Y Gwe-eiriadur An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

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Welsh-English Dictionary / Geiriadur Cymraeg a Saesneg:

Letter / Llythyren P

 

OTHER PAGES IN THIS DICTIONARY / TUDALENNAU ERAILL YN Y GEIRIADUR HWN:

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Y Gwe-eiriadur
An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

 

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:_______________________________.

P, p pii feminine noun
1
) sixteenth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
2
) twentieth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...
1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y

:_______________________________.

p
1
Intial Celtic p is lost in the modern Celtic languages; it corresponds to p in Latin languages and in Greek

..1/ adain (= wing)
British < Celtic *patan. The element at-
in Celtic and British becomes ad- in Welsh, and occurs also in aderyn / adar (= bird / birds), and as ed- in ehedeg (= to fly), edn (= bird);
cf Latin penna (= feather), peto (= go towards, demand), as in English
petition

..2/ eiddew (= ivy)
British < *edenn- < Celtic *pedenn- < Indo-European *ped- (= to tie, to bind)

..3/ eira (= snow)
British < Celtic *argy- < Indo-European *pargy-

..3/ er (preposition = during; for)
British < Celtic *er-;
Cf Latin per, Greek peri

..5/
ir (= fresh, green) < Celtic;
Irish r (= fresh, new), Scottish r (= new)
This corresponds to Latin prus (= pure, unstained)

..6/ wyr = grandson;
Cf Irish < ua (= grandson; originally descendent);
Latin puer (= child; son),
Greek pais, paids (= child)


Words derived from Common Celtic with an initial kw have initial p- in the British languages (Welsh, Cornish, Breton); this sometimes corresponds to an initial c- k in the Hibernian languages (Irish, Scottish, Manx)


Welsh

Irish

pedwar (= four)

ceathair (= four)

pen (= head)

ceann (= head)

peth (= thing; piece)

cuid (= piece)

pridd (= soil, earth)

cr (= soil, earth)

pryd (= appearance)

cruth (= appearance)

pryf (= animal, insect)

cruimh (= grub, maggot)

pump (= five)

cig (= five)

pwy (= who)

c (= who)

pwyll (= reason; sense)

ciall (= sense, meaning)



2 Welsh p (from Celtic kw) corresponds to some words in Latin with kw- qu
..a/ pedwar four, Latin quattor four
..b/ perth hedge, Latin quercus oak tree
..c/ pump five, Latin quinque five
..d/ pwy who?, Latin quis who?

The original
p has become b when not in an initial position

Words in intial p- also from an Indo-European root with kw- but without cognates in Latin or Irish

peri (= to shape, make; cause) IE kwer-

eb- in ebol (= foal), cyfeb (= pregnant with a foal), Epynt < eb-hynt (horse path, name of a mountain area in mid-Wales).

From British *ep- < Celtic *ekw-. Cf Latin ekw- in equus (= horse)

heb-
element with the meaning of speak in certain compound words
ateb to answer
dihareb proverb
ebr (eb, ebe) she says, he says
gohebu to correspond with, to write to
gwrtheb contradiction
hebu obsolete speak, say

From British *-sep < Celtic *sekw-. Cf Latin kw- in inquam (= I say)

pob-, root of pobi (= to cook).

From British *pop- < Celtic *kwekw- < IndoEuropean *pekw-. Cf Latin kokw- in coquere (= to cook)

3 In words derived from Common Celtic with intial kw an initial p in the British languages (Welsh, Cornish, Breton) sometimes corresponds to an intial c
k in Latin

..a/ pridd (= earth), Latin crta (= clay)

..b/ pob-, root of pobi (= to cook).

From British *pop- < Celtic *kwekw- < IndoEuropean *pekw-.

Cf Latin kokw- in coquere (= to cook)


:_______________________________.

p

Initial p repla
ces b in some words taken from English

These are words which are feminine in gender; the b has been taken to be the soft mutation of p, and so a radical form with initial p has developed

powlen < bowlen (= a bowl)

potel < botel
(= bottle)

ponc < bonc (= bonk, variant of bank in the West Midlands of England)

:_______________________________.

pab paab masculine noun
PLURAL pabau PAA-be
1
pope = the bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church

2 colloquial Catholic priest

3
North Wales capel Pab humorous name for a Roman Catholic church (chapel (of) (the) Pope, a Pope Chapel)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin papa < Greek pappas (= pope)

From the same British root: Cornish pab (= pope), Breton pab (= pope)

From the same Latin root: Manx paab (= pope)

:_______________________________.

pabell p-belh feminine noun
PLURAL pebyll p-bilh
1
tent
y babell the tent
maes pebyll campsite (field (of) tents)

2
tent, marquee, pavilion

3
pavilion / tent / marquee on an eisteddfod field
Y Babell Ln = the Literature Pavilion, place where lectures and talks on literary themes are given in the annual national Eisteddfod

4
tabernacle;
pabell y cyfarfod (Exodus 29:42),
the tabernacle of the congregation prepared by Moses for the people to meet God

..a/ Exodus 29:42 Yn boethoffrwm gwastadol trwy eich oesoedd, wrth ddrws pabell y cyfarfod, gerbron yr ARGLWYDD; lle y cyfarfyddaf chwi, i lefaru wrthyt yno.
Exodus 29:42 This shall be a continual burnt offering throughout your generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD: where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee.

..b/ Salmau 27:3 Pe gwersyllai llu im herbyn, nid ofna fy nghalon: pe cyfodai cad im herbyn, yn hyn mi a fyddaf hyderus.
(27:4) Un peth a ddeisyfais i gan yr ARGLWYDD, hynny a geisiaf; sef caffael trigo yn nhŷ yr ARGLWYDD holl ddyddiau fy mywyd, i edrych ar brydferthwch yr ARGLWYDD, ac i ymofyn yn ei deml.
(27:5) Canys yn y dydd blin ym cuddia o fewn ei babell: yn nirgelfa ei babell ym cuddia; ar graig ym cyfyd i.
Psalms 27:3 Though an host should encamp against me, my heart shall not fear: though war should rise against me, in this will I be confident.
(27:4) One thing have I desired of the LORD, that will I seek after; that I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the LORD, and to inquire in his temple.
(27:5) For in the time of trouble he shall hide me in his pavilion: in the secret of his tabernacle shall he hide me; he shall set me up upon a rock.

5 (SJ1573) Y Babell (= "the tabernacle") a village in the county of Fflint 4km south-west of Treffynnon; from the name of the Nonconformist chapel;

6 Y Babell name of certain nonconformist chapels (= "the tabernacle")

Street names
..a/ Babell Road, Gorsedd (SJ1576), Treffynnon (county of Y Fflint)
(this would be Ffordd y Babell in Welsh)

..b/ Babell Road, Pen-sarn (county of Caerfyrddin)
(this would be Heol y Babell in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY:
..1/ pebyll (= tent) < British < Latin *papili-o < ppili- (= butterfly, tent)

..2/ The original form was pebyll (singular, = a tent),
with the plural pebyllau pe--lhe (= tents) (addition of the suffix au).

..3/ The sequence of vowels e - y is more characteristic of plural nouns in Welsh with singular forms with a e
bachgen
(= a boy), bechgyn (= boys)

Other loans from Latin showing this same assimilation:
castell (= castle), cestyll (= castles)
maneg (= glove), menyg (= gloves)

..4/ The singular form pabell emerged, and pebyll became the plural form

pabell (= tent), pebyll (= tents)

..5/ A similar case of assimilation to the e-y pattern is the loanword macrell (= mackerel), a word of French origin taken from English or directly from French. Besides the plural with the addition of the suffix -od (common in animal / bird / fish names) (macrellod ma-kre-lhod) there is the plural form mecryll

:_______________________________.

pabi, pabis P bi, P bis (masculine noun)
1
poppy

2 types of poppy:
..1/ pabi coch (Papaver rhoeas) corn poppy, field poppy (red poppy)
..2/ pabi corniog dulas (Roemeria hybrida) violet horned poppy (violet horned poppy)
..3/ pabi corniog melyn (Glaucum flavum) round prickly-headed poppy (yellow horned poppy)
..4/ pabi Cymrig (Meconopsis cambrica) Welsh poppy (pale-yellow in colour)
..5/ pabi gwyn (white poppy) (Papaver somniferum)
pabi opiwm (Papaver somniferum) opium poppy

Also: cysglys or cwsglys (Papaver somniferum) opium poppy (sleep plant) (cwsg- root of cysgu = to sleep) + soft mutation + (llys = plant)
:_______________________________.

Pabydd p-bidh masculine noun
PLURAL Pabyddion pa-bədh-yon
1
Roman Catholic; Papist
gwrth-Babydd (adjective) anti-Catholic

ETYMOLOGY: (pab = pope) + (-ydd = suffix)

:_______________________________.

pa bynnag paa BƏ-nag (determiner)
1
whatever

2 pa gyn lleied bynnag however little

3
pa mor amyneddgar bynnag y bo hi no matter how patient she is (what so patient so-ever that she-may-be she)

:_______________________________.

pac popeth pak po -peth masculine noun
PLURAL paciau popeth pak-ye po -peth
1
holdall = a capacious bag

ETYMOLOGY: bag (for) everything (pac = pack, bag) + (popeth = everything)




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paentiad peint -yad
PLURAL paentiadau peint- y -de
1
painting = picture expressed through paint
Gwerthodd un oi baentiadau He sold one of his paintings

ETYMOLOGY: (paent-, stem of the verb paentio = to paint) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

paentiwr peint -yur masculine noun
PLURAL paentwyr peint -wir
1
person who covers a surface in paint as a protection or as decoration; house-painter

paentiwr a phapurwr decorator, painter and decorator = person who paints and wallpapers rooms

2
sometimes instead of arlunydd = painter (artist, person who uses paint to create pictures)

ETYMOLOGY: (paent-i-, stem of paentio = to paint) + (-wr 'man')

NOTE: Sometimes spelt peintiwr

:_______________________________.

pa fath paa vaath
1
Pa fath o bobl? What sort of people?
Also: Pa fath bobl? What sort of people?

2 Pa fath o sip sy arno? How is he, What shape is he in (what kind of shape is on him)

ETYMOLOGY: what type / sort / kind (pa = which / what) + soft mutation + (math = type / sort / kind)

:_______________________________.

pff paf feminine noun
PLURAL paffiau paf -ye
1 thump, blow

ETYMOLOGY: (onomatopaeic)

:_______________________________.

paffio paf -yo verb
1 (verb with or without an object) to box
gornest baffio boxing match
ring baffio boxing ring
maneg baffio boxing glove

ETYMOLOGY: (pff = a blow) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

pagan pa -gan masculine noun
PLURAL paganiaid pa-gan-yed
1
pagan = person who worshipped the Roman or Greek gods

2
pagan = one who is not a member of a religious congregation, non-chapel-goer, non-church-goer

Hen bagan yw e
Hes a pagan (hes an old pagan) i.e. he doesn't belong to any church or chapel, he doesnt believe in God, he doesnt practise the Christian faith

ETYMOLOGY: pagan < English pagan < Church Latin pgnus (= civilian, a person who is not a soldier of Christ) < (country dweller, villager) < pgus (= village)

:_______________________________.

paganaidd
pa- g -nedh adjective
1
pagan = of worshippers of the Roman or Greek gods

2 pagan
Rydym heddiw yn byw mewn gwlad baganaidd
Today we are living in a pagan country

ETYMOLOGY: (pagan = pagan) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

P
agellus centrodontus
1 merfog mr (m), merfogiaid mr sea bream

:_______________________________.

pair
pair masculine noun
PLURAL peiriau
peir -ye
1 cauldron, cooking pot

2 dod o'r pair come out of the hat, come up, be mentioned, emerge

Fe ofynnwyd iddo argymell enw awdur Cymraeg o hanesydd ar gyfer llunio'r gyfrol or fath. Daeth enw John Davies o'r pair yn ddiffwdan iawn
He was asked to suggest the name of a Welsh historian and author to write such a book. The name John Davies quickly came out of the hat

3 peiran small cauldron; cirque, semicircular basin in a mountain
(peir- < pair = cauldron) + (an- = diminutive suffix)

4 y pair yn gweiddi parddu ar y pentan (the cauldron shouting soot at the fireplace) the pot calling the kettle black - said of someone who criticises another for something which the critic is equally guilty of

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *paryo- < Celtic kwaryo-

The two other British languages:
Cornish: per (= pot, crock), Breton per (= cauldron);

The Hibernian languages:
Irish coire (= cauldron), Scottish coire (= cauldron)

:_______________________________.

pais
pais feminine noun
PLURAL peisiau
peis -ye
1 womans petticoat

2 (obsolete) surcoat

Daniel 3:27 A'r tywysogion, dugiaid, a phendefigion, a chynghoriaid y brenin, a ymgasglasant ynghyd, ac a welsant y gwŷr hyn, y rhai ni finiasai y tn ar eu cyrff, ac ni ddeifiasai flewyn o'u pen, ni newidiasai eu peisiau chwaith, ac nid aethai sawr y tn arnynt.
Daniel 3:27 And the princes, governors, and captains, and the king's counsellors, being gathered together, saw these men, upon whose bodies the fire had no power, nor was an hair of their head singed, neither were their coats changed, nor the smell of fire had passed on them.

3 (eighteenth century, early nineteenth century) child's smock
W i'n 'i gofio fe'n gwisgo paish I remember him in a smock, I remember him as a very small child

4 pais fach Scottish kilt (or at least in the expression,

gŵyr y peisha bch (= gŵyr y peisiau bach),
South-east Wales name for the Highland Regiment from Scotland, used in intervening in industrial pursuits
in the nineteenth century)

5 arfbais (a) coat of arms = a heraldic device representing a family, corporation or state; (b) coat of arms = surtout, surcoat with armorial bearings to identify the wearer; a garment of silk or linen placed over a suit of armour to keep it clean, or prevent it getting hot in the sun
(arf = arm ) + soft mutation + (pais = overgarment)
Also pais arfau

6 codi pais cyn piso first things first (lift a petticoat before pissing)

codi pais ar l piso ("lift a petticoat after pissing") do something too late; try to undo what has been done
thl hi ddim codi pais ar l piso theres no point closing the stable door after the horse has bolted

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh pais < peis < *pekhs < British *peks-
< Latin pexa < tunica pexa (= woollen tunic ) < pexus (= woolly, still retaining the nap)

NOTE: (South Wales) paish (a final s after an i usually becomes sh)

:_______________________________.

pais arfau
pais ar -ve feminine noun
PLURAL peisiau arfau
peis -ye ar -ve
1 coat of arms = surcoat decorated with family emblems
2 Arfau Caer-dydd name of a public house in Caer-dydd (the Cardiff Arms)
Parc yr Arfau the Arms Park in Caer-dydd., Cardiff Arms Park - a rugby ground by the pub

ETYMOLOGY: (pais = surcoat) + (arfau = arms)

:_______________________________.

pais ddur
pais dhiir feminine noun
PLURAL peisiau arfau
peis -ye diir
1 coat of mail = medieval battledress made of linked metal rings
or overlapping metal plates
gya

ETYMOLOGY: (pais = surcoat) + soft mutation + (dur = steel)

:_______________________________.

..1 pl paal feminine noun
PLURAL palau pa -le
1
spade
y bl the spade
2
dyn y bl the gravedigger ((the) man (of) the spade, the spademan)
3
galw pl yn bl call a spade a spade, speak plainly

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh pl < British
from the same British root: Breton pal; Cornish pal
cf palt < English < Old French palette (= little shovel, pale, spade) < Late Latin pala (= spade)

:_______________________________.

..2 pl paal masculine noun
PLURAL palau PAA -le
1
pale = wooden post or strip of wood used in building a fence
district of Maldwyn, in the county of Powys: pls = paling

2
obsolete stockade, pale = area inside a fence made of pales
History Y Pl The Pale = the English district of Ireland, around Baile tha Cliath

3
obsolete enclosed area - a field, a park

4 Y Palau (the stakes) (colloquially Y Pale p-le)
Name of a mansion in Llandderfel, Gwynedd

ETYMOLOGY: English pale, now {peil}, was in the 1400s {paal} < 1300+ Old French pal < Latin palus (= stick)

:_______________________________.

palalwyfen pa-la-lui-ven feminine noun
PLURAL palalwyf pa-la-luif
1
lime tree, linden
y balalwyfen the lime tree

There is a street in Pont-y-clun (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) called Palalwyf Avenue, which would be Coedlan y Palalwyf in Welsh (Postcode: CF72 9EG)

ETYMOLOGY: (1) (palalwyf = lime trees) + (-en suffix added to nouns to make a singular form out of a collective noun or plural noun)
(2) palalwyf < (pala, element of unknown origin) + soft mutation + (llwyf = elm trees)

:_______________________________.

palasty pa- la -sti masculine noun
PLURAL palastai pa- la -stai
1
mansion; a form used erroniously instead of plasty in literature in the 1800s

Yn agos ir Capel Bach ar fron y cae rhwng yr heol or Cymmer ar heol i Donyrefail saif hen balasdy a elwir y Capel Mawr (Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl. Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 28)
Near the Capel Bach (The little chapel) on the brow of the field beteen the road from Y Cymer to Tonyrefail stands the old mansion called Y Capel-mawr (the big chapel)

ETYMOLOGY: (1) Mansion is plas (from English plaas place = place, but also mansion; modern-day English pleis place = position, residence).

(2) There is also a compound form (plas = mansion) + soft mutation + (ty = house) > plasdy > plasty (= mansion) (the soft mutation is lost through the influence of the s)

(3) Why palasty? It was wrongly thought that

ETYMogically plasty should be plasty < palasty, that is, with palas = palace as the first element.
The contraction of (p + vowel + l) sometimes occurs in colloquial Welsh; examples are
(a) paladur > pladur (= scythe)
(b) pa le (= what place?) > ple / ble

:_______________________________.

palfalu pal-VAA-li verb
1
grope (in the dark)
2
palfalu'ch ffordd grope one's way, feel one's way
Palfalodd ei ffordd i mewn i'r ystafell He groped his way into the room

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently pal|fa|lu < pal|fa|fa|lu < pal|fa|fae|lu (palf = palm of hand) + soft mutation + (gafaelu = get hold of)

:_______________________________.

plindrom pa-lin-drom masculine noun
PLURAL palindromau pa-lin-dro-me
1
palindrome - a word or expression which has the same sequence of letters read left to right and right to left (such as in English Madam I'm Adam). Examples in Welsh are lladd dafad ddall (slaughtering a blind sheep) and gwr drwg (bad man; (the) devil)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English < Greek palindromos running back again

:_______________________________.

pall palh (masculine noun)
1
stopping

pall ar stopping + on
Does dim pall arno He never stops (theres no stopping on him)

pall trydan power cut, blackout, power failure (USA: also power outage, power loss)

ETYMOLOGY: from the verb pallu (= fail, cease, refuse)

:_______________________________.

pallu PA-lhi v
1 fail

Rydw in sicr fod yno bedair carreg pan oeddwn yn fachgen, ond hwyrach fod y cof sy'n pallu
Im sure htere were four stones there when I was a boy, but maybe my memmory isnt what it was (it is the memory which is failing)

dw in mynd yn hen rwan, a'r cof yn pallu Im getting old now, and my memorys failing

2 weaken

Yr oedd ei nerth yn dechrau pallu
His strength was beginning to fail

Gyda'r dydd, pallodd ei nerth bach, a bu farw'r baban yn dawel
At daybreak, his strength (his little strength) failed him, and the baby died quietly

3 (sight) fail, become dim

Apocrypha: Ecclesiasticus 18:18 Un ffl a ddannod yn daeogaidd; a rhodd y cenfigennus a wna i'r llygaid ballu.
Apocrypha: Ecclesiasticus 18:18 A fool will upbraid churlishly, and a gift of the envious consumeth the eyes.

Dirywio'n raddol a wnaeth iechyd Thomas Morgan yn ystod blynyddoedd
olaf ei oes. Pallodd ei olygon, ac er iddo fod dan lawdriniaeth
yn Abertawe yn 1921, collodd ei olwg yn gyfan gwbl yn niwedd ei oes.
Casglwr 53 Awst 1994
Thomas Morgans health gradually went downhill during the last years of his life. His sight failed, and although he underwent surgery in Abertawe / Swansea in 1921, he lost his sight completely at the end of his life.

4 be lacking

palled let not there be lacking

Lefiticus 2:13
Dy holl fwyd-offrwm hefyd a hellti di halen; ac na phalled halen cyfamod dy DDUW o fod ar dy fwyd-offrwm: offryma halen ar bob offrwm i ti.
Leviticus
2:13 And every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat offering: with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt.

5 (South Wales) refuse (to do something); fail (to do something)
pallu dod refuse to come
pallu dod refuse to come

Mae e'n pallu gwneud dim byd rw i'n ei ddweud wrtho
He refuses to do anything I tell him

Mae gŵr y tŷ yn pallu hen gownt
The tavern keeper wont give credit

Maer Llywodraeth yn pallu rhoi digon o arian i gynnal tai cyngor
The government fails to give enough money to maintain council houses

5 (enthusiasm, interest, etc) wane

6 cease
Oherwydd bod disgyblaeth a hyfforddiant mewn llu mawr o eglwysi wedi pallu, mae anwybodaeth am gynnwys yn rhemp
Because discipline and instruction in a great number of churches has ceased, ignorance of the contents of the Bible is widespread

Maer cloc uwchben Neuadd y Dref yn pallu gweithio o bryd iw gilydd
The clock above the Town Hall stops working every now and then

y cariad hwnnw nad ywn pallu
that love which never dies

ETYMOLOGY: unknown origin

:_______________________________.

pallan PA-lhan v
1 (Powys - county of Trefaldwyn) fall out

Ma nhw wedi pallan i gilydd
They fallen out with each other

ETYMOLOGY: probably from cwympo allan (= fall out)

:_______________________________.

palmant pal -mant masculine noun
PLURAL palmentydd pal-men-tidh
1
sidewalk (Englandic: pavement, footway)
Roedd y dorf yn llanwr palmentydd The crowd filled the pavements
Dim palmant am 600 (chwe chan) llath
No footway for 600 (six hundred) yds (yards)

2 (obsolete) (place names) paved way

ETYMOLOGY: palmant < palment < *pawment < English pavment (pavement)


(delwedd 0034)
Dim palmant am chwe chan llath - Pwllheli, Llun Awst 18 2003.

The walkers on the left are members of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (The Welsh Language Society) taking part in Taith y Cymunedau (the march for the communities) August 16-August 30 2003 to draw attention to the problems facing local communities with the continuing influx of rich incomers (mainly from England).

These are the inability of local people to buy houses in their own communities at affordable prices, the lack of rented accommodation at prices which local people can pay, and the needless development of housing estates to attract rich outsiders. The net effect is the loss of young people from the area, and an ageing population, compounded by the immigration, much of which is made up of English retirees.

:_______________________________.

palmantu palmant verb
1
(verb amb objecte) to pave

ETYMOLOGY: (palmant = pavement) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

palmwyddog
palm- wy -dhog adjective
1
palmate = (leaf) with leaflets radiating from a central point
2
palmate (foot of aquatic birds) with three toes connected by a thin web of skin
madfall balmwyddog (Triturus helveticus) palmate lizard

ETYMOLOGY: palmwydd (= palm trees) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

pam PAM (adverb)
1
why?
2
Rw i eto heb wybod pam I still dont know why (I am still without knowing why)

:_______________________________.

pa mor pa mor
1
In the construction equivalent to English how + adjective (how big is it, how new are they, etc).
Welsh has pa mor + adjective. There is soft mutation of P C T G B D M; but not LL RH.
pa mor llydan...? how wide..? (how so wide is it?)
Pa mor fawr yw e? What size is it? (how so big is it?)

2 waeth pa mor... < ni waeth pa mor... no matter how...
Waeth pa mor gyflym y rhedwch, ddaliwch chi mohono No matter how fast you run, you wont catch him


3
pa mor amyneddgar bynnag y bo hi no matter how patient she is (what so patient so.ever that she may-be)

ETYMOLOGY: (pa = how) + (mor = so)

:_______________________________.

pan PAN (conjunction)
1
when

2 Sometimes with the subjunctive, especially in the case of more or less fixed expressions:
Pan fwyf hen a pharchus When I am old and respectable

3 pan yw when + is
ffidlan pan yw Rhufain yn llosgi (fiddle when Rome is burning)

4 pan fo eisiau (pan fo ishe) when there is need of, when.... is needed, when.... is required

Mae tipyn o ddiogi arno pan fo ishe gweithion galed
Hes a bit lazy (theres a bit of laziness on him) when hard work is needed
:_______________________________.

..2 pan pan adjective
1
fulled

2 (person) hanner pan not all there not fully sane or sensible (half-fulled / half completed)
Mae en hanner pan Hes not all there, theres something missing on top, hes missing a screw

3 masculine noun fulling = process of preparing cloth by beating and shrinking; in the expression
melin ban fulling mill (mill (for) fulling) (melin = mill) + soft mutation + (pan = fulling process)

ETYMOLOGY: pan (= fulled) past participle form < pann-, stem of the verb pannu (= full cloth)
:_______________________________.

