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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

 

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TUDALENNAU ERAILL Y GEIRIADUR HWN

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_____________________

o
a > o


1
Studies in Welsh Phonology / Samuel J. Evans / 1909 / t19 In Anglesey and Carnarvonshire dafad is regularly pronounced dafod.

Cf southern Welsh yn wastad > wastod (= always)

:_______________________________.

o < y

In a handful of words, preceding a consonantal w, y becomes o, though not in standard Welsh; this is a change that is centuries old

Hywel > Howel (forename)

ap Hywel / Pywel > Powel
(patronymic)

mynwent
(= cemetery) > monwent


mynwes (= bosom) > monwes

mynach
(= cemetery) > monach

A possibility too is Mynwy (river name, in English as Monnow) > *Monwy > *Monw

:_______________________________.

o < aw

Regularly in a final syllable, but the aw reemerges in the penultimate syllable of derivative forms

athro (= male teacher) < athraw

athrawon (= teachers), athrawes (= female teacher)


In some words it is not reduced

Ionawr (= January) in standard Welsh, though colloquially Ionor


Also in stress shift, especially noticeble in pplace names with an original mawr / fawr (= big)


crug-mwr (great heap / lump) > crg-mawr > Crugmor (SN2047 farm in Llangoedmor)

Crug mawr was the name of the hill now known as Banc y Warren

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/54234

 

The change often obscures one-syllable words in derivative forms:

 

anodd (= difficult) < anawdd < n-hawdd (an = negating prefix) + (hawdd = easy)

difrod (= damage) < difrawd (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (brawd = judgement)

Many words have the reduction in the penultimate syllable

sawdl (= heel), sodlau (= heels)

caws (= cheese), cosyn (= a cheese)

:_______________________________.

o in monosyllables

G: (long vowel) clog / glog, cog / gog, llog / log

(short vowel) (generally words taken from Englsh) lg, ffg

 

:_______________________________.

o < dialect English o

 

Some loan words from English have o whereas standard English has a

This o was a feature of north-midland English dialects

In Welsh mon for man, used as a suffix (though sometimes the compound word is direct from English)

postmon (= postman)

porthmon (= cattle drover)

 

ponc (= hillock) < bonc < dialect English bonk (standard English bank = slope, hillock)

In Welsh, the initial b has been taken for a soft-mutated initial consonant, and a radical form ponc has resulted

 

In the south-east, sblot (= patch of ground) < English splot < earlier splat (= patch of ground)

 


:_______________________________.

O, o
oo feminine noun
1
) tenth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
..1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z

2
) nineteenth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
..1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


:_______________________________.

o
OO (preposition)

(1) ohono i
o HO noi (first person singular)
from me

(2) ohonon ni
o HO no ni (first person plural)
from us

(3) ohonot ti
o HO no ti (second person singular)
from you

(4) ohonoch chi
o HO no khi (second person plural)
from you

(5) ohono fe / fo
o HO no ve / vo (third person singular masculine)
from him

(6) ohoni hi
o HO ni hi (third person singular feminine)
from her

:

(7) ohonyn nhw (literary Welsh: ohonynt hwy)
o HO ni nu / o HO nint hui (third person plural)
from them

There is soft mutation after the preposition o


1
from
o + hyd (= from + until)

o wawr hyd fachlud from dawn to dusk from dawn to sunset

 

o Gaer-dydd from Caer-dydd / Cardiff


2
un o. one of (a gretaer number)
Mae hin canun well nar un ohonyn nhw She sings better than any of them (than the one of them)

3
(quantity, amounts)

digon (pronoun) enough
digon o enough (+ noun)

Mae gen i ddigon o arian I have enough money
hen ddigon more than enough
Mae hen ddigon ohoni Theres enough and to spare, Theres more than enough of it (theres old sufficiency of it)

amryw byd (pronoun) very many things / people
amryw byd o very many (+ noun)
Mae gen i amryw byd o bethe i neud heddi Ive got hundreds of things to do today

4
(material) wedi'i ei wneud o bren
WE di WNEUD o BREN made of wood

5
gwybodaeth o (rywbeth) knowledge of (something)

Mae ei gwybodaeth o Gatalaneg o fudd mawr iddi
Her knowledge of Catalan is a great advantage for her

