-syllable form of trwm = ) + soft mutation + (gwaith = work)

11 work = objects, craftwork; in compound nouns
crochenwaith pottery
gleinwaith beadwork (glein-, penult syllable form of glain = bead) + soft mutation + (gwaith = work)

12 (sign) Gwaith ar y Ffordd
(phrase) (roadworks, road up) (work on the road)

13 ar fy ngwaith yn... (phrasal conjunction) (during my action ...-ing) as, during the time that
ar dy waith as you... / ar ei waith as he... / ar ei gwaith as she... / ar ein gwaith as we... / ar eich gwaith as you... / ar eu gwaith as they...
ar fy ngwaith yn myned i siop gyfferiau Morddal as I was going into Morddals drugstore

14 activity (in speaking of the time taken to go a specified distance)
Bu rhaid cerdded i fўnўr allt bob bore, gwaith rhўw ddeg munud.
We had to walk up the hill every morning, which took about ten minutes (an activity (f) some ten minutes)

:_______________________________.

..2 gwaith, gweithiau
<GWAITH, GWEITH-yai, -ye> [gwaɪθ, ˡgwəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ] (feminine noun)
1
time, occasion
bod bumgwaith gymaint be five times the size of

unwaith once
dwywaith / ddwywaith twice
teirgwaith / deirgwaith three times
pedair gwaith / bedair gwaith four times
pumgwaith / bumgwaith five times

sawl gwaith (adverbial) many a time
sawl gwaith? (adverbial) how many times?
faint o weithiau? (adverbial) how many times?
ambell waith sometimes

:_______________________________.

gwaith cartref (cartre)
<gwaith KAR-trev, KAR-tre> [ˡgwaɪθ ˡkartrɛv, ˡkartrɛ] masculine noun

1 homework = school exercises for preparing at home;
Gwna dy waith cartre! Do your homework!

2
homework = preparatory work for a meeting, speech, interview, etc

ETYMOLOGY: work (of) home, translation of English homework


:_______________________________.

gwaith dosbarth <gwaith DO-sparth> [ˡgwaɪθ ˡdɔsparθ]
1 class work, work done in class in a school

:_______________________________.

gwaith dur <gwaith-DIIR> [ˡgwaɪθ ˡdiːr]masculine noun
PLURAL gweithiau dur
<GWEITH-yai, -ye DIIR> [ˡgwəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ ˡdiːr]
1 steelworks, steel mill

ETYMOLOGY: (work (of) steel) (gwaith = work, works, factory) + (dur = steel)

:_______________________________.

gwaith ffordd
masculine noun
NOTE: Also gwaith ar ffordd (work on road)

1
road works = the repairing of a road surface, or the installing or maintenance of pipes or cables under the road

2
(sign) Gwaith ar y Ffordd
<gwaith ar ə FORDH> [ˡgwaɪθ ar ə ˡfɔr] (roadworks, road up) (work on the road)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaith = work) + (ffordd = road)

:_______________________________.

gwaith glo masculine noun
PLURAL gweithiau glo
<GWEITH-ye-GLO> [ˡgwəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ ˡgloː]
1
coal mine, coal pit (work (of) coal)

ETYMOLOGY: (work (of) coal) (gwaith = work, works, factory) + (glo = coal)

:_______________________________.

gwaith glo brig
<gwaith gloo BRIIG> [ˡgwaɪθ gloː ˡbriːg]masculine noun
PLURAL gweithiau glo brig
<GWEITH-yai, -ye gloo BRIIG> [ˡgwəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ gloː ˡbriːg]
1
(USA: strip mine) (Englandic: opencast workings, opencast pit)

ETYMOLOGY: (work (of) coal (of) top) (gwaith = work, works, factory) + (glo brig = surface coal)

:_______________________________.

gwal / wal, gwaliau / waliau / gwelydd <GWAL / WAL, GWAL-yai, -ye, WAL-yai, -ye,GWEE-lidh> [gwal, wal; ˡgwaljaɪ, -ɛ, ˡwaljaɪ, -ɛ, , ˡgweˑlɪ] (feminine noun)
1 wall
y wal the wall

:_______________________________.

gwl, gwalau
<GWAAL, GWAA-le> [ˡgwɑːl, ˡgwɑˑlaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1 den, lair, kennel
y wl the den, the lair
gwl ysgyfarnog hare's form, the bed of a hare shaped by its body

Gwl y Filiast (qv) the greyhound bitchs lair / den / kennel (name given to various burial chambers)

Gwl-yr-hwch (qv)

gwl blaidd a wolfs den

2 cipio cneuen o wl ў blaidd beard (= oppose) the lion in his den; confront someone (take (a) hazelnut (from) (the) den (of ) the wolf)

:_______________________________.

gwalch, gweilch
<GWALKH, GWEILKH> [gwalx, gwəɪlx] (masculine noun)
1 hawk

2 scoundrel

Daeth rhўw walch i wўbod ў peth, a thўnnodd un or ffwrwmau i ffwrdd
Some scoundrel got to hear about the thing, and he moved one of the benches away

http://www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_testunau/sion_prys_024_taith_americanaidd_1843_0961k.htm
Taith Americanaidd 1843

:_______________________________.

Gwalchmai
<GWALKH-mai> n [ˡgwalxmaɪ] (feminine noun)
1 SH3976 Village in the county of Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=338856

:_______________________________.

Gwalchmai <GWALKH-mai> n [ˡgwalxmaɪ] masculine noun
1 Bardic name of Richard Parry (1803-1897), poet, born in Llannerch-y-medd (county of Ynys Mn), a descendant on his mothers side of the poet Gwalchmai ab Meilir, of Drefeilir, from whom he took his bardic name

See Hen Arweinwyr Eisteddfodau / Daniel Williams / Llyfrau Pawb 12 / 1944

:_______________________________.

gwalch y penwaig
<GWALKH ə PEN-waig> [ˡgwalx ə ˡpɛnwaɪg] masculine noun
PLURAL gweilch y penwaig
<GWEILKH ə PEN-waig> [ˡgwəɪlx ə ˡpɛnwaɪg]
1
(Alca torda) = razorbill
Standard name: llurs

ETYMOLOGY: (the) falcon (of) the herrings (gwalch = falcon) + (y definite article) + (penwaig, plural of pennog = herring)

:_______________________________.

gwalch y pysgod
[ˡgwalx ə ˡpəskɔd] masculine noun
PLURAL gweilch y pysgod
[ˡgwəɪlx ə ˡpəskɔd]

1 Pandion haliaetus osprey

Nid oes gan walch ў pўsgod unrhўw elўn naturiol
The osprey has no natural enemy

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hawk (of) the fish (gwalch = hawk) + (ў definite article) + (pysgod = fish)

:_______________________________.

gwaled, gwaledi <GWAA-led, gwa-LEE-di> [ˡgwɑˑlɛd, gwaˡldɪ] (feminine noun)
1 wallet
y waled the wallet

Nowadays usually waled (qv)

:_______________________________.

gwall, gwallau <GWALH, GWA-lhai -lhe> [gwaɬ, ˡgwaɬaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 error, mistake

bod ўn llawn gwallau be full of errors

bod ўn llawn gwallau iaith be full of errors of language

:_______________________________.

gwallgof (gwallgo) <GWALH-gov, GWALH-go> [ˡgwaɬgɔv, ˡgwaɬgɔ] (adjective)
1 mad = insane
bod yn ynfyd wallgo be furious, be hopping mad
mynd yn ynfyd wallgo get furious (go insane mad)

:_______________________________.

gwallgofrwydd
<gwalh-GOV-ruidh> [gwaɬˡgɔvrʊɪ] masculine noun
1
madness, lunacy
pwl o wallgofrwydd fit of madness, attack of madness, moment of madness

Dўwedir fod ў ffin rhwng athrўlith a gwallgofrwўdd ўn denau iawn
It is said that the line (border) between genius and madness is very thin

ETYMOLOGY: (gwallgof = mad) + (-rwydd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwallt, gwalltiau
<GWALHT, GWALHT-ye> [ˡgwaɬt, gwaɬtjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 hair; head of hair

2
cael gwneud eich gwallt have a hair-do (get (the) doing (of) your hair)
cael trin eich gwallt have a hair-do (get (the) treating (of) your hair)
cael torri eich gwallt have a haircut / hair-do (get (the) cutting (of) your hair)

3
Mae ei wallt yn donnau His hair is wavy (his hair is (in the form of) waves)

4 eurwallt golden hair (eur- penutimate-syllable form of aur = gold) + soft mutation + (gwallt = hair)

:_______________________________.

Gwallter
<GWALH-ter> [ˡgwaɬtɛr] (masculine noun)
1 Walter

:_______________________________.

gwallus
<GWA-lhis> [ˡgwaɬɪs] (adjective)
1 full of mistakes

ETYMOLOGY: (gwall = mistake, error) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Gwl y Filiast
<GWAAL ə VIL-yast> [gwɑːl ə ˡvɪljast]

1 Gwl y Filiast SN1725 Burial Chamber in 1.5km south-west of Llanglydwen, county of Caerfyrddin

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN1725

2 Gwl y Filiast ST2484 standing stone by Llanfihangel y Fedw (county of Casnewydd). (A letter in the Western Mail 23 August 1933 from Bromley Edmunds, Pen-rhos, Nantgarw states that this was the original name of Druidstone on todays maps of this area there is a Druidstone Road ST2484 and a Druidstone House ST2484)

The Welsh names would be Heol Gwl ў Filiast (Druidstone Road), and Gwlўfiliast (Druidstone House)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST2484

3 Gwl y Filiast ST0973 Also known as Maes y Filiast (the) field (of) the greyhound bitch, Llech y Fliast (the) slab (of) the greyhound bitch, Castell Carreg stone castle

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/959459

4 Gwl y Filiast SN4513 Llangyndeyrn
A History of Carmarthenshire, Sir John E. Lloyd (Editor). (2 volumes, Cardiff, 1935, 1939). Published by the London Carmarthenshire Society: The name Twlc-y-filiast is frequently applied to a dolmen in South Wales (Gwal-y-filiast occurs again as the name of a ruined dolmen in the parish of Llangyndeyrn)

5 Gwl y Filiast ST1072 burial chamber between Y Dyffryn and Llwynelyddon / St Lythans

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/3238


(delwedd 7100)

ETYMOLOGY: the greyhound bitchs lair / den / kennel (gwl = lair / kennel) + (y = definite article, the) + soft mutation + (miliast = female greyhound)

:_______________________________.

Gwlyfiliast
<GWAAL ə VIL-yast> [gwɑːl ə ˡvɪljast]
1 (A letter in the Western Mail 23 August 1933 from Bromley Edmunds, Pen-rhos, Nantgarw states that a small farm at Rhydfelen ST0988, Pont-ty-pridd (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) was known by this name). (As a farm name it would be spelt as one word - Gwlyfiliast)

ETYMOLOGY: Same as Gwl y Filiast above. As a farm name it would be spelt as one word Gwlyfiliast

:_______________________________.

Gwl-yr-hwch
<GWAAL ə VIL-yast> [gwɑːl ər ˡhuːx]
1 SN5807 farm in Llanedi (county of Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=186736 map

ETYMOLOGY: the wild boars lair / den / kennel (gwl = lair / den / kennel) + (yr = definite article, the) + soft mutation + (hwch = earlier Welsh: pig, wild boar; modern Welsh: sow)

:_______________________________.

gwan
<GWAN> [gwan] adjective
PLURAL gweinion
<GWEIN-yon> [ˡgwəɪnjɔn] ; as a noun: PLURAL gweiniaid <GWEIN-yaid -yed> [ˡgwəɪnjaɪd, -jɛd]

1 weak, feeble = lacking physical strength

Y mae'r Gymraeg yn wannach na'r Saesneg hyd yn oed yn ei chadarnleoedd erbyn hyn
The Welsh language is weaker than English even in its strongholds by now

2 weak = feeble through sickness or old age

Y maen wan, yn wan ofnadwy... Efallai na bydd hi byw tan y nos, medd y doctor
Shes weak, terribly weak she might not last until the evening, the doctor says

Ma Tomos wedi mynd mor wan Tomos has become really weak

henwan feeble through old age

3 chwerthin nes eich bod yn wan laugh until you can laugh no more (laugh until you are weak)
(South Wales) hala (rhywun) ўn wan drive (somebody) up the wall

4 (voice) weak = faint, lacking volume
mewn llais gwan in a weak voice

5
weak = (from illness) feeble, lacking in physical strength or bodily vigour

6 weak = lacking firmness, stability; (structure) weak = lacking strength, liable to collapse if subjected to too much strain or weight
pont wan weak bridge

7
weak = lacking power

8
weak = lacking in desirable ingredients, flavour; (drink) diluted
te gwan = weak tea

9
weak = not strong, liable to break, collapse

10
weak, feeble = (excuse) not convincing, lacking soundness

11
weak = (light) lacking intensity, faint, dim
Roedd y golau yn rhy wan i gael llun da or garreg fedd
The light was too dim to get a good picture of the gravestone

12
(sun), weak, faint, not giving bright light
Haul gwyn gwan, glaw yn y man (saying) A white weak sun, rain soon

13
ar foment wan in a moment of weakness
Ar foment wan fe gytunodd i roi tro arni
In a moment of weakness he agreed to give it a try

15
weak = lacking authority

16
weak = lacking political power

17
weak = ineffectual

18
weak = (stomach) digesting food with difficulty

19
weak = (person) lacking resolution, courage, determination, willpower

20
weak = easily tempted

21
weak = not enthusiastic, not fervent

22
weak = lacking quality

23
soft-headed

Y ffŵl gwan ag ef! the daft fool! (the weak fool with him)
South Wales hala (rhywun) yn wan drive (somebody) up the wall
Also: penwan = soft-headed, foolish (pen = head) + soft mutation + (gwan = weak)

24
(eyes) weak

25
(knowledge) weak, not well-versed

26
(faith) weak

27
(argument) weak

28
(medicine) weak, ineffective

29
(colour) faint, pale

Pa liw sy orau gen ti ar gyfer y wal?
Gwyrdd gwan, neu las?
What colour do you prefer for the wall? Pale green or blue?

30 (hope) faint

31
(noun) y gweiniaid the weak (taste) weak
cўri gwan a weak curry

32
comparisons:
mor wan blewyn as weak as a blade (of grass)
mor wanned ag ewyn dwr as weak as foam (on) water
mor wanned phabwyren as weak as (the) wick (of a candle)
mor wanned mwg as weak as smoke

33
henwan feeble through old age (hen = old) + soft mutation + (gwan = weak)

34
y rhyw wannaf (= women) the weaker sex (the weakest sex)

35 (mind) weak, feeble, lacking in understanding, unable to reason, soft-headed
ceffyl bach oedd pob ci yn ol ei meddwl gwan hi
every dog was a little horse according to her weak mind

Ў ffwl gwan ag ef! the daft fool!
(the weak fool with him)

36 epithet in Middle Welsh:
Ieuan Wan (weak John)

37 trechaf treisied, gwannaf gwaedded let (the) strongest oppress, let (the) weakest shout survival of the fittest, might is right

38 Haul gwyn gwan, Glaw yn y man weak white sun, rain soon

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwan < British < Celtic *wann-
From the same British root: Cornish gwann (= weak), Breton gwann (= weak)
From the same Celtic root: Irish fann (= weak);

Cf English wench (= young woman) (archaic, but used facetiously in modern English)
< Old English wenchel, wencel (= child), < wancol (= weak)

:_______________________________.

gwn <GWAAN> [gwɑːn] (v)

1 ei gwn hi run off, run away
See gwanu

:_______________________________.

gwan 2
<gwan > [gwan] (m)
PLURAL gweiniaid <GWEIN-yaid, -ed> [ˡgwəɪnjaɪd, -ɛd]

1 weak person, weakling

2 little child
y gwan bach the helpless little creature

:_______________________________.

gwn <GWAAN> [gwɑːn] (v)
See: gwahn

:_______________________________.

gwan eich sil <GWAAN əkh SHOOL> [ˡgwɑːn əx ˡʃoˑl]
1 (south-west) weak in the head

Transactions of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society. Dimetian Dialect Part 4; M H Jones April 20 1906 gwan ei shol (weak as to his head)

:_______________________________.

gwan o galon <gwan o GA-lon> [gwan ɔ ˡgalɔn] (adj)
1 faint-hearted, scared, pusillanimous

:_______________________________.

gwana'
<GWAA-na> [ˡgwɑˑna]
1 See: gwanaf

:_______________________________.

gwanaco
<gwa-NA-ko> [gwaˡnakɔ] (m)
PLURAL gwanacod
<gwa-NA-koz> [gwaˡnakɔz] (Patagonian Welsh)

1 guanaco

:_______________________________.

gwanaf, gwanafau / gwaneifiau
<GWAA-nav, gwa-NAA-fai, e, gwa-NEIV-yai, -ye> [ˡgwɑˑnav, gwaˡnɑˑfaɪ, -ɛ, gwaˡnəɪfjaɪ, -ɛ ] (feminine noun)

1 (haymaking) windrow, a row of raked sun-dried grass, swath of cut grass
y wanaf the swath

y gwanafau gwair the rows of grass

2 space between the ropes securing the thatch of a haystack

3 measure
I lawer, y gair am ystod o wair yw gwana(f), ond defnyddid ef hefyd fel term mesur. Pan fyddai dynion yn dod i'r fferm i ffustio byddent yn mesur y das, gan ddefnyddio pen cribyn fel pen mesur. Gwana' oedd hyd un pen cribyn. Clywyd am un das oedd yn bedwar ar higian o weneifia o hyd.