..3 pan- pan prefix
1
pan- = all

Pan-Geltaidd Pan-Celtic
Yr W^yl Ban-Geltaidd the Pan-Celtic Festival

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English pan- < Greek

:_______________________________.

panad PA nad (masculine South, or feminine noun - North)
1
clipped form of cwpanaid (= cup (in the sense of cupful)) (qv)

:_______________________________.

panasen, panas pa NA sen, PA nas (feminine noun)
1
parsnip
y banasen the parsnip

ETYMOLOGY: English < French?

Modern French has panais (= parsnip)

:_______________________________.

pandy pan -di masculine noun
PLURAL pandai pan-dai
1
fulling mill, fullers place (Scotland: waulk-mill)

2 gwneud melin a phandy (o rywbeth) go on and on (about something), make a great song and dance (about something) (make a mill and a fulling house)

3
Examples in place names:

(a) Tonypandy (pasture of the fulling mill), village in the Rhondda valley (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf);

(b) Y Pandy see the entry below

ETYMOLOGY: (pan, stem of pannu = to full cloth) + soft mutation + (ty = house, building)

:_______________________________.

Y Pandy ə pan -di masculine noun

1
Y Pandy SO3322 locality in the county of Mynwy, 9km north of Y Fenni

2 Y Pandy SH6203 locality in the county of Gwynedd, 5km north-east of Tywyn

3 Y Pandy SH8729 locality in the county of Gwynedd, south-east part of Llanuwchllyn

4 Y Pandy SH9004 locality in the district of Maldwyn, county of Powys, 1km north of Llan-bryn-mair

5 Y Pandy SJ1936 locality in the county of Dinbych, 7km south of Llangollen

6 Y Pandy SJ1542 Nant y Pandy, stream on north side of Glyndyfrdwy which flows into the river Dyfrdwy

7 Y Pandy SO0407 place in the town of Merthyrtudful
http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=186690
Cloc y Pandy The Pandy Clock

ETYMOLOGY: the fulling mill; see the entry pandy above

:_______________________________.

paned, paneidiau PA ned, pa NEID ye (masculine or feminine noun)
1
clipped form of cwpanaid (= cup (in the sense of cupful)).

Especially North Wales.

2 often means cwpanaid o de / paned o de (= cup of tea)

y baned = the cupful; the cup of tea

See cwpanaid
:_______________________________.

pannu PA ni (verb)
1
full (cloth)

The stem of the verb (pann-) is used as a past participle pan (= fulled)
hanner pan (= half fulled; of a person, half baked, not all there, stupid)

pandy fulling mill

melin ban mill (mill (for) fulling) (melin = mill) + soft mutation + (pan = fulling process; < pann-, stem of the verb pannu)

ETYMOLOGY: Probably (pant = hollow) + (-u verb termination)
pandy fulling mill

Less likely is a derivation from Latin pannus (= cloth).
In the case of this word, cf English pawn (= security) < 1400 Old French pan (= security) < Latin pannus (= cloth). From the practice of leaving cloth as security. This sense development also accounts for German der Pfand (= security)

:_______________________________.

pansan pan-san masculine noun
PLURAL pansis pan -sis
1
(North Wales) pansy (disrespectful expression for a homosexual or effeminate man)

ETYMOLOGY: pansan (North-west) < pansen
pans- = first syllable of pansi < English pansy (= flower; homosexual)
+ -en (suffix for forming feminine nouns)

:_______________________________.

pant PANT masculine noun
PLURAL pantiau PANT_yai, -e

1 hollow (Scotland: how)
Sechareia 1:8 Gwelais noswaith; ac wele wr yn marchogaeth ar farch coch, ac yr oedd yn sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd y rhai oedd yn y pant; ac o'i l ef feirch cochion, brithion, a gwynion

Zechariah 1:8 I saw by night, and behold a man riding upon a red horse, and he stood among the myrtle trees that [were] in the bottom; and behind him [were there] red horses, speckled, and white.

2 valley

3 sag, hollow, dip, depression (in the middle of a bed)

4 lacuna = depression in a pitted surface

5 Cwm Sychbant

6 i'r pant y rhed y dŵr Money begets money; money makes money ((it-is) to the hollow / valley that runs the water)

7 sychbant SƏKH-bant (m)
dry hollow, dry valley

(sych- < sych = dry) + soft mutation + (-pant = hollow, valley)

Pant Sychbant SN9809 A valley north-west of Cefncoedycymer

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=188496

Cefn Sychbant SN9810 A hill above Pant Sychbant

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=189396


:_______________________________.

Y Pant ə PANT masculine noun

.
1 (SJ2722) locality in North Shropshire (Anglaterra)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2722 map

.
2 (SJ2946) locality in Wrecsam

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2946 map

.
3 (SJ3555) locality in Wrecsam

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ3555 map

.

4 Y Pant SJ2052, east of Llandegla (Dinbych)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2052 map

.

5 locality SO0608 in Merthyrtudful

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0608 map

:_______________________________.

Pantdefaid pant- d -ved
1 See: Pantydefaid

:_______________________________.

Y Pant-glas
pant- glaas
green hollow
1 (SH4747) localitat in the county of Gwynedd, on the road between Caernarfon and Cricieth,
15 km south of Caernarfon and 9km north of Cricieth

2 (SO4804) locality (farm) in Tryleg (county of Mynwy)

3 (SJ1813) locality (farm) 3km east of Meifod (county of Powys)

4 (SJ2732) (farm) in the county of Shropshire (England) between Selatyn and Croesowallt (Oswestry)

5 In names of streets:
..a/ Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd) (Pant Glas)
..b/ Felindre, Llandysul (county of Ceredigion) (Pant Glas)
..c/ Gorseinon (county of Abertawe) (Pant Glas)
..d/ Llanelwy (SJ0374) (county of Dinbych) (Pant Glas)
..e/ Pen-coed (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Pant Glas)
..f/ Rhuthun (county of Dinbych) (Pant Glas)
..g/ Sychdyn (SJ2466) (county of Y Fflint) (Pant Glas)
..h/ Tredegar (county of Blaenau Gwent) (Pant Glas)

Also
Pant Glas Court, Bassaleg (county of Casnewydd) (This would be Cwrt Pant-glas in Welsh)
Pant Glas Parc, Llandeilo (county of Caerfyrddin) (This would be Parc Pant-glas in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: y pant glas = the green hollow (y definite article) + (pant = hollow) + (glas = green)

:_______________________________.

pantle pant -le masculine noun
PLURAL pantloedd pant- l -odh
1
depression, hollow

Nid oedd y ffordd at y tŷ ond pantle dwfn, budr a tholciog
The road to the house was nothing more than a deep dirty bumpy hollow


Safai yr hen Wenallt mewn pantle, rhwng y fan y saif y Wenallt presenol a'r llwyn o goed a elwir Nyrs Fachddeiliog, yn ymyl hen orsaf ffordd haiarn y Bala.
Adgofion Andronicus (= John William Jones, Y Bala, 1842-1895) Cyhoeddwyd: Caernarfon 1894 t24
The old Wenallt (farmhouse) stood in a hollow, between the place where the present Wenallt stands and a wood which was called Fachddeiliog Nursery, next to the old railway station in Y Bala

ETYMOLOGY: (pant = hollow) + soft mutation + (lle = place)


Y Pant Mawr pant- MAUR

1 Place by Ystradfellte SN8914

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1044622

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + (pant = hollow) + (mawr = big)

(As a habitative name: Pant-mawr. See below)

:_______________________________.

Y Pant-mawr
pant- MAUR
1 (SN8482) dispersed village i Powys, west of Llangurig, on the road to Aberystwyth
(spelt incorrectly Pant Mawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN8482 map

Behind the settlement of Pant-mawr is Allt Pant-mawr (= allt y pant mawr) hill (at) Pant-mawr
(spelt correctly as Allt Pant-mawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1107278



(delwedd 7467)

2 House in Aberffrwd, Cwm Rheidol, Ceredigion SN6878
(spelt incorrectly Pantmawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=250626

3 suburb of Caer-dydd ST1481
(spelt incorrectly Pantmawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST1481

4 farm by Trawsfynydd, Gwynedd SH7136
(spelt correctly Pant-mawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH7136

5 farm by Meifod (Powys) SJ1611
(spelt correctly Pant-mawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/657400

6 farm near Llanfyllin (Powys)
(spelt incorrectly Pant Mawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1218

7 Farm by Llansawel (county of Caerfyrddin) SN6239
(spelt incorrectly Pantmawr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1529092


ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + (pant = hollow, valley) + (mawr = big)

(As a non-habitative name: Pant Mawr. See above)

:_______________________________.

Pant y Brad
pant ə braad
1 Pant y Brad
(ST0287) place in Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

See the chapter Pant y Brad on page 69 of Hanes Tonyrefail (The History of Tonyrefail) / Thomas Morgan (Caer-dydd 1899) at kimkat1288e (accessible via Google)


Pant y Brad. Mae y lle hwn, bychan o ran rhif y preswylwyr, tua milltir o bentref poblogaidd Tonyrefail, ar y brif heol, yng nghyfeiriad Llantrisant. Enw mwyaf hynafol y lle yw y Pistyll Du, enw wedi ei roddi iddo oherwydd lliw y dwfr syn llifo oddiar fawn cyfagos

(Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl. Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 69. Orgraff ddiwygiedig sydd gennym / revised spelling)

Pant y Brad (Treason Hollow / Betrayal Hollow) This place, which is small in the number of inhabitants, is about a mile from the populous village of Tonyrefail, on the main road in the direction of Llantrisant. The oldest name in the place is Y Pistyll Du (the black waterfall), a name given to it because of the colour of the water which flows off nearby peat.

2
Pant-y-brad Name of a house here
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST0287 Pant-y-brad

3 Pant-y-brad street name in Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
(the elements of settlement names are written together as a single word)
(officially misspelt as Pantybrad)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hollow (of) the treachery or treason; treachery hollow, treason hollow
(pant = hollow) + (y = definite article) + (brad = treachery, treason)


:_______________________________.

Pant-y-cra <pant-ə-KRAA> [pantəˡkrɑː]
1
SH7517 street name, Tabor, Dolgellau (Pant y Cra)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1179670 Capel Tabor

ETYMOLOGY: pant y cra < pant y craf ((the) hollow (of) the ramsons / broad-leaved wild garlic)
(pant = hollow) + (y definite article) + (craf = ramsons / broad-leaved wild garlic, Allium ursinum)

(delwedd 7009)

NOTE: cra <KRAA> [krɑː] < craf <KRAAV> [krɑːv]
In monosyllables the final <V> [v] is lost in the north.
Cf gof / go (= smith), haf / ha (= summer),

:_______________________________.

Pantydefaid <pant ə DEE-vaid, -ed> [pant ə deˑˡvaɪd, -ɛd]
1 farm by Pren-gwyn, Llandysul (county of Ceredigion) (spelt Pant-y-defaid on OS maps)

Capel Pantydefaid SN4244 Unitarian Chapel built c1802
This place name also appears without the definite article: Pantdefaid

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/612645 Capel Pantydefaid

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

2 Locality in the Republic of South Africa: Aerial map at

http://www.fallingrain.com/world/SF/3/Pantydefaid.html
Latitude -29.0167, Longitude 26.1000

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hollow (of) the sheep / sheep hollow

(pant = hollow) + (y = definite article) + (defaid sheep, plural of dafad = a sheep).

As the name of a hollow it would be written with the elements separated Pant y Defaid; as the name of a settlement (house, village, etc) such place names are written as a single word: Pantydefaid
:_______________________________.

Pant-y-dŵr pant o duur
1 (SN9874) locality in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys), near Rhaeadr-gwy

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/409347 Pant-y-dŵr (rhan or pentre / part of the village)

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

2 street name, Nant-y-bwch, Tredegar (county of Blaenau Gwent)

3 street name, Y Crwys (county of Abertawe)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hollow (of) the water / the stream (pant = hollow) + (y = definite article) + (dŵr = water, stream)

:_______________________________.

Pant-y-fid pant ə viid
1
In Aberbargod (county of Caerffili) there is a road called Pant-y-fid Road (In Welsh, this would be Heol Pant-y-fid)

ETYMOLOGY: pant y fid = (the) hollow (of) the quickset hedge
(pant = hollow) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = hedge)

:_______________________________.

Pantygaseg
pant-ə-ga-seg
1 place name
..a/
(ST2599) locality in the county of Torfaen, 3km west of the town of Pont-y-pŵl

..b/ Name of a short-lived copper mine (1872-1879) near Amlwch, Ynys Mn

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hollow (of) the mare

(pant = hollow) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (caseg = mare)

:_______________________________.

Pant-y-gog
pant-ə-goog

1 Village south of Pontcymer, Cwm Garw, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

Here there is a street called Cuckoo Street, which in Welsh would be Heol y Gog (the) street (of) the cuckoo,cuckoo street

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hollow (of) the cuckoo, cuckoo hollow
(pant = hollow) + (ў definite article) + soft mutation + (cog = cuckoo)

:_______________________________.

panwaun PAN-wain feminine noun
PLURAL panweunydd pan-WEI-nidh

1 (obsolete) (place names) cotton grass moor, peat moss

2 field enclosed from such land, damp boggy field, wet meadow
gwair panwaun (south-east Wales) moorland hay

3 place names:

..a/ Panwaun Penygoetgae, near Blaen-cwm (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=180404

................................................................

..b/ Banwen SN8509 (Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/229119

................................................................

..c/ Banwen Pyrddin SN8609 (Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/880549 Banwen Pyrddin

ETYMOLOGY: Probably (pn) + soft mutation + (gwaun = moorland, moorland field)

Pn is cotton grass, bog cotton usually plur gweunydd ((the) feathers (of) the moorland fields), and has been noted in Cwmdulais (county of Abertawe).

Less likely is pn (= ermine, fur; down, fluff), from Old French panne / pane, either directly into Welsh from French, or via Middle Englsh.

Modern French has panne (= panne, plush) < Latin pinna (= wing, feather). English panne (from the Old French word) is a lightweight velvet fabric.

Pn (= cotton grass) could however be pn (= ermine etc) which has been applied to the name of the plant.

Another possible origin of panwaun is (pant = hollow) + soft mutation + (gwaun = moorland, moorland field) > *pantwaun > panwaun

:_______________________________.

papur, papurau PA pir, pa PI re (masculine noun)
1
paper
sht o bapur a sheet of paper

2 papur tywod sandpaper

3 fel pn mewn papur (like a pin in paper)
..1/ (house) as neat as a pin, very neat and tidy

Yr oedd yr hen Miss Jones yn cadw ei thŷ fel pin mewn papur.
Old Mrs. Jones kept her house spick and span

..2/ (person's appearance) smart, all spruced up, all dolled up, dressed up to the nines
Fe welodd Sin Shencyn yn troi o'r tŷ fel pin mewn papur
He saw Sin Shencyn leave the house all dolled up

:_______________________________.

papur bro pa-pur broo masculine noun
PLURAL papurau bro pa-p-re broo

1 local newspaper (usually produced monthly by volunteers) serving a defined community and written entirely in Welsh (paper (of the) district)
Y Tincer - un o bapurau bro Ceredigion
Y Tincer (the tinker) - one of the district newspapers of Ceredigion

:_______________________________.

papur gwag pa pir GWAAG (masculine noun)
1
blank sheet

:_______________________________.

papur gwyn pa pir GWIN (masculine noun)
1
White Paper

:_______________________________.

papur llinellog pa pir lhi NE lhog (*)
1
ruled paper

:_______________________________.

papur newydd, papurau newydd pa pir NEU idh, pa PI re NEU idh (masculine noun)
1
newspaper, paper (= newspaper)

:_______________________________.

papuro pa- p -ro verb
verb with an object
1
paper = cover with papur

2 wallpaper = put wallpaper on a wall
Rhaid inni bapuro'r llofft fach rywbryd We must wallpaper the small bedroom sometime

3 masculine noun paperhanging
peintio a phapuro painting and decorating
defnyddiau peintio a phapuro painting and decorating materials

ETYMOLOGY: (papur = paper) + (-o, suffix for forming verbs)

NOTE: colloquial form: puro (loss of the first syllable)

:_______________________________.

papurwr pa- p -rur masculine noun
PLURAL papurwyr pa- pir -wir
1
(occupation) paperhanger = person who puts up wallpaper
peintiwr a phapurwr painter and decorator

ETYMOLOGY: (papur-, stem of the verb papuro = to paper, to put up wallpaper) + (-wr = 'man')

:_______________________________.

papur sugno pa pir SIG no (masculine noun)
1
blotting paper

:_______________________________.

papur sgwariau pa pir SKWAR ye
1
squared paper

:_______________________________.

papuryn, papurau pa PI rin (masculine noun)
paper

:_______________________________.

pr, parau PAAR, PA re (masculine noun)
1
pair
2
gwisgo hosan o bob pr wear odd socks (wear (a) sock of each pair)

:_______________________________.

para / parhu PA ra / par HAI (verb)
1
continue

2 last

3 nwyddau para non-perishable goods, durable goods
goods (of) lasting (nwyddau = goods) + (para = to last, lasting)

4 a phara ynddo (piece of clothing) hard-wearing (and lasting in it)
NOTE: third person singular, present-future: (literary) pery, colloquial pariff, parith will last

:_______________________________.

parablu pa RA bli (verb)
1
talk (incessantly)

:_______________________________.

parablus pa RA blis (adj)
1
talkative

:_______________________________.

parablwr, parablwyr pa RA blur, pa RABL wir (masculine noun)
1
talker

:_______________________________.

paradwys pa- ra -duis feminine noun
1
Paradwys Paradise, the place where Adam and Eve lived before they were expelled after committing the first sin; the Garden of Eden

2 Paradwys Paradise = Heaven
iaith Paradwys the language of Paradise = Welsh

3 paradise = limbo, the place where Christians who have lived a good life will accompony Jesus before the Resurrection of Jesus

Sant Luc 23:43 Ar Iesu a ddywedodd wrtho, Yn wir meddaf i ti, Heddiw y byddi gyda mi ym mharadwys
Saint Luke 23:43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise

4 paradise = splendid place

Roedd Capel Brynhyfryd yn fy Mharadwys pan oeddwn yn eneth fach
Brynhyfryd Chapel was my paradise when I was a little girl
y baradwys honno that paradise, that place which was a paradise

5 pleasant and attractive area with abundant vegetation
Ar l myned trwy y baradwys hon deuthum i peithdir llwm, diderfyn
After going through this paradise we came to an endless barren prairie

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Paradwys < *Paraddwys < British < Latin paradsus < Greek paradeisos< Persian. Cf the word pairidaza (= enclosed place) in Avesta (oldest recorded language of the Iranian branch of Indo-European), made up of (pair- = around) + (daza = wall)

From British: Cornish paradhis (= paradise), Breton paradoz (= paradise)

From the same Latin root in the Hibernian languages: Irish parthas (= paradise) , Manx Pargeys (= paradise)

:_______________________________.

paraffanalia pa ra fa NAL ya (plural noun)
1
paraphenalia

:_______________________________.

praffin PA ra fin (masculine noun)
1
parafin

:_______________________________.

pragraff, paragraffau PA ra graf, pa ra GRA fe (masculine noun)
1
paragraph

:_______________________________.

parati pa ra TOI (verb)
1
prepare

:_______________________________.

parc, parciau PARK, PARK ye (masculine noun)
1
park

2 ceidwad y parc keid wad ə PARK
park keeper

3 parc thema theme park

4 Parc is used in (very unfortunate) pseudo-Welsh forms given to street names and estates instead of English park.

For example, Pant Glas Parc, Llandeilo (county of Caerfyrddin).
However, this is an English word order. In Welsh parc comes at the beginning of the phrase.
It would be Parc-y-pant-glas / Parc-pant-glas in Welsh; and properly in English Pant-glas Park, with a k)

Other examples:

..a/ Crymlyn Parc, in Y Sgiwen (should be Parc-crymlyn / Parc Crymlyn)

..b/ Graigwen Parc in Y Graig-wen (ST0690), Pont-y-pridd (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (should be Parc-y-graig-wen / Parc-graig-wen / Parc y Graig-wen / Parc Graig-wen)

..c/ Glan y Don Parc, Amlwch (county of Ynys Mn) (should be Parc-glan-y-don / Parc Glan-don)

..d/ Llanfaes Parc, Biwmaris (county of Ynys Mn) (should be Parc-llan-faes / Parc Llan-faes)

..d/ Moel Parc in Y Fflint (county of Y Fflint) (should be Parc-y-moel / Parc y Moel)

5 Parc yr Arfau the Arms Park in Caer-dydd., Cardiff Arms Park - a rugby ground

parc cefn gwald country park a countryside area close to a built-up area to give town-dwellers and city-dwellers an easily accessible rural environment

:_______________________________.

parca, parcas PAR ka, PAR kas (masculine noun)
1
parka

:_______________________________.

Parc Buddug park b -dhig masculine noun
1
public park in Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: translation of the English name Victoria Park

:_______________________________.

Parcbuddug park b -dhig feminine noun
1
district in the city of Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: See the previous entry
NOTE: strictly speaking, district names are written as a single word hence Parcbuddug

:_______________________________.

parc busnes, parciau busnes park BI snes, park ye BI snes (masculine noun)
1
business park

:_______________________________.

Parcbychan park- -khan
1
street name, Glynebwy (county of Blaenau Gwent)

ETYMOLOGY: little field (parc = field) + (bychan = little)

:_______________________________.

parc ceir, parciau ceir park KEIR, park ye KEIR (masculine noun)
1
car park

:_______________________________.

parcdir park-dir masculine noun
PLURAL parcdiroedd park-d-rodh
1
parkland (grassland with trees here and there)

ETYMOLOGY: literal translation of the English word parkland (parc = field) + soft mutation + (tir = land)

:_______________________________.

parcffordd park-fordh feminine noun
PLURAL parcffyrdd park -firdh
1
parkway, parkland avenue; wide road with trees planted alongside
y barcffordd the parkway

ETYMOLOGY: literal translation of the English word parkway (parc = field) + (ffordd = road, way)

:_______________________________.

parch PARKH (masculine noun)
1
respect = acceptance, obedience
parch at y gyfraith
respect for the law

2 respect, reverence; an attitude of admiration or esteem
o barch at out of respect for
ennyn parch command respect
gyda phob parch i chi
with all due respect

3 parch at... respect for
Does ganddo ddim parch at neb He has no respect for anybody
o barch at out of respect for

:_______________________________.

parch. = parchedig par KHE dig (abbreviation)
1
Written short form for Parchedig; Y Parch Jon Hywel = the Reverend Jon Hywel

:_______________________________.

parchedig par KHE dig (adjective)
1
respected

:_______________________________.

parcio PARK yo (verb)
1
to park (a car, etc)
2
cloc parcio parking meter (clock (of) parking)

:_______________________________.

Parc-moel-lus
park-moil- liis
1 street name in Penmaen-mawr (county of Conwy) (Parc Moel Lus)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) field (at) Moel Lus) Moel Lus is apparently (Ive investigated the history of the name) (the) hill (of) the whinberries (moel = bare rounded hill) + soft mutation + (llus = whinberries)

:_______________________________.

Parcydelyn
pak-ə- d -lin
1 street name in Caerfyrddin (spelt Parcydelyn - i.e. correctly)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) field (of) the harp, harp-shaped field, triangular field (parc = field) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (telyn = harp)

:_______________________________.

Parc y Faenol
park ə vei -nol
1 locality in the county of Gwynedd
English name: Vaynol Park

ETYMOLOGY: (the) park (of) Y Faenol, i.e.the park beloging to the mansion called Y Faenol
(parc = field) + (Y Faenol name of a mansion)

Y Faenol is (y definite article) + soft mutation + (maenol, a northern form of maenor = house of the district chief)

:_______________________________.

Parcyfelin
park-ə-VEE-lin
1 locality in the county of Caerffili

ETYMOLOGY: (the) field (of) the mill (parc = field) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (melin = mill)

:_______________________________.

parddu PAR dhi (masculine noun)
1 soot
y pair yn gweiddi parddu ar y pentan (the cauldron shouting soot to the fireplace) the pot calling the kettle black - said of someone who criticises another for something which the critic is equally guilty of

:_______________________________.

pardwn? PAR dun (phrase)
1
pardon?

:_______________________________.

pared, parwydydd PAA-red, pa-RUID-idh (feminine noun)
1 partition wall
y bared the wall

Y gwahanfur rhwng y gegin a'r siamber yw pared... Mur o bolion a gwiail wedi ei blastero morter blew, a'i olchi
dwfr calch. 'Bared wedi ei wyngalchu,' y galwai Paul y rhagrithiwr Ananias
t241 Seren Gomer 19 1898
A pared is the separating wall between the kitchen and the main room. A wall of ples and

2 wall inside a house

3
party wall

4 divide, dividing line
Pared tenau iawn sydd rhwng casau iaith a chasau'r bobl sydd yn ei siarad (Cymro 19 11 1997)
Theres a very fine line between hating a language and hating the people who speak it

dwl bared "as daft as a wall", plain daft
(dwl = daft) + soft mutation + (pared = wall)

yn benwan bared hopping mad


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh pared < paraed, a variant of parwyd < British
< Latin part-em < parit-em

The form with -wy- is used in the plural form: parwyd-

gweithio i bared

:_______________________________.

parhu par HAI (verb)
1
continue

:_______________________________.

parhus par HAIS (adjective)
1
continuing

dinas barhaus a continuing city
Hebreaid 13.14 Canys nid oes i ni yma ddinas barhaus, eithr un i ddyfod yr ym ni yn ei disgwyl.
Hebrews 13:14 For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come.