6
of = representing (picture, map, sculpture, etc)

delw or Forwyn a Madonna (a staue of the Virgin Mary)
cerflun or Forwyn a Madonna (a staue of the Virgin Mary)

llun or Forwyn a Madonna (a picture of the Virgin Mary)

map o Gymru a map of Wales
map or byd a map of the world

portread o Gwyn Thomas a portrait of Gwyn Thomas
portread Gwyn Thomas a portrait belonging to Gwyn Thomas, in the possession of Gwyn Thomas


7
to the extent of
Maen rhy fach o dri maint Its three sizes too small

8
in forming linking adverbials
o ystyried all things considered, considering the circumstances, in view of the situation (from considering)

9
by itself, all by itself
Maen diffodd ohonoi hun It switches itself off, it goes off by itself

10
for = considering that somebody is..., taking into account that somebody is...
Mae en siarad Cymraeg yn dda iawn o Sais He speaks very good Welsh for an Englishman

11 comparisons:

fel (like) + noun + o + adjective

bod fel cricsyn o iach be in rude health, be as fit as a fiddle (be like a cricket of healthy)

Cf the alternative construction: bod yn iach fel cricsyn (be healthy like a cricket)

12 In south-east Wales o (= with) instead of (= with)

Studies in Welsh Philology / Samuel J. Evans, M.A. / Year 1909 / Page 19: The simple preposition o (for ) is often used in the dialect of Glamorgan to denote the instrument, as, Codi glo or rhaw (r rhaw) = throwing up coal with a shovel. (Quoted from Mr. John Griffiths Y Wenhwyseg, p. 19. Published by J. R. Southall, Newport).

It occurs frequently in the 1620 Wiliam Morgan / Rhisiart Parri Bible

 

Sant Luc 1:41 A bu, pan glybu Elisabeth gyfarchiad Mair, ir plentyn yn ei chroth hi lamu: ac Elisabeth a lanwyd or Ysbryd Gln.
Saint Luke1:41And it came to pass, that, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost:


:_______________________________.


1
the grave accent indicates a short vowel where in a long vowel environment

The o in monosyllables in Welsh with final b, -d, -g is long

llog
lhoog interest (on money borrowed)
pob
poob every
bod
bood to be

However English words taken into Welsh with the same pattern (monsyllables, final consonant g, b, d) but with a short vowel retain the short vowel in Welsh.

Bb Bob, Robert
Cb (embankment over an estuary)
hg (nid / dim + hog) (not + the least bit)
ffg (fog = grass which grows after the hay is harvested)
lg log (= branch; logbook)
Mg short form for the name Morgan

In general, though, in written Welsh this grave accent is seldom used in such cases, as Welsh-speakers are fully conversant with what words are long and whar are short; or in previous generations, what words come from native stock and which are of English origin.

:_______________________________.

o achos
o khos (preposition)
1 (after verbs) cywilyddo o achos (rhywbeth) be ashamed of / about (something)

:_______________________________.

o amgylch
o AM gilkh (preposition)
1
around

:_______________________________.

obadeia
o-ba- dei -a
North Wales
1
idea, least idea; sgin i ddim obadeia I've not the least idea

ETYMOLOGY: blend of (Obadeia = Biblical name) + (eidea, Anglicism = idea)

:_______________________________.

o bant
o -bant adverb
South Wales
1
from another place, not local;
O bant mae e He's not from around here ("(it-is) from away that-is he")

2 from overseas

:_______________________________.

o bared i bost
o ba-red i bost adverb
1
cael eich gwthio o bared i bost be pushed around, get shoved about ("get your pushing from wall to doorpost")

:_______________________________.

o bawb
o baub
1
(said of a person who one would least expect to do or say something that has caused surprise)

Mari, o bawb Mari, of all people, of all the people in the world; etc

Mynnai taw fi, o bawb, oedd wedi anfon atir llythyron cas dienw na
She insisted that it was me, of all people, who had said those nasty anomymous letters
to her

:_______________________________.

o bedwar ban byd
o- bed -war- ban - biid adverb
1
from all over the world, from the four corners of the earth ("from the four peaks of the world ")
Also: o bedwar ban y byd

:_______________________________.

belisg
o -be-lisk masculine noun
PLURAL obelisgau
o-be-li-ske
1
obelisk = a vertical stone shaft, quadrangular in cross section and tapering to a pyramidal apex, usually worked in one piece (Longman)