To many, gwana(f) is the word for a rown of grass but it was used too as a term for measuring. When men would come to the farm to flail they would measure the stack, using the top of a stack as a measure. A gwana' was the length of the top of a stack. I heard of one stack that was twenty four gwanavs long.

4 (thatched roof) vertical strip, the space either side of a ladder within reach of a thatcher

_______________________.

gwanafu
<gwa-NAA-vi> [gwaˡnɑˑvɪ] (verb)
1 (of grass which has been cut, after drying in the sun) to rake (the dried grass) into rows, put in swathes, lay out in rows (corn at harvest)

2 Ceredigion ei gwanafu-hi, ei gwanaf-hi make off, run off

_______________________.

gwanas, gwanasau
<GWAAnas, gwa-NA-sai, -e> [ˡgwɑˑnas, gwaˡnasaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1 promontory (obsolete; found in place names)
y wanas the promontory

2 peg, nail, hook (eg for harness in stable)

3 prop, stay, support

:_______________________________.

gwanc <GWANGK > [gwaŋk] (m)
1 greed

2 greed for money
gwanc am arian greed for money

3 gluttony, greediness

4 appetite, craving

Mae gwanc yn 'yn stumog-i
Doctor Iŵ-Hŵ Eic Davies 1966, tudalen 9
My stomach's crying out for food

y gwanc am ddifyrrwch diddiwedd
the craving for non-stop entertainment

5 gwangen (Alosa fallax ) twaite shad
< *gwancen (the greedy one) (gwanc = greed) + (-en suffix to make a noun from an adjective)

6 gwenci weasel = animal with reddish-brown fur, elongated body and neck, short legs: especially (Mustela nivalis) = European weasel
< *gwenc-gi (greed-dog, greedy dog) (gwanc = greed ) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)
In South Wales, there are the following variants:
..a/ wenci
..b/ weinci
..c/ winci


:_______________________________.

gwancio
<GWANG-yo> [ˡgwaŋkjɔ]
1 gorge, eat greedily

2 long for (something) intensely

3 long (to do something), itch (to do something)

Wn i ddim beth 'wnaeth imi ddechrau bidio am y gist. Efallai am imi weld nad oedd neb arall yn gwancio iw wneud.

I dont know why I started bidding for the chest. Maybe because I saw that nobody else was prepared to do so

4 lust after

ETYMOLOGY: (gwanc = greed) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

gwancus <GWANG-kis> [ˡgwaŋkɪs] (adj)
1 greedy
, voracious, gluttonous = having an excessive desire for (food, etc)

2 ravenous

3 comparison;
mor wancus winci as greedy as a weasel


:_______________________________.

gwanddu
<GWAN-dhi> [ˡgwanɪ]
1 South Wales =
gwadnu (qv)

:_______________________________.

gwaneg
<GWAA-neg> [ˡgwɑˑnɛg]
PLURAL gwanegau
<gwa-NEE-gai, -e> [gwaˡneˑgaɪ, -ɛ]

1 roller = wave

:_______________________________.

gwangalon
<gwan-GA-lon> [gwaŋˡgalɔn] (adj)

1 faint-hearted, scared, pusillanimous

:_______________________________.

gwangaloni
<gwan-ga- lo -ni> [gwaŋgaˡlɔnɪ] (vi)
1 lose heart,
become discouraged

llwyddo i gadw ffydd heb wangaloni
succeed in keeping your faith without becoming discouraged

:_______________________________.

gwangen
<GWAng-gen> [ˡgwaŋgɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL gwangod
<GWAng-god> [ˡgwaŋgɔd]
1 (Alosa fallax ) twaite shad

2
(South-west Wales) gwengyn , gwencyn (
Salmo trutta ) sea trout sewin, sea trout
See gwangen

ETYMOLOGY: < *gwancen (the greedy one) < (gwanc = greed) + (-en suffix to make a noun from an adjective)

:_______________________________.

gwangod
<GWANG-od> [ˡgwaŋɔd]
1
plural form of gwangen or gwengyn (Alosa fallax ) twaite shad

:_______________________________.

gwanhd <gwan-HAAD> [gwanˡhɑːd] (m)
1 weakening

ETYMOLOGY: (gwanch, stem of the verb gwanhu = to weaken) + (-ad noun suffix) > gwanh-ad > gwanhd

:_______________________________.

gwanhol <gwan-HAA-ol> [gwanˡhɑˑɔl] (adj)
1 debilitating

ETYMOLOGY: (gwanch, stem of the verb gwanhu = to weaken) + (-ol adjectival suffix) > gwanh-ol > gwanhaol

:_______________________________.

gwanhu <gwan-HAI> [gwanˡh]

1 (verb with an object) weaken, debilitate, enfeeble, attenuate

2 (vi) grow weak, lose strength

Yr oedd fy hyder yn gwanhau drachefn
My confidence was weakening again

ETYMOLOGY: (gwan = weak) + (-hu suffix for forming verbs from adjectives)
:_______________________________.

gwanieth <GWAN-yeth> [ˡgwanjɛθ] (m)
1 Southern colloquial for gwahaniaeth (= difference)

ETYMOLOGY: gwahaniaeth (= difference) > gwahanieth (ae > e in the final syllable) > gwaanieth (loss of the h) > gwanieth

:_______________________________.

gwanio
<GWAN-yo> [ˡgwanjɔ]
(North Wales)
1 grow weak, flag
Ond l rhedeg ugain milltir dyma fin dechrau gwanio
But after running twenty miles I began to flag

2 (language) lose ground (to another language)
Caewyd ugain o gapeli dros y ddegawd honno wrth i'r Gymreg wanio yn yr ardal
Over twenty chapels closed over that decade as the Welsh language lost ground in the area

ETYMOLOGY: (gwan = weak) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

gwanllyd <GWAN-lhid> [ˡgwanɬɪd] (adj)
1 (health) feeble, sickly, delicate, poor
Gresyn gweld yr hen of mor wanllyd ei iechyd yn ddiweddar

It was a great pity to see the old smith in such poor health recently

2 feeble, weak

sŵn bach gwanllyd a faint weak sound

ETYMOLOGY: (gwan = weak) + (-llyd suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwannaidd <GWAN-aidh, -edh> [ˡgwan] (adj)
1 feeble, week
Daeth yr haul i'r golwg yn wannaidd o ganol y cymylau

The sun came out feebly from amidst the clouds

gwyn gwannaidd y cynfas gwely the feeble white colour of the bedsheet

ETYMOLOGY: (gwann- < gwan = weak) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwannyd
<GWA-nid> [ˡgwanɪd] collective noun
1
(South Wales) inferior grain

2
There is a street in Ystalyfera (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) called Pant Y Gwanyd Road which apparently is this same word

(2009-04-06 I have no earlier examples of this name at present to confirm it)

It would be Heol Pantygwannyd in Welsh, ((the) hollow (of) the inferior grain)

ETYMOLOGY: weak corn (gwann-, tonic syllable form of gwan = weak) + (yd = corn)

NOTE: In Godre Ceredigion (the southern part of the county of Ceredigion) the a > e due to the influence of the y
<i> [ˡɪ] in the fianl syllable: gwennyd.

This in fact was the normal development in such cases in earlier Welsh (tramp / trempyn = a tramp, etc.)

:_______________________________.

gwannus
<GWA-nis> [ˡgwanɪs] collective noun
1
light chaff

ETYMOLOGY: weak chaff (gwann-, tonic syllable form of gwan = weak) + (us = chaff)
:_______________________________.

gwanstrio
<GWAN-stryo> [ˡgwanstrɪɔ] (v)

1 waver, vacillate, hesitate

In the county of Mn as wanstro
<WAN-stro> [ˡwanstrɔ]

:_______________________________.

gwantan
<GWAN-tan> [ˡgwantan] (adj)
1 fickle

2 (health) poorly, weak
yr oedd golwg wantan arni She looked poorly (there was a poorly look on her)

3 of poor quality, valueless

chwaraewyr gwantan sydd ag ofn eu cysgod ydyn nhw bob un

theyre poor players afraid of their own shadow, every single one of them

y rhigymau gwantan sy'n pasio fel emynau modern

the valueless rhymes that pass for modern hymns

4 debilitated, powerless
cyngor gwantan a diddylanwad a weak council lacking in influence

5 (weather) changeable

6 lascivious


ETYMOLOGY: English wanton (now wn-tən, but in earlier English wn-tən)

NOTE: Also gwantam (n > m).

Cf dinan (= little fort) > dinam in place names


:_______________________________.

gwanu <GWAA-ni> [ˡgwɑˑnɪ] (v)

1 (verb with an object) pierce, stab, prick
gwanu (rhywun) chleddyf run a sword through someone

poen
anioddefol fel pe bai rhywun wedi fy ngwanu yn fy mhen-l
an unbearable pain as if somebody had stabbed me in the buttocks

2 (verb with an object) poke, push, stick

wastod yn gwn 'i phen i genol pethach always sticking her head into things

3 (verb with an object) poke = copulate

4 (vi) ei gwn hi, ei gwanu hi (South Wales) dash off, hurry off

Bu rhaid iddo ei gwanu hi gartref gynted ag y galle fe
He had to dash off home as quick as he could

ETYMOLOGY: gwanu (gwn- < British < Celtic *wan-) + (-u verb suffix)
From the same British root: Cornish gwana
From the same Common Celtic root: Irish goin (= stab, sting)

:_______________________________.

gwanwan <GWAN-wan> [ˡgwanwan] adj)
1 very weak, very feeble

Arthur. - Mae'n debyg eich bod wedi cael gafael ar rai o hen resymau gwanwan ac ynfyd Cymdeithas Heddwch. Pe byddai i ni gario allan eu hegwyddorion hwy, fe fyddai genym fyd hynod mewn ychydig amser! Llyfr Dadleuol t41
Arthur. It seems that youve got hold of some of the idiotic and extrememely reasons of the Peace Association. If we carrried out their principles, in a short space of time the world would be in a real mess (wed have a remarkable world)

ETYMOLOGY: weak weak (gwan = weak) + soft mutation + (gwan = weak)

:_______________________________.

gwanwyn <GWAN-uin> [ˡgwanʊɪn] (masculine noun)
PLURAL gwanwynau <gwan-UI-nai, -e> [gwanˡʊɪnaɪ, -ɛ]
1 spring
= (northern hemisphere) season between winter and summer, progressively warmer, from the vernal equinox to the summer solstice

spring = (southern hemisphere) season between winter and summer, progressively colder, from the vernal equinox to the winter solstice (and hence in the Welsh settlement in Patagonia)

melyn y gwanwyn (yellow (flower) (of) the spring)

An alternative name for llygad Ebrill (eye (of) April)

Ranunculus ficaria Lesser celandine

yn y gwanwyn in the spring

bob gwanwyn
every spring

2 pen ci ar fore o wanwyn said of unsettled weather in the morning which gives way to fair weather by the evening; ("head (of) dog on (a) morning (of) Spring")

3 gafr wanwyn GAA-var WAN-uin [ˡgɑˑvar ˡ gwanʊɪn], geifr wanwyn GEI-vir GWAN-win [ˡgəɪvɪr ˡgwanʊɪn] (goat of spring), an alternative name for the troellwr mawr (Caprimulgus europaeus) nightjar

(South Wales) fel gafr wanwyn (said of a constant moaner) (like a nightjar)
bod fel gafar wanwyn be a real moaner



(delwedd 7082)

3 spring = the months of February, March, April, to mid-May

4 spring = the months of March, April, May (USA)

5 spring = the beginning of warmer weather, the appearance of buds and shoots, the growth of plants
dydd o wanwyn a spring day
Mae hi'n gwneud gwanwyn cynnar Spring has come early

6 spring = a period like spring, early part of a period, the first stage, the freshest period

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwan|n < gwann|n < gwae|ann|n < British *wesant-n-o-
From the same British root: Cornish GWAINTEN < GWAINTOIN

Related Indo-European words:

Scottish Gaelic Earrach (= spring)

Sanskrit vasantah (= spring), Hindustani basant (= spring), Punjabi basant (= spring),

Latin vr (= spring) > vernus (relating to spring) > vernalis (relating to spring, vernal);

Late Latin prima vera (first spring) > Italian / Occitan / Catalan / Castilian primavera

Greek ear (= spring)

Russian vesna (= spring)

Old Norse var (= spring), Norwegian vr (= spring)

Proto-Indo-European root *wesr

NOTE: South Wales gwanwn <GWAA-nun> [ˡgwɑˑnʊn];

County of Powys [Maldwyn] gweinwyn <GWEIN-win> [ˡgwəinwɪn]; , gweiniwn <GWEIN-yun> [ˡgwəinjʊn];

:_______________________________.

gwanwynol <gwan-UI-nol> [gwanˡʊɪnɔl] (adj)
1 springtime, spring-like, in spring

Clywid rhyw ysgafnder gwanwўnol yn yr awel A spring-like lightness was to be felt in the breeze

ETYMOLOGY: (gwanwyn = spring) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

gwanychdod <gwa-NƏKH-dod> [gwanˡəxdɔd]
1 lingering illness
bod gwanўchdod ar have a lingering illness

ETYMOLOGY: (gwanwych-, stem of the verb gwanychu = to grow weak) + (-dod suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwanychiad <gwa-NƏKH-yad> [gwanˡəxjad]
1 enfeeblement

ETYMOLOGY: (gwanwych-, stem of the verb gwanychu = to grow weak) + (-i-ad suffix for forming abstract nouns)
:_______________________________.

gwanychu <gwa-NƏ-khi> [gwanˡəxɪ] (v)
1 (vi) grow weak

Mae haen o Gymreictod o hyd yn Lerpwl, er ei fod yn graddol wanychu
Theres still a layer of Welshness in Liverpool, though it is gradually weakening

2 (vi) falter, lose enthusiasm,
Dal ati - paid gwanychu yn awr y frwydr fawr

Stick at it dont falter in the hour of the great battle

3 (verb with an object) make weak

4 emasculate

ETYMOLOGY: (gwan = weak) + (-ych-u)

:_______________________________.

gwapro <GWA-pro> [ˡgwaprɔ]
1 See: gwobri (= to award a prize)
:_______________________________.

*gwar (1)
1
(1) Old Welsh preposition (= on, over).

(2) Later it became war (that is, the soft-mutated form gwar > ghwar > war)

(3) It then became ar through confusion with an existing preposition ar (= in front of).