:_______________________________.

Paraid pa-RII-aid. -ed
1
Y Paraid The Parris, the Parri family, the Parrys; plural of the surname Parri. According to Welsh spelling rules, an original double r (rr) becomes single (r) when initial in the penult

:_______________________________.

parlament parl la--ment masculine noun
PLURAL parlamentau par-la-men-te
1
(obsolete) parliament

ETYMOLOGY: < French parlement (= parliament; discussion) (possibly a direct borrowing; if not, then via English)

< (parler = to talk)

< Medieval Latin parabolre

< (parabola = speech) < (parabola = comparison) < Greek (parable = analogy) < (paraballein = throw next to); (para = near, next to) + (ballein = to throw)

NOTE: A variant is parlament (qv)

:_______________________________.

parlment parl -ment masculine noun
1
(obsolete) parliament; variant of parlament

Occurs in a place name Coed y Parlment (Parliament Wood) in Caer-dydd, noted by John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)

(COED-Y-PARLMENT (parliament wood.) On the Pant-bach brook in the parish of Llanedern, on the northern municipal boundary of Cardiff)

:_______________________________.

parlwr, parlyrau PAR lur, par LƏ re (masculine noun)
1
parlour
2
parlwr angladdau funeral parlour

:_______________________________.

Y Parlwr Du ə PAR-lur DII (masculine noun)
1
A sandy point in the county of Y Fflint. It is the northernmost extent of the Welsh landmass (Ynys Mn, the island of Anglesey, extends further north than Y Parlwr Du).

For 113 years (1883-1996), a colliery operated here, of which no trace remains today
Glofa'r Parlwr Du
The Point of Ayr Colliery

Goleudyr Parlwr Du
Name of an old lighthouse in use for for 68 years (1776-1844) (Point of Ayr Lighthouse).



(delwedd 7441)

ETYMOLOGY: y parlwr du, the black parlour

(y = definite article) + (parlwr = parlour) + (du = black)


:_______________________________.

parlwr tylino par-lur tə-l-no masculine noun
PLURAL parlyrau tylino
par--ne tə-l-no

1 massage parlour; usually in fact such a place is a brothel
Plediodd yn euog i gyhuddiad o reoli puteiniaid mewn parlyrau tylino yn y ddinas
She pleaded guilty to a charge of controlling prostitutes in massage parlours in the city


ETYMOLOGY: a calque on English massage parlour (parlwr = parlour) + (tylino = to knead (dough); to massage)

:_______________________________.

parlyrau par--re
1
parlours; plural of parlwr

:_______________________________.

parlysu par LƏ si (verb)
1 paralyse, petrify, immobilise through fear
bod wedich parlysu gan ofn be paralysed with fear, be petrified, be frozen with fear,

sefyll fel un wedi delwi freeze with fear (stand like someone after petrifying / after becoming petrified, someone who has petrified)

:_______________________________.

parod PA rod (adjective)
1
ready

2 bod yn barod ir seilam be a mental case, be certifiable, be a lunatic, be a candidate for the lunatic asylum (be ready for the asylum)

3 ateb parod reply made in a flash

4 Dyma fin barod bellach Im ready now (you-see-here me ready now)

5 arian parod (ready money)
talu ag arian parod pay cash

6 ffisig parod patent medicine

:_______________________________.

parodd PAA rodh (verb)
1
he / she / it caused
Preterite of peri (= to cause)
:_______________________________.

parot, parotiaid PA rot, pa ROT yed (masculine noun)
1
parrot

:_______________________________.

parsel, parseli / parselau PAR sel, par SE li / par SE le (masculine noun)
1
parcel, package

2 a parcel of land

:_______________________________.

Y Parselcanol par-sel-ka-nol
1
SN 6381 locality in Ceredigion, south-west Wales
2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: the middle parcel (of land) (y = the) + (parsel = parcel) + (canol = middle)

:_______________________________.

parth, parthau PARTH, PAR the (masculine noun)
1
part
yn y parthau hyn in this part of the world, in this area

2
region
y Deheubarth
the South

3 (South-east) hearth
iaith y parth the home language, the language spoken by the family
Y Gymraeg oedd iaith y parth gyda ni We spoke Welsh in our house

:_______________________________.

parthenw parth-e nu masculine noun
PLURAL parthenwau parth-en we
1
domain name a name which locates an organisation on the internet e.g. (www.estelnet.com)

Gallem hefyd brynu parthenwau megis .com neu .co.uk ar eich rhan a chyfeirio'r URL i'ch safle. (Quoted from GweFus website) We can also buy domain names such as .com or .co.uk in your behalf and direct the URL to your site

ETYMOLOGY: (parth = region, domain) + (enw = name)

:_______________________________.

parthlen parth len masculine noun
PLURAL parthlenni parth- le -ni
1
map (nineteenth-century neologism not used in present-day Welsh; the modern word is map)

ETYMOLOGY: (parth = region) + soft mutation + (llen = sheet of paper)

:_______________________________.

parti, parton PAR ti, par TI on (masculine noun)
1
party

:_______________________________.

parton par TI on (plural noun)
1
plural of parti

:_______________________________.

parwydwydd pa RUI duidh (plural noun)
1
plural of pared

:_______________________________.

pasa pa -sa verb
1
Meirionnydd, district in the county of Gwynedd aphetic form of pwrpasa = to intend

Dwi'n pasa rhoi'r gore iddi leni achos mae'n ormod o waith
I intend to give it up this year because it's too much work

NOTE: also pasu, < pwrpasu, a form equivalent to pwrpasa

:_______________________________.

Y Pasg PASK (masculine noun)
1
Easter
2 ysgol Basg Easter school, Easter conference

:_______________________________.

pasg- pask verb
1 stem of the verb pesgi = to fatten (first person present-future = pasgaf)

:_______________________________.

Y Pasg Bychan pask -khan masculine noun

1 Low Sunday = Sunday after Easter Sunday

2 Low Week = the week after Easter Week
Llun y Pasg Bychan Hock Monday = Monday after Easter Monday

ETYMOLOGY: the little Easter
(y = the) + (Pasg = Easter) + (Bychan = little )

:_______________________________.

pasgedig pa- sk -dig (adjective)
1 (Bible) fattened
y llo pasgedig = the fattened calf

Eseia 25:6 Ac Arglwydd y lluoedd a wna ir holl bobloedd yn y mynydd hwn wledd o besgedigion, gwledd o loyw-win; o basgedigion breision, a gloyw-win puredig
Isaiah 25:6 And in this mountain shall the lord of hosts make unto all people a feast of fat things, a feast of wine on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wine on the lees well refined

2 (person) fat, well-fed
dynion pasgedig, boliog fat big-bellied men

3 (m) pasgedig plural pasgedigion fatling, animal fattened for slaughter

ETYMOLOGY: (pasg- stem of the verb pesgi - first person present-future = pasgaf) + (-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)

:_______________________________.

pasio PAS yo (verb)
1
pass
2
pasio arian ffug pass forged money

:_______________________________.

pasport, pasportiau PA sport, pa SPORT ye (masculine noun)
1
passport

:_______________________________.

past past masculine noun
PLURAL pastau pa -ste
1
paste = soft plastic mass

2 past dannedd toothpaste

3 past blawd paste = glue made of flour and water

4 paste = glass used in making imitation jewels

5 paste = food product in the form of a paste for spreading on bread;
past samwn salmon paste

ETYMOLOGY: English paste < Old French paste (= paste)
< Late Latin pasta
< Greek pasta (= barley porridge ), neuter plural of pastos (= sprinkled, salted)
< passein (= sprinkle).

In modern French pte < paste

NOTE: In North Wales, as in other monosyllables with st, it has a long vowel pst

- past caws
past KAUS (masculine noun)
cheese paste

- past cig past KIIG (masculine noun)
meat paste

- past dannedd past DA nedh (masculine noun)
toothpaste

- past pys daear past piis DEI ar (masculine noun)
peanut butter

- past pysgod past PƏ skod (masculine noun)
fish paste

:_______________________________.

pastai, pasteiod PA ste, pa STEI od (feminine noun)
1
tart
y bastai the tart

2 in Arfon, a slighting term for a person

(Geiriaidur Prifysgol Cymru) hen basta diog a lazy bugger

3 (south-east) pasti a beating, a thrashing

4 (south-east) pasti trouble, difficulty, problem

cael pasti i wneud rhywbeth have a bit of a problem to do something

5 (south-east) a feast held on the opening of a public house, and held every year afterwards

6 (south-east) a wedding-feast held to raise money for a young couple

Apparently called a pie in English. Mentioned by John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911) notes for Spring 1826: John Westmacott, of Fairwater, deposed to certain suspicious circumstances observed by him when he "went to a Pie" at the house of Anne Evans at Ely, where he saw the two shepherds who are accused of sheepstealing, "drinking together with a China Man and other persons."

ETYMOLOGY: pastai < pastei < Middle English pastey < Old French past < paste Late Latin pasta (= dough, paste) < Greek pstē (= barley porridge), ultimately from pasts (= sprinkled), past participle of the verb pssein (= to sprinkle).

Modern French le pt (= finely minced meat, fish or vegetables); pat de foie (= liver pt), pat en crote (= meat pie); and la pte (= pastry; dough; batter; pasta)

paste
< Old French paste (= paste)
< Late Latin pasta
< Greek pasta (= barley porridge ), neuter plural of pastos (= sprinkled, salted)
< passein (= sprinkle).

NOTE: colloquially paste, north-west as pasta, south-east as pasti
:_______________________________.

pastai afalau pa ste a VA le (feminine noun)
1
apple tart

:_______________________________.

pastai datw pa ste DA tu (feminine noun)
1
potato pie

:_______________________________.

pastai fwyar pa ste VUI ar (feminine noun)
1
blackberry tart

:_______________________________.

pastai Gernyw pa-ste ger-niu feminine noun
PLURAL pasteiod Cernyw
1
Cornish pasty

:_______________________________.

pastai gig pa ste GIIIG (feminine noun)
1
meat pie

:_______________________________.

pastai gig llo pa ste giig LHOO (feminine noun)
1
veal pie

:_______________________________.

pastai stec a lwlod pa ste STEEK a LU lod (feminine noun)
1 steak and kidney pie

:_______________________________.

pastwn, pastynau PA stun, pa STƏ ne (masculine noun)
1
stick

:_______________________________.

pasu pa -si verb
1
Meirionnydd, district in the county of Gwynedd aphetic form of pwrpasu = to intend
NOTE: also pasa < pwrpasa, a form equivalent to pwrpasu, with different verbal suffix

:_______________________________.

Patagonia pa-ta-go -nia feminine noun
1
Patagonia
ym Mhatagonia in Patagonia
Gwladfa Patagonia (qv) the Welsh settlement in Patagonia (founded in 1865)

Normally: Y Wladfa

Cymreg Patagonia
(qv) the Welsh of Patagonia - the variant of the language spoken by the descendents of the Welsh immigrants who arrived in 1865

ETYMOLOGY: Castlian Patagonia < (Patagn) + (-ia)
territory of the people with immense feet
(pata = foot + g + -n = augmentive suffix) + (-ia = suffix denoting territory)
From exaggerated stories of the large size of the natives of the area

:_______________________________.

patent PA tent (masculine noun)
1
patent

y Swyddfa Batent the Patent Office

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/503992

:_______________________________.

pathew, pathewod PA theu, pa THEU od (masculine noun)
1
dormouse
cysgu fel pathew sleep like a log (sleep like a dormouse)

:_______________________________.

patio, patios PAT yo, PAT yos (masculine noun)
1
patio

:_______________________________.

patrolio pa. trol -yo verb
1
to patrol

ETYMOLOGY: (patrol- < English to patrol) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)
(English to patrol < French patrouiller < patouiller = to flounder in the mud < patte = paw)

:_______________________________.

patroliwr pa. trol -yur masculine noun
PLURAL patrolwyr pa-trol-wir
1
patrolman = man who patrols

ETYMOLOGY: (patrol- = stem of the verb patrolio = to patrol) + (-i-wr suffix for indicating a device or an agent; literally = man)

:_______________________________.

patrwm, patrymau PA trum, pa TRƏ me (masculine noun)
1
pattern

:_______________________________.

patsh
pach
1
(North-west Wales) yn batsh at full speed
Also: yn bwcs, yn bwtsh

:_______________________________.

pau, peuoedd PAI, PEI odh (feminine noun)
1
(obsolete) country - in the national anthem - fy mhur hoff bau = my dearly loved country
y bau the country

:_______________________________.

paun, peunod PAIN, PEI nod (masculine noun)
1
peacock

:_______________________________.

pawb paub pronoun
1
everybody, everyone, every person

Pawb nl fan hyn am dri!
Everybody (must be) back here at three o' clock!

Roedd pawb yn siarad ar draws ei gilydd
Everybody was talking at once (across his fellow)

er mwyn lles pawb for everybody's benefit, for the sake of everybody

Daw ei dro i bawb Every dog has his day (will-come his turn to everyone)

2
pawb o...
all (+ referent)

Roedd pawb o blant y pentref yn gwybod hynny
All the village children knew that

3
bawb (vocative, with soft mutation) everybody, all of you

Helo, bawb Hello, everybody

4
Imperatives; commands addressed to everybody

Pawb drosto'i hun every man for himself! (in a calamity - don't think of other people, try to save yourself)

Pawb ar y dec All hands on deck

Pawb iw le!
Everybody be seated!

5
fel y gwyr pawb as everybody knows

6
Rhydd i bawb ei farn Everyone may voice his opinion freely (it is) free to everyone his opinion

7
pawb oll every single person

8
o bawb of all people (indicating surprise, referring to an individual who has done something and but who previously would have been considered the least likely to do such a thing)

Yr oedd fod ysgol yn gallu gwneud Saeson o fechgyn y Graig (Craig-cefn-parc) o bawb, a hynny mewn lleied o amser, i mi yn wyrthiol
The fact that a school could make English speakers out of the lads from Y Graig of all people (Craig-cefn-parc), in so short a time, was miraculous to me

9
South Wales Dir caton pawb! may God save us all! God preserve us! < Duw an catwo ni bawb (may God save us all)

10
Papur Pawb ((the) paper (of) everybody, everybodys paper)
title of a 'papur bro' (community newspaper in Welsh) in the village of Tal-y-bont in the county of Ceredigion

11
the pronoun corresponding to pawb is either ef = he, or hwy = they
pawb y gwyddom amdano everybody we know (everybody we know about him)
pawb y gwyddom amdanynt everybody we know (everybody we know about them)

12
the possessive determiner corresponding to pawb is either ei, 'i = his or eu, 'u = their

pawb drosto'i hun every man for himself!

Gobeithio bod pawb yn g'neud 'u gore
I hope everybody does their best !

13
dalla o bawb na fynn weld none so blind as those who will not see ((the) blindest of everybody (is) the-one-who-not wants seeing / who insists on not seeing)

14
Sin plesio pawb a man who tries to please everybody (John (of) pleasing everybody)

15 (North Wales) Nid yw pawb yn gwirioni yr un fath More colloquially - Tydi pawb ddim yn gwirioni run fath
It takes all sorts to make a world; one man's meat is another man's poison (not everybody dotes (on things) in the same way)

16
dweud wrth bawb a phobun am (rywbeth) to tell all and sundry about

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh pawb < British pp-

From the same British root: Breton pep (= each, every) < peup

The Welsh word pob (= each, every) is a reduced form of pawb

:_______________________________.

pawen, pawennau PAU en, pau E ne (feminine noun)
1
paw
y bawen the paw

:_______________________________.

Pawl paul masculine noun
1
man's name = Paul

2 Paul = first Christian missionary, born a Jew and originally named Saul; a persecutor of Christians before his conversion after a vision on the way to Damascus, circa the year 35, when he changed his name to Paul. Died a martyr either in circa 64 or circa 67. In the Welsh Bible of 1620 the name is 'Paul'. Known as Apostol y Cenhedloedd (the Apostle of the Gentiles)

3
Gwyl Bawl (25 January) Conversion of Saint Paul
festival (of) Paul
(gwyl = festival) + soft mutation + (Pawl = Paul)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Pawl < British Paul- < Latin Paulus < paulus (= small). The name Saul is Hebrew 'asked for'

:_______________________________.

pe PE (conjunction)
1
if

:_______________________________.

pe baech chi pe BAI khi (verb)
1
if you were

:_______________________________.

pe baech chi ddim pe BAI khi DHIM (verb)
1
if you weren't

:_______________________________.

pe bae fe pe BAI (verb)
1
if he were/was

:_______________________________.

pe bae fo pe BAI vo (verb)
1
if he were/was (North Wales)

:_______________________________.

pe bae hi pe BAI hi (verb)
1
if she were/was (North Wales)

:_______________________________.

pe baen nhw pe BAI nu (verb)
1
if they were

:_______________________________.

pe baen nhw ddim pe BAI nu DHIM (verb)
1
if they weren't

:_______________________________.

pe baen ni pe BAI ni (verb)
1
if we weren't

:_______________________________.

pe baen ni ddim pe BAI ni DHIM (verb)
1
if we weren't

:_______________________________.

pe baet ti pe BAI ti (verb)
1
if you were

:_______________________________.

pe baet ti ddim pe BAI ti DHIM (verb)
1
if you weren't

:_______________________________.

pe bai fe ddim pe BAI ve DHIM (verb)
1
if he weren't/wasn't

:_______________________________.

pe bai fo ddim pe BAI vo DHIM (verb)
1
if he weren't/wasn't (North Wales)

:_______________________________.

pe bai hi ddim pe BAI hi DHIM (verb)
1
if she weren't

:_______________________________.

pe basach chi pe BA sa khi (verb)
1
if you weren't

:_______________________________.

pe basach chi ddim pe BA sa khi DHIM (verb)
1
if you weren't

:_______________________________.

pe basa fo pe BA sa vo (verb)
1
if he were/was

:_______________________________.

pe basa fo ddim pe BA sa vo DHIM (verb)
1
if he weren't/wasn't

:_______________________________.

pe basa fo ddim pe BA sa vo DHIM (verb)
1
if he weren't/wasn't

:_______________________________.

pe basa hi pe BA sa hi (verb)
1
if he were/was

:_______________________________.

pe basa hi ddim pe BA sa hi DHIM (verb)
1
if she weren't/wasn't

:_______________________________.

pe basan nhw pe BA sa nu (verb)
1
if they were

:_______________________________.

pe basan nhw ddim pe BA sa nu DHIM (verb)
1
if they weren't

:_______________________________.

pe basan ni pe BA sa ni (verb)
1
if we were

:_______________________________.

pe basan ni ddim pe BA sa ni DHIM (verb)
1
if we weren't

:_______________________________.

pe basat ti pe BA sa ti (verb)
1
if you were

:_______________________________.

pe basat ti ddim pe BA sa ti DHIM (verb)
1
if you weren't

:_______________________________.

pe basech chi pe BA se khi (verb)
1
if you were

:_______________________________.

pe basech chi ddim pe BA se khi DHIM (verb)
1
if you weren't

:_______________________________.

pe base fe pe BA se ve (verb)
1
if he was (South-west)

:_______________________________.

pe base fe ddim pe BA se ve DHIM (verb)
1
if he wasn't

:_______________________________.

pe base fo pe BA se vo (verb)
1
if he was (North)

:_______________________________.

pe base fo ddim pe BA se vo DHIM (verb)
1
if he wasn't

:_______________________________.

pe base hi pe BA se hi (verb)
1
if she was

:_______________________________.

pe base hi ddim pe BA se hi DHIM (verb)
1
if she wasn't

:_______________________________.

pe basen nhw pe BA se nu (verb)
1
if they weren't

:_______________________________.

pe basen nhw ddim pe BA se nu DHIM (verb)
1
if they were

:_______________________________.

pe basen ni pe BA se ni (verb)
1
if we were

:_______________________________.

pe basen ni ddim pe BA se ni DHIM (verb)
1
if we weren't

:_______________________________.

pe baset ti pe BA se ti (verb)
1
if you were

:_______________________________.

pe baset ti ddim pe BA se ti DHIM (verb)
1
if you weren't

:_______________________________.

pe baswn i pe BA su ni (verb)
1
if I was (if I were)

:_______________________________.

pe baswn i ddim pe BA su ni DHIM (verb)
1
if I wasn't (if I weren't)

:_______________________________.

pe bawn i pe BAU ni (verb)
1
if I was (if I were)

:_______________________________.

pe bawn i ddim pe bau ni DHIM (verb)
1
if I wasn't (if I weren't)

:_______________________________.

Pebidiog pe BID yog (feminine noun)
1
'kantrev' of the territory of Dyfed

:_______________________________.

pebyll PE bilh (plural noun)
1
plural form (= tents); see pabell PA-belh (= tent)

:_______________________________.

pechadur pe- kh -dir masculine noun
PLURAL pechaduriaid pe-kha- dir -yed
1
sinner
pechadur cadwedig a redeemed sinner, a sinner who has been saved
2
sinner, offender, transgressor = one who disregards a rule, standard

ETYMOLOGY: pechadur < British < Latin pecct-r

:_______________________________.

pechadures pe-kha- d -res feminine noun
PLURAL pechaduresau pe-kha-di- re -se
1
sinner (female)

ETYMOLOGY: (pechadur = pecador) + (-es noun suffix indicating a female)

:_______________________________.

pechod, pechodau PE khod, pe KHO de (masculine noun)
1
sin
gwneud rhywbeth yn iawn am bechod do something in atonement for a sin

2 Bechod drosot ti! Hard luck! Hard cheese! Hard lines! (a shame for / over you)

3 y diafol yn gweld bai ar bechod Satan rebuking sin, the devil denouncing evil (the devil seeing defect on sin), someone doing something completely out of character

4 rhyddhu rhywun oddi wrth bechod absolve somebody of his / her sins

gollwng rhywun oddi wrth bechod absolve somebody of his / her sins

maddau pechod i rywun absolve somebody of his / her sins

pechod bach venial sin

pechod bychan venial sin

mn bechod venial sin

5 edifarhu ei bechodau repent his sins

6 hyll fel pechod as ugly as sin
mor hyll phechod as ugly as sin

7 pechod gwreiddiol original sin

8 cyffesuch pechodau confess your sins

:_______________________________.

pechu PE khi (verb)
1
to sin
2
pechu yn erbyn rhywun to cross somebody, offend somebody (sin against somebody)

:_______________________________.

pechod, pechodau PE khod, pe KHO de (masculine noun)
1
sin

:_______________________________.

pecyn, pecynnau PE kin, pe KƏ ne (masculine noun)
1
packet = carton
pecyn dwbl twin pack package containing with two identical items, usually slightly cheaper than buying the items individually; or a pack offered for sale instead of one with a single item, which is not available, in order to oblige a consumer to buy two items even though only one is required
Dyn nhw ddim yn eu gwerthu fesul un rhaid prynu pecyn dwbl They dont sell them in ones - you have to buy a twin pack

cinio pecyn packed lunch (food taken to school or to work in a lunch box) (bocs bwyd)
:_______________________________.

pedair PE der (feminine noun)
1
four (feminine form of pedwar PED-war = four)
y pedair = the four things / the four females

There is no mutation of the feminine forms of numerals tair and pedair after the definite article y
Thus y tair (not *y dair), y pedair (not *y bedair)
y pedair elfen the four elements

1 In Parochialia being a Summary of Answers to Parochial Queries &c, Cambrian Archaeological Association, 1909-11, in which Edward Llwyds parish questionnaires were published, in the information dated 1699 referring to Bangor Is-y-coed / Bangor-on-Dee, in the list of the parishs bridges one is named as:

Pont y Pedair Onnen on Milbrook a small h. a mile above its fall. (h. = ??)

(= the bridge at Y Pedair Onnen.)
y pedair onnen = the four ash-trees

:_______________________________.

pdestal pe de-stal masculine noun
PLURAL pedestalau pe-de-sta-le
1
pedestal
rhoi rhywun ar bdestal place somebody on a pedestal

ETYMOLOGY: English pedestal < French pidestal < Italian piedestallo (piede = foot) + (stallo = support word of Germanic origin, same as English stall)

:_______________________________.

pedol p -dol feminine noun
PLURAL pedolau pe- d -le
1
(horse, ox) shoe = U-shaped iron plate to protect a hoof from rough surfaces; horseshoe
y bedol the horseshoe
pedol ceffyl horseshoe
gosod pedol put on a horseshoe

2 name for something horseshoe shaped
u bedol name of the letter u in Welsh. In modern Welsh in south Wales a u and an i have the same pronunciation, the u having become like the i (in the north, the u still retains its original different sound). In the south, therefore, in spelling it is necessary to describe the letters somehow i becomes i ddot or i dot (the i with a dot) and u bedol (the i with the shape of a horseshoe)
bwa pedol = Moorish arch (horsehoe arch)
magned pedol horseshoe magnet

3
pedolau = game in which horshoes are thrown at a metal peg in the ground

4
Y Bedol pub name
(1) name of a pub in Tal-y-bont (SH7668), county of Conwy
(2) name of a pub in Pen-y-sarn (SH4690), county of Ynys Mn
(3) name of a pub in Bethel (SH5265), county of Gwynedd, built in 1989

5
Y Bedol a Welsh-language community newspaper (papur bro) for Rhuthun and the surrounding area

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh pedol < pedawl < *peddawl
< British < Latin pedlis < pes, pedis (= foot)
From the same Latin root: Catalan peu (= foot), English pedal

:_______________________________.

pedoli pe D li (verb)
1
shoe (a horse)
2
gefel bedoli smiths tongs, tongs used in making horshoes
(gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (pedoli = to shoe (a horse))

:_______________________________.

Pedr pe -der masculine noun
1
man's name = Peter

2
yr postol Pedr = Peter the Apostle, Simon Peter, a fisherman from Bethsaida who became the leader of the apostles

3
(Bible) 1 Pedr = Llythyr Cyntaf Pedr, (First epistle of Peter), 2 Pedr = Ail Lythyr Pedr (Second epistle of Peter)

4
Gwyl Bedr = Saint Peters Day, (the) feastday (of) Peter, 29 June

5
Lanbedr = (the) church (of) Peter. Village name from the name of a parish church.
(1) Peter was common in church dedications by Norman clerics, and in rededications replacing saints of the Celtic Church,.

(2) The original form Llan-bedr lhan-bedr has undergone accent shift Llanbedr lhan-bedr.

(3) In colloquial Welsh, in polysyllables a final r after t or d is dropped
ffenestr (= window) > ffenest;
rhaeadr (= waterfall) > rhaead.
Hence Llanbed.

(4) And before b there is the change n > m. Hence Llambed.

(5) In south-east Wales, an e in the final syllable becomes a, so villages with this name here are pronounced as Llambad lham-bad

Llanbedr names in the south-east:

(1) Llanbedr Gwynllŵg gwin-lhuug ST2680 Peterstone Wentloog (on the coast between Caer-dydd and Casnewydd)

(2) Llanbedr y Fro or Llanbedr ar Eli ST0876 Peterstone Super Ely (on the river Eli betwen Llantrisant and Caer-dydd)

(3) Llanbedr ar Fynydd SS9885 Peterstone-super-montem a parish, and remains of a church north of Brynna and Llanharan. See Llanbad

6 Tre-bedr tre-bedr Welsh name for the English city of Peterborough (literal translation)

7
ceiniogau Pedr (Catholicism, History) (the) pennies (of) Peter (history) Peters pennies, an annual tax of a penny levied on every household to meet the expenses of the Holy See

8
Pedr Feudwy Peter the Hermit (Pedr) + soft mutation + (meudwy = hermit) (c1050-1115) a French preacher who led a band of peasant crusaders on a march to the Holy Land; they were defeated and massacred in eastern Europe by the Turks

9
Pedr Fawr Peter the Great (1672-1725), csar of Russia (1682-1725)

10
Eglwys Bedr Saint Peters Church

Heol Eglwys Bedr street name ((the) street / road (of) (the) church (of) Peter)
This would be the Welsh name for the following streets:
(1) Penrth, county of Bro Morgannwg (St. Peters Road)
(2) Caer-dydd, county of Bro Morgannwg (St. Peters Road)
(3) Y Mwmbwls, county of Abertawe (St. Peters Road)

11
Eglwys Bedr Saint Peters Church in Rome

12
cenhinen Bedr, PLURAL cennin Pedr daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) (leek (of saint) Peter)

13
Ffynnon Bedr (well (of) Peter) Saint Peters Well
(a) a well in Llanbedr Pont Steffan (county of Ceredigion): English name: Peterwell
(b) SN5747 a well in Llanbedr y Fro (county of Bro Morgannwg)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin Petrus < Greek Petros (= stone, rock), translation of Aramaic kepha (= rock).
The apostles original name was Simon, but Jesus gave him the Aramaic name Kepha (= rock) .

From the same British root: Breton Per (= Peter) < Pezr
From the same Latin root: Manx Peddyr (= Peter)

:_______________________________.

Pedrog PE drog (masculine noun)
1
name of a Welsh saint

:_______________________________.

pedryn, pedrynod PE drin, pe DRI nod (masculine noun)
1
petrel (sea bird)

:_______________________________.

pedwar PED war (masculine noun)
1
four (masculine form); (feminine form = pedair PE-der)
2
gwely pedwar postyn four-poster bed

:_______________________________.

pedwarawd, pedwarawdau ped WA raud, ped wa RAU de (masculine noun)
1
quartet

:_______________________________.

pedwaredd ped WA redh (adjective)
1
fourth (feminine form of pedwerdd ped-WE-ridh = fourth)

:_______________________________.

y pedwar mesur ar hugain PED war ME sir ar HI gen (masculine noun)
1
the twenty-four traditional verse forms in Welsh poetry

:_______________________________.

pedwerydd ped WE ridh (adjective)
1
fourth (masculine form); (feminine form = pedwaredd ped-WA-redh = fourth)

:_______________________________.

pg, pegiau PEG, PEG ye (masculine noun)
1
peg (on a musical instrument); clothes peg

pg pabell peg PAA belh tent peg

:_______________________________.

Pegan PEE gan (feminine noun)
1
woman's name (from Marged = Margaret)

:_______________________________.

Pegi PEE gi (feminine noun)
1
Peggy; diminutive form of Marged (= Margaret)

:_______________________________.

peglau
peg -le plural noun
1 (North Wales)
peg-le, peg-la variant of heglau = legs, < hegl = leg

2 (North-west Wales) Styria dy begla Stir your stumps! ("move your legs, get moving, start walking")

ETYMOLOGY: pegl- < hegl- (unexplained change of the intial consonant)
See hegl

:_______________________________.

peidio PEID yo (verb)
1
stop (doing)

2 gweithio bob yn ail pheidio work by fits and starts (work alternately with stopping)

3 neu beidio or not (neu = or) + soft mutation + (peidio to cease; to refrain (from doing something)

Cymer e neu beidio Take it or leave it (take it or refrain)

4 Wedi neidio rhy hwyr peidio Look before you leap (after jumping too late not-doing)

:_______________________________.

peidiwch sn PEID yukh a SOON (phrase)
1
that's OK (in reply to 'Diolch' = thanks) (don't mention {it})

:_______________________________.

peilot, peilotiaid PEI lot, pei LOT yed (masculine noun)
1
pilot

:_______________________________.

peint, peintiau PEINT, PEINT ye (masculine noun)
1
pint

:_______________________________.

peintiad, peintiadau PEINT yad, peint-YA-de (masculine noun)
1 painting
peintiad ogof plural peintiada ogofu cave painting

:_______________________________.

peintiwr, peintwyr PEINT yur, PEINT wir (masculine noun)
1
painter; see paentiwr

:_______________________________.

Peir.
1
abbreviation = Peirianneg Engineering

:_______________________________.

peiran
pei-ran masculine noun
PLURAL peirannau
pei-ra-ne
1 cirque, semicircular basin in a mountain

ETYMOLOGY: (peir- < pair = cauldron) + (an- = diminutive suffix)


:_______________________________.

peirianddryll peir-yan-dhrilh masculine noun
PLURAL peirianddryllau peir-yan-dhrə-lhe
1
machine gun
Also: gwn peiriant, dryll peiriant
peirianddryll llaw
sub-machine gun

ETYM
OLOGY: (peiriann- < peiriannh, penultimate syllable form of peiriant = machine) + soft mutation + (dryll = firearm)

:_______________________________.

peiriannau peir YA ne (plural noun)
1
engines; see peiriant

:_______________________________.

peiriannneg peir YA neg feminine noun
1
engineering
2
Peiriannneg Engineering (as a subject label in dictionaries, etc)
Abbreviation: Peir.

:_______________________________.

peiriannwr peir YA nur (masculine noun)
1
engineer; see peiriannydd

:_______________________________.

peiriannydd, peirianwyr pei ri A nidh, pei ri AN wir (masculine noun)
engineer

:_______________________________.

peiriant, peiriannau PEIR yant, pei ri A ne (masculine noun)
1
machine

2 peiriant ceiniogau slot machine, fruit machine, gambling machine (machine (of) pennies)

3
peiriant sandio sander, sanding machine

:_______________________________.

peiriant golchi PEIR yant GOL khi (masculine noun)
1
washing machine

:_______________________________.

peiriant gwerthu peir-yant gwer-thi masculine noun
PLURAL peiriannau gwerthu
peir- ya-ne gwer-thi
1
slot machine, vending machine = machine which sells small articles such as sweets or cigarettes operated by coins

ETYMOLOGY: direct translation of English vending machine:
machine (of) selling (peiriant = machine) + (gwerthu = selling)

:_______________________________.

peiriant-saethu peir-yant sei-thi verb
1
to machine gun

ETYMOLOGY: machine-shoot (peiriant = machine) + (saethu = to shoot)

:_______________________________.

peiriant torri bara peir yan to ri BA ra (masculine noun)
1
machine for cutting bread, bread-cutter

:_______________________________.

peiriant torri cig peir yan to ri KIIG (masculine noun)
1
meat slicer

:_______________________________.

peiriau PEIR ye (plural noun)
1
cauldrons; plural of pair

:_______________________________.

peisgwellt <PEIS-gwelht> [ˡpəɪsgwɛɬt] mass noun
1 fescue = a grass of the genus Festuca, found in pastures and lawns

peisgwellt y fagwyr Vulpia myuros rat's tail fescue (fescue of the wall)

peisgwellt y defaid Festuca ovina sheep's fescue (fescue of the sheep)

peisgwellt coch Festuca rubra red fescue

ETYMOLOGY: word from the 1800s; < pisg-wellt pod grass
(paisg = pod) + soft mutation + (gwellt = grass)

The word paisg first appears in William Owen-Pughes Welsh-English dictionary (1793-1803) and is apparently one of his numerous inventions
:_______________________________.

peisiau <PEIS-yai, -e> [ˡpəɪsˡjaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
underskirts; plural of pais

:_______________________________.

peithyn <PEI-thin> [ˡpəɪθɪn] (masculine noun)
1
pectin

:_______________________________.

pl, pelau, peli <PEEL, PEE-lai, -e, PEE-li> [peːl, ˡpeˑlaɪ, -ɛ, ˡpeˑlɪ] (feminine noun)
1
ball
y bl the ball

:_______________________________.

pl droed <peel DROID> [peːl ˡdrɔɪd] (feminine noun)
1
football (the ball itself, not the game)
y bl droed the football

:_______________________________.

pl-droed <peel DROID> [peːl ˡdrɔɪd] (feminine noun)
1
football (game)

2 C.P.D. Clwb Pl-droed football club
(on a players shirt, for example) C.P.D. Cwm-sgwt Cwm Sgwt F.C. (= Football Club)


:_______________________________.

pl-droediwr <peel-DROID-yur> [peːlˡdrɔɪdjʊr] (feminine noun)
1
footballer

:_______________________________.

pelen, pelenni <PEE-len, pe-LE-ni> [ˡpeˑlɛn, pɛˡlɛnɪ] (feminine noun)
1
ball
y belen = the ball

2 pelen canon PLURAL pelenni canon cannonball
pelen fagnel PLURAL pelenni magnel cannonball

3
pelen eira <PEE-len EI-ra> [ˡpeˑlɛn ˡəɪra] snowball

4
pelen gig <PEE-len GIIG> [ˡpeˑlɛn ˡgiːg] PLURAL pelenni cig <pe-LE-ni KIIG> [pɛˡlɛnɪ ˡkiːg] meatball
(pelen = ball) + soft mutation + (cig = meat); word calqued on English meatball
pelen dn fireball, ball of fire = burning mass of an explosion

5
pelen y llygad
<PEE-len ə LH-Ə-gad> [ˡpeˑlɛn ə ˡɬəgad] eyeball

:_______________________________.

pl fasged <peel VA-sked> [ˡpeːl ˡvaskɛd] (feminine noun)
1
basketball (the game)
2
basketball (the ball used in the game)

:_______________________________.

pell <PELH / PEELH> [pɛɬ / peːɬ]
(adjective)
1
distant, far-off, faraway

2 bod yn bell ar y blaen i be way ahead of

Maer Gwyddelod yn bell ar y blaen i ni yn hyn o beth The Irish are way ahead of us in this respect, the Irish have a head start on us in this matter

3
anghysbell
<a-NGHƏS-belh> [angˡhəsbɛɬ] remote

:_______________________________.

pellaf (pella)
<PE-lhav, PE-lha> [ˡpɛɬav, ˡpɛɬa] adjective
1
furthest, farthermost (superlative form of pell = far, distant)

2 fan bellaf at the most

3
cae pellaf outfield, a field at a distance from the farmhouse (furthest field)

4
bellaf (adverb) furthest
Pwy syn gallu cyrraedd bellaf? Who can reach the furthest? Who has the longest reach?

ETYMOLOGY: (pell = far) + (-af superlative ending)

:_______________________________.

pellhu <pelh-HAI> [pɛɬˡhaɪ] (verb)
1
recede into the distance

ymbellhu recede into the distance

:_______________________________.

pellter <PELH-ter> [ˡpɛɬtɛr] (masculine noun)
1
distance

Tua dau gant o filltiroedd ywr pellter rhwng Buffalo a Cleveland
The distance between Buffalo and Cleveland is about two hundred miles

2 ychydig bellter <ə-KHƏ-dig BELH-ter> [əˡxədɪg ˡbɛɬtɛr] (masculine noun)
a short distance

3
Mae cryn bellter on blaenau We have a long way to go (theres a considerable distance in front of us)

:_______________________________.

pl-rwyd <peel RUID> [ˡpeːl ˡrʊɪd] (feminine noun)
1
netball

ETYMOLOGY: (pl = ball) + soft mutation + (rhwyd = net)
:_______________________________.

pelten <PEL-ten> [ˡpɛltɛn] (feminine noun)
1
punch with the fist
y belten = the punch

:_______________________________.

pelydr, pelydrau <PE-lidr, pe-LƏ-drai, -e> [ˡpɛlɪdr, pɛˡlədraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
ray of light

:_______________________________.

pelydryn <pe-LƏ-drin> [pɛˡlədrɪn] (masculine noun)

PLURAL: pelydrau <pe-LƏ-drai, -e> [pɛˡlədraɪ, -ɛ]
1
ray of light

ETYMOLOGY: (pelydr = ray) + (-yn diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

..1 pen, pennau <PEN, PE-nai, -e> [pɛn, ˡpɛnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
head

ch pen yn eich plu
(with your head in your feathers) dejected, miserable, unhappy, crestfallen

rhoich pen iw dorri
risk your neck, stick your neck out, do something risky which might result in failure, say something which might result in criticism or ridicule (give your head for its cutting off)

taror hoelen ar ei phen hit the nail on its head

2 end
deupen
two ends
llosgi'r gannwyll yn ei deupen burn the candle at both ends, exhaust oneself (burn the candle in its two ends)
Also: llosgi'r gannwyll yn y ddeupen (burn the candle in the two ends)

3 top
pen ty roof of a house

llysieuyn pen tai (Semprevivum tectorum) house leek
(plant (of) top (of) houses, hung from the rafter) ( llysieuyn = vegetable / plant) + (pen = top) + (tai = houses, plural of = house)

4 the head considered as the intellect, intelligence

Mae mwy yn ei boced nag yn ei ben
Hes got more money than sense (theres more in his pocket than in his head)

5 (South) Mae pen da arno fe Hes clever (theres a good head on him)

6 pen bys fingertip

Chei di ddim cyffwrdd pen dy fys ynddo I wont let you lay a finger on him (you wont get (the) touching (of the) tip (of) your finger in him)

7
mentroch pen risk it

8
pwnio (rhywbeth) i ben (rhywun) get (something) into somebody's head, din (something) into sb's head = tell somebody something insistently so that it is remembered and learnt

9
pen pidyn glans (head (of) penis)

10
tin-dros-ben somersault (ass / arse over head)
bwrw tin-dros-ben do a somersault
gwneud tin-dros-ben do a somersault
trosben
somersault
trosben dwbl double somersault

11
pwyllgor pennau brains trust = experts who discuss some issue on the radio, TV (committeee (of) heads)

12 torri pen rhywun run somebody down (behind his back), say mean things about somebody (in their absence)

13 hir eich pen shrewd
Mae en ddigon hir ei ben Hes sharp, Hes on the ball, He wasnt born yesterday, He knows a thing or two

14 stwffioch pen ar gyfer arholiad cram (cram your head) for an examination

15 (South) pen tost headache
Mae pen tost gyda fi Ive got a headache

16 ar ben (adverb) over, finished, at an end
(ar
= on) + soft mutation + (pen = head)

Mae hi ar ben arno i Im doomed, Im in real trouble
Mae 'ngwaith i ar ben My work is finished

17 cafflo bola i daclo pen to rob Peter to bay Paul (deceive a belly to decorate a head, deceive the belly to adorn the head )


18 certain parts of the body
pen-glin knee (end (of) knee)
penelin elbow (end (of) elbow)
pen y glun thigh ((the) end (of) the thigh)

19 headland
Penmon < Pen Mn ((the) headland (of) Mn)

Compound words meaning headland made up of
pen combined with another element:

penfro headland, promontory (bro = district)
Penfro name of a town in south-west Wales; this was early Anglicised as Pembroke
penmaen headland, promontory (maen = stone)
penrhyn headland, promontory (rhyn = headland)
pentir headland, promontory (tir = land)

ETYMOLOGY: British penn-

British Celtic: Cornish
penn (= head), Breton penn (= head)

Hibernian Celtic: Irish
ceann (= head), Scottish [Gaelic] ceann (= head)

:_______________________________.

..2 pen, pennau <PEN, PE-nai, -e> [pɛn, ˡpɛnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
(colloquial Welsh) pen (for writing). A more literary form is pn

2
(colloquial Welsh) pen ysgrifennu <pin ə-skri-VE-ni> [ˡpɪn əskrɪˡvɛnɪ] pen (for writing). A literary form is ysgrifbin

:_______________________________.

pen a chlustiau <pen aa KHLIST-yai, -e> [ˡpɛn a ˡxlɪstjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
head and ears
siarad ar draws pen a chlustiau talk the hind legs off a donkey (talk across head and ears)

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + (a = and) + aspirate mutation + (chlustiau = ears)

:_______________________________.

penadur <pe-NAA-dir> [pɛˡnɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL: penaduriaid <pen-a-DIR-yaid, -ed> [pɛnaˡdɪrjaɪd, -jɛd]
1
(obsolete) chief, ruler

Numeri 36.1 Pennau-cenedl tylwyth meibion Gilead, mab Machir, mab Manasse, o dylwyth meibion Joseff, a ddaethant hefyd, ac a lefarasant gerbron Moses, a cherbron y penaduriaid, sef pennau-cenedl meibion Israel:
Numbers 36:1 And the chief fathers of the families of the children of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of the sons of Joseph, came near, and spake before Moses, and before the princes, the chief fathers of the children of Israel:

Numeri 32.2 A meibion Gad a meibion Reuben a ddaethant, ac a ddywedasant wrth Moses, ac wrth Eleasar yr offeiriad, ac wrth benaduriaid y gynulleidfa, gan ddywedyd...
Numbers 32:2 The children of Gad and the children of Reuben came and spake unto Moses, and to Eleazar the priest, and unto the princes of the congregation, saying...

Diarhebion 28.16 Penadur heb ddeall sydd yn fawr ei drawsedd; ond y neb a gasao gybydd-dra, a estyn ei dyddiau
Proverbs 28:16 The prince that wanteth understanding is also a great oppressor: but he that hateth covetousness shall prolong his days.

Diarhebion 31.4 Nid gweddaidd i frenhinoedd, O Lemwel, nid gweddaidd i frenhinoedd yfed gwin; nac i benaduriaid ddiod gadarn
Proverbs 31:4 It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine; nor for princes strong drink:

Pregethwyr 10.4 Pan gyfodo ysbryd penadur yn dy erbyn, nac ymado th le: canys ymostwng a ostega bechodau mawrion
Ecclesiastes 10:4 If the spirit of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place; for yielding pacifieth great offences.

2 principal of a school or college

yn achos athro nad yw'n bennaeth nac yn benadur...
in the case of a teacher who is not a head teacher or principal

2002 Rhif 2938 (Cy.279) / Rheoliadau Addysg (Cymwysterau a Safonau Iechyd Athrawon) (Cymru) (Diwygio) 2002
2002 No. 2938 (W.279) / The Education (Teachers' Qualifications and Health Standards) (Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2002

3 (obsolete) sovereign = English gold coin

4
(obsolete) the Lord God, or Jesus
Crist ein Penadur Christ our Lord

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + (-adur = suffix indicating a person)

:_______________________________.

penaethes <pe-NEI-thes> [pɛˡnəɪθɛs] (feminine noun)
1
matron (in a hospital)
y benaethes the matron

:_______________________________.

penaethiaid <pe-NEITH-yaid, -yed> [pɛˡnəɪθjaɪd, -jɛd] (plural noun)
1
heads, bosses, plural of pennaeth

:_______________________________.

Pen-allt <pen-ALHT> [pɛnˡaɬt]
1
place name:

ETYMOLOGY: pen allt < pen yr allt, with the loss, common in place names, of the linking definite article
(the) top (of) (the) hill (pen = top; end) + (yr = definite article) + (allt = hill)
:_______________________________.

Penalltau <pen-ALH-tai, -e> [pɛnˡaɬtaɪ, -ɛ]
1
place name: (the) top (of) (the) hills

:_______________________________.

Pen-allt Mawr <pen-ALHT MAUR> [pɛnˡaɬt ˡmaʊr]
1
farm name: Greater Pen-allt

:_______________________________.

Pen Aran <pen-AA-ran> [ˡpɛnˡɑˑran]
1
(place name) (the) summit (of) Aran

:_______________________________.

Penarth (*Penrth) <pe-NARTH> [pɛˡnarθ]
1
(ST1871) locality (town) in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales) adjoining Caer-dydd in the south-west

See Pennrth

:_______________________________.

penbaladr <pen-BAA-ladr> [pɛnˡbɑˑˡladr] adjective
1
all, the whole, from end to end

Usually in the expression Cymru benbaladr all Wales

Glasenwau Gogleisiol o Gymru Benbaladr Amusing Nicknames from all over Wales (article in Llafar Gwlad (=speech (of) country, oral tradition,), Gwanwyn (= Spring) 1985

drwyr wlad benbaladr all over the country, throughout the country

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = end) + soft mutation + (paladr = shaft)

:_______________________________.

Penbedw <pen-BEE-du> [pɛnˡbeˑdʊ]
1
Welsh name of Birkenhead, England

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=350462



(delwedd 7438)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) headland (of) (the) birches (pen = head, headland) + (bedw = birch trees). A translation of the English name birch headland, said to refer to a headland at Woodside, now the site of the Mersey Ferry terminal.

:_______________________________.

penben <PEN-ben> [ˡpɛnbɛn] (adjective)
1
head-on
gwrthdrawiad penben head-on collision
mynd yn benben collide head-on with, crash head-on into

:_______________________________.

pen blaen ffelt <pin blain FELT> [pɪn blaɪn ˡfɛlt] (masculine noun)
1
felt-tip pen

:_______________________________.

pen-blwydd <pen-BLUIDH> [ˡpɛnˡblʊɪ] (masculine noun)
1
birthday
Pen-blwydd Hapus! Happy Birthday!

2 dathlu pen-blwydd (rhywbeth) y drigain oed celebrate the sixtieth anniversary of
Y llynedd (1999) dathlwyd pen-blwydd Cymdeithas Hanes a Chofnodion Sir Feirionnydd yn drigain oed
Last year (1999) the sixtieth anniversary of the Merionethshire History and Records Society was celebrated

3 dydd pen-blwydd <diidh pen-BLUIDH> [diː pɛnˡblʊɪ] birthday

:_______________________________.

Pen-bre <pen-BREE> [pɛnˡbreː]
1
place name

ETYMOLOGY: pen bre < pen yr bre, with the loss, common in place names, of the linking definite article
(the) top (of) (the) hill (pen = top; end) + (y = definite article) + (bre = hill)

:_______________________________.

penbwl <PEN-bwl> [ˡpɛnbwl] masculine noun
PLURAL: penbyliaid, penna-bwlaod <pen-BƏL-yaid, -ed, pe-na-bu-LAA-od> [pɛnˡbəljaɪd, -ɛd, ˡpɛna bʊˡlɑˑɔd]
1
tadpole (USA: polliwog)
2
blockhead
3
(adjective) stupid

ETYMOLOGY: partial translation of English bullhead (= tadpole) (head of a bull). First known example in Welsh 1500-1600.
(pen = head) + (bwl < English bull).