(4) Most senses of modern Welsh ar derive from *gwar (= on, over) rather than ar (= in front of)

2
as a prefix, gwar (= over-, super-) (1) became gwor-, which has given modern Welsh gor;

...(a) goryfed (= to drink too much) gor + (yfed = to drink)

...(b) goryrru (= to drive too fast) gor + soft mutation + (gyrru = to drive) (2) but the prefix gwar- survives in some verbs

...(a) gwaradwyddo (= to rebuke) gwar + (adwydd = sharp, cruel)

...(b) gwrando (historically gwarando) (= to listen),

...(c) gwarchae (= to besiege) gwar + aspirate mutation + (cae = to close, to enclose)

...(d) gwarchod (= to look after) gwar + aspirate mutation + (cadw = to keep)

NOTE: See gor-

:_______________________________.

gwar (2) <GWAR> [gwar] (f)
PLURAL
gwarrau <GWA-rai, -e> [ˡgwaraɪ, -ɛ]
1 nape of the neck, scruff of the neck, the back between the shoulders, top of the back

y war the nape of the neck

Daeth i mewn r sach ar ei war He came carrying the sack on his back

gerfydd eich gwar by the scruff of your neck
codir gath gerfydd ei gwar pick up the cat by the scruff of its neck
codich gwar shrug your shoulders

ar l pnawn ar y mynydd, a llosgi ein gwarrau yn yr haul

after an afternoon on the upland, and having burnt the back of our necks in the sun

2 cael cric yn eich gwar get a crick in your neck

3 bod ar war eich pwll have one foot in the grave (be on the part overlooking the pit)

4 hill (a long flattish hill)

5 place above and behind
ar war (qv) above

Saif hen balasdy y Prichardiaid, sef y Collena, yn nghanol meusydd eang gwyrddion, ar war Tonyrefail (Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl. Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd.)
The old mansion of the Prichards, namely Y Collena, stands in the middle of extensive green fields, above (the village of) Tonyrefail

Common in place names in south Wales, especially in the south-west
Gwar-bryn gwar y bryn = hill crest, or place above and behind the hill
Gwar-coed gwar y coed = place above and behind the wood
Gwar-ddl gwar y ddl = place above and behind the meadow
Gwaryfelin gwar y felin = place above and behind the mill
Gwarffynnon gwar y ffynnon = place above and behind the well
Gwargorof gwar y gorof = place above and behind the wooded precipice
Gwarmynydd gwar y mynydd = place above and behind the upland pasture
Gwar-nant gwar y nant = place above and behind the brook
Gwar-pwll gwar y pwll = place above and behind the pit, the hollow
Gwar-rhos gwar y rhos = place above and behind the moorland
Gwarycaeau street name. Pen-y-cae, Margam; = place above and behind the fields

4 o war above; from above

Un o war Llandeilo oedd e
He was from Llandeilo way, from the country above Llandeilo

Cae war Ty (field name) y cae o war y ty the field above the house

5
bod ar eich gwar be breathing down your neck, be close behind (i.e. not leaving somebody alone)

Mae e ar y ngwar i o hyd Hes on top of me all the time

6
bod ar ei gwar hi be on top of a job, have made good progress in some task so that it is on its way to being completed (be on the back of its neck)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwar < British *war- < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish gwarr (= nape, curve), Breton gwar = ([adjective]; curved; [noun] curve)

NOTE: (South Wales) masculine noun gwar, y gwar (North Wales) feminine noun gwar, y war

:_______________________________.

gwr (3) <GWAAR> [gwɑːr] (adj)
1 civilised
cymdeithas wr a civilised society
anwar barbarous

(an- negative prefix) + soft mutation + (gwr = civilised)

Y mae unrhyw glaf mewn gwlad wr yn haeddu y driniaeth orau bosibl yn yr ysbyty
Anybody sick in a civilised society deserves the best possible treatment in a hospital

2 (obsolete) heating, warming

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwar < *gwor < British
Welsh gwr is related to the verb gori (= to incubate [an egg])< gwori, and to the noun gwres (= heat)

Irish: gor (= heat).

Old Irish gor (adj) (= filial, dutiful < warm). In the Welsh Laws, mab anwar ( = son who isnt dutiful)
From the same British root: Cornish hwar (= meek, gentle, mild) < in-hwar < (in) + (gwar)

:_______________________________.

gwaradwydd <gwa-RAA-duidh> [gwaˡrɑˑdʊɪ]
1 ignominy, disgrace, disrepute

Pa un a oeddynt yn haeddu'r gwaradwydd bentyrwyd ar eu pennau nid oes modd dweud yn bendant. Casglwr 51 1993
Whether they deserved the ignomy that was poured onto their heads there is no way of saying for sure

diwradwydd without disgrace, exemplary

t62 Englynion Beddau Dyffryn Ogwen, gan J Elwyn Hughes 1979:
Ym Mynwent Eglwys Sant Cedol, Pentir, ar fedd Edward WIlliams,
Pen Hower...

Ei rodiad fu'n ddi-w'radwydd,
Yn bedair a chanmlwydd;
Dan gl fe'i rhoddwyd o'n gŵydd.
Obry'r awn ninau'n ebrwydd


Gravestone inscription: In the Churchyard of Saint Cedols Church, Pentir, on the grave of Edward Williams, Pen Hower...

His passage [through life] was without disgrace
[at the age of] one hundred and four
He was put hidden away from our presence
We too shall go up [to heaven] too soon

Diarhebion 18:3 Wrth ddyfodiad y drygionus y daw diystyrwch, a chyda gogan, gwaradwydd
Proverbs 18:3 When the wicked cometh, then cometh also contempt; and with ignominy
reproach

Mae yn chwithig iawn, os nid yn waradwydd ar Gymru, ei bod wedi gadael y fath ddyn heb un Bywgraphiad. Hanes y Bibl Cymraeg /Thomas Levi / Blwyddyn a Gyhoeddwyd: ? t96
It is unbecoming, if not a disgrace for Wales, that she [the country] has left such a man without a single biography

2 rebuke, reproach

3 compensation for insult

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar- intensifying prefix) + (adwydd = sharp, cruel).

The adjective adwydd < British < Common Cceltic *wedi (= to see, to perceive)

:_______________________________.

gwaradwyddo <gwa-ra-DUI-dhis> [gwaraˡdʊɪɔ] (v)

1 to reproach, to rebuke

Job 19:3 Dengwaith bellach ym gwaradwyddasoch; ac nid cywilydd gennych ymgaledu im herbyn.
Job 19:3 These ten times have ye reproached me: ye are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me.

2 to disgrace, dishonour

3 insult, mock, disparage

Genesis 39:14 Yna hi a alwodd ar ddynion ei thŷ, ac a draethodd wrthynt, gan ddywedyd, Gwelwch, efe a ddug i ni Hebrwr in gwaradwyddo: daeth ataf fi i orwedd gyda myfi, minnau a waeddais llef uchel,
Genesis 39:14 That she called unto the men of her house, and spake unto them, saying, See, he hath brought in an Hebrew unto us to mock us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice:

4 put to shame, to shame

gwaradwyddo (rhywun) i wneud rhywbeth shame (someone) into doing something

5 feel ashamed, be put to shame
Dylai pawb waradwyddo o gael gwybod mai arferiad sydd ar gynnydd yw hyn


Everybody should feel ashamed on knowing that this is a practice which is growing

:_______________________________.

gwaradwyddus <gwa-ra-DUI-dhis> [gwaraˡdʊɪɪs] (adj)
1 disparaging,
opprobious, disgraceful, shameful
bod ўn waradwyddus be a disgrace, be disgraceful, be shameful

Nid yw yn ddim llai na gwaradwyddus its nothing less than shameful

Mae cymaint o bethau gwardwyddus yn cael eu dangos ar y teledu y dyddiau hyn
There are so many shameful things being shown on TV these days

Apocrypha Eccelsiasticus 23:15 Y dyn a ymarfero geiriau gwaradwyddus, ni chymer addysg tra fyddo byw.
Apocrypha Eccelsiasticus
23:15 The man that is accustomed to opprobrious words will never be reformed all the days of his life.

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaradwydd = disrepute, opprobium) + (-us adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

Gwarafog <gwa-RAA-vog> [gwaˡrɑˑvɔg]

1 locality (SN9548) in Brycheiniog (Powys); a parish at this place

Population: 50 (1961), 65 (1971)
Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 22% (1961), 15% (1971)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN9548

:_______________________________.

gwarafun <gwa-RAA-vin> [gwaˡrɑˑvɪn]

1 (verb with a direct and indirect object) refuse, begrudge [= be envious of; wish ill or allow unwillingly], deny, envy (somebody something), be jealous of, be envious of (somebodys something), be unhappy that somebody has something

Nid wyf yn gwarafun iddo ei lwyddiant I dont begrudge him his success, Im not jealous of his success, Im happy for his success

Gradd er anrhydedd oedd, ac felly enillodd ei radd heb basio egsam ond pwy sy'n mynd i warafun hўnny, cўmaint ei gўfraniad ўn ў maes
It was an honorary degree, and so he won his degree without passing an exam but who is going to begrudge him that since his contribution to the filed has been so great

Ni fu i'r cylchgrawn hwn eried warafun arian a roir i gylchgronau eraill
This magazine has never begrudged money which is given to other magazines

Ni fynnwn warafun i neb elwa ar ei dalent... ond ydi hin deg ei fod erbyn hyn yn aml-filiwnydd am gicio pl o gwmpas cae, ac yntau ond yn ugain oed?
I wouldnt want to criticise anybody for profiting from his or her talent but is it fair that he is a multi-millionaire by now for kicking a ball around a field, when hes only twenty years old?

Nid oedd ў gŵr ўn gwarafun ўr un dim iddi
Her husband didn't deny her a single thing

2 prohibit, prevent
plant dan oed yn yfed gwerth tua 20 ddwy neu dair gwaith yr wythnos, nes yn feddw,
yn nhref Caernarfon, heb i neb warafun

Children under age drinking [and spending] around twenty pounds two or three times a week, until they are drunk, without anybody preventing them

Gorchwyl achlysurol oedd 'hel priciau', ac yr oedd yn rhaid wrth amser cyfaddas i wneud hynny. Ac os llwyddem i gael 'baich da,' ni warafunid i ni dreulio oriau dedwydd yn y Coed
t44 Y Pentre Gwyn, gan Anthropos (Robert David Rowland 1853?-1944), Tyn-y-cefn, Corwen; 1923
An occasional task was gathering sticks, and you needed a suitable amount of time to do this. And if we managed to get a good load, nobody prohibited us from spending happy hours in the wood.

ETYMOLOGY: gwarafun < gwarofun < gworofun < British < Common Celtic *wer-wo-mun

:_______________________________.

gwarafuniad <gwa-ra-VIN-yad> [gwaraˡvɪnjad] (m)
PLURAL gwarafuniadau <gwa-ra-vin-YAA-dai, -e> [gwaravɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 prohibition

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarafun-, stem of gwarafun = prohibit) + (-i-ad noun suffix)
:_______________________________.

gwarag <GWAA-rag> [ˡgwɑˑrag] (m)
PLURAL gwaragau <gwa-RAA-gai, -e> [gwaˡrɑˑgaɪ, -ɛ]
1 (obsolete) loop, bow

ETYMOLOGY: Cornish gwarag (= bow), Breton gwarag (= bow)

:_______________________________.

gwaraidd <GWAA-raidh, -edh> [ˡgwɑˑraɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 civilised

Dyledswydd Cymro a'i fath ddylai fod, i roddi amlygrwydd o'n rhagorion pan y crybwyllir am ein diffygion. Fel y crybwylla awdwr yr ysgrif arweiniol yn y Darian ddiweddaf, y mae ymddigiadau Cymry ein cymoedd yn fil mwy teilwng na'r dull a gymerir gan yr estroniaid a dryfrithant ein gwlad ar ein gwyliau, ac nid yw Cwm Rhondda ar l i un Cwm arall yn Nghymru yn y cyfeiriad moesol a gwaraidd, ond cymeryd y Cymry fel safon, ac nid anwariaid estronol.
The duty of 'Cymro' and his sort should be to highlight our good points when our failings are mentioned. As the writer of the leading article in the last 'Tarian' mentioned, the behaviour of the Welsh people of our valleys is a thousand times more dignified than that shown by the foreigners who swarm over our country on our feast days and Cwm Rhondda is not behind any other valley in Wales as regards morality and civilisation, taking the Welsh as the standard, and not foreign barbarians
Llith V, 1897 Tarian y Gweithiwr

2 anwaraidd uncivilised

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (gwar = civilised) + (-aidd adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwarant <GWAA-rant> [ˡgwɑˑrant] (f)
PLURAL gwarantau <gwa-RAN-tai, -e> [gwaˡrantaɪ, -ɛ]
y warant = the guarantee

1 warrant

2 guarantee = written statement given when buying a product stating that the product will be trouble-free for a certain period of time; if not, it will be repaired free of charge or replaced

gwarant am ugain mlynedd a twenty-year guarantee

3 guarantee = thing which makes another thing certain (e.g. money is no guarantee of happiness)

4 guarantee = money etc handed over as pledge so that a promise or contract is not broken

5 guarantee = promise to pay the debt of another if he fails to pay

6 nid + bod ўn warant o be no guarantee of
Mae'n ddrama-gyfres; ond ni ddylai hynny, er yn beth i'w groesawu, ddim bod yn warant
o ryddid rhag beirniadaeth

Its a drama forming a series; but that should not, though it is something to be welcomed, be a warrant to free it from critism

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwarant < (?English) < Anglo-French < Old French guarant < Germanic.
A present participle form (as in modern German -end) of the Germanic verb waren (= to warrant), with end replaced by French -ant

:_______________________________.

gwaranteb <gwa-RAN-teb> [gwaˡrantɛb] (f)
PLURAL
gwarantebau <gwa-ran-TEE-bai, -e> [gwaranˡteˑb, -ɛ]
1 guarantee = (goods)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarant- stem of gwarantu = to guarantee) + (-eb suffix used to indicate a document)
:_______________________________.

gwarantiedig <gwa-ran-ti-EE-dig> [gwarantɪˡeˑdɪg] (adj)
1 guaranteed

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarant- stem of gwarantu = to guarantee) + (-i-edig suffix used to form a past participle)
:_______________________________.

gwarantu <gwa-RAN-ti> [gwaˡrantɪ]
1 (verb with an object) guarantee
Gwarantwyd cyflog uwch i'r gweision sifil

The civil servants were guaranteed a higher salary

2 back up, confirm
Ac os byddai angen gwarantu'r gwir, wel dywedir 'wir yr' (y sain dywyll)
And if there is need to emphasise (guaranatee) the truthfulness [of a statement], well one says wir yr (the obscure vowel [in this latter word])

3 various expressions corresponding to English honest!, honestly!, or I have no doubt that, doubtlessly
mi a'i gwrantaf I guarantee it
mi wranta I guarantee
mi a gwranta, mi gwranta I guarantee [it]
mi a'th wrantaf (literary) I guarantee you
mi dy wranta-di (South Wales) I guarantee you

fi ginta, fe ginta I guarantee [it]
fi gynta I guarantee [it]
mi grynta, fi grynta I guarantee [it]

:_______________________________.

gwarantydd <gwa-RAN-tidh> [gwaˡrantɪ] (adj) (m)
PLURAL
gwarantyddion <gwa-ran-TƏDH-yon> [gwaranˡtəjɔn]
1 guarantor = person who gives a guarantee

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarant- stem of gwarantu = to guarantee) + (-ydd noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwarced <GWAR-ked> [ˡgwarkəd] (m)
PLURAL
gwarcedion <gwar-KED-yon> [gwarˡkədjɔn]
1 remainder


ETYMOLOGY: ??

:_______________________________.

gwarchadw
<gwar-KHAA-du> [gwarˡxɑˑdʊ]
1 See: gwarchod
:_______________________________.

gwarchae (1)
<GWAR-khai, -khe> [ˡgwarxaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL gwarchaeoedd
<gwar-KHEI-oidh, -odh> [gwarˡxəɪɔɪ, -ɔ]
1 siege

Jeremeia 19:9 A mi a baraf iddynt fwyta cnawd eu meibion, a chnawd eu merched, bwytnt hefyd bob un gnawd ei gyfaill, yn y gwarchae ar cyfyngder, r hwn y cyfynga eu gelynion, ar rhai sdd yn ceisio eu heinioes, arnynt.
Jeremiah 19:19 And I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters, and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend in the siege and straitness, wherewith their enemies, and they that seek their lives, shall straiten them.

Deuteronomium 28:55 Rhag rhoddi i un ohonўnt o gig ei feibion, ў rhai a fwyty efe; o eisiau gado iddo ddim ўn ў gwarchae ac ўn ў cўfўngdra, r hwn ў cўfўnga dў elyn arnat o fewn dў holl byrth.
Deuteronomў 28:55 So that he will not give to anў of them of the flesh of his children whom he shall eat: because he hath nothing left him in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee in all thў gates.

2 cadw gwarchae ar maintain under siege, keep under siege
Cadwai rhai ohonynt warchae ar yr unig ffordd y gallai'r Saeson ddychwelyd iw castell ar hyd-ddi.

Some kept under siege the only road along which the Englishmen could return to their castle

3 gwarchae yn erbyn a siege against
Sechareia 12:2 Wele fi yn gwneuthur Jerwsalwm yn ffiol gwsg i'r bobloedd oll o amgylch, pan fyddont yn y gwarchae yn erbyn Jwda, ac yn erbyn Jerwsalem
Zechariah 12:2 Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem

4 dan warchae under siege, be besieged

bod dan warchae
be under siege, be besieged
y rhai dan warchae the besieged, the besieged population

5 (obsolete) bod ўng ngwarchae be under siege, be besieged
Brenhinoedd-2 25:1 Ac yn y nawfed flwyddyn o'i deyrnasiad ef, yn y degfed mis, ar y degfed dydd o'r mis, y daeth Nebuchodonosor brenin Babilon, efe a'i holl lu., yn erbyn Jerwsalem, ac a wersyllodd yn ei herbyn hi, a hwy a adeilasant yn ei herbyn hi wrthglawdd o'i hamgylch hi (25:2) A bu y ddinas yng ngwarchae hyd yr unfed flwyddyn ar ddeg i'r brenin Sedeceia
Kings-2 25:1 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it: and they built forts against it round about. (25:2) And the city was besieged unto the eleventh
year of king Zedekiah.

6 torri gwarchae to break a siege

7 codi gwarchae ar to raise the siege on

8 (countў of Dinbych) gwarchae pound, fold, pinfold

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar prefix = on; ) + spirant mutation + (cae = to close )

:_______________________________.

gwarchae (2)
<GWAR-khai, -khe> [ˡgwarxaɪ, -ɛ] verb
1 gwarchae ar besiege, place under siege, beleaguer
[from-Dutch belegeren
=-to-camp-round]
gwarchae ar dref lay siege to a town, besiege a town

Daniel 1:1 Yn y drydedd flwyddyn o deyrnasiad Jehoiacim brenin Jwda, y daeth Nebuchodonosor brenin Babilon i Jerwsalem, ac a warchaeodd arni.
Daniel 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it.

ETYMOLOGY: verb from the noun gwarchae (= siege)

:_______________________________.

gwarcheidiol <gwar-KHEID-yol> [gwarˡxəɪdjɔl] (adj)
1 guarding
angel gwarcheidiol guardian angel

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchad- < gwarchadw = to guard) + (-i-ol adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwarcheidwad <gwar-KHEID-wad> [gwarˡxəɪdwad] (adj) (m)
PLURAL gwarcheidwaid <gwar-KHEID-waid, -ed> [gwarˡxəɪdwaɪd, - ɛd]
1 guardian
2 prison warder

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchad- < gwarchadw = to guard) + (-ad noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwarchglawdd <GWARKH-glaudh> [ˡgwarxglaʊ]
1 fortification, rampart, defensive wall

Deuteronioum 20:19 Pan warchaeech ar ddinas lawer o ddyddiau, gan ryfela yn ei herbyn i'w hennill hi, na ddifetha ei choed hi, gan daro bwyell arnynt: canys ohonynt y bwytei; na thor dithau hwynt i lawr, (oherwydd bywyd dyn yw pren y maes,) i'w gosod yn y gwarchglawdd.
Deuteronioum 20:19 When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an ax against them: for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt not cut them down (for the tree of the field is man's life) to employ them in the siege:

Eiseia 29:3 A gwersyllaf yn grwn i'th erbyn, ac'a warchaeaf i'th erbyn mewn gwarchdwr, ac a gyfodaf wrthglawdd yn dy erbyn.
Isaiah 29:3 And I will camp against thee round about, and will lay siege against thee with a mount, and I will raise forts against thee

2 low hedgebank
Occurs as gwarclawdd, gwarcaw, gorclawdd, orclawdd (Ceredigion), coeclaw (Penfro)
gwar + clawdd
ETYMOLOGY: (gwar- = on) + soft mutation + (clawdd = dyke)

:_______________________________.

gwarchod <GWAR-khod> [ˡgwarxɔd] (verb)
1 to guard, watch over, protect, safeguard
llong warchod, llongau gwarchod escort (= escort boat)

llynges warchod, llyngesau gwarchod
escort fleet
Roedd yr eryr yn gwarchod yr wyau yn ofalus The eagle was protecting her eggs carefully(

ymdrechion i warchod yr ychydig sy'n weddill o'r coedwigoedd cynhenid arferai orchuddio cyfran helaeth o Gymru ar un pryd...
efforts to safeguard the little which is left of the native woodlands which used to cover a vast proportion of Wales at one time

gwarchod rhg protect from
gwarchod y tŷ rhag lladron to protect the house from burglars

2 preserve = keep from being forgotten
Sefydlwyd amgueddfa i warchod hanes cyfoethog yr ardal, phwyslais arbennig ar hanes John Evans, aeth i'r Amerig i chwilio am yr 'Indiaid Cymreig'

A museum was set up to preserve the rich history of the area, with a special emphasis on the history of John Evans, who wetn to America to search for the Welsh Indians

3 preserve = keep alive

4 preserve = keep safe from harm

5 preserve = keep game for hunting

6 look after
gwarchod plant look after children, babysit (= look after a child or children while the parents are absent for a short while)

7 gwarchod ty stay at home

8 ardal warchod, ardaloedd gwarchod neighbourhood watch area

9 exclamations (North Wales)
Gwarchod ni! May God save us! ((the) preserving (of) us)
Gwarchod pawb!
May God save everybody! ((the) preserving (of) everybody)
Gwarchod y byd! May God save the world! ((the) preserving (of) the world)

Gwarchod y byd! Beth wnawn-ni nawr?
Good Heavens! What will we do now?
Good God - what'll we do now?

Gwarchod y nefoedd! Heaven preserve [us]
((the) preserving (of) heaven)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwarchod < gwarchawd, metathesised form of gwarchadw (D-W > W-D)

(gwar prefix = on) + spirant mutation + (cadw = keep)

:_______________________________.

gwarchodaeth <gwar-KHOOdaith, -deth> [gwarˡxoˑdaɪθ, -dɛθ] (f)
1 charge, protection, custody

2 tutelage = guardianship, authority over (a person, a group of
people, a state)

3 tutelage = the condition of being under the guardianship or protection of another

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchod-, stem of gwarchod = protect) + (-aeth noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwarchodfa <gwar-KHOD-va] [gwarˡxɔdva]
PLURAL gwarchodfydd
[gwar-khod-VEIDH> [gwarxɔdˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
1 reserve, sanctuary, protected place
y warchodfa the sanctuary

2 garrison = place for a garrison of troops

3 preserve = area where game is reared for hunting

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchod-, stem of gwarchod = look after, guard) + (-fa suffix = place)
:_______________________________.

gwarchodfa adar <gwar-KHOD-va AA-dar> [gwarˡxɔdva ˡɑˑdar] (f)
PLURAL: gwarchodfydd adar <gwar-khod-VEIDH AA-dar> [gwarxɔdˡvəɪ ˡɑˑdar]

1 bird sanctuary
y warchodfa adar the bird sanctuary

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchodfa = sanctuary, protected place) + (adar = birds, plural of aderyn = bird)

:_______________________________.

gwarchodfa anifeiliaid <gwar-kho-va a-ni-VEIL-yaid, -ed> [gwarˡxɔdva anɪˡvəɪljaɪd, -ɛd] (f)
PLURAL: gwarchodfydd anifeiliaid <gwar-khod-VEIDH a-ni-VEIL-yaid, -ed> [gwarxɔdˡvəɪ anɪˡvəɪljaɪd, -ɛd]

1 wildlife reserve
2 animal sanctuary

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchodfa = sanctuary, protected place) + (anifeiliaid = animals, plural of anifail = animal)
:_______________________________.

gwarchodfa natur <gwar-khod-va NA-tir> [gwarˡxɔdva ˡnatɪr] (f)
PLURAL: gwarchodfydd anifeiliaid <gwar-khod-VEIDH NA-tir> [gwarxɔdˡvəɪ ˡnatɪr]]
1 nature reserve

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchodfa = sanctuary, protected place) + (natur = nature)
:_______________________________.

gwarchodle <gwar- khod -le> (m)
PLURAL: gwarchodleoedd <gwar-khod-LEE-oidh, -odh> [gwarxɔdˡlɔɪ, - ɔ]
1 sentry post, guard post
(gwarchod-, stem of gwarchod = look after, guard) + soft mutation + (lle = place)
:_______________________________.

gwarchodlu <gwar-KHOD-li> [gwarˡxɔdlɪ] (m)
PLURAL: gwarchodluoedd <gwar-khod-LII-oidh, -odh> [gwarxɔdˡlɔɪ, - ɔ]
1 garrison = troops who guard a fort

2 guard = detachment of soldiers who act as guards

gwarchodlu'r brenin the kings guards

Y Gwarchodlu Cartref <ə gwar-KHOD-li KAR-trev> [ə gwarˡxɔdlɪ ˡkartrɛv] the Home Guard

Y Gwarchodlu Cymrig <ə gwar-KHOD-li kəm-REIG> [ə gwarˡxɔdlɪ kəmˡrəɪg] the Welsh Guards

gwarchodlu cudd <gwar-KHOD-li KIIDH> [gwarˡxɔdlɪ ˡkiː]
secret security service

Y Gwarchodlu Cenedlaethol <ə gwar-KHOD-li ke-ned-LEI-thol> [ə gwarˡxɔdlɪ kɛnɛdˡləɪθɔl] the National Guard (US)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchod-, stem of gwarchod = look after, guard) + soft mutation + (llu = band of people)
:_______________________________.

gwarchodwr <gwar-KHOO-dur> [gwarˡxoˑdʊr] (m)
PLURAL gwarchodwyr <gwar-KHOD-wir> [gwarˡxɔdwɪr]
1 guard

2 bodyguard

cyn-warchodwr ir Prif Weinidog an ex-bodyguard of the Prime Minister
gwarchodwyr y naill ochr iddo with bodyguards on either side of him

3 custodian = person who looks after an object, or a building or other place

4 guardian = person who looks after another person and his property according to a legal agreement

5 sentry = a soldier who keeps watch

6 prison warder

7 carer = person who looks after someone who is elderly or incapacitated

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchod-, stem of gwarchod = look after, guard) + soft mutation + (gŵr = man)
:_______________________________.

gwarchodwr tn <gwar-KHOO-dur TAAN> [gwarˡxoˑdʊr ˡtɑˑn]

PLURAL gwarchodwyr tn <gwar-KHOD-wir TAAN> [gwarˡxɔdwɪr ˡtɑˑn]
1 fireguard
2 fire watcher

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchodwr = guard) + (tn = fire)
:_______________________________.

gwarchodydd <gwar-KHOO-didh> [gwarˡxoˑdɪ] (m)
PLURAL gwarchodwyr <gwar-KHOD-wir> [gwarˡxɔdwɪr]
1 see gwarchodwr
:_______________________________.

gwarchotgi <gwar-KHOOT-gi> [gwarˡxɔtgɪ] (m)
PLURAL gwarchotgwn <gwar-KHOOT-gun> [gwarˡxɔtgʊn]
1 watchdog

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarchod-, stem of gwarchod = look after, guard) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)

:_______________________________.

gwarddrws <GWAR-dhrus> [ˡgwarrʊs] (m)
PLURAL gwarchotgwn <gwar-DH-sai, -e> [gwarˡrəsaɪ, -ɛ]
1 (South Wales) lintel

Standard form: gorddrws

(Y Winllan, Tal-y-bont, Ceredigion) Mae'r drws yn gweithio mewn ystram, yr hon a ffurfir gan y trothwy, y ddau ystlysbost, a'r gwarddrws. Neu yn iaith y Beibl, y rhiniog, y gorsinau, a chapan y drws.
t241 Seren Gomer 19 1898
(Y Winllan, Tal-y-bont, Ceredigion) The door works in a frmae, which is made up of the threshold, the two door jambs, and the lintel. Or in the language of the Bible, the rhiniog (threshold), the gorsinau (door jambs), and the capan y drws (lintel).

:_______________________________.

gwarden <GWAR-den> [ˡgwardɛn] (m)
1 See: warden

:_______________________________.

gwardio <GWARD-yo> [ˡgwardjɔ] (v)
1 guard, watch over

2 (county of Mn) take cover, hide
Yr oedd yr adar yn gwardio dan y mieri
The birds were hidng in the brambles

Mi es i gyfeiriad y fferm, a gwardio mewn llwyn drain ar ochor y ffordd
I went in the direction of the farm and hid in a bramble bush on the roadside

ETYMOLOGY: (gward = English guard, from an older English pronunciation) + (-io = verb suffix)

English guard < Old French g(u)arde < Germanic, related to the English word ward

:_______________________________.

gwardon <GWAR-don> [ˡgwardɔn] (m)
1 (South-east Wales) riverbank, streamside

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar = on) + soft mutation + (ton = greensward, grassland)
:_______________________________.

gwardosti <gwar-DOS-ti> [gwarˡdɔstɪ] (v)
(Bro Morgannwg)
1 to shrug the shoulders
2 to have a pain in the neck

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar = nape of the neck) + soft mutation + (tosti = be painful)

:_______________________________.

gwared 1 <GWAA-red> [ˡgwɑˑrɛd] (m)
PLURAL
gwaredion <gwa-RED-yon> [gwaˡredjɔn]
1 riddance, release
cael gwared ar get rid of; put a stop to, stamp out
Daeth nifer nifer o rieini gerbron llўs ўn Aberdr wrth i'r cўngor lleol weithredu i gael gwared ar driwantiaeth
A number of parents appeared in court in Aber-dr as the local council attempts to stamp out truancy

cael ei wared get rid of him, get rid of it

cael ei gwared get rid of her, get rid of it

Gwared da ar ei l e! Good riddance! Good riddance to him!

2 redemption, deliverance

3 afterbirth

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Common Celtic
From British: Cornish: gweres (= help), Breton gwared (= help, protection), gwaredi (to help)
From Common Celtic: Irish
fir (= help)

NOTE: South-east Wales gwarad

:_______________________________.

gwared <GWAA-red> [ˡgwɑˑrɛd] (verb)
More usually: gwaredu (qv) <gwa-REE-di> [gwaˡreˑdɪ]

:_______________________________.

gwared
1
See gwaered = slope

NOTE: gwaered > gwared through the simplification of the diphthong ae EI [əɪ] > a A [a]

:_______________________________.

gwaredigaeth <gwa-re-DII-gaith, -eth> [gwarɛˡdiˑgaɪθ] (f)
PLURAL gwaredigaethau <gwa-re-di-GEI-thai, -e> [gwarɛdɪˑˡgəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]

1 salvation, deliverance; = rescue from a bad situation, solving of problems
Rhaid ir Cўmry wneud pethau drosom ein hunain ac nid disgwyl am waredigaeth gan ў Cўnulliad ar Cўnghorau Sir
As Welsh people we must do things ourselves and not expect salvation from the Welsh Assembly and the County Councils

Eleri Carrog, sefydlydd brwd a gweithgar Cefn, yn dweud fod yn rhaid
i'r Cymry wneud pethau drosom ein hunain ac nid disgwyl am waredigaeth gan y Saeson ac eraill
Cymro 13 12 89

Eleri Carrog, the enthusiastic founder of Cefn, says we Welsh must do things for ourselves and not expect salvation form the English and others

2 (Chrisitianity) salvation, deliverance; removal from the influence of sin

ETYMOLOGY: (gwaredig = saved) + (-aeth suffix for forming nouns)

gwaredig
(= saved) < (gwared- stem of gwaredu = get rid of, literally under-run) + (-edig past-participle suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwaredol <gwa-REE-dol> [ˡgwareˑdɔl] adjective
1
redeeming, saving
gwendid gwaredol a redeeming vice

2 dispositionary
prydles waredol gyntaf dispositionary first lease

ETYMOLOGY: (gwared-, stem of gwaredu (= get rid of, literally under-run) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwaredu <gwa-REE-di> [gwaˡreˑdɪ] verb
NOTE: also in the form gwared
1
Christianity save, redeem, deliver; rescue from evil
gwared rhag... deliver from..., redeem from...
gwared ni rhag drwg deliver us from evil
gwared (rhywun) rhg angau save (someone) from death

Daniel 3:17, 18 Wele, y mae ein Duw ni, yr hwn yr ydym ni yn ei addoli yn abl in gwared ni allan or ffwrn danllyd boerth, ac efe an gwared ni oth law di, o frenin. Ac onid e, bydded hysbys i ti, frenin, ni addolwn dy dduwiau...
Daniel 3:17, 18 If it be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver us out of thine hand, O king. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve they gods...