Bullhead still used in the English of Yorkshire
Yorkshires Yammer / Peter Wright / 1994 / Dalesman: bull-eeads tadpoles.
Tponds full o bull-eeads (= The ponds full of bullheads)

NOTE: penbylied, informal spelling of penbyliaid

:_______________________________.

penbwygilydd <pen-bui-GII-lidh> [pɛnbʊɪˡgiˑlɪ] adj
1
from one end to the other
Yr wyf yn agos yn sicr nad oes yng Nghymru benbwygilydd adeilad cyn hardded hwn
Im fairly certain that there isnt a building in Wales as beautiful as this one

2
headlong
mynd i lawr yn benwbwygilydd fall headlong, go sprawling

3
benbwygilydd
at loggerheads
mynd benbwygilydd
to end up disagreeing

4
all the way, the whole way
Es i da fe pentigili I went with him all the way

ETYMOLOGY: head + to its fellow (pen = head) + soft mutation + (pwygilydd = to its fellow)
NOTE: a) pembigilyd in the Arfon district (North Wales)

b) pentigili in the Penfro area (South-west Wales). Pentigili was the name of the long defunct papur bro (community newspaper in Welsh produced by volunteers) in Tyddewi and district

:_______________________________.

Pencader <pen-KAA-der> [pɛnˡkɑˑdɛr]
1
place name: (the) hill (with) (the) chair / seat

:_______________________________.

pencadlys, pencadlysoedd <pen-KAD-lis, pen-kad-LƏ-soidh, -odh> [pɛnˡkadlɪs, pɛnkadˡləsɔɪ, -ɔ] (masculine noun)
1
headquarters

2 bod ch pencadlys yn... be based in
Maer cwmni i bencadlys ym Mhen-y-bont The company is based in Pen-y-bont

:_______________________________.

pencampwr, pencampwyr <pen-KAM-pur,-pen-KAMP-wir> [pɛnˡkampʊr, pɛnˡkampwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
champion

:_______________________________.

pencampwraig, pencampwragedd <pen-KAMP-wraig, -wreg, pen-kamp-WRAA-gedh> [pɛnˡkampwraɪg, -wrɛg, pɛnkampˡwrɑˑgɛ] (f)
1
champion (woman)

:_______________________________.

pencampwriaeth, pencampwriaethau <pen-kam-PUR-yaith, -yeth, pen-kam-pur-YEI-thai, -e> [pɛnkamˡpʊrjaɪθ, -jɛθ, pɛnkampʊrˡjəɪθaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
championship

:_______________________________.

Pencarreg pen KA reg
1
place name: (the) top (of) (the) rock

:_______________________________.

penchwiban pen-KHWII-ban adj
1
feeble-minded, foolish, hare-brained, giddy-brained
2 frivolous, capricious, inconstant

ETYMOLOGY: head (of) whistling (pen = head) + (chwiban = whistling; trilling of a bird; hissing)

:_______________________________.

pen clun pen-KLIIN masculine noun
1
hip
2
haunch (of a horse, etc)
NOTE: pen y clun = the hip; pen ei glun = his hip

ETYMOLOGY: top (of) thigh (pen = top) + (clun feminine noun = thigh)

:_______________________________.

Pen-cnwc pen knuk
1
farm 1km south-south-east of Llanboudy SN2123 (county of Caerfyrddin)

ETYMOLOGY: pen y cnwc ((the) top (of) the hill) (pen = top) + (y = definite article) + (cnwc = hill).
The loss of the article y between the main noun and the qualifying noun is a very common phenomenon in Welsh place names.

:_______________________________.

Pen-coed pen KOID -
Map Reference: SS 9681
1
village in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (South-east Wales); site of the national Eisteddfod in 1997
Welsh-speakers:
(1961) 16% in a population of 3700
(1971) 9% in a population of 6000

2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: pen y coed - head / end / edge (of) the wood (pen = head) + (y = the) + (coed = wood).
In names with the pattern (referent + definite article + qualifying element) the article is often omitted in place names

NOTE: local name Pen-cood pen-kood - in South Wales, the change oi > oo is typical

:_______________________________.

pen dafad pen DAA-vad masculine noun
PLURAL: pennau defaid pe-ne DEE-vaid, -ed
1
north-west Wales mutton stew made from a sheep's head, liver, heart; these are chopped and boiled, then fried with onions and cooked in the oven.
Served with potatoes and carrots

2 north-west Wales pudding head, idiot; rl ben dafad 'di o he's a real idiot

3 in building a wall, stone shaped like a sheep's head and so irregular in shape and difficult to use

ETYMOLOGY: head (of) sheep, sheep's head; (pen = head) + (dafad = sheep)

:_______________________________.

Pendalar pen-DAA-lar
1 street name in Llanfair Fechan (county of Conwy)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) end (of the) cross-ridge (in a ploughed field))
pen dalar < pen y dalar (pen = end) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (talar = headland, cross-ridge)

:_______________________________.

pendant PEN dant (adjective)
1
definite
2
drwy orchymyn pendant by strict order, according to a order that must be rigorously obeyed

:_______________________________.

penddu pen -dhi adjective
1
black-headed
bras penddu (Emberiza melanocephela) black-headed bunting
gwylan benddu (Larus ridibundus) black-headed gull

siglen benddu (Motacilla flava feldegg) black-headed wagtail

2 (sky) overcast;
awyr penddu overcast sky

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (du = black)
:_______________________________.

pendefig pen-DEE-vig masculine noun
PLURAL: pendefigion pen-de-VIG-yon
1
nobleman, aristocrat, chieftain, prince

Pwyll pendefig Dyfed
Pwyll the prince of Dyfed

2 aristocrat, nobleman
brenhinoedd a phendefigion y ddaear the kings and noblemen of the earth

ETYMOLOGY: Old Welsh (*pendaf = highest) < British *penno-tamo- (tamo- = superlative suffix) + (-ig = diminutive suffix); In modern Welsh *pendaf is pennaf (= main, principal).
Pendefig corresponds to the Breton adjective pinvidik (= rich), that is, a metathesised form now with v-d but originally with d-v (pindivik) as in the Welsh word

NOTE:
Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton,
T.H. Parry-Williams, 1913
In W[elsh], however, the interchange of f and dd is quite common, especially in the dial[ect]s
One example given of the change f > dd is pendefig (prince, chief) > pendeddig

:_______________________________.

penderfynu pen der VƏ ni (verb)
1
decide

:_______________________________.


Pendeulwyn pen-DEI-luin [pɛnˡdəɪlʊɪn]
1
village ST0676 in Bro Morgannwg

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/943277

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) Deulwyn
(pen = head, top) + (Deulwyn)
deulwyn
two woods, two groves, two bushes
(deu-, equivalent to dau = two) + soft mutation + llwyn = wood, grove, bush)


NOTE: See also Pendoulan pen-DOU-lan [pɛnˡdɔɪlan].
This was the local form of the name (preserved as the English form, and written Pendoylan).

Earlier it would have been Pendoulwyn > Pendoulwn [pɛnˡdəɪlʊn] with the reduction of final wy [ʊɪ] to w [ʊ] typical in southern spoken Welsh

:_______________________________.

pendew pen -deu adjective
1
boneheaded, thickheaded

Ges i ffein gan ryw blismon pendew
I was fined by some boneheaded policeman

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (tew = thick, fat)

:_______________________________.

Pen-din pen DIIN
1
place name: (the) hill (of) (the) fortress

:_______________________________.

pendoll pen -dolh adjective
1
having a head full of holes
See pendwll
:_______________________________.

Pendoulan pen-DOU-lan [pɛnˡdɔɪlan]
1
local name for the village of Pendeulwyn ST0676 in Bro Morgannwg

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/943277

(the) top (of) Deulwyn (pen = head, top) + (Deulwyn)

deulwyn
two woods, two groves, two bushes (deu-, equivalent to dau = two) + soft mutation + llwyn = wood, grove, bush)

..a/ In south Wales, eu in a penult was pronounced ou (in fact, retaining the original pronunciation, which became eu).

Hence Pendeulwyn pen-DEI-luin [pɛnˡdəɪlʊɪn] was called Pendoulwyn pen-DOU-luin [pɛnˡdɔɪlʊɪn]

..b/ In a final syllable, the diphthong wy in South Wales regularly becomes the simple vowel w
(as in ofnadwy ov-NAA-dui [ɔvˡnɑˑdʊɪ] (= awful), ofnadw / ofnatw ov-NAA-du, ov-NAA-tu [ɔvˡnɑˑdʊ, ɔvˡnɑˑtʊ]

Thus Pendoulwyn > Pendoulwn pen-DOU-lun [pɛnˡdɔɪlʊn]

..c/ For some reason, the final vowel w was replaced by a
Pendoulwn > Pendoulan pen-DOU-lan [pɛnˡdɔɪlan]

:_______________________________.

pendraphen pen-DRAA-fen adjective
(North Wales)
1
upside down, in a mess
2
head over heels

ETYMOLOGY: head over head (pen = head) + (dra = over) + spirant mutation + (pen = head)

:_______________________________.

y pen draw ə pen DRAU masculine noun
1
the far end, the other end, the bottom, the top
ym mhen drawr ardd at the far end of the garden, at the bottom of the garden

2 yn y pen draw in the long run, ultimately

:_______________________________.

pen draw'r byd pen draur biid masculine noun
1
the other side of the world

2 Am ben draw byd o le! What a God-forsaken place!

ETYMOLOGY: (pen draw = yonder end) + (y definite article) + (byd = world)

:_______________________________.

pendro pen -dro feminine and masculine noun
1
giddiness, dizziness
y bendro / y pendro the giddiness
Maer bendro arno i I feel dizzy (the dizziness is on me)

2
giddiness affecting sheep

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (tro = turn)

NOTE: (1) Also masculine y pendro
(2) In North Wales, gan in many cases has replaced ar in expressions indicating ailments
Maer bendro arna i > Maer bendro gen i

:_______________________________.

pendwll pen -dulh adjective
1
having a head full of holes

2 feminine form: pendoll
llysywen bendoll (b) lamprey (eel with a head full of holes )
llysywod pendoll
lampreys, Petromyzontidae

3 (Petromyzon marinus) llysywen bendoll y mr (b), llysywod pendoll y mr sea lamprey
(Lampetra fluviatilis)llysywen bendoll y afon (b), llysywod pendoll y afon

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (twll = hole)

:_______________________________.

Pendyrys pen--ris
1
ST0195 locality in Rhondda Cynon Taf, 8km north-west of Pont-tŷ-pridd in the Rhondda Fach valley between Pont-y-gwaith and Glynrhedynnog. English name: Tylerstown
Cr Meibion Pendyrys Pendyrys Male Voice Choir (choir (of) men (of) Pendyrys)

ETYMOLOGY: pen dyrys < ??pen y dyrys = end of the uncultivated land

(pen = head; end) + (y definite article) + (dyrys = uncultivated land, thicket)

NOTE: Also spelt Pendyrus, with u instead of y, but it is a poor spelling although the pronunciation is the same

:_______________________________.

penefer pe- ne -ver adjective
South Wales
1 useless
Dyna grwt penefer yw e That lad's useless (see-there (a) [useless lad] that-is he)

2 cheeky

ETYMOLOGY: From a word in the dialect of south-eastern England ever (also in the form every) (= darnel)

This is from French ivraie (= rye grass) (same in modern French), from the first word in the Latin expression briaca herba (= grass which causes drunkenness) < briacus < brius (= drunk).

The word penefer (originally = giddy, dizzy; unruly) (head (of) darnel) (pen = head) + (efer) is explained by the narcotic efect of this plant.

According to the lexicographer Thomas Richards (Antiquae Linguae Britannicae Thesaurus - Welsh-English Dictionary, 1753) efer is a weed growing among corn, called darnel, tares, ray or cockle; it is naught for the eyes, and will make the head giddy, if eaten in hot bread

:_______________________________.

penelin, penelinoedd pen EE lin, pe ne LII nodh (masculine noun)
1
elbow

ETYMOLOGY: end (of) elbow (pen = end) + (elin = elbow)
:_______________________________.

peneliniad pe-ne-lin -yad masculine noun
PLURAL: peneliniadau pe-ne-lin-YAA-de
1
elbowing = knock with the elbow

ETYMOLOGY: (penelin- stem of penelino = to elbow, to knock with the elbow) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

penelino pe-ne-LII-no verb
1
elbow = hit with the elbow
2
penelino ar lean on ones elbow or elbows on, rest ones elbow or elbows on

ETYMOLOGY: (penelin = elbow) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

penfain pen-vain adjective
1
narrow-headed
gwyniaid penfain Thymallinae

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (main = narrow)

:_______________________________.

penfeddw pen- ve -dhu adjective
1
dizzy, giddy, light-heaed
2
(from the effect of alcohol) tipsy, drunk
3
besotted

ETYMOLOGY: (drunken head) (pen = head) + soft mutation + (meddw = drunk)

:_______________________________.

penfeddwi pen-vedh-wi verb
1
get dizzy, giddy, light-heaed

2 (from the effect of alcohol) get tipsy, drunk

Eseia 29:18 Arafwch, a rhyfeddwch; bloeddiwch, a gwaeddach: meddwasant, ac nid trwy win; penfeddwasant, ac nid trwy ddiod gadarn
Isaiah 29:9 Stay yourselves, and wonder; cry ye out, and cry: they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink.

3 become besotted
dyma fi yn penfeddwi ar ei harddwch I became besotted by her beauty

ETYMOLOGY: (penfeddw = drunk) + (-i verbal suffix)

:_______________________________.

Pen-feidr pen- vei-dir -
1
farm name, Y Ferwig SN1849 (county of Ceredigion)

ETYMOLOGY: pen y feidr top of the lane. (pen = top, head) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (beidr / meidr = lane, drive)

:_______________________________.

penfelyn pen-v-lin adjective
feminine form: penfelen
1
fair-haired, flaxen-haired

Bachgen bach penfelyn oedd ffrind Ifan
Ifan's friend was a little fair-haired boy

Elen Benfelen Goldilocks ("Yellow-haired Elen")
(Elen = Helen) + soft mutation + (penfelen, feminine form of penfelyn = yellow head, flaxen-haired

2
yellow-headed
aderyn penfelyn (yellow-headed bird), llinos benfelen (yellow-headed linnet) - alternative names for bras melyn = Emberiza citrinella = yellowhammer

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (melyn = yellow)

:_______________________________.

penfelyn pen-v-lin adjective
Feminine form: penfelen, > benfelen after a feminine singular noun
1
flaxen-haired

2 Elen Benfelen a'r Tair Arth Goldilocks and the Three Bears (flaxen-haired Elen)

:_______________________________.

.

Pen-foel pen-VOIL adjective

1 farm in Ceredigion near Y Ceinewydd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN3957

ETYMOLOGY: pen y foel (the) summit (of) the [bare] hill, hill top (pen = head, end) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (moel = [bare] hill)

In this name the linking definite article is dropped, a common feature of Welsh place names)

As it is a habitative name, the elements form a single written word. The hill summit itself would be Pen Foel / Pen y Foel

:_______________________________.

Penfro pen -vro
1
(SM9801) locality (town) in the county of Penfro (South-west Wales )
English name: Pembroke (also Pemboke Town)
Population (1971) 14,092

2 division (cantref) of the country (gwlad) of Dyfed

3
Sir Benfro the county of Penfro
In 1974 the county was abolished, and together with the neighbouring counties of Sir Gaerfyrddin i Sir Aberteifi it formed part of a new supercounty called Dyfed. In 1996 the supercounty was in its turn abolished, and the county of Penfro made a reappearance..

Sir Benfro Saesneg ((the) English-speaking (part of) (the) county (of) Penfro) the south of the county of Penfro, popularly known in English as Little England Beyond Wales . Here around the year 1108 the native Welsh were displaced by Flemings, who later adopted the English language.

4
Docpenfro (SM9603) locality in South-west Wales
(the) dock (by the town of) Pembroke - a translation of the English name Pembroke Dock

ETYMOLOGY: (the) end (of) (the) land, lands end (pen = head, end) + soft mutation + (bro = land)
NOTE: local forms in the county Pemro, Pembro

:_______________________________.

pengaead pen- gei -ad adjective
1
closed-off, dead-end;
heol bengaead = dead-end street, cul-de-sac, blind alley
swydd bengaead = dead-end job, job without a future

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (caead = closed)

:_______________________________.

pengaled pen-GAA-led adjective
1
obstinate, wilful, headstrong

(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 30:8 March heb ei ddofi a yn bengaled; a mab a adawer iddo ei hun a yn anllywodraethus.
(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 30:8 An horse not broken becometh headstrong: and a child left to himself will be wilful.

2 pengaled fel mul as stubborn as a mule (stubborn like (a) mule)

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (caled = hard)

:_______________________________.

pengam PEN-gam adjective
1
with the head leaning to one side, with the head tilted to one side, with the head cocked

Y Garreg Bengam SH6145 a rocky outcrop by Croesor, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1033633

2 (stick) with a crook at one end

3 obstinate, stubborn, wilful, headstrong

4 Pengam place name / field name
Cae Pengam (field name) crooked field

if you talked about Cae Pengam (Crooked field) everyone knew that it

was the oddly shaped field on Ty Newydd Farm

(Fields / Caeau, Colwyn Bay Civic Society / February 2008)

http://www.colwynbaycivicsociety.co.uk/assets/Feb%2008.pdf

5 Pengam ST1597 village by Caerfffili

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST1597

6 Pengam ST2176 district of Caer-dydd / Cardiff

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST2176

7 Tŷpengam SO3406 House in Llanfair Cilgedin (Englished as Llanfair Kilgeddin), county of Mynwy, four miles north-west of Brynbuga / Usk and six miles south-east of Y Fenni / Abergafenni

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST2176

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (cam = bent)

:_______________________________.

pen-glin, pen-gliniau pen GLIIN, pen GLIN ye (masculine noun)
1
knee

:_______________________________.

penglog pen -glog feminine noun
PLURAL: penglogau pen- gl -ge
1
skull = bony covering of the head in a mammal

2
skull, deaths head = image of a skull, often used to represent death or danger of death, as on warning labels on bottles containing poison, or by high-voltage electrical installations

3
skull = mind
Wn i ddim be sy yn i en benglog a (south-eastern) (= ni wn i ddim pa beth sydd yn ei hen benglog ef)
(trying to explain what somebody has said or done)
I dont know what on earth hes thinking

4
(in some expressions) fool
hen benglog gwirion numskull (old foolish skull)
hen benglogau ofnadwy real fools, real idiots (old terrible skulls)

5 y benglog a'r esgyrn croes the skull and cross bones, the design on a pirates flag

6
Rhaeadr y Benglog (waterfall of the skull) name of a waterfall on the river Ogwen (North-west Wales). The English call it Ogwen Falls

ETYMOLOGY: stone (of) head (pen = head) + soft mutation + (clog = stone, rock; cliff, precipice; skull);

Breton klopenn (= skull) has the elements reversed (klog + penn).

Cornish clog (= cliff);

The two elements also occur in Irish in the reverse order cloigeann (= skull, head) (clog) + ceann = head). The final g suggests in may be the Welsh word taken into Irish. Modern Irish clog is a blister, if it is the same word. There is also another clog = clock. The usual word for a stone in Irish is cloch, with the expected final ch corresponding to a final g in Welsh

NOTE: Another word used colloquially in Welsh for skull is cragen, crogen (= shell), corresponding to Breton krogenn (= shell, skull), Cornish krogenn (= shell, skull)

:_______________________________.

penhwyad pen- hui -ad masculine noun
PLURAL: penhwyaid pen-hui-ed
1
(Sphyraen sphyraen) = pike

ETYMOLOGY: head (of) duck, duck-head (pen = head) + (hwyad = duck)

:_______________________________.

Penheolferthyr pen-HEE-ol-VER-thir masculine noun

1 SO0606 Village in Merthyrtudful. The English name is Mountain Hare, from an Inn so called and which appears on an 1875 map for the first time.

2 Name of a street in this village.

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) Heol Ferthyr

Heol Ferthyr is (the) road (leading to) Merthyr(tudful) (heol = road) + soft mutation + (Merthyr, short name for Merthyrtudful)

NOTE: 1841 Census as Penheol Ferthyr, Pen Heol Ferthyr
http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/GLA/MerthyrTydfil/1841placenames.html
Parish of Merthyr Tydfil. Place-names in the 1841 Census.Transcribed by Deric John (Nov 2008)


NOTE: Present spelling: (as a road name) Penheolferthyr

:_______________________________.

Peniel PEN yel
1
chapel name

:_______________________________.

penigmp pe ni GAMP (adjective)
1
excellent

:_______________________________.

y pen isaf (y pen isa) ə pen I-sav, I-sa (m)
1
the lower end

(in comparing two, the superlative form is used in Welsh and not the comparative form; hence isaf = lowest, and not is = lower)

It occurs in certain place names:

pen isaf y cyffin > pen isar cyffin > Penisacyffin

pen isaf y pentref > pen isar pentre > Penishapentre

pen isaf y plwyf > pen isar plwyf > Pen-isar-plwyf

pen isaf y waun > pen isar waun > Pen-isar-waun

Spellings where pen isaf is run together, rightly or wrongly, are seen as either amusing or embarrassing by the English, since such names to English eyes seem to contain the English word penis.

:_______________________________.

Penisacyffin pen-I-sar-KƏ-fin
1
SJ0513 A farm north-west of Dolanog, Powys

(Penisacyffin on the Ordnance Survey map)

ETYMOLOGY: pen isaf y plwyf (the) lower end (of) the boundary (probably the parish boundary)
..a/ pen isaf y cyffin > pen isar cyffin
Colloquially isaf > isa (the final [v] is lost), and so the following definite article is contracted
(isaf + yr) > (isar)

..b/ the linking definite article is often dropped in place names

pen isar cyffin > pen isa cyffin

:_______________________________.

Pen-isaf-y-plwyf pen-I-sav-ə-PLUIV
1
See Pen-isar-plwyf

:_______________________________.

Pen-isar-plwyf pen-I-sar-PLUIV
1
SO1144 A farm by Llansteffan, Powys (Penisarplwyf on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/695279


2 Pen-isha-plwydd SO3423 farm by Y Pandy in the county of Mynwy (Misspelt as Penishaplwydd on the Ordnance Survey map)

One might expect Pen-ishar-plwydd, with the retention of the definite article, but see below.


http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=201060 map




(delwedd 7695)


..a/ A final f [v] in polysyllables is lost in spoken Welsh; the definite article yr is y between consosants, but reverts to yr after a vowel, and the vowels y is lost and the remaining conasonant coalesces with the preceding word (isa + yr) > (isar)

..b/ pen isar plwyf > pen ishar plwyf is South Wales an s preceded by of followed by an i is palatalaised: s > sh. Hence isa > isha

..c/ pen ishar plwyf > pen ishar plwydd In South Wales, a dialect variant of plwyf is plwydd. This change of f [v] > dd [
] occurs in some other words in Welsh. For example, Caer-dydd (Cardiff), originally Caer-dyf, and as such when the name was adapted into English. See the entry f > dd, on page F


..d/ pen ishar plwyf > pen isha plwydd In place names, the linking definite article is often dropped.

ETYMOLOGY: pen isaf y plwyf (the) lower end (of) the parish, the bottom of the parish

Colloquially isaf > isa (the final [v] is lost), and so the following definite article is contracted

(isaf + yr) > (isar)

:_______________________________.

Pen-isar-waun pen-I-sar-WAIN
1
SH8170 A farm in Eglwys-bach (county of Conwy) (Penisar Waen on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH8171

2 Village in Gwynedd (Penisar Waun on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH5563

ETYMOLOGY: pen isaf y waun (the) lower end (of) the moor field, the bottom of the moor field

Colloquially isaf > isa (the final [v] is lost), and so the following definite article is contracted

(isaf + yr) > (isar)

:_______________________________.

Penishapentre pen-I-sha-pen-tre
1
A farm just north of Llanfilo SO1133 (Brycheiniog district of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: pen isaf y pentref (the) lower end (of) the village, the bottom of the village

(pen = end) + (isaf = lowest) + (y = definite article) + (pentref = village)

NOTE:

..1/ In spoken Welsh, pentref > pentre, and isaf > isa (a final f [v] in words of more than one syllable are dropped

..2/ In south Wales, an s [s] in contact with an i (that is, either before or after) is palatalised to sh [sh]

isa > isha

Other examples are:
mis (= month) > mish
sir
(= county) > shir

..3/ The definite article after a vowel is r

The definite article is historically yr, but before a consonant the r has been lost

yr pentref > y pentref

However, after a vowel, this older form yr is restores, though it coalesces with the previous word. The resulting form would be pen isaf y pentref > pen ishar pentre

..4/ In place names, it is a very common phenomenon for this linking definite article to be omitted

Hence pen ishar pentre > pen isha pentre

..5/ Generally, habitative names are written as a single word

Thus pen isha pentre > Penishapentre

:_______________________________.

pen-lin pen LIIN (masculine noun)
1
knee; see pen-glin

:_______________________________.