Mae rhywrai wedi galw ar i ni fabwysiadu bara lawr fel un on prydau cenedlaethol ond Duw an gwaredo rhag y fath beth
Some people have urged us to adopt laver bread as one of our national meals but God save us from such a fate! (from such a thing)

2 save from, deliver from, rescue from; take from a situation where there is danger, the possibility of injury or death

Un or rhai fu yn ei waredu or dwfr ydoedd Rhobet Wiliam, Ty Pella
One of the people who took part in rescuing him from the water was Rhobet Wiliam, of Ty Pella (far house)

Esboniad ar y Beibl Sanctaidd, Owen Jones, Wyddgrug, 1840:
SALM LXXVI. Hwўrach i'r Salm hon gael ei hўsgrifenu pan waredwўd Jerusalem oddiwrth Senacherib.
SALM LXXVI. Maybe this Psalm was written when Jerusalem was delivered from Senacherib

3 there are many oaths with gwaredu
An gwaredo oll! (may God save us all)
Duw an gwaredo ni God save us!
Duw an gwaredo rhag y fath beth God save us from such a thing!
Gwared ni! (may we be saved)
Gwared ni rhag drwg (may we be saved from evil)
Gwared pawb! (may everybody by saved )
Gwared y gwirion! North Wales (may the innocent one be saved)
Gwared y nghalon i! Arfon, county of Gwynedd (may my heart be saved)
Y Nef an gwaredo ni (may heaven save us)
Y nefoedd am gwaredo! Heaven help me! (may heaven save me)

4 South Wales get rid of,
to get shot of, dispose of, remove to
Rhaid gadael y mwyar duon dros nos mewn dwr halen. Mater bach wedyn yn y bore yw gwaredu cyrff y cynrhon gydar dwr i lawr drwy dwll y sinc
The blackberries should be left overnight in salt and water. Its a small matter then in the morning to get rid of the dead maggots (the bodies of the maggots) with water down the plughole

taflu hen lyfrau i bentwr ar lawr iw gwaredu throwing old books onto a pile on the floor to throw them out

gwaredu ysbwriel <ə-SBUR-yel> [əˡsbʊrjɛl] (m)
1 refuse disposal, waste disposal
cerbyd gwared 'sbwriel rubbish lorry

5 remove, take out
Mae wraemia yn dod yn sgil methiant ar ran yr arennau i waredur wrea or corff
Uraemia results from the failure of the kidneys to remove urea from the body

6 South Wales put down (an animal), have (an animal) put down
Bu raid i ni waredur hen gath
We had to have the old cat put down

7 kill
Rhaid gwaredu cymaint or gelyn ag a allwn, meddair cadno
We must kill as many of the enemy as we can, said the fox

8
North Wales
gwaredu rhag... in expressions of surprise - what a...
Gwaredu rhag y fath wastraff! What a waste!

In North Wales, the use of gwaredu to express surprise has developed from the phrase Duw an gwaredo ni! (may God save us)


9 North Wales gwaredu at be astonished at, be surprised at
Rw in gwaredu atoch chin meddwl y fath beth!
Im astonished that you think such a thing!

10 North Wales gwaredu be shocked at, be appalled at

11 North Wales gwaredu at deplore = show strong disapproval

13 anwared- obsolete = imitate (an = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwared = to save)

14 dynwared (modern Welsh) = imitate

(dy = intensifying prefix) + (anwared = imitate
(obsolete in modern Welsh))

anwared is
(an intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwared = to save)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwared (= under-run), < gwored (gwo- = under) + soft mutation + (rhed = run) < British wo-ret- (wo- is from Celtic < *uop-)

With the same structure: Latin succurrere (= to run to give help); (sub = under) + (currere = to run)
This is the origin of English succor (Englandic: succour) < French sucurir < Latin succurrere

gwaredu is (gwared) + (-u verbal suffix)


Cornish gwerez (= to help), Breton gwaredi (= to help)
:_______________________________.

gwaredwr <gwa-REE-dur> [gwaˡreˑdʊr] verb masculine noun
PLURAL gwaredwyr
<gwa-RED-wir> [gwaˡrɛdwɪr]
1
saviour, redeemer

2
Ў Gwaredwr the Saviour
helaethu teўrnas ў Gwaredwr
extend the kingdom of the Saviour, spread the Gospel


ymgyflwynon hollol i waith yr Arglwydd, byw yn sanctaidd, ac ymdrechu gyda phob diwydrwydd i helaethu teyrnas y Gwaredwr

dedicate oneself entirely to the work of the Lord, live a holy life, and endeavour with all ones might (ones diligence) to extend the kingdom of the Saviour

gwaredwr gwastraff cofrestredig registered waste-disposal agent

ETYMOLOGY: (gwared-, stem of gwaredu = to save) + (-wr suffix = man)
NOTE: The Gaulish name
Voretovir- coresponds to Welsh gwaredwr

:_______________________________.

gwareiddiad <gwa-REIDH-yad> [gwaˡrəɪjad] (m)
PLURAL gwareiddiadau <gwa-reidh-YAA-dai, -e> [gwarəɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]

1 civilisation = advanced state of social development

2 civilisation = society with a complex structure (eg administration, law,
culture)

3 civilisation = nation or people with such a society

4 civilisation = way of life of a people, or characteristic of a period

5 civilisation = intellectual and cultural development

6 civilisation = populated area contrasted with a desert, or a sparsely-populated area

ETYMOLOGY: (gwareidd- < gwaraidd = civilised) + (-iad noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwareiddiedig <gwa-reidh-YEE-dig> [gwarəɪˡjeˑdɪg] (adj)
1 civilised

pobl waraiddedig civilised people

ETYMOLOGY: (gwareidd- < gwaraidd = civilised) + (-i-edig past participle suffix)
:_______________________________.

gwareiddio <gwa-REIDH-yo> [gwaˡrəɪjɔ] (v)
1 civilise
2 become civilised

ETYMOLOGY: (gwareidd- < gwaraidd = civilised) + (-i-o verb suffix)
:_______________________________.

gwareiddiol <gwa-REIDH-yol> [gwaˡrəɪjɔl] (adj)
1 civilising

ETYMOLOGY: (gwareidd- < gwaraidd = civilised) + (-i-ol adjectival suffix)
:_______________________________.

gwaren <GWAA-ren> [ˡgwaˑrɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL gwarenau, gwarenod, gwarenoeddn <gwa-REE-nai, -e, nod, -noidh, -nodh> [gwaˡreˑnaɪ, ɛ, -ɔd, -ɔɪ, -ɔ]

1 rabbit warren
y waren the warren
y cwningod yn eu gwaren the rabbits in their warren

2 warren game preserve, enclosed place for breeding game animals and birds

3 Ysgubor y Waren place in Sant-y-brid (county of Bro Morgannwg) ((the) barn (of) the warren)

ETYMOLOGY: English warren < Norman < Germanic; cf German bewahren (= to keep, to preserve)

As with other loans from English a g- is prefixed since an initial w- is more typical of soft-mutated forms (cf gwal = English wall, gwast = waste, gwast = waist, etc)

NOTE: The word is sometimes seen with double r gwarren / warren but this is a spelling considered less correct than gwaren / waren

:_______________________________.

gwargaled <gwar-GAA-led> [gwarˡgaˑlɛd] adjective
1
stubborn, stiffnecked, obstinate

Exodus 32:9
Yr ARGLWYDD hefyd a ddywedodd wrth Moses, Gwelais y bobl hyn; ac wele, pobl wargaled ydynt
Exodus 32:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people.

ffolineb gwargaled mwyafrif y swyddogion the stubborn foolishness of the majority of officials

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar = nape of neck ) + soft mutation + (caled = hard)

:_______________________________.

gwargaledwch
<gwar-ga-LEE-dukh> [ˡgwargaleˑdʊx] masculine noun
1
stubbornness, obstinacy

ETYMOLOGY: (gwargaled = stubborn, obstinate) + (-wch suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwargam <GWAR-gam> [ˡgwargam] adjective
1
stooped, stooping, with a stoop, with head and shoulders bent forward

Cerddai Morgan yn wargam Morgan walked with a stoop

2
gwargemi curvature of the spine

3
Maen fingul, maen fongam, maen wargul, maen wyrgam description of a bridge by Edward Richard, Ystradmeuirg 1803 (Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary t300)
It is narrow-edged, it is bandy-leggd (= one of the bases is out of position), it is narrow-humped, it is leaning to one side

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar = nape of neck ) + soft mutation + (cam = crooked)

:_______________________________.

gwarged
<GWAR-ged> [ˡgwargɛd]
feminine noun
PLURAL gwargedion
<gwar-GED-yon> [gwarˡgɛdjɔn]
1 (South Wales) remainder, rest, leavings; surplus
y warged the remainder
cadw gwarged y cig ir ci keep the rest of the meat for the dog

Nid digon heb warged Sufficiency is only achieved when there is something left over
Ni fu digonedd heb wargedion Enough is only enough when there are leftovers (Diarhebion Merthyr, 1895)

digon a gwarged enough and to spare

2
(South Wales) gwarged angau a pile of bones ((a) remnant (of) death)
Also: gwarged yr angau

ETYMOLOGY: gwarged < gwargred < gworgred
(prefix gwor = excess, over-) + soft mutation + (an unknown element cred)

There is dissimulation (R R) > (R zero) gwargred > gwarged, as in the name Margred (= Margaret) > Marged

NOTE: south-east Wales gwarged > gwarcad; gwargedion > gwarcetion



(delwedd 7500)
:_______________________________.

gwargemi
<gwar-GE-mi> [gwarˡgɛmɪ] masculine noun
1
curvature of the spine, stooped posture

ETYMOLOGY: (gwargam = stooped) + soft mutation + (-i suffix for forming abstract nouns) (causes change in the penultimate vowel a > e vowel affection)

:_______________________________.

gwargrwm <GWAR-grum> [ˡgwargrʊm] (adj)
1 round-shouldered

2 hunched
Eisteddai yn wargrwm wrth y tn He was sitting hunched by the fire

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar = nape of the neck, back of the neck ) + soft mutation + (crwm = bent )

:_______________________________.

gwariant <GWAR-yant> [ˡgwarjant] (m)
1 expenditure, outlay

ETYMOLOGY: (gwari- stem of gwario = to spend) + (-ant noun suffix )

:_______________________________.

gwarineb <gwa-RII-neb> [gwaˡriˑnɛb] (m)
1 mildness, gentleness
ETYMOLOGY: (gwr = civilised) + (-i-neb noun suffix)
:_______________________________.

gwario <GWAR-yo> [ˡgwarjɔ] (verb)

1
to spend (money)

gwario swllt er ennill ceiniog penny wise and pound foolish (spending a shilling to gain a penny)

Chewch chi moni hi faint bynnag o arian wariwch chi
You wont get it no matter how much money you spend

gwarion ddiarbed spare no expense (spend ceaselessly)
gwarion hael spend generously

gwario ar to spend on

Y mae Lloegr yn gwario hynny yw, yn gwastraffu - milfiliynau o bunnau bob blwyddyn ar amddiffyn
England spends that is, wastes - billions of pounds every year on defence

gwario ei arian ar ddiod spend his money on drink

2 (m), expenditure, spending

Dydi hynna ddim yn swnio fel rhyw wario call iawn i mi

That doesnt sound like very wise spending to me

...a cheid to newydd o ddarllenwyr yn mhlith rhai na wariasant efallai geinog ar lyfr o'r blaen. Tarian Y Gweithiwr 24 12 1908 ...and there was a new generation of readers among those who had maybe not spent a penny on books previously

:_______________________________.

gwarodau <gwa-ROO-dai, -e> [gwaˡroˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 plural form of gwarrod (= a blow to the neck, a beating on the neck)
:_______________________________.

gwarogaeth <gwa-ROO-gaith, -geth> [gwaˡroˑgaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
PLURAL gwarogaethau <gwa-ro-GEI-thai, -the> [gwaroˡgəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]

1
homage, loyalty
y warogaeth the homage

Addoliad y llu teyrngarol, au gwarogaeth ir Hollallu Dwyfol. (Eben Fardd / Yr Adgyfodiad / Y Traethodydd / 1851 tudalen 34)
The devotion of the loyal host, and their homage to the Godly Almighty

ETYMOLOGY: form of gwrogaeth (= homage) influenced by the word gwarrog (= stooping, hunched)

:_______________________________.

gwarrau <GWA-rai, -e> [ˡgwaraɪ, -ɛ]
1 plural form of gwar (= nape of the neck)
:_______________________________.

gwarrod <GWA-rod> [ˡgwarɔd] (m)
PLURAL gwarodau <gwa-ROO-dai, -e> [gwaˡroˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
(South-west Wales)
1 a blow to the neck, a beating on the neck

Derbyniodd y warrod orau a gafodd ci eried
He got a beating the like of which no dog had ever had before

ETYMOLOGY: gwarrod < gwarrawd < (gwar = nape of the neck, back of the neck) + (-awd = noun suffix, indicating an impact)

:_______________________________.

gwarrog1 <GWA-rog> [ˡgwarɔg] (f)
PLURAL gwarogau <gwa-ROO-gai, -e> [gwaˡroˑgaɪ, -ɛ]

1 stoop, hunched position

2 (North Wales) blow across the shoulders

3 yoke (also figurative)

4 (county of Mn) yoke for carrying buckets of water

5 (adj) stooping, hunched

6 (adj) (South-east Wales) sly

ETYMOLOGY: (gwar = nape of the neck, back of the neck) + (-og = adjectival suffix, noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwarth <GWARTH> [gwarθ] (masculine noun)

1 shame = painful feeling from having done something dishonourable or laughable; opprobium = disgrace after some action

cyhoeddich gwarth eich hun to cry stinking fish (make public your own shame);
to complain about or speak critically about ones own job, family, friends, etc, or ones own limitations, errors, misdeeds

dwyn gwarth ar bring shame on, be a disgrace to
tynnu gwarth ar
to shame

2 shame = ability to feel this
di-gywilydd shameless

3 disgrace = shameful action
Gwarth penderfyniad cartref Dr. Price The shame of the decision on the home of Dr. Price (i.e. a shameful decision to demolish the house of Dr. William Price)
(Cymro 25 12 96)

4 disgrace, dishonour = shameful object
Maer cerflun newydd yn warth The new sculpture is a disgrace

Mae strydoedd llawer o'n trefi yn warth ar gymdeithas The streets of many of our towns are a disgrace to our society

:_______________________________.

Gwarthaf <GWAR-thav> [ˡgwarθav]
1 division (cantref) of the medieval territory of Dyfed

:_______________________________.

gwarthaf <GWAR-thav> [ˡgwarθav] (adj)
1 upper

ETYMOLOGY: gwarthaf < gworthaf (gwor- < preposition gwor = on) + (-th-af superlative ending), in British *wor-tam-o-

The word is found in Cornish as gwarthav (= upper)

:_______________________________.

gwarthaf <GWAR-thav> [ˡgwarθav] (m)
PLURAL gwarthafion <gwar-THAV-yon> [gwarˡθavjɔn]
1 top, summit

dod ar warthaf (rhywun) (unpleasant event) overtake (somebody)

2 Gwartha-cwm SO4201 place name, Llan-gwm Isaf, Gwent:
gwarthaf y cwm = [the] top [of] the valley

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwarthaf (preposition gwor-) + (superlative suffix haf) =
British *wor-tam-

From the same British root: Cornish awartha (= on top)

NOTE: as in most polysyllables with a final [v], this final consonant is omitted colloquially.
Hence gwartha in informal spelling
<GWAR-tha> [ˡgwarθa]

:_______________________________.

gwarthafl
1 See: gwarthol

:_______________________________.

gwartheg <GWAR-theg> [ˡgwarθɛg]
(plural noun)
1 cattle; (adj) bovine, cow, cattle
In South Wales da = cattle is used

2 (South-west Wales) dairy cows

- gwartheg duon Cymreig <GWAR-theg-DI-on-kəm-REIG> [ˡgwarθɛg ˡdiˑon kəm ˡrəɪg]
(plural noun) Welsh black cattle

- gwartheg Ffrisia <GWAR-theg-FRIS-ya> [ˡgwarθɛg ˡfrɪsja]
(plural noun) Frisian cattle

- gwartheg Gernsi <GWAR-theg-GERN-si> [ˡgwarθɛg ˡgɛrnsɪ]
(plural noun) Guernsey cattle

- gwartheg Henffordd <GWAR-theg-HEN-fordh> [ˡgwarθɛg ˡhɛnfɔr]
(plural noun) Hereford cattle

- gwartheg Jersi <GWAR-theg-JER-si> [ˡgwarθɛg ˡʤɛrsɪ]
(plural noun) Jersy cattle

lleidr gwartheg (USA: cattle rustler) (Englandic: cattle thief)
sioe wartheg, sioeau gwartheg cattle show
ffender wartheg PLURAL ffenderi gwartheg cowcatcher = device on the front of a locomotive metal frame set at an angle to clear obstructions from the track
lori wartheg, lorau / loris gwartheg cattle lorry
croesfan gwartheg cattle crossing
grd gwartheg cattle grid
pryf gwartheg cattle fly
marchnad wartheg, marchnadoedd gwartheg cattle market
ffermwr gwartheg cattle fly
bridiwr gwartheg cattle breeder
gwartheg godro milch cows
gwartheg sugn suckling cows

ETYMOLOGY: unkown origin. Cornish gwartheg = cattle,
NOTE: A plural adjective is often used - gwartheg duon, etc

:_______________________________.

gwarthegaidd <gwar-THEE-gaidh, -gedh> (adj)
1 bovine
unrhyw greadur gwarthegaidd - tarw, eidion, buwch, ayyb
any bovine creature a bull, a bullock, a cow

ETYMOLOGY: (gwartheg = cattle) + (-aidd)

:_______________________________.

gwartheg blithion
1 milch cows

:_______________________________.

gwarthegwr, gwarthegwyr <gwar-THEE-gur>

1 cattle dealer

2 stockman, tender of cattle

3 cattle rancher (USA: cowman)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwartheg = cattle) + (suffix -wr)

:_______________________________.

gwarthegydd <gwar-THEE-gidh> (m) = gwarthegwr

ETYMOLOGY: (gwartheg = cattle) + (suffix -ydd)

:_______________________________.

gwarthle <gwarth-le> (m)
1 pudenda
Eseia 3:17 Am hynny y clafra yr Arglwydd gorunau merched Seion; a'r Arglwydd a ddinoetha eu gwarthle hwynt
Isaiah 3:17 Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and the Lord will discover their secret parts

ETYMOLOGY: "place of shame" (gwarth = shame) + soft mutation + (lle = place)

:_______________________________.
gwarthnod (m)
PLURAL gwarthnodau
1 stain on ones character

ETYMOLOGY: "place of shame" (gwarth = shame) + soft mutation + (nod = mark)

:_______________________________.

gwarthnodi <gwarth-NOO-di> gwarθnoˑdɪ] verb
1
brand, cause to be regarded with contempt

ETYMOLOGY: (gwarthnod = mark of shame) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

gwarthol <gwar -thol> (f)
PLURAL gwarthaflau, gwartholion <gwar-THAV-le, gwar-THOL-yon>
1 stirrup = footrest for a horserider, in the shape of a letter U hanging on a strap from the saddle

2 something in the shape of a letter U, like a stirrup (eg a clamp)

3 upper of a shoe or boot

ETYMOLOGY: gwarthol < gwarthawl < gwarthafl
(gwar = neck) + spirant mutation + (tafl- = stem of taflu = to throw; thing thrown).

Another explanation is possible: gwarthafl < gworthafl < gwrthafl
(gwrth = against) ) + soft mutation + (gafl = fork, bifurcation)

NOTE: county of Ceredigion): gwerthol; (South-east Wales): gwrthol

:_______________________________.

gwarthrudd masculine or feminine noun
1
(obsolete) disgrace, dishonour, shame, ignominy
y gwarthrudd / y warthrudd the disgrace

Salmau 57:3 Efe a enfyn or nefoedd, ac am gwared oddi wrth warthrudd yr hwn am llyncai. Sela. Denfyn Duw ei drugaredd ai wirionedd.
Psalms 57:3 He shall send from heaven, and save me from the reproach of him that would swallow me up. Selah. God shall send forth his mercy and his truth.

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (gwarth = shame, disgrace) + soft mutation + (rhudd = red)

:_______________________________.

gwarthus <GWAR-this> [ˡgwarθɪs] (adj)
1 shameful
2 dreadful

:_______________________________.

gwar troed
1 instep

:_______________________________.

gwar y gynffon
1 rump

:_______________________________.

gwas <gwa -sel> (f)
1 (obsolete) residence, mansion
From the same Celtic root: Irish fos (= stopping, staying)

Cf Greek hestia (= hearth, household), Hestia goddess of the hearth
Latin Vesta (= goddess of the hearth); also vestibulum (= court in front of a house)

:_______________________________.

gwas <GWAAS> [ˡgwɑːs]
PLURAL gweision (south: gweison)
Also the diminutive form gwesyn


1 servant, manservant; page boy = boy servant; attendant, employee, liegeman, vassal

2 (South-east Wales) boy, lad (archaic: swain)

gẃrnewas <GUR-ne-was>, gwrnews <gur-ne-WAAS>
man, youth: literally man or lad, a man or a boy;
(gŵr = man) + (neu = or) + soft mutation + (gwas = lad)

gŵr neu was (Welsh Laws) man who is elegible to be a compurgator (testifier of a person's innocence - from an old court procedure where an accused person is acquitted if enough people can be found who will swear to his innocence); man of distinction; (South-east Wales)

gwyr a gweision (gwyr a gwiison) men and boys

3 servant = animal in the service of a human
Gwas ffўddlon a chwbl anhepgorol oedd ў ceffўl
The horse was a faithful and indespensable servant

4 servant = animal in the service of another animal, in certain animal names
..a/ gwas ў neidr ((the) servant (of) the snake) dragonfly
..b/ (North Wales) gwas ў gog (Prunella modularis) = hedge sparrow ((the) servant (of) the cuckoo). Also gwas y gwcw. Standard name: llwyd ў gwrych (grey bird (of) the hedge)


5 mate = assistant to a tradesman
gwas plўmer plumbers mate
gwas adeiladwr builders mate

6 gwas stabl stable boy, stable lad
gwas fferm, gweision ffermydd [gwaas FERM, GWEI shon FER midh] farmhand, farm labourer
gwas ў Gilfach the servant from Gilfach farm
gwas bach youngest farm servant; least important servant

7 gwas ўr Arglwydd servant of the Lord
Salmau 103:1 Molwch ўr Arglwydd, Gweision ўr Arglwydd, molwch, ie, molwch enw ўr Arglwydd.
Psalm 113:1 Praise ye the Lord. Praise, O ye servants of the Lord, praise the name of the Lord.

Josua 24:29 Ac wedir pethau hўn, ў bu farw Josua mab Nun, gwas ўr Arglwydd, ўn fab dengmlwўdd a chant
Joshua 24:29 And it came to pass after these things, that Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being an hundred and ten years old.

8 gweision siop shop assistants : dyn siop = shop assistant (male), merch siop = shop assistant (female)
Rhai byr ei cўmwynas ywr rhan fwyaf o weision cownterir swyddfa bost
The majority of the post office counter assistants are not very helpful

9 as a form of address (usually with a short vowel):
fў ngws i (= mate, my friend) (North-west Wales wsh i)
In (congratulating: Da ngws i Well done, my friend
ngws i (1) used threateningly (2) used in commiserating: you poor thing
Gad iddo, wasi drop the subject, mate

Or as a vocative indicated by soft mutation:
ws (= mate, my friend) (soft mutation g > ZERO)
Also w [wa], with the loss of the final [s]

Paid phoeni, ws
Dont worry, mate

Sometimes heard in use by the English Welsh for example, in south-east Wales as wuss
(How are things, wuss?)

10 Also ws in addressing a dog, a horse, etc
Tyd, ws! Come, boy!

11 Pwy oedd dў was di llўnedd?; said to someone who is bossy to people, to someone who orders other people around (GPC) (who was your servant / farmhand last year?)

12 mor dlawd gwas ў clochydd as poor as the sextons servant; indicating extremem poverty

13 gwesyn Diminutive form of gwas
SN8554 Afon Gwesyn name
of a river in Brycheiniog The name could refer to its status as a tributary, as a servant aiding his master, because it was seen as helping bring water to the Irfon river.
SN8552 Abergwesyn village
7 km north of Llanwrtud, where the Gwesyn stream flows into the river Irfon

14 (North Wales) ўr Hen Was the devil

15 names of objects for various purposes
(South-east Wales) gwas bn (servant (of a) base) support for a gate hinge
(South-west Wales) gwas dirwyn (servant (of) winding) winder of a spinning wheel

16 gwas ў shiriff (Sir Benfro) ((the) attendant (of) the sheriff) goldfinch

17 gwas priodas best man

18 gwas cўflog hired man
Dw i ddim ond gwas cўflog I'm only doing my job (Im just a hired servant i.e. I can only do what Ive been told to do)

19 gwas ўstafell chamberlain
gwas sifil civil servant
heddwas policeman (hedd = peace) + soft mutation + (gwas = servant) Cf
heddferch policewoman
caethwas slave (caeth = bound)
gwas negesau, negeswas errand boy, messenger
gwas cegin / gweision cegin kitchen hand / kitchen hands

20 wythnos gwas newydd honeymoon period, initial period of a changed situation when there is goodwill and no conflict (week of (a) new servant / farmhand)

21 Anwas man's name (obsolete). The meaning is agitated; but the derivation is
(an= negative prefix ) + soft mutation + (gwas = man);
cf Irish anfais (= commotion)

22 digrifwas (literary word) fool = jester, person paid to amuse by acting the fool, buffoon
nwyfwas (literary word) pimp, procurer (nwyf = passion, bliss)
oferwas (literary word) rake, wastrel (ofer = futile, useless) + soft mutation + ( gwas = lad)

23 gwas bach [gwaas BAAKH] doormat, somebody easily manipulable

24 harbinger, herald, forerunner; announcer of the arrival of someone
niwl ў gaea, gwas ўr eira; niwl ўr ha, gwas da
(North Wales) winter mist, a herald of snow; summer mist, a good herald

25 in medieval forenames, indicating that a boy child is under the protection of a named saint
Compare the similar use of giolla (= lad, servant) in Ireland
Gwas Deiniol
Gwas Dewi
Gwas Mair
Gwas Mihangel
Gwas Padrig
Gwas Sanffrid
Gwas Teilo
Gwas Dwyw


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwas < *gwos < British *wost < Celtic *so-sto < Indo-European *upo-stho.
This is (upo = under) + (stho = one who stands) one who is under [anothers authority]

From the same British root: Cornish gwas (= servant),
Breton gwas (= man, husband, servant)

From the same Indoeuropean root: Sanskrit upa-sthna-m (= service), vstu (= house)

Also in English, ultimately of Celtic origin via Gaulish Latin:
(1) vassal < Old French < Medieval Latin vassallus < vassus (= servant) + (-allus suffix); vass(us) < Celtic
(2) cf valet < French valet < vaslet (= page) < vas- (vassus) (= servant) + (-let diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwasael <GWA-sail, -sel> (f)
PLURAL gwaeseiliau
1 revelry
2 ale for drinking health (beer, apples and sugar)

y wasael; hefyd y warsel

:_______________________________.

gwasaela <gwa-SEI-la> (vi)

1 wassail = go from house to house singing wassail song
(A Christmas folk custom in South Wales connected with the Mari Lwyd - wassail singers, i.e. singers of wassail songs, would go from house to house and drank the health of the
residents with wassail ale)

ALSO: gwasaila (Caerfyrddin)

:_______________________________.

gwasaelwr <gwa- sae -lur> (m)
PLURAL gwasaelwyr
1 wassailer = person who goes with others from house to house singing wassail songs

:_______________________________.

gwasaidd <GWA-saidh,-sedh> [ˡgwasaɪ, ˡgwasɛ] adjective
1 servile

Nid oedd ei larieidd-dra yn peri iddo fod yn feddal a gwasaidd.
His gentleness did not make him (did not cause him to be) soft and servile

Prin yr haerai'r Sais-addolwr mwyaf gwasaidd fod hyn yn wir
Even the most servile worshipper of the English would not claim this (to be true)
gwaseidd-dra servility

2 gwaseidd-dra servility

ETYMOLOGY: (gwas = lad; servant) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

gwasail (f) <GWA-sail,-sel> [ˡgwasaɪl, ˡgwasɛl]
1
subsoil

Clai yw tir gwasail Caer Bont
The subsoil of Bridge Field is ckay

2 layer
Niwl gaeaf, gwasail eira
Winter mist, a covering of snow

ETYMOLOGY: variant of gosail (GO- = under) + (SAIL = base)
Earlier gwosail; besides gwosail > gosail, also gwosail > gwasail

:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth gwa-SAA-naith, -neth [gwaˡsɑˑnaɪθ, gwaˡsɑˑnɛθ] (m)
PLURAL gwasanaethau <gwa-sa-NEI-thai. -the> [gwasaˡnəɪθaɪ, gwasaˡnəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]

1 (religion) service = act of public worship; a religious meeting, where worshippers receive instruction and from a priest or minister and pray to a deity, and sacred texts are read and sacred songs are sung.