Pen-llech-nst pen-lheekh-NEEST
1
A district of Caergybi. The name was changed to Kingsland as an obsequious gesture to the English king George IV who was on his way through Caergybi to cross the Irish Sea to visit Ireland.

:_______________________________.

pen llenwi pin LHEN wi (masculine noun)
1
fountain pen

:_______________________________.

Pen Llithrig y Wrach pen LHI thrig ə WRAAKH
1
SH7162 place name 'slippery summit of the witch'

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/714554

:_______________________________.

Penmachno pen- makh -no
1
(SH7950) locality in the county of Conwy
Ancient name: Llandutglyd


(delwedd 7025)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/377191 Penmachno yn yr eira / Penmachno in the snow

2 (SH7547) Cwm Penmachno the valley of Penmachno

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/749541

ETYMOLOGY: Penmachno < Pennantmachno pen nant Machno ((the) top (of the) valley (of) Machno
(pen = head, top) + (nant = valley, stream) + (Machno personal name)

Llandutglyd church (of) Tutglyd (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Tudglyd)

In the Latin manuscript De Situ Brecheniauc circa 1200 Tudglid is said to be one of Brychan Brycheiniogs 24 daughters

:_______________________________.

penmaen pen-main

PLURAL: penmaenau pen-MEIN-ai, -e
1
(in place names) headland, point, promontory

Penmaen Mawr (great headland) promontory in Conwy county
Penmaen-mawr village situated by the promontory
Penmaen Bach (little headland) promontory between Penmaen Mawr and Conwy
Penmaen Dewi (qv) ((the) headland (of) (saint) David) a headland in south-west Wales
Penmaenan little headland

Penmaenau = y penmaenau farm by Llanelwedd (Maesyfed, Powys) (headlands)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0352 map
.....................................
Y Penmaen SH3338 farm north-east of Boduan, Gwynedd

Moel y Penmaen A hill by here, behind the farm. Although Y Penmaen is probably this hill originally, the name Moel y Penmaen suggests rather the [bare] hill (of) Y Penmaen (farm)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/231039 Moel y Penmaen

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/231089 Moel y Penmaen a Phenmaen Uchaf

ETYMOLOGY: (head[land] (of) stone) (pen = head) + (maen = stone) > penmen > pnmaen

:_______________________________.

Penmaen Mawr pen-main MAUR
1
(SH7075) (great headland) promontory in Conwy county
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/486864

ETYMOLOGY: y penmaen mawr (the) great headland
(y definite article = the) + (penmaen = headland, point, promontory) + (mawr = great, big, large)

NOTE: Penmaen Mawr is spelt Penmaenmawr on the Ordnance Survey map

:_______________________________.

Penmaen-mawr pen-main MAUR
1
(SH7176) the village below Penmaen Mawr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/150017

ETYMOLOGY: see Penmaen Mawr

NOTE: Penmaen-mawr is spelt Penmaenmawr on the Ordnance Survey map

:_______________________________.

Penmaen Dewi pen-main deu -i
1
(SM7227) headland in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales, near Tyddewi
English name: Saint Davids Head

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/47808

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) headland (of saint) David)
(penmaen = headland, point, promontory) + (Dewi = Saint David)

:_______________________________.

Pen Maen Wern pen main WERN
1
SN8662 summit in Powys above the reservoir in Cwm Elan, marked by a white quartz standing stone

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/911646

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/942576

ETYMOLOGY: pen maen y wern (the) hill (of) (the) standing stone (of) the wet ground

:_______________________________.

pen marcio pin MARK yo (masculine noun)
1
marker pen

:_______________________________.

Penmon PEN mon
1
place name: (the) end (of) (the) (island) (of) Mn

:_______________________________.

Pen Morfa pen- mor -va
1
(SM8634) point or headland in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales

ETYMOLOGY: pen y morfa (the) end / edge / headland (of) the sea marsh)
(pen = end / head) + (y definite article) + (morfa = sea marsh).
The linking definite article is often omitted in place names: pen y morfa > pen morfa

As a habitative name, the elements are run together. See Penmorfa below

:_______________________________.

Penmorfa pen- mor -va
1
place name
..a/ (SH5440) locality in the county of Gwynedd, near Porthmadog
..b/ locality in Llandudno (English name: West Shore)

2 street name
....a/ Caernarfon (county of Gwynedd ) (written Pen Morfa)

....b/ Penmorfa (SH5440) locality in the county of Gwynedd, near Porthmadog; name of one of five electoral wards in Dolbenmaen

....c/ Penmorfa Tywyn, (county of Gwynedd ) (written as two words Pen Morfa)

....d/ Penmorfa locality in Llandudno (English name: West Shore)

....e/ Penmorfa, name of a primary shcool in Llandysul, Ceredigion

ETYMOLOGY: pen y morfa (the) end / edge (of) the sea marsh) See the preceding entry.

The linking definite article is often omitted in place names: pen y morfa > pen morfa

Names of villages and houses, and street names with the form of village names, are written as a single word.

Thus Pen Morfa (geographical feature) > Penmorfa
:_______________________________.

pennaeth pe naith masculine noun

PLURAL: penaethiaid pe neith yed
1
head = person in charge of a department in a secondary school

Pennaeth yr Adran Gymraeg head of the Welsh department

(penn- < pen = head) + (-aeth = suffix)

:_______________________________.

pennaf PE na (adjective)
1
chief, head, main, principal, top

yn bennaf chiefly, in the main, above all else

Parthau glofaol yn bennaf yw Brookfield, Coalcreek, Hubbard, a Crabcreek
Brookfield, Coalcreek, Hubbard, a Crabcreek are in the main coalmining areas

:_______________________________.

Pennant (*Pnnant) pe -nant
1
SN5162 village in Ceredigion

ETYMOLOGY: pen y nant (the) head (of) the valley > pen-nnt > (stress shift) pn-nant

:_______________________________.

Pennar PEN-ar
1
Farm name, Tonypistyll, Caerffili county
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/429511


ETYMOLOGY: apparently (earlier forms of the name would need to be consulted) pennar < penardd (= headland) (loss of the final dd)


:_______________________________.


pennardd PEN ardh (m)
1
headland, promontory


2 hill


3 (place names)
..a/ Pennardd
Pennardd
kmmud / cwmwd in Uwch Aeron, Ceredigion
Pennardd Name of a township by Dinasdinlle
Pennardd Fawr, Pennardd Fach farms in Llanystumdwy, Gwynedd


VARIANTS ARE:

..b/ Pennar
Pennar-lg (in English: Hawarden)


..c/ Pennard


..d/ Peniarth


..e/ Peniarth


..f/ Pennrth

ETYMOLOGY: pennardd < (pen = top, peak; hill) + (ardd = hill)



:_______________________________.



Pennar-lg pen-ar-LAAG
1 town (SJ3165) in Alun a Dyfrdwy (Clwyd); BGC spelling: Penarlg
The English name is Hawarden, pronounced Harden by the English, but the Englsh name is pronounced Hawrden by the Welsh


2 a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: Pennar-lg < Pennardd Afalawg (hill (of) Alafawg)


Alafawg
<alvaug> > possibly Alafog > Lafog > Laog > Laag > Lag [LAAG]


Alafawg (personal name = rich)

(
alaf = cattle, wealth) + (-awg suffix; modern Welsh -og)
Cf modern Welsh
cyfalaf (= capital)

:_______________________________.

pennarth PEN-arth (m)
1
headland
Pennarth place name
In Conwy there is Benarth Hall SH7876 (?Plas Bennarth)
http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=338816

and the street name Tan Benarth (?Tanbennarth) = tan y Bennarth ([place] below Y Bennarth)

:_______________________________.

Pennarth (*Pennrth) 1 pe-NARTH
1
The official spelling is Penarth (recommended by Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd (board of Celtic knowledge) (the unusual accent is not indicated)

(ST1871) locality (town) in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales) adjoining Caer-dydd in the south-west.

Population: 23,005 (1971)
Proportion of Welsh-speaking: 5% (1971)

More correctly there should be a double n, as in similar names in other parts of Wales (Pennardd).

A double n indicates that the preceding vowel is short; a single n would indicate that the preceding vowel is half-long.

A single n occurs in the form Peniarth, where the gh has become semi-vowel i-.

We have placed an accent to indicate the unusual stress on the second syllable Pennrth

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) (the) hill; the promontory.
Penarth (= Pennrth) < Pnnarth < Pn-gharth < *penno-gart-

Equivalent to modern Welsh (pen = head) + soft mutation + (garth = hill).

The change of accent could be because the name was later reanalysed as pen arth (the head of a bear) / pen yr arth (the head of the bear)

The spelling with a single n is in fact incorrect, as it suggests that the e is half-long (though in the north this half-long vowel would be short, and Penarth would be a possible spelling to reflect a Northern pronunciation.

The unusual accent is best indicated with an acute accent - pennrth, to distinguish it from pennarth [PEN-arth] in names where this word occurs with the original accent.

The spelling with one n might have come about partly to indicate the unusual accentuation. The modern spelling though would be Pen-arth since a final accented element is indicated by a hyphen.

This rule is relatively new, and in the past the accented syllable would either be spelt separately (Pen Coed), or the name would be spelt as one word Pencoed.

The standard spelling however (recommended by Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd (board of Celtic knowledge) is Penarth (neither the unusual accent nor the etymological -nn- are indicated).

Penarth = Pennrth < Pnnarth < Pn-gharth (pen = head) + soft mutation + (garth = hill).

The change of accent could be because the name was later thought to be pen arth < pen yr arth (the head of the bear), or because of the profusion of nearby names with unstressed
pen (Pen-y-lan in Caer-dydd, Pen-y-pil in Caer-dydd, Pen-tyrch, now in Caer-dydd, etc, where the strees is on the final syllable)

NOTE: In Cardiff Records, Volume I, Chapter II, EXCHEQUER DOCUMENTS. 1571-1726 there are instances of the spelling pennarth





:_______________________________.


Pennarth 2 PEN-arth

1 Pennant, Ceredigion: Pennarth Cottage Census 1861
Pennarth
farm in Clynnog Fawr, Gwynedd
Pennarth farm in Llandysul, Powys

2 Penarth (*Pennrth) town in Bro Morgannwg
See entry above


A Topographical Dictionary of Wales by Samuel Lewis 1833
"PENNARTH, or PENNARD (PEN-ARTH), a parish in the hundred of SWANSEA, county of GLAMORGAN, SOUTH WALES, 7 1/2 miles (W. S. W.) from Swansea, containing 357 inhabitants. The name of this parish, signifying " the bear's head," is supposed to be derived from the peculiar form which this part of the coast assumes in its projection into the Bristol channel.

ETYMOLOGY: pennardd (qv) with the devoicing of the final syllable dd > th


:_______________________________.



y pen nesaf i ə pen ne-sav ii (prep)
1
the end nearest to
Yr oedd y stafell wely yn y pen nesaf i'r heol
The bedroom was in the end nearest the road


:_______________________________.

pen-nionyn pen-nyo-nin masculine noun
1
(North Wales) onion head nickname for a bald man

Tafarn Pen-nionyn SH4756 This is the name of a public house in Y Groeslon (Gwynedd), from the nickname of an owner (Owen Rowlands) in the late 1800s. The offical name was Llanfair Arms since it had been built on land belonging to Hugh Griffith, owner of the Plas Llanfair estate. The local name for the pub became the official name in May 2002 (Report in Y Cymro 01 June 2002)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/240661

ETYMOLOGY: (head (of) onion, head like an onion) (pen = head) + (nionyn = onion)
NOTE: On the tavern sign as Tafarn Pennionyn
:_______________________________.

pennod, penodau PE nod, pe NO de (masculine noun)
1
chapter (of a book)

:_______________________________.

pennog
pe -nog masculine noun
PLURAL penogiaid, penwaig, penweigion
pen-waig, pe-nogyed, pen-weig-yon

1 herring (Clupea harengus)

2
bod fel penwaig mewn halen be packed like sardines in a tin (of many people in a confined space) (be like herring in salt)
(the saying is reported in the article Cyfoeth o Sir Gr = wealth from the county of Caerfyrddin / H. Meurig Evans / Llafar Gwlad 55, Gwanwyn 1997)

Compare the Catalan expression estar estrets com arengades be confined like herrings

3 yr Afon Benwaig jocular name for the sea ((the) river (oof) herrings, the Herring River)
mynd dros yr Afon Benwaig g
o over the sea

4 bod newid y penwaig ar (rywbeth)
(district of Arfon) (obsolete) be dirt cheap (be (the) change of a herring on (something), the large amount change received in paying for something is like the great quantity of herring in the sea

5 gwylan y penwaig (Larus argentatus) herring gull
(the) gull (of) the herrings (gwylan = gull) + (y definite article) + (penwaig, plural of pennog = herring)

6 gwylan y gwalch (Larus argentatus) herring gull
(Alca torda) = razorbill
(the) falcon (of) the herrings (gwalch = falcon) + (y definite article) + (penwaig, plural of pennog = herring)
Standard name: llurs

7 Pennog gyda phwn a dyrr asgwrn gefn y ceffyl

(Its) a herring along with a pack that breaks the backbone of a horse
its the straw that broke the camels back


ETYMOLOGY: pennog < penwag empty head (pen = head) + soft mutation + (gwag = empty)


NOTE: Diminutive form: penogyn

:_______________________________.

pennog coch pe-nog kookh masculine noun
PLURAL penwaig coch pen-waig kookh
North Wales
1
smoked herring

ETYMOLOGY: (pennog = herring) + (coch = red)

:_______________________________.

pennu PE-ni (verb)
1
set, establish
pennu cosb addas ir trosedd make the punishment fit the crime (set an adequate punishment for the crime)

2 pennu degwm tithe apportionment, process of fixing the sum to be paid as an annual tithe

3 pennur cyflymder to set the pace

pennur cyflymdra to set the pace

ETYMOLOGY: (penn- < pen = head) + (-u verb suffix)
:_______________________________.

penodau pe NOO de (plural noun)
1
chapters - plural of pennawd

:_______________________________.

penodi pe NOO di (verb)
1
appoint

:_______________________________.

penogyn pe-NOO-gin masculine noun
PLURAL: penogiaid pe- nog -yed
1
herring

2
young herring

ETYMOLOGY: (pennog = herring) + (-yn diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

pen l, pen olau pen OOL, pen le (masculine noun)
1
bottom, ass, arse, backside, bum

2
hollt y pen-l cleavage of the buttocks (split (of) the back end)

:_______________________________.

Pen Pumlumon Arwystli pen pim LI mon a RUIST li
1
'summit of the five hills of the territory of Arwystli

:_______________________________.

pen punt a chynffon dimai pen pint aa khən-fon di-me
1
be expensively dressed when unable to afford it; said of someone who is very smart except for one detail - such as shoes full of holes

pen punt a chynffon dimai yw hi she's all cheap show (Scotland: fur coat an nae knickers)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) head (costing one) pound and (the) tail (costing one) halfpenny
(pen = head) + (punt = pound) + (a = and) + spirant mutation + (cynffon = tail) + (dimai = halfpenny)

:_______________________________.

Pen-rallt pen-ralht
..1/ place names
locality by Pwllheli (county of Gwynedd)

..2/ street name
....a/ Llangefni (county of Mn) (Penrallt)
....b/ Pentre Broughton (county of Wrecsam) (Penrallt)
....c/ Porthaethwy (county of Mn) (Penrallt)
....d/ Saron, Caernarfon (county of Gwynedd) (Penrallt)
....e/ Stad Penrallt Llanystumdwy (county of Gwynedd)
....f/ Penrallt Road, Tywynycapel, near Caergybi (county of Mn) > Ffordd Pen-rallt
....g/ Penrallt Street, Machynlleth (county of Powys) > Stryd Pen-rallt
....h/ Penrallt Terrace, Casnewydd > Rhestr Pen-rallt

ETYMOLOGY: Pen-rallt < pen yr allt (the) top (of) the hill ( pen = head, end, top) + (y definite article) + (allt = hill (North), wood (South))

:_______________________________.

Pen-rhiw pen- hriu
1 (SS2440) locality in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales

2 Pen-rhiw house name in Bangor (county of Gwynedd) (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1) (Pen Rhiw

3 Street name
..1/
.a/ Abergele (county of Conwy) (Penrhiw)
.b/ Dyffryn Ardudwy (county of Gwynedd) (Penrhiw)
.c/ Brynithel (SO2101), Abertyleri (county of Caerffili) (Penrhiw)
.d/ Pen-parc, Aberteifi (county of Ceredigion) (Penrhiw)
.e/ Llangeler, Llandysul (county of Ceredigion) (Penrhiw)
.f/ Llanddewi Felffre (county of Penfro) (Penrhiw)
.g/ Tal-y-bont (district of Meirionnydd, county of Gwynedd) (Penrhiw)

..2/ Penrhiw Avenue, (ST1898), Y Coed-duon (county of Caerffili)
(This would be Coedlan Pen-rhiw in Welsh)

..3/ Penrhiw Road
(This would be Heol Pen-rhiw in Welsh)
.a/ Rhisga (county of Caerffili)
.b/ Treforus (county of Abertawe)

..4/ Penrhiw Street, Bryn, Aberafan (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
(This would be Heol Pen-rhiw in Welsh)

..5/ Penrhiw Terrace
(This would be Rhes / Rhestai / Teras / Rhestr Pen-rhiw in Welsh)
.a/ Pren-teg, Porthmadog (county of Gwynedd)
....b/ Aber-carn (ST2194) (county of Caerffili)
.c/ Oakdale (ST1898), Y Coed-duon (county of Caerffili)

..6/ Parc Pen-rhiw , Betws, Rhydaman (county of Caerfyrddin) (Parc Penrhiw)

ETYMOLOGY: Pen-rhiw = Pen-y-rhiw with the linking definit article omitted
((the) top (of) the slope)
(pen = top) + (y definite article) + (rhiw = slope)

:_______________________________.

Pen-rhiw-goch pen rhiu GOOKH
1
place name - top of the red slope / road
:_______________________________.

Penrhuddfa pen-HRIDH-va
1
SN8355 part of the road from Tregaron to Abergwesyn; Devils Staircase in English (name from the 1930s given by motorbike riders to this stretch of road with various hairpin bends)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/290991

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently based on rhudd (= red);

pen y rhuddfa (pen = summit) + (y definite article) + (rhuddfa = red place)

summit of the red place according to its present form, though rhuddfa is a most unusual word.

:_______________________________.

penrhyn, penrhynoedd / penrhynau PEN rhin, pen RHƏ nodh / pen RHƏ ne (masculine noun)
1
headland, promontory

See also Penthryn

:_______________________________.

Penrhyn Cilgwri PEN-hrin kil-GUU-ri
1
A peninsula in England between the estuaries of the Dyfrdwy / Dee and Mersey

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/287489 SJ3089 Parc Penbedw

ETYMOLOGY: (the) peninsula (of) Cilgwri

Cilgwri ?cil Gwri recess (of) Gwri (cil = recess) + (Gwri personal name)



(delwedd 7438)

:_______________________________.

Y Penrhyn-coch pen-hrin kookh
1
(SN6484) locality in the county of Ceredigion

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN6484

ETYMOLOGY: (penrhyn = promontory) + (coch = red)

:_______________________________.

Penrhyn Cothnais pen-hrin koth-nais, -nes
1
John O Groats (Scotland)

O Bentir Cothnais hyd Ben Tir Cernyw from John OGroats in Scotland to Penn an Wlaz (Lands End) in Cornwall

ETYMOLOGY: (penrhyn = pennsula) + (Cothnais = Caithness, district name; Caithness is from a Scandinavian name based on Gaelic Cataibh (= Sutherland))

(caith- < Cataibh) + (ness = nose, peninsula)

:_______________________________.

Penrhyn Deudraeth (Penrhyn Deudrath) pen-hrin DEI-draith, -drath
1
a headland SH5837 in Gwynedd

The headland is at the junction of Y Traeth Mawr SH5839 (the big sandflat, the greater sandflat) to the west the tidal estuary of Afon Glaslyn, the upper section of which, beyond the embankment (Y Cb) completed in 1811, is now mostly reclaimed land, and Y Traeth Bach SH5357 (the little sandflat, the lesser sandflat) to the south and east, at the estuary of Afon Dwyryd.

As a result of the conversion of most of Y Traeth Mawr to grazing land, this greater sandflat it is now much smaller than the lesser sandflat (Y Traeth Bach).


Trwyn y Penrhyn SH5837 (the) nose (of) the headland the tip of the headland, the tip of the Deudraeth headland


(delwedd 7410)

ETYMOLOGY: penrhyn deudraeth (the) headland (of) Deudraeth

(penrhyn = headland) + (Deudraeth)

Deudraeth two sandflats is (deu- < dau = two) + soft mutation + (traeth = beach, strand, sandflat) that is , Y Traeth Mawr and Y Traeth Bach

http://www.flickr.com/photos/gwylan/2493612128/sizes/o/ Aber Dwyryd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1159427 Y Traeth Mawr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/183606 Y Traeth Mawr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/84815 Y Traeth Bach

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/364696 SH5638 Y Cei Balast

:_______________________________.

Penrhyndeudraeth (Penrhyndeudrath) pen-hrin DEI-draith, -drath
1
village SH6139 in Gwynedd

Short name: Y Penrhyn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/865698 gorsaf y Penrhyn

The village was built in the second half of the nineteenth century by David Williams of Castelldeudraeth in nearby Minffordd. Y Penrhyn Uchaf was originally known as Y Cefn-coch (red hill) , and the name is perpetuated in the name of the primary school Ysgol Cefn Coch.

The lower part of the village is built on reclaimed marshland, and names of terraces in the village recall its watery past Glan-llyn < glan y llyn (the) edge (of) the pool, pool side; and Pen-llyn < pen y llyn (the) end (of) the pool, pools end.


(delwedd 7409)

:_______________________________.

Penrhyn Creuddyn pen-hrin KREI-dhin
1
Creuddyn Peninsula SH7583 Llandudno (Conwy)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=345119

ETYMOLOGY: (the) peninsula (forming part of) (the kmmud of) Creuddyn

Creuddyn was one of the three kmmuds of the kntrev of Rhos, along with Uwch Dulas and Is Dulas

:_______________________________.

Penrhyn Gŵyr pen-hrin GUIR
1
Gower Peninsula, Abertawe

ETYMOLOGY: (the) peninsula (forming part of) (the kmmud of) Gŵyr

(penrhyn = peninsula) + (Gŵyr)

Gŵyr was a kmmud in the kntrev of Eginog
:_______________________________.

Penrhyn-mawr pen hrin MAUR
1
place name - the big promontory

:_______________________________.

pensyfrdanu pen-səvr-DAA-ni (v)
1
(vi) become dizzy, get dizzy; begin to feel dizzy / giddy

2 (vt) pensyfrdanu thrywun make someone dizzy, make someone feel dizzy, make someone feel giddy

ETYMOLOGY: (pensyfrdan = dizzy, giddy) + (-u verb suffix)

:_______________________________.

penthrhyn PEN thrin
1
variant of penrhyn (= promontory) with a n intrusive consonant th-

Occurs in place names
........................................

..a/ Y Penthryn SH8170 farm, Eglwys-bach, county of Dinbych

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH8170 map
........................................

..b/ Y Penthryn SJ1400 farm near Manafon, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1400 map
........................................

..c/ Y Penthryn SJ2717 farm by Y Rhos, Powys, on Clawdd Offa / Offas Dyke

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2717 map
Also SJ2416 Y Penthryn Fechan to the west
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/580932
........................................