2 service = a helpful activity; service, disposition, disposal, use
at eich gwasanaeth at your service
rhoi (rhywbeth) at wasanaeth (rhywun) place (something) at (sb's) disposal

3 service = an organised system to give assistance to people
y gwasanaeth iechyd the health service
gwasanaeth damweiniau breakdown service

4 service = radio service, television service

5 service = provision of transportation facilities to public
y gwasanaeth trenau the train service

6 service = provision of utilities (electricity, gas, etc) to public
gwasanaeth argyfwng nwy gas emergency service (to come promptly to the aid of consumers where gas appliances are faulty)

7 service = provision of telecommunication facilities to public

8 service = provision of maintenance and repairs

9 service = duties performed by a waiter or servant, attention
given to a customer
Cafodd wasanaeth y gweinydd ar unwaith
She was served by the waiter at once
gwasanaeth gwael bad service

gwasanaeth wrth y bwrdd
waiter service, waitress service,

10 service = employment as a servant
rhai a roes wasanaeth hir ar ffermydd neu ystadau...
people who had given long service on farms or estates

ar wasanaeth milwrol

on military service

11 service = department of a government or administrative body
gwasanaeth diplomataidd diplomatic service

12 service = provision of something beneficial for reasons of helping people rather than making a profit
gwasanaeth ar gyfer y cyhoedd public service

13 gwasanaethau motorway services, service area on a motorway (with petrol station,
cafeteria)

14 hunan wasanaeth self service

15 See: gwasanaethgar, gwasanaethu, gwasanaethydd

ETYMOLOGY: Cf Breton gwazoniezh (= homage)

:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth brўsgennad gwa-SAA-naith, -neth (m)
PLURAL gwasanaethau brysgennad
1 courier service = company providing a speedy letter or parcel delivery
:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth-capel <gwa-SA-naith, -neth, KA-pel> [ gwaˡsɑˑnaɪθ, gwaˡsɑˑnɛθ ˡkapɛl] (m)
1 chapel-service

:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth cudd (m)
PLURAL gwasanaethau cudd
1 secret service = a government department which carries out secret investigations by collecting information and spying on citizens considered to be a threat to the rulers of the state

:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth cymdeithasol (m)
PLURAL gwasanaethau cymdeithasol
1 social service

:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth eglwys <gwa-SA-naith, -neth E-gluis> [ gwaˡsɑˑnaɪθ, gwaˡsɑˑnɛθ ˡɛglʊɪs] (m)
1 church service

:_______________________________.

gwasanaethgar (adj)
1 obliging
2 useful, serviceable
offeryn hwylus a gwasanaethgar a handly and useful device

:_______________________________.

gwasanaethgarwch (m)

1 obligingeness, servicability
:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth iechyd (m)
1 health service
gwasanaeth iechyd y wladwriaeth state health service, national health service

:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth offrwm
1 offertory, part of mass or communion service where offerings are made

:_______________________________.

gwasanaethol
(adj)
1 ministering
:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth-sifil <gwa-SA-naith, -neth, SI-vil> [ gwaˡsɑˑnaɪθ, gwaˡsɑˑnɛθ ˡsɪvɪl]
1 civil service = (England - government structure) all government departments apart from the
armed services (Land, Sea and Air)

:_______________________________.

gwasanaeth tn
1 fire service = department of a local authority which deals with fire prevention and the extinction of fires and with rescue operations (USA: fire department)

:_______________________________.

gwasanaethu- <gwa-sa-NEI-thi> [gwasaˡnəɪθɪ] (verb)
1 to serve

2 work as a farm labourer
Bu en gwas'naethu ffermydd yn y cylch gydol ei oes
He worked as a farmhand on farms in the area all his life

3 serve = perform work for, perform a duty for
gwasanaethu yn y fyddin serve in the army

gwasanaethu fel...
perform work as (a person of a specified occupation)
gwasanaethu fel milwyr yn y Dwyrain Pell
serve as soldiers in the Far East
gwasanaethu fel Cadeirydd Cyngor Tref Llandudno
serve as the Chairman of Llandudno Town Council

4 serve = provide a facility required by a population
Adeiladwyd ysgol ar y ffordd rhwng y Pandy a Gwytherin i wasanaethu'r ddwy ardal
A school was built on the orad between Y Pandy and Gwytherin to serve the two districts

NOTE: colloquially
gwas'naethu / gwasnaethu <gwas-NEI-thi> [gwasˡnəɪθɪ] loss of pretonic syllable

gwўsneithu / gwўsneithu <gwas-NEI-thi> [gwəsˡnəɪθɪ] loss of pretonic syllable, reduction of vowel a > ə in new pretonic syllable

gwўsnithu / gwўsnithu <gwas-NEI-thi> [gwəsˡnθɪ] loss of pretonic syllable, reduction of vowel a > ə in new pretonic syllable, reduction of diphthong in the tonic syllable to a simple half-long vowel ei > i

Yr emyn oedd hwn, -
Mewn bywyd mae gwasnaethu Duw,
Dydd gras ac Iachawdwriaeth yw...
Llanwynno (1888) Glanffrwd(William Thomas 1843-1890) Golygydd Henry Lewis 1949. t59
This was the hymn:
In life there is the serving of God / It is the Day of Grace and Salvation

:_______________________________.

gwasanaethwr (m)
PLURAL gwasanaethwyr

1 retainer, servant
Yr oedd yn Hendreforgan wasanaethwr or enw Etwart; dynwaredai yr hen Richards o flaen ei wyneb, a dywedir ei fod megis crwth a thelyn.
In Hendreforgan there was a retainer by the name of Etwart (= Edward); he would imitate old Richards to his face (in front of his face) and it is said that he was very entertaining (that he was like a fiddle and a harp). Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl.
Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 47

:_______________________________.

gwasanaethwraig (f)
PLURAL gwasanaethwragedd
1 maidservant

:_______________________________.

gwasanaethydd (m)
PLURAL gwasanaethyddion

1 servant = a person who works for another, and who performs
household duties
Eisteddair gwasanaethўddion o gwmpas yr un ford a'u harglwydd
The servants sat around the same table as their lord

2 servant = a person deprived of freedom to decide for himself
cenedl o wasanaethўddion a fyddwn-ni os rhown fwy o bwyslais
ar ddatblygu'r fasnach ymwelwyr
we shall be a nation of servants if we give any more
emphasis to the development of the tourist industry(eng:) TES-Z

:_______________________________.

gwasarn (m)
PLURAL gwasarnau

1 litter = straw or rushes or grass for animals to lie on
Bu farw rhai or defaid ar l iddynt fwyta eu gwasarn a ddifwynwyd gan ddw^r cathod
Some of the sheep died after they ate their litter which had been contaminated by the urine of cats
gwasarn gwael poor litter, substandard litter

2 bottom, base; straw laid at bottom of a kiln where grain is to be dried
gwasarn odyn kiln straw

3 (lime kiln) base of straw
I lenwi'r odyn... gwely o wellt neu fel y'i gelwid,
gwasarn, yna plyg o gylm ar yn ail phlyg o gerrig rhyw ddeuddeg modfedd o drwch i'w thop

Llafar Gwlad 8 1985
To fill the oven... [there was] a bed of straw, or gwasarn as it was called, then a layer of culm alternating with a layer of stones twelve inches thick up to the top

Habacuc
2:7 Oni chyfyd yn ddisymwth y rhai a'th frathant, ac oni ddeffry y rhai a'th gystuddiant, a thi a fyddi yn wasarn iddynt?
Shall they not rise up suddenly that shall bite thee, and awake that shall vex thee, and thou shalt be for booties unto them?

ETYMOLOGY: From the stem of the verb gwasarnu (= to put down littrer); Breton has gouzer (= litter),
In Irish: easair (=litter)


:_______________________________.

gwasarnu (v)
1 litter = put down litter for animals
2 strew, scatter
3 trample on, trample underfoot
4 oppress

ETYMOLOGY: (gwa- = under) + (sarn = litter) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)
Breto gouzeria (= to litter)

Indo-European *ster, *str (= extend)

Cf English strew < Old English streowian; German streuan,
Latin struere


:_______________________________.

gwasawyr
(m)
1 (Penllyn) swelling, tumour
ETYMOLOGY: (gwa- = under) + (sawyr = smell)

:_______________________________.

gwas bach (masculine noun)
1 minor servant; dogsbody; drudge = servant with all the hard tasks, lowest servant
in a hierarchy, menial servant; Joe Soap, one who always ends up doing
the unpleasant tasks

2 something of lesser importance, something which is subservient to another
Gwas bach i'r diwydiant haearn a dur fu glo ar y cychwyn, yn ochrau
Merthyrtudful
Coal was the second to the iron and steel industry at first, by Merthyrtudful

3 (South-east Wales) latch on a gate
:_______________________________.

gwasband (m)
PLURAL gwasbandiau

1 waistband of trousers, skirt

Variants:
gwasband > gwasbant (south-east)
gwasband > gwasband, gwasbond, gwasbon

Plural:
gwasbonda

There is a clipped form of plural: gwasbandiau > 'sbandie, sbandia

ETYMOLOGY: (English waistband > Welsh wasband); (initial g added to wasband)
:_______________________________.

gwas caru
1 go-between, intermediary, love messenger

:_______________________________.

gwas cegin
1 scullion = kitchen servant

:_______________________________.

gwas cyflog
1 hireling = person who works for another only because he = she is paid to do so; hired servant; hired hand
Y pryd hynny yr oedd hawl gan y meistr i labyddio'i was cyflog
At the time the maser had a right to beat up his hired servant

Dw-i ddim ond gwas cўflog
I'm only doing my job

2 hireling = person or institution that is not independent, but that follows the instructions of its master
Nid oed Ty^r Arglwyddi ond gwas cўflog i'r Ceidwadwyr
The House of Lords was merely a servant of teh Conservative Party00

:_______________________________.

gwas dan was yw e
1 hes a servant under a servant
Said of sb who talks loudly about a matter as if his opinion is important although he has no influence at all in it; (from the seating arrangement at a table, where below a higher-status was seated a lower-status servant)

:_______________________________.

gwaseidd-dra (m)
1 servility

:_______________________________.

gwaseiddiwch (m)
1 servility

:_______________________________.

gwas ffarmwr (m)
PLURAL gweision ffermwyr
1 farmhand

:_______________________________.

gwas fferm (m) <gwaas FERM> [ˡgwɑːs ˡfɛrm]
PLURAL gweision fferm; or (if from various farms) gweision ffermydd
<GWEI-shon FERM / FER-midh> [ˡgwəɪʃon ˡfɛrm / ˡfɛrmɪ]
1 farmhand

:_______________________________.

gwasg, gweisg <GWASK, GWEISK> [gwask, gwəɪsk] (feminine noun)
1 press = machine for compressing or flattening
2 press = machine for printing from type
3 press = publishing company

4 press = newspapers and magazines
y wasg the press
yn l stori yn y wasg... according to a story in the press
y wasg Americanaidd
la premsa nord-americana
y wasg dabloid the tabloid press

5 press = newspaper reporters and photographers
cynhadledd i'r wasg press conference = (esp politicians, police) meeting with the press or other mass media to give information

6 gwasg gaws cheese press

7 crush, squeeze, press (of a crowd)
gwasg torf the crush of the crowd
gwasg cynulleidfa the crush of the audience

8 squeezer, press = apparatus for squeezing juice from fruit; press (for making cider, etc)
gwasg olew oil press
gwasg lemon lemon press

9 gwasg waist (wasg under theinfluenceofEnglish waist)
fel mwmi wedi ei lapio mewn rhwymyn o 'i wasg i'w gorn gwddw!
like a mummy wrapped up in a bandage from his waist to his neck

10 (Mining) (South Wales) bulge (in the roof from the pressure of the weight above it)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwasg < British *wask- < Celtic

Other British languages: Breton gwask (= oppression, compression)
Hibernina languages: Irish fisc (= squeeze, press)

Compare Castilian, Catalan, Occitan basca (= anguish) < *vasca
ZCP 25 1956 t58

:_______________________________.

gwasgar <GWA-skar> (m)
PLURAL gwasgarion <gwa-SKAR-yon>
1 dispersion
ar wasgar dispersed, scattered

:_______________________________.

gwasgar = gwasgaru (v)

:_______________________________.

gwasgaredig (adj)
1 scattered
2 (settlement) dispersed
Ardal wasgaredig oedd ardal Ceidio
Ceidio was an area of scattered homes
3 (plural noun) gwasgaredigion stragglers

:_______________________________.

gwasgariad (m)
1
scattering, dispersal, diaspora

:_______________________________.

gwasgarog (adj)
1 scattered
poblogaeth denau wasgarog
a thin scattered population
:_______________________________.

gwasgaru <gwa- ska -ri> (v)
1 scatter, sprinkle
gwasgarwch ychydig o flaed a siwgwr am ben y cwbl
sorinkle some flour and sugar over them all

2 (verb with an object)
scatter = disperse, put to flight

3 (verb with an object)
squander, waste, spend extravagantly (money),
mab y plas yn gwasgaru arian ei dad ar oferedd
the squires son wasting his fathers money on frivolous pleasures

4 (verb with an object) spread (dung)
gwasgaru tail (sgwaru tail) to spread dung / manure
gwasgaru dom (South Wales) to spread dung / manure

5
scatter (swaths, in hay-making)
gwasgaru gwair
strew hay, scatter hay for drying
gwasgaru ўstodau strew hay, scatter hay for drying

6 ar wasgar scattered, dispersed
Y Cymry ar wasgar Welsh people in dispersion, the Welsh diaspora

7 spread, bring (an influence)
Mae ein hysgolion a'n colegau, ar cyfryngau torfol, a thwristiaieth, a mewnfudwyr yn gwasgaru dylanwadau Seisnig dros yr holl wlad
Our schools and colleges, the mass media, tourism and incomers spread English influence all over the country

ETYMOLOGY: British *wo-skar

:_______________________________.

gwasgedd aer
1 pressure
gwasgedd aer air pressure

:_______________________________.

gwasgeddig (adj)
1 pressurised

:_______________________________.

gwasgedig (adj)
1
sultry (weather)
2 worried, anxious
Roedd golwg wasgedig ar y ddau The two of them looked worried

:_______________________________.

gwasgfa
<GWASK-va> [ˡgwaskva] feminine noun
PLURAL gwasgfydd
<gwask-VEIDH> [gwaskˡvƏɪ]
1 (North Wales) fit
y wasgfa the fit
cael gwasgfa have a fit

2 pang
gwasgfa angau death-pangs
gwasgfa esgor birth-pangs
gwasgfa cydwybod a pang of conscience, the pangs of conscience

3 oppression, affliction

4 pressure = squeeze, force which compels

5 hardship
yr oedd yn wasgfa ryfeddol arni
she was suffering tremendous hardship

6 (action) crush, squeeze


7 squeeze, crush = pressure of many people in a confined place

8 (heavy traffic) crush, squeeze
Yr oedd yn hwyr arnom yn cyrraedd gan gymaint gwasgfa'r ceir...
t51 Dyddiadur America gan Gareth Alban Davies 1967
We were late arriving because of the heavy traffic (since so much the squeezing of the cars)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwasg-, root of gwasgu = to squeeze, to press) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place or action)

:_______________________________.

gwasg gaws
1 cheese press
Wooden frame on a low bench with a large stone as a weight, or wooden box full of stones, or else made or iron

:_______________________________.

gwasgiad
(m)
PLURAL gwasgiadau
1 pressing

2 (hand) grasp, handshake
gwasgiad llipa ei law his weak handshake

3 squeeze

4 hug, squeeze
rhoi gwasgiad i give (sb) a hug / a squeeze

ETYMOLOGY: (gwasg- root of gwasgu = to press) + (suffix -iad)
NOTE: (South Wales) gwasgad

:_______________________________.

gwasgiant (m)
PLURAL gwasgiannau

1 (mechanical) stress
gwasgiannau a thyniannau stresses and strains

:_______________________________.

gwasg lemon <gwask-LE-mon> [ˡgwask ˡlɛmɔn] (f)
1 lemon-squeezer

:_______________________________.

gwasgnod (m)
PLURAL gwasgnodau
1 imprint = name of a publisher with date and place of publication,
usually at the foot of the title-page or at the back of the title page;
or similar information about a printer

Also: argraffnod

ETYMOLOGY: (gwasg = printing press) + (nod = mark)

:_______________________________.

gwasgod (m)
PLURAL gwasgodiau
1 shelter, shade

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwasgod < *gwosgod < *gwosgawd
(gwo- prefix = under) + (sgawd) < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton gwasked
From the same Celtic root: Irish foscadh (= shelter)
NOTE: In south-east Wales, in the form gwishgod

:_______________________________.

gwasgod, gwasgodau
<GWA-skod, gwa-SKOO-dai, -de> [ˡgwaskɔd, gwaˡskoˑdaɪ, gwasˡkoˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1 waistcoat
y wasgod the waistcoat
gwasgod wlanen flannel waistcoat

2 gwasgod gaeth strait-jacket = tight coat which a criminal or insane person is made to wear to prevent struggling or agression or escape

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English waistcoat (waist + coat)

:_______________________________.

gwasgodi (v)
1 shelter
ETYMOLOGY: (gwasgod = shelter) + (verbal suffix i)
NOTE: NOTE: In south-east Wales, in the form gwashgodi, gwishgoti

:_______________________________.

gwasgodlen (f)
PLURAL gwasgodlenni
1 awning

ETYMOLOGY: (gwasgod = shade) + soft mutation + (llen = curtain)

:_______________________________.

gwasgod lewys (f)
1 sleeved waistcoat

:_______________________________.