..d/ Y Penthryn SO0686 farm by Y Pentre, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0686 map

:_______________________________.

pensaer, penseiri PEN sair, pen SEI ri (masculine noun)
1
architect

:_______________________________.

pensaerniaeth pen seir NI eth (feminine noun)
1
architecture

:_______________________________.

pensafiad pen SAV yad (masculine noun)
1
(athletics) headstand

:_______________________________.

penseiri pen SEI ri (plural noun)
architects - plural of pensaer

:_______________________________.

pensel, penseli PEN sel, pen SE li (feminine or masculine noun)

1 pencil
y bensel / y pensel = the pencil

2 pensel droi pen sel DROI propelling pencil

3 pensel farcio pen sel VARK yo marker pencil

4 pensel graffit pen sel GRA fit graphite pencil, 'lead' pencil

5 pensel ld pen sel LED lead pencil

6 pensel liw pen sel LIU coloured pencil

:_______________________________.

pensen pen -sen feminine noun
1
penny
y bensen the penny

Doos gen i ddim pensen goch I haven`t got a penny, Im skint
(I dont have a red penny that is, the colour of copper)

heb ddim pensen ar eich elw without a penny to your name
(without any penny on your profit)

heb yr un bensen ar eich elw without a penny to your name
(without the one penny on your profit)

bod heb yr un bensen be skint
(be without the one penny)

ETYMOLOGY: (pens < English pence = pennies) + (-en feminine singularising suffix, since the native word ceiniog = penny is feminine )
pence, plural of penny < Old English penig (= penny)

:_______________________________.

pensiwn, pensiynau PEN shun, pen SHƏ ne (masculine noun)
1
pension = old age pension

2 pension = allowance or annuity

3 am bensiwn for all the tea in China, for anything in the world (for a pension)

Wnawn i mohoni am bensiwn I wouldnt do it for all the tea in China

ETYMOLOGY: English pension < Old French pension < Latin pnsiō-n- (= paying in instalments; weighing out) < pendere (= to weigh out)
(past participle pend-tus > pensus) + (suffix -iōn-)

:_______________________________.

pensiynau pen SHƏ ne (plural noun)
1
pensions: see pensiwn

:_______________________________.

pensiynwr pen-shə-nur masculine noun
PLURAL: pensiynwyr pen-shən-wir
1
pensioner

ETYMOLOGY: (pensiyn- = penult form of pensiwn = pension) + (-wr = man)

:_______________________________.

pensiynwraig pen-shən-wreg feminine noun
PLURAL: pensiynwragedd pen-shən-wr-gedh
1
pensioner (woman)
y bensiynwraig the pensioner

ETYMOLOGY: (pensiyn- = penult form of pensiwn = pension) + (-wraig = woman)

:_______________________________.

pensynnwr pen--nur masculine noun
PLURAL: pensynnwr pen-sən-wir
1
daydreamer

ETYMOLOGY: (pensynn- = penult form of pensynnu = to daydream) + (-wr = man)

:_______________________________.

pentan PEN tan (masculine noun)
1 y pair yn gweiddi parddu ar y pentan (the cauldron shouting soot to the fireplace) the pot calling the kettle black - said of someone who criticises another for something which the critic is equally guilty of

:_______________________________.

pen tost pen TOST (masculine noun)
1
headache (South Wales) ; in the North, cur yn y pen

2 Mae pen tost gyda fi pen TOST
I've got a headache (South Wales)

:_______________________________.

Y Pentra ə pen -tra
1
A former name for Merthyrtudful in the district round about

2
A former name for Aber-dr in the district round about

NOTE: the village. In colloquial Welsh a final f is lost > pentre; in the south-east, an e in a final syllable is pronounced a.

:_______________________________.

Pentraeth PEN traith, -treth
1
SH5278 place name (county of Mn) - (the) edge (of) (the) shore

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/212039 y pentre / the village

NOTE: Locally Pentrath PEN-trath
:_______________________________.

pentre PEN tre (masculine noun)
1
see pentref

:_______________________________.

Pentreberw pen tre BEE ru
1
village north-west of Y Gaerwen, Ynys Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4772

:_______________________________.

Pentrecagal pen tre KAA gal
1
farm SN2830 by Tre-lech (county of Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN2830

2 village SN3340 south of Llandyfrog (county of Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=216461

:_______________________________.

Pentrecaseg pen tre KA seg
1
SS7194 village in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan. Called by the English Jersey Marine.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/117747
:_______________________________.

Pentrectheral pen-tre- ka the-ral
1
SJ2767 locality in Sir y Fflint
English name: Northop Hall

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2767

:_______________________________.

Pentre-dŵr pen-tre- duur
1
street name in Rhosllannerchrugog, county of Wrecsam

2 village SJ1946 west of Llangollen, county of Dinbych (misspelt as Pentredwr on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1946

3 village south of Y Trallwng (SS6996) in the county of Abertawe (misspelt as Pentre-dwr no circumflex - on the Ordnance Survey map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS6996

ETYMOLOGY: pentrer dŵr (th
e) pentre (by the) stream

(pentre / pentref village; formerly edge of a trv or township) + (r definite article) + (dŵr = water; stream)

:_______________________________.

Pentre-elan PEN tre EE-lan (masculine noun)
1
SN9365 village in Powys, by Cronlyn Elan / Elan Reservoir

English name: Elan Village

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN9365 map

ETYMOLOGY: (the) village (of) Elan, Elan village (pentre, colloquial form of pentref = village) + (Elan name of the reservoir, and a river name )

:_______________________________.

pentref, pentrefi PEN trev, pen TRE vi (masculine noun)
1
village
2
(the usual colloquial form is pentre PEN tre, or in the 'final-a' areas pentra)

:_______________________________.

Pentrehelygain
pen-tre-he-lə-gen
1
SJ2072 Locality in the county of Y Fflint
1 km north-west of Helygain and 4km south-east of Treffynnon
English name: Pentre Halkyn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/627845 Capel Salem, Pentrehelygain

2
Maeslygan ((the) field (of) Helygain) name of a street (Maes Lygan) in the village

(The local form of Helygain is Lygan
-gan, with the loss of the first syllable, and with final ai > a, a peculiarity of the county of Y Fflint and which is more characteristic of the dialect of the north-west. The county of y Fflint is in north-east Wales, the majority of which has ai > e

To the east is the farm of
Lygan-y-wern (Helygain by the alder swamp)

ETYMOLOGY: the pentre by Helygain (pentre is in modern Welsh village, or in older Welsh peripheral houses of the bondsmen, on the edge of the trv or manor or township )

:_______________________________.

Y Pentre-poeth pen-tre- poith
1
locality in Caer-dydd ST1281
The local form would be Pentra-poth pen-tra pooth
An alternative (but incorrect name) is Treforgan (Welsh), a translation of the English name Morganstown

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST1281 map

2 locality in Treforus SS6698 (county of Abertawe)

The local form would be Pentre-poth;
Here there are streets called Pentrepoeth School Road and Pentrepoeth Road
(which would be Heol Ysgol Pentre-poeth and Heol Pentre-poeth in Welsh)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS6698 map

3 locality in Llanelli SN5001
(county of Caerfyrddin)
The local form would be Pentre-poth
Here there is a street called Pentrepoeth Road
(which would be Heol Pentre-poeth in Welsh)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5001 map

4 SN4115 locality in the county of Caerfyrddin, 4km al south of Caerfyrddin
The local form would be Pentre-poth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN4115 map

5 locality in Rhiwderin ST2686 (county of Casnewydd), 4km west of Casnewydd
The local form would be Pentra-poth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST2686 map
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/351980 Pentre-poeth

Here there are streets called Pentre-Poeth Close and Pentre-Poeth Road
(which would be Clos Pentre-poeth and Heol Pentre-poeth in Welsh)



ETYMOLOGY: pentre poeth - a burnt area near the boundary of a township (Welsh Medieval Society / T. Jones Pierce / 1972 / p136)

(pentre / pentref formerly edge of a trv or township; nowadays village) + (poeth - older Welsh = burnt; modern Welsh = hot)
pentref trv end, the end of a trv / the boundary of a trv / the edge of a trv
(pen = end) + (tref = trv)

:_______________________________.

pentwr, pentyrrau PEN tur, pen TƏ re (masculine noun)
1
pile

2
dan bentwr o covered with (under a pile of)

Roedd y gadair dan bentwr o ddillad the chair was covered in clothes
3
gwneud pentwr o arian (o...) make a fortune (out of...) (make a pile of money)

4 (money saved)
byw ar eich pentwr live off your savings
mynd ir pentwr dip into your savings

:_______________________________.

Pen-twyn pen-tui (settlement name)
frequent in south-east Wales
1 a district of Caer-dydd

2 The Welsh name for Cross Hands SN5612 in Cwm Gwendraeth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5612 map

ETYMOLOGY: pen y twyn (the) top (of) the hill
(pen = top) + (y = definite article) + (twyn = hill)

:_______________________________.

Pentwyndeintur pen-tuin-dein-tir (settlement name)
1
Street name in Craig-berth-lwyd, by Mynwentycrynwyr (county of Merthyrtudful)

ETYMOLOGY: pen twyn y deintur ((the) top (of the) hill (of) the tenter)

The linking definite article is often lost in place names.
(pen = end) + (twyn = hill) + (y = definite article) + (deintur = tenter frame)


:_______________________________.

Pen-tyrch pen- tirkh
1
SN6408 locality in the county of Caer-dydd, south-east Wales
Population (1971): 2,585, Proportion of Welsh-speakers (1971): 13%

2 a parish at this place

3 Equivalents of Pen-tyrch: the English place names of British origin

..a/ Pentrich (Derbyshire, in the English Midlands) and

..b/ Pentridge (Dorset, in the south-west of England)

4 Rhwng gwyr Pen-tyrch 'i gilydd ((leave it) between the people of Pen-tyrch (each) with his fellow) (said when advising somebody not to get involved in other people's disputes); Let them sort out their differences amongst themselves; Dont get involved in their quarrel; Its best to stay out of it, A plague on both their houses

ETYMOLOGY: hill of the wild boar (pen = hill) + (twrch = wild boar).

The form tyrch is apparently a vestige of the genitive form of the noun in British. As in Latin the genitive suffix was -i, but in British this final -i caused a change in the preceding vowel: twrch (= wild boar), and probably tyrch is 'of (the) wild boar'.

The wild boar has been extinct in the island of Britain for many centuries (Extinction probably occurred in the 1200s Source: wikipedia, wild boar).

The Britons used animal skulls on the top of posts as a sign of an assembly. For this reason, it has been suggested that a possible meaning of the place name is 'head of the wild boar' (pen = hilltop, hill, end; head) but this seems very unlikely.

Another example of a British genitive form retained in a place name is Caer-dydd < Caer-dyf Roman fort by the river Taf.

:_______________________________.

pentyriad pen-tər-yad masculine noun
PLURAL pentyriadau pen-tər- y -de
1
pile-up = multiple collisions with vehicles running into the back of each other

ETYMOLOGY: (pentyr- stem of pentyrru = to pile up) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

pentyrrau pen- -re
1
plural of pentwr (= pile)

:_______________________________.

Pentywyn pen TƏ win
1
place name

A farm SN2918 near Meidrim, spelt Pentowyn (dialectal variant of the name)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN2918

ETYMOLOGY: pen y tywyn "(the) end / (the) edge (of) the sand dunes (pen = head, end) + (y = definite article) + (tywyn = sand dunes, burrows)

:_______________________________.

penwaig PEN waig (plural noun)
1
herring

:_______________________________.

penwan pen-wan adjective
South Wales
1
weak in the head, soft in the head, daft in the head, weakminded

2 (plan, scheme, idea) silly, daft, idiotic, stupid, nonsensical, whacky

3 lightheaded, giddy

4 crazy, mad
hala (rhywun) yn benwan drive someone crazy, make someone mad

5 angry
yn benwan holics hopping mad
yn benwan walics hopping mad
yn benwan bared hopping mad (pared = wall)

6 benwan (soft-mutated form) (used as an epithet)
Siarl Benwan Charles the Simple

ETYM
OLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (gwan = weak)

:_______________________________.

Penweddig pen WE dhig
1
a kantrev / cantref in the country (gwlad) of Ceredigion. It was divided into three kmmuds, Genaur Glyn ((the) mouth (of) the valley), Perfedd (interior), and Creuddyn (fortress).


(delwedd 7351)

2 name of the Welsh-language high school in Aberystwyth the town is situated in the old kmmud of Perfedd, in the kntrev of Penweddig.

:_______________________________.

penwirioni pen-wir-y-ni verb
1
penwirioni ar become obsessed with, be obsessed with

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (gwironi = get obsessed)

:_______________________________.

penwyn
pen -win adj
1
feminine form: penwen; plural form penwynion

2 white-headed
(Mergus cucculatus) hooded merganser (white-headed duck)
buwch benwen white-headed cow
Penwen name for a cow

3 (South-east) fair-haired
Dafydd Benwyn (fair-haired David) A poet (sometime between 1550 and 1600) from the old county of Morgannwg, probably from Llangeinwyr (SS9187), who wrote poetry in the strict metres, addressed to the landed families of the south-east

4 white-haired
hen ŵr penwyn a white-haired old man

ETYM
OLOGY: (pen = head) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white)

:_______________________________.

Y Penwynion pen- win -yon
1
Pennines, long ridge in the north of England
Llwybr y Penwynion Pennine Way (a long-distance footpath along this ridge)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) white-topped (hills)

Plural form of the adjective penwyn (= white head / peak). It is a name invented in the twentieth century.

The English name Pennines has the appearance of a Celtic name (pen = head / peak), and occurs in an area where there are many surviving British place names.
However, it is a late invention, from the 18th century, and is modelled on the name Apennines, the mountain range in Italy (1250km)

:_______________________________.

Pen y Begwn pen ə b-gun -
1
SO2436 (677m) mountain 6km south of Y Gelligandryll
English name: Hay Bluff

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/14642

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) summit (of) the beacon)
(pen = peak, top) + (y = definite article) + (begwn = hill, beacon hill)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-bonc pen ə bongk
1
Farm SH2181 south of Mynydd y Tŵr, Caergybi and south-west of Caergybi
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/903274 map
2 Farm in Amlwch, county of Ynys Mn

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) top / (the) end (of) the bank)
(pen = top, end) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (ponc = bank, rising ground, hillock)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-bont pe nə BONT
1
place name - (house) opposite / by the entrance to the bridge

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr pe nə BONT a RO gur
1
place name - town in the south-east

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-bont Rhydybeddau pe nə BONT rhiid ə BE dhe
1
place name, Ceredigion.

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-cae-mawr pen ə kai MAUR
1
place name - end of the big (fenced-in) field

:_______________________________.

Penycaerau <pen-ə-KEI-rai, -e> [pɛnəˡkəɪraɪ, -ɛ]
1
SH2087 locality in the district of Dwyfor (county of Gwynedd)

2
name of a chapel in Steuben, New York State
The numbers of the Calvinistic Methodists who were members of or attended Capel Ucha, the former Union Church, were continually growing larger as new settlers arrived. By 1824 several felt themselves strong enough to organize a church of their own, and aided by Mr. James Owen of Trenton, they incorporated in February of that year and by August had completed Pen-y-caerau, their first church in this vicinity. This was located about a mile east of Remsen village on the hill opposite Capel Ucha, which stood about half a mile west of Remsen in the town of Steuben. Though their building was completed, they did not leave Capel Ucha entirely, as they had no pastor. One of their members, Benjamin Davies, rose to the occasion, began preaching in 1826, and from that date served as the pastor of the church. (The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)

ETYMOLOGY: place at the end of the fort (pen = head) + (y = definite article) + (caerau = fortalesa, plural of caer = fort, wall)

NOTE: The local pronunciation is with final <a> [a] (au in a final syllable is <e> [ɛ] generally; in north-west Wales it is <a> [a])

(delwedd 7423)
:_______________________________.

Penychen <pen-Ə-khen> [pɛnˡəxɛn]
1
place name - summit of the oxen

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-clawdd <pen-ə-KLAUDH> [pɛnəˡklaʊ]
1
place name - end of the ditch / dyke

:_______________________________.

Penycwarel <pen-ə-KWAA-rel> [pɛnəˡkwɑˑrɛl]
1 Pen-y-Cwarel Road street name in Wyllie (ST1794), part of Y Coed-duon (ST1797) (county of Caerffili) This would be Heol Penycwarel in Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: (the) end (of) the quarry, quarry end (pen = head, end) + (y definite article) + (cwarel, which is a southern form of chwarel = quarry)

:_______________________________.

penyd, penydiau <PEE-nid, pe-NƏD-yai, -e> [ˡpeˑnɪd, pɛˡnədjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
penitence
gwneud penyd do penance

2
prison sentence
gwneud penyd yn y carchar do a strech in prison, serve a prison sentence

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-fan <pen-ə-VAN> [pɛnəˡvan]
1
place name - summit of the hill

:_______________________________.

Pen y Foel pen-ə-VOIL [pɛˡvɔɪl]
1
hill name

1 Pen y Foel (
212 metres) SH6639 south of Maentwrog

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6639

2 Pen y Foel (
443 metres) SN8350 near Abergwesyn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN8350

3 Pen y Foel near Llangurig, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN8681

4 Pen y Foel (
356 metres) Pont-y-rhyl, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS9189

4 Pen y Foel, by Rhydwyn,
Ynys Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH3089

ETYMOLOGY: (the) summit (of) the [bare] hill, hill top (pen = head, end) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (moel = [bare] hill)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-foel pen-ə-VOIL
[pɛˡvɔɪl]
1
house name or village name

..a/ Pen-y-foel SJ2156 farm by Graeanyrhyd, county of Dinbych

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2256

..b/ Pen-y-foel SJ2621 Llanymenyech, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2621

..c/ Pen-y-foel farm near Meifod, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1414

..d/ Pen-y-foel
farm near Castell Caereinion, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1705

..e/ Pen-foel farm in Ceredigion near Y Ceinewydd (in this name the linking definite article is dropped, a common feature of Welsh place names)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN3957

ETYMOLOGY: (the) summit (of) the [bare] hill, hill top

See above. As it is a habitative name, the elements form a single written word.

:_______________________________.

pen y glec <pen-ə-GLEK>
[pɛnəˡglɛk] masculine noun
1
South-east Wales (top (of) the chat) place (bridge, street corner, etc) where people come together to chat after work or after a chapel service

See clec

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-garn pen-ə-GARN [pɛnəˡgarn]

1
SO2801 district of Pont-y-pŵl (Torfaen)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO2801

ETYMOLOGY: (the) summit (of) the cairn

(pen = head, end, hilltop, summit) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (carn = cairn, pile of stones)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-graig <pen-ə-GRAIG> [pɛnəˡgraɪg]

1
SS9991 locality the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf, near Tonypandy <HRON-dha -non TAAV> [ˡhrɔna ˡkənɔn ˡtɑˑv]
Population: 7,255 (1971); proportion of Welsh-speakers: 8% (1971)

2
SH2033 locality in Dwyfor (county of Gwynedd), on west side of Llangwnnadl

3
SJ2640 locality in the county of Dinbych

4
name of a street
(a) Caernarfon (English name: Pool Lane)
(b) Rhiwbina, Caer-dydd

5
name of a chapel in between Remsen and Boonville, New York State
The Calvinistic Methodists established the following churches. In 1828 a church was established known as Pen-y-graig on the road from Remsen to Boonville, three miles from Remsen village in the town of Steuben. In the same year, Capel Nant was built in Steuben about three miles southwest of Remsen village. In 1828 also they organized a church at French Road in Steuben township about two miles north of Pen-y-graig. They were not able here to erect a church building until 1835. Three years after these three Calvinistic Methodist churches were organized, another was formed, this in the village of Remsen in 1831, known as Capel Careg (Stone Church). (The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)
(Other sources give the name as Capel Cerrig (the) chapel ([built] of) stones, which seems to be the more likely name; capel carreg seems to be an incorrect literal retranslation from English stone chapel)

ETYMOLOGY: (place at the) end (of) the crag / rock (pen = head, end) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (craig = crag, rock)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-lan <pen-ə-LAN> [pɛnəˡlan]
1
(ST1978) locality in Caer-dydd
(1971) population: 22,225; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 8%
The name is mentioned by John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911): PEN-Y-LAN (the end of the height.) A gentle eminence to the north-east of Cardiff, lying in the parish of Roath. It is the south-eastern spur of the Cefn-coed. The name is applied particularly to a house and land, near the summit, belonging to Mr. Fedele PRIMAVESI.

ETYMOLOGY: pen y lan (the) end / edge (of) the slope)
(pen = end / head / top) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (glan = shore, bank, slope, hill).

:_______________________________.

Pen y Morfa <pen-ə-MOR-va> [pɛnəˡmɔrva]
1
see the habitative name Penymorfa
:_______________________________.

Penymorfa <pen-ə-MOR-va> [pɛnəˡmɔrva]
1
street name
..b/ Pen-clawdd (county of Abertawe)

....a/ Penymorfa street name, Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin) (written as three words Pen y Morfa)

....b/ Penymorfa street name, Llangynnwr (SN4320) (county of Caerfyrddin) (written Penymorfa)

....c/ Penymorfa street name, Pen-clawdd (county of Abertawe)
Also Penymorfa Lane, Caerfyrddin (this would be Ln Penymorfa / Heol Penymorfa in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: pen y morfa (the) end / edge / headland (of) the sea marsh)

(pen = end / head) + (y definite article) + (morfa = sea marsh).
NOTE: The linking definite article is often omitted in place names: pen y morfa > pen morfa Pen morfa, Penmorfa

See Pen Morfa, Penmorfa

:_______________________________.

Penymynydd <pen-ə--nidh> [pɛnəˡmənɪ]
1
SJ3062 locality north of Pen-y-ffordd in the county of Y Fflint

2
street name
..a/ Croeserw (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..b/ Y Betws (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

3 name of a chapel near Remsen, New York State
While the Calvinistic Methodists were thus multiplying their organization, the Congregationalists were not idle. Many of the members of Capel Ucha lived on the hills to the north and west (of Remsen). For their benefit in March 1832 Penymynydd (Top of the Mountain) was organized, and a building erected about three miles north of Capel Ucha. This church almost to the present time has been served by the pastor at Capel Ucha. Six years after this two other Congregational churches were founded in the neighborhood, Peniel and Bethel. Morris Roberts, the pastor, was turned out of Capel Careg, the C. M. church in Remsen village, on account of liberal views. A large number of his congregation went with him and established a Congregational society in the village in 1838. A church was erected called Peniel. (The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) end (of) the high ground (pen = end) + (y = definite article) + (mynydd = mountain, high ground)

:_______________________________.

Pen y Parc <pen-ə-PARK> [pɛnəˡpark]
1
(SJ2169) headland on the island of Mn, near Gwalchmai; English name: Bodorgan Head

ETYMOLOGY: end (of) the field or headland of the field (pen = end; headland) + (y = definite article) + (parc = field)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-parc <pen-ə-PARK> [pɛnəˡpark]
1
Place in Llantarnam (Torfaen)

(Mentioned in Llantarnam Burials 1813-74)

Thos s/o Thos (Thomas son of Thomas) & Ann Whittaker, Penypark in Lantarnam (died) 27 Oct 1814 (aged) 4 yrs http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~monfamilies/llantarnbur1813-74.htm

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-pil <pen-ə-PIIL> [pɛnəˡpiːl]
1
place name

..a/ ..Pen-y-pil John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) notes this name in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911): PEN-Y-PIL (the head of the inlet.) A farm in the parish of Rumney.

..b/ There is a street called Pen-y-peel Road (which would be Heol Pen-y-pil in Welsh) in Treganna, Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (the) head (of) the the tidal creek (pen = head, top) + (y definite article) + (pil tidal creek)

:_______________________________.

Pen-yr-allt <pen-ər-ALHT> [pɛnərˡaɬt]
..1/ place name
....a/ Treffynnon (county of Y Fflint)

..2/ street name
....a/ Garnant, Rhydaman (county of Caerfyrddin) (Penyrallt)

....b/ Caerffili (Pen-yr-rallt)
....c/ Penyrallt Avenue, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

ETYMOLOGY: pen yr allt (the) top (of) the hill ( pen = head, end, top) + (y definite article) + (allt = hill (North), wood (South))

NOTE: See also Pen-rallt

:_______________________________.

Pen-yr-heol <pen-ər-HEE-OL> [pɛnəˡrheˑɔl]
1
place name - end of the road (house at a crossroad or where a road enters a village)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-rhiw <pen-ə-HRIU> [pɛnəˡhrɪʊ]
1 (SS2440) locality in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales

2 Street name
....a/ Llanwenarth, Y Fenni (county of Conwy) (Penyrhiw)
....b/ Ystrad, Pentre (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (Pen-y-Rhiw)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) top (of) the slope)
(pen = top) + (y = definite article) + (rhiw = slope)

NOTE: Cf Pen-rhiw = Pen-y-rhiw with the linking definite article omitted

:_______________________________.

Penyrwrlodd <pen-ər-UR-lodh> [pɛnərˡʊrlɔ]
1 farm name

..1 Llanigon: In his Topographical Dictionary of Wales, 1849, Samuel Lewis, under Llanigon (modern-day Brycheiniog district of Powys), states:

Upon a high bank to the south-east of the church is Penyrwrlodd, now a farmhouse, originally built in 1651, by William Watkins, an active officer in the army of the parliament during the reign of Charles I., and one of the principal agents of the propagators of the Gospel in South Wales

..2/ Farm name in Talgarth (Brycheiniog district of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) end (of) the hay meadow)
(pen = top) + (y = definite article) + sioft mutation + (gweirglodd (f) = hay meadow)

NOTE: gwrglodd is a southern form of gweirglodd (qv)

:_______________________________.

Pen-y-sarn <pen-ə-SARN> [pɛnəˡsarn]

1 place name - end of the causeway
Also: Pen-sarn

:_______________________________.

Pen y Twmpa <pen-ə-TUM-pa> [pɛnəˡtʊmpa]
1
(635mm) SO2235 peak in southern Powys, 7km east of the village of Talgarth.
English name: The Tumpa, or Lord Hereford's Knob

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) summit (of) the mounds / hillocks)??
(pen = peak, top) + (y = definite article) + (twmpe = mounds, hillocks; southern form of tympiau, plural of twmp (= mound, tumulus, hillock)). If this is the explanation, it is difficult to account for the final -a. In South-east Wales a final -e becomes -a (twmpe > twmpa), but this feature is not found in southern Powys (in the area which is the former county of Brycheiniog)

:_______________________________.

Penywerlod <pen-ə-WER-lod> [pɛnəˡwɛrlɔd]
1
pen y werlod (the) end / edge (of) the haymeadow
Penywerlod Road, street name in Markham, Y Coed-duon (county of Caerffili)
The Welsh name would be Heol Penywerlod

ETYMOLOGY: (pen = end) + soft mutation + (gwerlod, a southern form of gweirglodd (= hay meadow)

:_______________________________.

pr PEER [peːr]
1
helygen br (PLURAL: helyg pr) (Salix pentandra)
bay willow (also laurel-leaved willow)
See: helygen beraroglaidd


:_______________________________.

peraidd PEER-aidh, -edh [ˡpeˑraɪ, -ɛ]
1
sweet

(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:6 Y mae offrwm y duwiol yn gwneuthur yr allor yn fras, a'i arogl peraidd ef sy gerbron y Goruchaf. (Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:6 The offering of the righteous maketh the altar fat, and the sweet savour thereof is before the most High.

:_______________________________.

peraroglaidd <per-a-RO-glaidh, -edh> [pɛraˡrɔglaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
1
perfumed, sweet-scented
helygen beraroglaidd (Salix pentandra)
bay willow (also laurel-leaved willow, sweet willow)


ETYMOLOGY: (perarogl = perfume) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives )

:_______________________________.

perchennog, perchnogion <per-KHE-nog, perkh-NOG-yon> [pɛrˡxɛnɔg, pɛrxˡnɔgjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
owner

:_______________________________.

perchyll <PER-khilh> [ˡpɛrxɪɬ] (plural noun)
1
piglets; plural of porchell

:_______________________________.

Peredur <pe-REE-dir> [pɛˡreˑdɪr] (masculine noun)
1
man's name, revived in the 1900s. See Mabinogi

:_______________________________.

peren, pr <PEE-ren, PEER> [ˡpeˑrɛn, peːr] (feminine noun)
1
pear
y beren the pear

:_______________________________.

pererin, pererinion <pe-REE-rin, pe-re-RIN-yon> [pɛˡreˑrɪn, pɛrɛˡrɪnjɔn] (masculine noun)
1 pilgrim

:_______________________________.

pererindod, pererindodau <pe-re-RIN-dod, pe-re-rin-DOO-dai, -de> [pɛrɛˡrɪndɔd, pɛrɛrɪnˡdoˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 pilgrimage

mynd ar bererindod go on a pilgrimage

Pererindod Melangell (Melangells pilgrimage) [pe-re-RIN-dod me-LAN-gelh] name of a 15-mile path in mid-Wales from Pont Llogell, through Coedwig Dyfnant to Llyn Fyrnwy, through Coedwig Hirnant and on to the church dedicated to the female saint of the Celtic Church Melangell in Pennant Melangell
:_______________________________.

..1 perfedd, perfeddion / perfeddau <PER-vedh, per-VEDH-yon / per-VEE-dhai, e> [ˡpɛrvɛ, pɛrˡvɛjɔn / pɛrˡveˑaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
centre; intestines

:_______________________________.

..2 Perfedd <PER-vedh> [ˡpɛrvɛ]
1
name of two 'commotes' (division of a kantrev) in the south-west; = middle country

:_______________________________.

perfeddwlad <per-VEDH-wlad> [pɛˡveˑwlad] feminine noun
1
interior, heartland, middle territory, buffer country, midlands, inland region
y berfeddwlad the midlands

2 ym mherfeddwlad Lloegr in deepest England

3 Perfeddwlad or Y Berfeddwlad medieval territory situated between Powys and Gwynedd, between the rivers Conwy and Dyfrydwy, comprising the four kantrevs (cantrefi) of Rhos, Rhufoniog, Dyffryn Clwyd and Tegeingl ; later it became known as Gwynedd Is Conwy (Gwynedd below Conwy, the part of the country of Gwynedd on the far side of the river Conwy). Frequently attacked by the English as it lacked natural defensive features, unlike the mountainous region to the west


(delwedd 7342)
ETYMOLOGY: (perfedd = middle; intestines) + soft mutation + (gwlad = country)

:_______________________________.

perffaith <PER-faith, -eth> [ˡpɛrfaɪθ, -ɛθ] (adjective)
1
perfect

:_______________________________.

perfformiad, perfformiadau <per-FORM-yad, per-form-YAA-dai, e> [pɛrˡfɔrmjad, ˡpɛrfɔrmˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
performance

:_______________________________.

perfformiadol <per-form-YAA-dol> [pɛrfɔrmˡjɑˑdɔl] adjective
1
celfyddydau perfformiadol performing arts

ETYMOLOGY: (perfformiad = performance) + (-ol prefix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

perfformio <per-FORM-yo> [pɛrˡfɔrmjɔ] (verb)
1
to perform

:_______________________________.

perigl (perig)
<PEE-rigl, PEE-rig> [ˡpeˑrɪgl, ˡpeˑrɪg] masculine noun
1 danger
See perygl
The standard form is perygl, plural peryglon, but a more correct form is with i in the singular - perigl, plural peryglon, since in North Wales, where a distinction is made between y and i (in the south they are pronounced the same) this word is always pronounced with i

:_______________________________.

Peris <PEE-ris> [ˡpeˑrɪs]
1
river in Ceredigion

2 stream in Gwynedd

:_______________________________.

perl <PERL> [pɛrl] masculine noun
PLURAL perlau <PER-lai, e> [ˡpɛrlaɪ, -ɛ]
1 pearl = white, bluish-grey foreign body found in the shell of a pearl oyster
pysgodfa perlau pearl fishery
pysgota am berlau, pysgota perlau pearl fishing

2 pearl = this object considered as a gem
cadwyn o berlau string of pearls, pearl necklace
botwm perl pearl button, button made of mother-of-pearl
perl gwneud cultivated pearl, cultured pearl

3 pearl = material of which the gates of Heaven are made in Saint John's vision of Heaven
Datguddiad 21:21 A'r ddeudeg porth, deuddeg perl oeddynt; a phob un o'r pyrth oedd o un perl
Revelation 21.21 And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl

4 pearl = a valuable thing

5 taflu perlau o flaen moch cast pearls before swine, offer or give something valuable or helpful or useful to somebody too ignorant to appreciate or use it

Mathew 7:6 Na roddwch y peth sydd sanctaidd i'r cwn, ac na theflwch eich gemau o flaen y moch; rhag iddynt eu sathru dan eu thraed, a throi a'ch rhwygo chwi
Matthew 7:6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you

6 perl gwerthfawr a pearl of great price, something of great value, something that should be regarded as valuable

Mathew 13:45 Cyffelyb yw teyrnas nefoedd i farchnatwr, yn ceisio perlau teg (13:46) Yr hwn wedi iddo gaffael un perl gwerthfawr, a aeth, ac a werthodd gymaint oll ag a feddai, a'i prynodd ef
Matthew 13:45 The kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls (13:46) Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it

7 pearl, jewel; = finest example of its kind
Perl ymysg merched oedd Gwenno, yn l ei sboner
Gwenno was a pearl compared with other girls, according to her fianc

8 pearl = (jokes, stories, expression) one which is considered extremely amusing
Yn y casgliad o ffraethebion Llyn ac Eifionydd ceir y perlau hyn...
In the collection of humor from (the districts of) Llyn and Eifionydd there are the following pearls...

9 pearl = thing similar in shape to a pearl (teardrop, raindrop, drop of water, etc)
Pan welir perlau glaw yn hir ymaros ar frigau coed y gaeaf yn ardal Llanuwchllyn, daw eira i'r mynyddoedd (Llafar Gwlad Chwefror-Mai 1983)
When pearls of rain stay for a long time on (bare) winter branches of trees in the area of Llanuwchllyn snow will come to the mountains

10 obsolete perl (yn llygad rhywun) cataract

11 dathlu eich priodas berl celebrate one's pearl wedding anniversary (thirty years of marriage)

ETYMOLOGY: English pearl < Middle English perle < Middle French < Italian perla
< Vulgar Latin *pernula, diminutive form of perna (= sea mussel; leg, thing shaped like a leg of mutton)

NOTE: diminutive form: perlyn masculine noun, perlen feminine noun

:_______________________________.

perlaidd <PER-laidh, -edh> [ˡpɛrlaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
1
of the colour of pearl
gwyn perlaidd pearl white

ETYMOLOGY: (perl = pearl) + (-aidd suffix to form adjectives)

:_______________________________.

perlesmair <per-LES-mair, -er> [pɛrˡlɛsmaɪr, -ɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL perlesmeiriau <per-les-MEIR-yai, e> [pɛrlɛsˡməɪrjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
rapture

ETYMOLOGY: (pr = sweet) + soft mutation + (llesmair = swoon, faint)

:_______________________________.

perlesmeirio <per-les-MEIR-yo> [pɛrlɛsˡməɪrjɔ]
1
perlesmeirio (dros rywbeth) go into raptures (over something)

ETYMOLOGY: (perlesmair = rapture) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

perlesmeiriol <per-les-MEIR-yol> [pɛrlɛsˡməɪrjɔl]adjective
1
rapturous, extatic

ETYMOLOGY: (perlesmair = rapture) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

perllan, perllannau <PER-lhan, per-LHA-nai, e> [ˡpɛrɬan, pɛrˡɬanaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
orchard
y berllan the orchard

2 Brynberllan <brin-BER-LHAN> [brɪnˡbɛrɬan] A house name in Pwllheli (county of Gwynedd) (spelt as Bryn Berllan).
bryn y berllan (the) hill (of) the orchard, orchard hill (bryn = hill) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (perllan = orchard) NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: bryn y berllan > bryn berllan

:_______________________________.

perlog <PER-log> [ˡpɛrlɔg] adjective
1
pearly

2
haidd perlog pearl barley

3
wystrysen berlog pearl oyster

ETYMOLOGY: (perl = pearl) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

perorasiwn <per-o-RA-shun> [pɛrɔˡraʃʊn] masculine noun
PLURAL perorasiynau <per-o-ra-SHƏ-nai, e> [pɛrɔraˡʃənaɪ, -ɛ]
1
peroration = last part of a speech, recapitulation and emphasis of the main points

Ar ddiwedd ei berorasiwn gofynnodd: Wedi'r cwbl, beth yw'r gwahaniaeth rhwng Rhyddfrydwr a Thori?
At the end of his peroration he asked, After all, what's the difference between a Liberal and a Tory?

ETYMOLOGY: English peroration < Latin perrti < perrare (per = completely) + (orre = to speak)

:_______________________________.

Persia <PERS-ya> [ˡpɛrsja] feminine noun
1
Persia
Persiar henfyd Ancient Persia (Prsia (of) the ancient world)


:_______________________________.

Persian words in Welsh

See: caci (= khaki)


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persli <PER-sli> [ˡpɛrslɪ] masculine noun
1
parsley
saws persli parsley sauce

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English <prsli> [ˡprslɪ] persely (influenced by Old French persil) < Old English petersilie both the English and French words are from Late Latin petrosilium < pertroselnum < Greek petroselnon (= rock parsley).

Modern English parsley <PAA-sli> [ˡpɑˑslɪ] shows the change er > ar, which occured after the word was borowed into Welsh, and the Welsh word maintains the old vowel of the former English form

In Modern French it is persil, as in Old French

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person, personiaid <PER-son, per-SON-yaid, -ed> [ˡpɛrsɔn, pɛrˡsɔnjaɪd, -ɛd] (masculine noun)
1
parson

2 trwyn y person (American: popes nose) (Englandic: parsons nose)
fatty part of tail end of a cooked chicken ((the) nose (of) the parson)

3
Caeperson
..a/ Llanrŵst (county of Conwy) (Cae Person)
..b/ Llanddarog (county of Caerfyrddin) (Cae Person)

caer person (the) field (of) the parson
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + (person = parson)

The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae

4
person, individual

:_______________________________.

persondy <per-SON-di> [pɛrˡsɔndɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL persondai <per-SON-dai> [pɛrˡsɔndaɪ]
1
parsonage, rectory = house of a rector, usually the property of the church; glebehouse

2 house name
Persondy / Y Persondy The Parsonage;
Hen Bersondy / Yr Hen Bersondy The Old Parsonage = the former parsonage

:_______________________________.

personl <per-so-NEL> [pɛrsɔˡnɛl] masculine noun
1
personnl
swyddfa bersonl personnel office
Uned Hyfforddiant a Phersonl Training and Personnel Unit

ETYMOLOGY: English personnel (= staff, workers, employees) < French < Latin personalis (adjective = personal) < persna (= mask), possibly from Etruscan phersu (= mask)

:_______________________________.

Personiaid Bangor <per-SON-yaid, -ed, BANG-gor> [pɛrˡsɔnjaɪd, -ɛd, ˡbaŋgɔr] (plural noun)
1
name given to white rainclouds in the country west of Bangor - literally parsons from Bangor

:_______________________________.

personol <per-SOO-nol> [pɛrˡsoˑnɔl] (adjective)
1
personal

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person plwyf (person plwy) <per-son PLUIV / PLUIV> [ˡpɛrsɔn ˡplʊɪv / ˡplʊɪ] (masculine noun)
1
parish priest

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perswadio <per-SWAD-yo> [pɛrˡswadjɔ] (verb)
1
persuade

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pert <PERT> [pɛrt] (adjective)
1
(South) pretty

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perth, perthi <PERTH, PER-thi> [pɛrθ, ˡpɛrθɪ] (feminine noun)
1
bush
y berth the bush

2 Y Ddwyberth <ə DHUI-berth > [ə ˡʊɪbɛrθ] the two bushes / hedges name of a street in Porthtywyn (county of Caerfyrddin)

3 (North) plentyn llwyn a pherth <PLEN-tin HLUIN a FERTH > [ ˡplɛntɪn ɬʊɪn a fɛrθ] lovechild (child (of) bush and thicket)

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perthen PER then (feminine noun)
1
bush (diminutive form); see perth
y berthen the bush

Y Berthen-gron Farm SJ2849, by Y Coed-poeth, Wrecsam

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/208635 Y Berthen-gron

the round bush (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (perthen = bush) + soft mutation + (cron, feminine form of crwn = round)



ETYMOLOGY: (perth = bush) + (-en diminutive suffix)
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perthog PER thog (adjective)
1
bush-covered, bushy

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perthynas, perthnasau per THƏ nas, perth NA se (masculine noun)
1
relationship

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perthyn i PER thin (verb)
1
belong to 2 (person) be related to

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perthynol per THƏ nol (adjective)
1
realtive, belonging to
2
cymal perthynol relative clause

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perygl, peryglon PE ri gəl, PE rig; pe RƏ glon (masculine noun)
1
danger

2 perygl bywyd danger to life and limb a menace, source of danger (danger (of) life)
Mae dilyn llwybr cyhoeddus yn un rhan o Gymru yn beryg bywyd
ar l i ffordd osgoi newydd gael ei hagor. Mae pedwar llwybr
cyhoeddus yn croesi ffordd osgoi newydd Y Felinheli yng Ngwynedd

Following a public footpath in one part of Wales is a danger to life and limb after a new bypass was opened . Four public footpaths cross the new the bypass in Felinheli in Gwynedd (Cymro 08 Mehefin 1994)

3 perygl i gyfrinachedd security risk (danger to secrecy)

4 mynd i berygl colli risk defeat, run the risk of losing

5 troi perygl heibio ward off danger

6 bod mewn perygl o gael eu difa be under threat of extinction (be in danger of receiving its destroying)

NOTE: The standard form is perygl, plural peryglon, but a more correct form is with i in the singular - perygl, plural peryglon, since in North Wales, where a distinction is made between y and i (in the south they are pronounced the same) this word is always pronounced with i

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peryglu pe RƏ gli (verb)
1
endanger, put in danger
2
peryglu`ch bywyd / perygluch einioes put someone's life in danger

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peryglus pe RƏ glis (adjective)
1
dangerous
2
mentro ar dir peryglus tread on delicate ground, be in a delicate situation

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Pesda PE sta (feminine noun)
1
colloquial name for Bethesda

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peswch PE sukh (masculine noun)
1
cough
2
Mae peswch arna i I have a cough (there is a cough on me)

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pesychu pe SƏ khi (verb)
to cough

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peti pe TAI (verb)
if it were

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petwn i
pe taun ii
1
if I could
Petwn i ond yn gallu! If only I could! (if I could but be able)

ETYMOLOGY: petwn < ped bawn (= if I were)

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..1 peth, pethau PEETH, PE the (masculine noun)
1
thing

2 ei gadael hi rhwng rhywun ai bethau
let somebody stew in their own juice = leave somebody to deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of their actions

rhyngddo ef ai bethau! let him stew in his own juice, let him deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of their actions

3 hynny o beth that matter, that point, that thing

Rw in hollol bendant ar hynny o beth Im absolutey certain on that point

4
dim o beth (in referring to childhood) lit: nothing of a thing
Pan oeddwn i'n ddim o beth When I was tiny, When I was a tiny little thing, When I was very little
ers yn ddim o beth since I was very young

5 Pethau cyntaf ymlenaf First things first

6 gwaelbeth shoddy product, shoddy piece of work, bad thing (gwael = bad) + soft mutation + ( peth = thing )

7
y peth hollol groes i
the complete opposite of

8
Daw pethaun well Things will get better, Things will work out

9 Mae rhyw bethau rhyfedd ynddo Hes got some odd ways
Mae rhyw bethau d ynddo Hes got some odd ways

10 y fath beth such a thing
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (math = kind, sort, type) + soft mutation + (peth = thing)
Duw an gwaredo rhag y fath beth God save us from such a thing!

11 yr union beth the very thing, the eaxt same thing
yr union beth y mae ei angen just what is needed, exactly what is required (the very thing that there-is its need)
Dymar union beth yr oedd ei angen Its just what we needed, Its exactly what we had to have

12 many expressions with pethau = things (of course, this can be replaced with a more specific noun books, notes, etc )
rhoi pethau yn eu trefn sort things out, put things in order (put things in their order)

13 Mae golwg ddu ar bethau Things look less than hopeful, Things look pretty bad (theres a black view on things)

14 Nid ywn fawr o beth Its nothing sensational, Its nothing grand

15 peth mawr (great thing)
tyngu ar eich peth mawr
swear by all that is holy
mynd ar eich peth mawr swear by all that is holy
dweud ar eich peth mawr swear by all that is holy
addo ar eich peth mawr promise on you honour

16 gadael llonydd i bethau let things take their course
gadael i bethau ddilyn ei hynt let things take their course
gadael i bethau fod let things take their course

17 gweld sut y mae pethau see how things are / see how things stand, see how the land lies

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *kwesd-

Irish cuid (= piece, portion) is probably a cognate

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..2 peth peeth determiner
1
some = a certain amount of, a bit of

am beth amser for a bit, for some time

cael peth llwyddiant meet with a certain amount of success, be moderately successful

Ni fu eried fwg heb beth tn Theres no smoke without fire = however unlikely a rumour may seem, there is often some basis for a rumour starting (there never has been smoke without a bit of fire)

Nid oes da heb beth drwg ynddo
too much of a good thing is a bad thing (There is no good without some bad in it)

ETYMOLOGY: < peth (= thing)

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pethma
peth -ma masculine noun
(North Wales)
1
vagina, cunt

ETYMOLOGY: (y) peth ma (= this thing)

(y = definite article ) + (peth = thing) + (ma < yma = here)


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petrisen, petris pe TRI sen, PE tris (feminine noun)
1
partridge
y betrisen the partridge

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petrol PE trol (masculine noun)
1
petrol

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petruso pe TRI so (verb)
1
to hesitate

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petruster pe-tri-ster masculine noun
1
hesitation

ETYMOLOGY: (petrus- stem of petruso = to hesitate) + (-ter suffix for forming abstract nouns)



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Peuliniog pei LIN yog
1
commote name

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peuoedd PEI odh (plural noun)
1
plural of pau, a literary word for country

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PH, ph fii feminine noun
1
) twenty-first letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
..1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y
(1) In the 1800s used in spellings which now have ff: Gorphenaf (Gorffennaf = July), corph (corff = body)

(2) Used in some proper names and words derived from them in modern Welsh: Philip (= Philip), Philistaidd (= Philistine), Phoenicaidd (= Phoenecian)

(3) ph f is also the spirant mutation of p
...(a) after a (= and), (= with), gyda (= with)
...(b) after ei, 'i (= her)
pen (= head), ei phen (= her head)
...(c) after tri (= three), chwe (= six)
...(d) after tra (= extremely, very)

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Phallus impudicus

1
cingroen (f) (qv) stinkhorn, a fungus which gives off an offensive smell
y gingroen
the stinkhorn
MEANING: shred of skin

(cin = shred, rag, piece) + soft mutation + (croen = skin).
Maybe because it was used as an exfoliant it appears that even today the stinkhorn is used in skincreams in some countries.

2 pidyn drewllyd (qv) stinkhorn, a fungus which gives off an offensive smell
MEANING: stinking penis (pidyn = penis) + (drewllyd = stinking)


(delwedd 7059)

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Pholis gunnellus
1
llyfrothen (f) llyfrothennod butterfish

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pia, piaid PI a, PI aid -ed (masculine noun)



(delwedd 7060)

1
(South-east Wales) magpie (Pica pica).

y pia the magpie

Sometimes a a feminine noun y bia

2 Llwynypia place name (the) grove (of) the magpie, magpie grove

..a/ village in Rhondda Fawr

..b/ farm in Llys-faen, Caer-dydd

3 mor ffraeth r pia brith ar y berth as loquacious / talkative as the black and white magpie on the hedge (the idea of the talkativeness of a magpie occurs too in the French expression bavarder comme une pie to chatter like a magpie)

4 Though pia is mainly associateds with south-east Wales, it seems to have occurred too in the north.

In Llandudno there is Ffordd Brynybia (Bryn y Bia Road) (in this case it seems that pia was a feminine word, hence y bia) and Cwrt Brynybia (Bryn y Bia Court), from the name of a house formerly in this location called Brynybia (Bryn y Bia), said to be (the) hill (of) the magpie.

NOTE: In northern Welsh pioden / piogen

ETYMOLOGY:
This may have been a direct loan from French to Welsh.

pia
(= magpie) < French pie (= magpie)

If indirect, then from French into English and then into Welsh

pia (= magpie) < English (pie = magpie) < French pie (= magpie)

Both in French and in English the pronunciation would have been with [i]. Modern English has pie [ai] from the long vowel shift, where [ii] subsequently became [ai]

The plural is piaid < pia-aid (pia = magpie) + (-aid = plural suffix).



(delwedd 7061)



VARIANT: pi

In Llan-bryn-mair Perth-y-bi is noted in 1889:

PERTHYBI the magpies bush

p. 264 Collections Historical And Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders Volume XXIII 1889

A History of the Parish of Llanbrynmair / Richard Williams FRHS

Chapter XII A Glossary of Local Names



NOTE: In English mag (= Margaret) has been added before pie (Margaret the pie), a feature of some other bird and animal names (robin redbreast, tom tit, jenny wren, billy goat)

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paid PI ed (plural noun)
1
magpies; see pia

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piano, pianos pi A no, pi A nos (masculine noun)
1
piano

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piau PI e (verb)
who is the owner of
1
Fi pie hwn
- This is mine, (it is) I who-is-the-owner (of) this

2
Fi piau gwneud rhywbeth Its up to me to do something ((it is) I who-owns (the) doing (of) something)

3
Y dewr biaur dydd (the brave man has the day) Faint heart never won fair lady

4 Ara deg piau hi Dont get het up! Keep calm! (slow fair has it)

5 Y na piau hi (Parliament) The noes have it (= the motion has been defeated)

6 Heddiw piau hi, nid yfory Dont put off until tomorrow what you can do today, Dont leave until tomorrow what you can do today

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pib, pibau PIIB, PI be (feminine noun)
1
pipe
y bib the pipe

2 (South-east Wales) mycu pib to smoke a pipe (in the south-east, initial g in a final consonant regularly devoiced to c) < mygu pib

3 pib glai, pibau clai piib GLAI, pi be KLAI (feminine noun)
clay pipe

4 pib mate piib MA te (feminine noun)
mate pipe (Patagonia)

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pibell, pibelli / pibellau pi BELH, pi BE lhi / pi BE lhe (feminine noun)
1
pibe
y bibell the pipe

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pibell fwyd, pibelli bwyd pi belh VUID, pi be lhi BUID (feminine noun)
1
esophagus (Englandic: oesophagus)

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pibell wynt, pibelli gwynt pi belh WINT, pi be lhe GWINT (feminine noun)
1
trachea, windpipe

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pibydd, pibyddion PI bidh, pi BƏDH yon (masculine noun)
1
piper; (bird) sandpiper

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pibydd tinwyn p-bidh tin-win masculine noun
PLURAL pibyddion tinwyn pi-bədh-yon tin-win
1
Calidris fuscicollis = white-rumped sandpiper

ETYMOLOGY: (white-arsed piper) (pibydd = piper) + (tinwyn = white-arsed)

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pica pi -ka adjective
1
sharp, pointed, ending in a sharp point
trwyn pica pointed nose
blaen pica pointed end (of a stick, bar, etc)

2 (tongue) sharp, harsh
Mae tafod pica iawn da hi Shes got a really sharp tongue

3
curt, abrupt, having a sharp manner
dyn pica abrupt man