gwasgod wlanen (f)
1
(Ceredigion) woollen vest

:_______________________________.

gwasgu <GWA-ski> [ˡgwaskɪ] (verb)
1 to press = exert steady force; crush
gwasgu cyffes o (rywun) extract a confession from (sb)

2 press ones back against
Fe wasgodd Morgan yn dynn wrth y wal pan welodd y lori yn dod
Morgan pressed his back against the wall when he saw the lorry coming

3 (shoe) pinch, be too tight
mae'r esgid hon yn gwasgu this shoe's too tight
lle mae'r esgid yn gwasgu / lle mae'r esgid fach yn gwasgu where the trouble lies
pan fyddai'r esgid fach yn gwasgu when money is tight, when we have very little money, when we feel the pinch
Mae'r esgid fach yn gwasgu mewn man na wyddoch chi
(pennill telyn / verse for a harp) The little shoe pinches in a place you dont know (= you dont know what my distress might be)

4 pinch, hold (ones nose)
gwasgu ei thrwyn iddi lyncu'r moddion
pinch her nose to make her swallow the medicine

5 squash
(North) gwasgu ўn seitan squash flat
(South) gwasgu ўn shwps squash flat

6 wring (clothes)
gwasgur dw^r or dillad wring the clothes

7 squeeze = force together, compress
gwasgu i
squeeze into
Fe gawson nhw eu gwasgu ir stafell fechan They were squeezed into the small room

8 press down
Gwasgodd yn galed ar y sbardun a neidiodd y car ymlaen
He pressed down hard on the accelerator and the car shot forward

9 press = move by pressing

10 squeeze = apply pressure, crush, in order to extract juice from
gwagur orenau squeeze the oranges

11 squeeze = cram, push into
gwasgur dillad ir cs squeeze the clothes into the suitcase

12 squeeze = press out pus or matter or fluid from a pimple, spot, blister

13 gwasgu ar upset
Ma siŵr o fod rhywbeth yn gwasgu arni
t203 Gefynnau Cudd, gan John R Evans 1966
Something must be upsetting her

14 (South Wales) (face) get thinner
Ma fa wedi gwasgu yn 'i wneb (Mae e wedi gwasgu yn ei wyneb) His face has got thinner

15 1 extort (money) (from sb), squeeze (money) out of (sb)
Fydd hi ddim yn anodd gwasgu pres o'i groen e
It wont be difficult to squeeze some money out of him

16 gwasgedd pressure (gwasg- + -edd)
diwasgedd (weather) depression
(di-) + soft mutation + (gwasgedd)

17 drws sy'n gwasgu iddo'i hun
a door which folds in on itself, folds like a concertina

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Welsh
From the same British root: Breton gwasga (= to press)
From the same Common Celtic root: Irish fisg (= to press)





:_______________________________.

gwasgu ar eich gwynt

1 cause shortness of breath

1 bear down on, pressurise

:_______________________________.

gwasgu at ei gilydd

1 cuddle up to eacxh other

:_______________________________.

gwasgu brest (North-west Wales)

1 say nothing, keep quiet
lit: = press one's breast

:_______________________________.

gwasgu clust (North-west Wales)
Also: gwasgu clustiau

1 turn a deaf ear to

lit: = press one's ear, ears

:_______________________________.

gwasgu dwrn (North-west Wales)

1 clench one's fist

:_______________________________.

gwasgu gwellt
Southern Ceredigion

1 be idle

:_______________________________.

gwasgu i maes

1 squeeze out
gwasgu'r dŵr ms o'r 'sanau
squeeze the water out of the socks

:_______________________________.

gwasgu i'r gongl (North Wales)
1 corner, drive into a corner

:_______________________________.

gwasgu i'r gornel (South Wales)
1 corner, drive into a corner

:_______________________________.

gwasgu i'r llaid

1 ride roughshod over
gwasgu pobol onest i'r llaid, er mwyn chwyddo ei gyfrif banc
ride roughshod over honest people in order to inflate his bank account
(press into the mud)

:_______________________________.

gwasgu megin (North-west Wales)
1 say nothing, keep quiet
lit: = press one's bellows (= breast, chest)

:_______________________________.

gwasgu'r fg
1 make do with less, tighten one's belt

2 make a sly dig at sb, get one's own back a bit,
settle the score partially
:_______________________________.

gwas gwely
1 chamberlain

:_______________________________.

gwasgwr (m)
PLURAL gwasgwyr

1 person who presses, squeezes, etc
Nid peiriannydd mohono - gwasgwyr botymau yw e
Hes not an engineer - hes a button pusher

:_______________________________.

Gwasgwyn
1 Gasconia, region of Occitania

:_______________________________.

Gwasgwynes
1 Gascon woman

:_______________________________.

Gwasgwyniad
1 Gascon man

:_______________________________.

gwasgydd
<GWASG-idh> [
ˡgwasgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL gwasgyddion <gwasg-ƏDH-yon> [gwasg
ˡəjɔn]
1 squeezer
gwasgydd lemwn lemon squeezer

ETYMOLOGY: (gwasg-, root of gwasgu = to squeeze, to press) + (-ydd suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwasg y gwter

1 gutter press

:_______________________________.

gwashgoti (South-east Wales)
1 See: gwasgodi

:_______________________________.

gwas hir

1 occurs as an epithet in Middle Welsh
Gwas Hir

(tall servant)

:_______________________________.



gwasnaethu / gwasnaethu <gwas-NEI-thi> <gwa-sa-NEI-thi> [ˡgwasnƏɪθɪ] [ˡgwasanƏɪθɪ]
1
to serve; a form of gwasanaethu
Ўr emўn oedd hwn: Mewn bўwўd mae gwasnaethu Duw...
This was the hymn: In life there is serving God

:_______________________________.

gwasod <gwa-sod> [ˡgwasɔd] (m)

(South-west Wales)

1 ( = buwch cow = ), heat, desire for a bull;
buwch wasod, buchod gwasod cow in heat, cows in heat

ETYMOLOGY: gwasawd < *gwosawd (gwo- = sota) + (*sawd- = posar) < British *wo-staat- (Cf Catalan estar = to be)

:_______________________________.

:_______________________________.

gwastad <GWA-stad> [
ˡgwastad] (adjective)
1 flat, even

2
anwastad uneven (an- = negative prefix) + soft mutation + (gwastad = flat, even)
llawr pridd anwastad an uneven earthen floor

3 mor wastad thalcen ir as flat as a pancake (as flat as (the) forehead (of a ) hen)

4
chwalu yn wastad r llawr raze to the ground


:_______________________________.

gwastad GWA-stad> (m)
PLURAL gwastadoedd, gwastadau

1 level, flat = flat even surface

2 level place

3 plain

4 valley floor

5 gwastadau flats
gwastadau llaid mudflats

6 place names:
..1 Y Gwastad, Bowstrit (Ceredigion) (the flat ground)
..2 Gwastad y Borth (Ceredigion) (the flat ground of Y Borth)

7 the flat of ones back
ar eich gwastad (lying) flat on your back, (lying) on your back, (lying) face up
ar wastad eich cefn (lying) flat on your back, (lying) on your back, (lying) face up

Yr oedd yn gorwedd ar wastad ei gefn ar fwrdd y gegin

He was lying on his back on the kitchen table, he was lying face up on the kitchen table


1 yn wastad (adv) always, constantly
yn wastad ar l, fel gwas y gwcw always behind / slow to understand whats happening, like the cuckoos servant / dunnock or hedge sparrow

gwas ў gog (Prunella modularis) (the) servant (of) the cuckoo

The cuckoo uses the dunnocks nest to lay its eggs for the dunnocks to rear

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh GWSTAD < *GWASTD < British *GWASTT-OS

:_______________________________.

gwastadedd <gwa- STAA-dedh> (m)
PLURAL gwastadeddau, gwastadeddoedd <gwa-sta-DEE-dhe, -dhodh>
1 plain


:_______________________________.

Y Gwastadeddoedd Mawr
1 the Great Plains

:_______________________________.

gwastadfaes (m)
1
plain, downland

:_______________________________.

Gwastadros
1
SH8835 360m
1182 ft. Moorland near Llan-y-cil, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/328333 Afon Isa

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/202388 Gwastadros

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/202392 y gopa / the top

ETYMOLOGY: flat moor (gwastad = flat) + soft mutation + (rhos = moor, moorland)

:_______________________________.

gwastadrwydd (m)
1 flatness
:_______________________________.

gwastatwr <gwa-sta-TAA-ur> [gwaˡstatɑˑʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL gwastatwyr
<gwa-STAT-wir> [gwasˡtatwɪr]
1 leveller
Angau ў Gwastatwr Mawr Death the Great Leveller

:_______________________________.

gwastateuo <gwa-sta- TEI -o> (North Wales)
Spoken form: 'steuo
1 pacify, calm, bring into line

ETYMOLOGY: (gwastatu) + (-o)

:_______________________________.

gwastatir <gwa-STA-TIr> [gwaˡstatɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL gwastatwyr
<gwa-sta-TI-roidh -odh> [gwastaˡtrɔɪ -ɔ]
1 plain
gwastatir llifwaddod alluvial plain

:_______________________________.

gwastatu <gwa- sta -ti>
1 = gwastatu (to level)

:_______________________________.

gwastedin <gwa-STEE-din>
1 level ground, open country

ETYMOLOGY: (gwastad = plain) + (-in)

:_______________________________.

Gwastedin
<gwa-STEE-din>
1 topnim, medieval townland of Nantmel (Powys)

Gwastedyn Hill SN9866 south-east of Rhaeadr-gwy

The Welsh name is not indicated on maps (Bryn Gwastedin? Mynydd Gwastedin?)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/733350

ETYMOLOGY: (See previous entry)

:_______________________________.

gwastodi
<gwa-STOO-di>
(South-west Wales)
1 make even, level, smooth

Colloquial form: gwastoti

:_______________________________.

gwas traed
1 footman
:_______________________________.

gwastraff
<GWA-straf> gwastraf] masculine noun
PLURAL gwastraffion <gwa-STRAF-yon> [gwaˡstrafjɔn]
1 waste

2 gwastraff ar a waste of
Mae dyfrhur lawnt yn wastraff ar ddŵr gwerthfawr Watering the lawn is a waste of valuable water

3 waste = extravagance, frivilous spending
Yr oedd darparu fisoedd cyn dydd yr Arwisgiad, a sn am wastraff!...
There were preaparations months before the Investiture, and talk about waste!

ceisio dweud wrth bawb yn y pentref y fath wastraff oedd ar arian y bobol
trying to tell everyone in the village about the great waste of peoples money (such waste that was on teh money of the people)

4 waste = unproductive effort

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English
Cf Lowlandic (Germanic language of Scotland), which has gwastrife (= wastefulness, extravagance)
:_______________________________.

gwastraff amser
1 a waste of time

:_______________________________.

gwastraff ar sebon seboni pen asyn
1 (advice to speak one's mind in a matter, even to the point of causing grave offence)
Llanwrtyd (Wiliam)
a waste of soap, soping teh head of an ass

:_______________________________.

gwastrafflyd (adj) (North Wales)
1 wasteful
Colloquially: 'strafflyd

:_______________________________.

gwastraffu
<gwa-STRAA-fi> [gwaˡstrɑˑfɪ] (verb)
1 waste, squander, (USA: also: slather)


Bur ddau gwmni a gafodd eu preifateiddio'n gwastraffu miliynau o bunnau er moethusrwydd eu cyfarwyddwyr
The two companies which were privatised wasted millions of pounds on luxury for their directors


bara a chaws oedd y drefn; gwastraffu enllyn oedd bwyta bara a menyn a chaws
bread and cheese was the thing (order); it was a waste of food (wasting a complement) to eat bread and butter and cheese

2 waste = not put to good use, misuse
gwastraffu'ch talent waste your talent

:_______________________________.

gwastraffu amser
1 waste time

:_______________________________.

gwastraffu anadl
1 waste (one's) breath

:_______________________________.

gwastraffus (adj)
1 (person = person) wasteful, improvident
2 (proses = process) wasteful

:_______________________________.

gwastraffwr (m)
PL
URAL gwastraffwyr
1 waster
2spendthrift

:_______________________________.

gwastrawd <GWA-straud> gwastraʊd] masculine noun
PLURAL gwastrodion <gwa- strod -yon>
1 groom, stableman
Roedd y gwastrodion yn byw ger y neuadd The grooms lived near the hall

2 equerry = officer who looks after a princes or kings horses

ETYMOLOGY: possibly gws-strawd < gwas-strawd < (gwas = lad, servant) + (*ўstrawd = saddle, < Latin strtum = saddle)

:_______________________________.

gwastrodaeth
<gwa-STRO-daith, -deth> (f)
(North Wales)
1 discipline, mastery, authority
2 cadw gwastrodaeth ar dominate, keep in check, hold in check

Also gwastradaeth, gwastradedd, gwastrodedd;
and clipped forms 'strodeth), 'strodath

:_______________________________.

gwastrodedd <gwa- stro-dedh> (m)
(North Wales)
1 discipline, authority
2 office of a groom

:_______________________________.

gwastrodi <gwa-stro-di > (vi)
1 serve as a groom

2 discipline, master

3 be boss over, keep down, keep in ones place, maintain superiority over
Bu gynnau'r heddlun gwastrodi y gwrthryfelwr a phrotestwr y daethont ar eu traws
The guns of the police kept down the rebels and protesters they came across

:_______________________________.

gwastrodion <gwa-STROD-yon>
See gwastrawd


:_______________________________.

gwas twt
(South-west Wales)
1 factotum, odd-job man

:_______________________________.

gwaswlad (f)
PLURAL gwaswledydd
1 vassal state

:_______________________________.

gwas y baw
1 curlew (Diarhebion o dref Merthyrtudful 1894-97)

:_______________________________.


gwas y fwyell
1
(neologism) hatchet man, in a company a person who carries out a policy of getting rid of staff, cutting costs, etc
(the) servant (of) the axe

:_______________________________.

gwas y gannwyll
Ceredigion
1 daddy-long-legs, crane fly
(the) servant (of) the candle

:_______________________________.

gwas y gog (m)
PLURAL gweision y gog
(North Wales)
1 (Prunella modularis) hedge sparrow
servant (of) the cuckoo

Note: Standard name: llwyd y gwrych
grey / brown (bird) (of) the hedge

:_______________________________.

gwas y gwcw (m)
PLURAL gweision y gwcw

mor ffyddlon gwas y gwcw
as faithful as the hedge sparrow
yn wastad ar l, fel gwas y gwcw always behind / late, like the hedge sparrow

:_______________________________.

gwas y neidr (m)
PLURAL gweision y neidr
(North Wales)
1 (trychfil = insect) dragonfly
2 yellow bunting {penfelen}
Gwas y Neidr oedd yr enw cyntaf i mi glywed ar yr aderyn, a hynny am fod marciau ar lun nadroedd ar ei wyau. / t43 / Seiat Byd Natur 1971 / Golygydd: E Breeze Jones
Gwas y Neidr was the first name I heard for this bird, and the reason for this is that there are marks in teh shape of snakes on its eggs.

ETYMOLOGY: servant of the snake

:_______________________________.

gwas y seiri
1 goldfinch
Mae'n rhyfedd meddwl mai dyma'r tro cyntaf i'r cyfaill
weld Jac Nico... Dwn i ddim sawl enw sydd arno fo yng Nghymru -
Eurbinc, Soldiwr Bach y Werddon, Teiliwr Llundain, Peneuryn,
Y Nicol, Gwas y Seiri, a Pobliw...t125 / Seiat Byd Natur / 1971 / Golygydd: E Breeze Jones

ETYMOLOGY: servant of the carpenters

:_______________________________.

gwatar
North Wales
See:gwatwar

:_______________________________.

gwath <GWAATH> [gwɑːθ]
1 southern form of gwaeth (= worse)
Usually spelt (less correctly) gwth
See aa
See gwaath
See gwaeth
:_______________________________.

gwth
(South Wales)
1 southern form of gwaeth (= worse)
See aa
See gwaath
See gwaeth

:_______________________________.

gwatsiad<