ETYMOLOGY: English obelisk, 1600- < Latin < Greek obeliskos (= little spit) < obelos (= spit, i.e. a pointed bar placed through a piece of meat to hold it over a fire in order to cook it; a pointed pillar)



:_______________________________.

o bell
o- belh adverb
1
from afar

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (pell = far); cf Cornish a-bell = from afar

:_______________________________.

o bell ac agos
o- belh ag a -gos adverb
1
from near and far (lit = from far and near)

:_______________________________.

o bellafoedd byd
o be-lha-vodh biid adv
1
from the far corners of the earth, from all over the world

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (pellafoedd = extremities, plural of pellaf = the furthest) + (byd = the Earth)

:_______________________________.

o bell ffordd
o belh fordh adverb
1
(after a superlative adjective) far and away = by a great margin;

Dyma'r sir fwya diddorol o bell ffordd yng Nghymru
This is far and away the most interesting county in Wales

ennill o bell ffordd win by a long chalk
y gorau o bell ffordd
by far the best, the best by far
Hwn ywr gorau o bell ffordd This one is by far the best

2 nid o bell ffordd not by a long chalk, far from it, not by any means;

Roedd e yn deneuach o lawer na mi - ond doedd e ddim yn gysgod o ddyn - nid o bell ffordd
He was a lot thinner than me - but he wasn't a shadow of a man - far from it

Ond nid dyna'r cwbl o bell ffordd
But that's not all by any means

3 ni... o bell ffordd not... at all;
Doedd pethau ddim yn troi allan fel y dymunai o bell ffordd
Things weren't turning out as he had wanted at all

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (pell ffordd = distant road)

:_______________________________.

o ben
o ben preposici
1
from the top of

2 from the end of

3 from the mouth of

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (pen = top, end, mouth)

:_______________________________.

o ben arall
o ben -ralh preposici
1
from the other end of;
o ben arall yr ynys from the other end of the island

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (pen = end) + (arall = other)

:_______________________________.

o benbwygilydd
o ben bui g -lidh adverb
1
from one end to the other

o ben bwygilydd ir wlad from one end of the country to the other, throughout the land
o benbwygilydd ir dref from one end of the town to the other

Brenhinoedd-2 10:21 A Jehu a anfonoedd trwy holl Israel; a holl addolwyr Baal a daethant, ac nid oedd un yn eisiau ar ni ddaethai: a hwy a ddaethant i dŷBaal, a llanwyd tŷ Baal o ben bwygilydd
Kings-2 10:21 And Jehu sent through all Israel: and all the worshippers of Baal came, so that there was not a man left that came not. And they came into the house of Baal; and the house of Baal was full from one end to another

2 from start to finish
Fel llawer pererin, ni chaiff y Ffrwd ond taith arw o benbwygilydd
As with many a pilgrim, the Ffrwd stream has a rough journey from start to finish
(the Ffrwd doesnt get but a rough journey...)

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (penbwygilydd = one end to another)

:_______________________________.

o ben Caergybi i ben Caer-dydd
o ben kair- -bi i ben kair-diidh adv
1
from one end of Wales to another, across the length and breadth of Wales, all over the country
(literally: from the end where Caergybi is to the end where Caer-dydd is) (Wales is roughly square in shape and this would be a diagonal line from the top left-hand corner to a point slightly to the left of the bottom right-hand corner)

:_______________________________.

o ble
o BLEE (adverb) where from

:_______________________________.

1 oblegid
o BLE gid (conjunction) because

:_______________________________.

2 oblegid
o BLE gid (preposition) because of

:_______________________________.

o boptu
o BOP ti (preposition)
1
on either side of
2
eistedd ch coesau o boptur gadair straddle the chair

:_______________________________.

o bosibl / o bosib / o bosib
o BO sib (adverb)
1
possibly

2 bydd + o bosibl might (will be + possibly)
O bosib bydd en collir trn He might miss the train

:_______________________________.

o bry
o BRII (adverb)
1
from on high

:_______________________________.

o bwys
o BUIS (phrase)
1
important

:_______________________________.

o'ch bodd neu och anfodd
ookh boodh nei ookh an-vodh
1
whether you like it or not

ETYMOLOGY: (of your satisfaction or of your dissatisfaction)
(o = from) + (eich = your) + (bodd = satisfaction) + (neu = or) + (o) + (eich + (anfodd = dissatisfaction)

:_______________________________.

o'ch corun i'ch sawdl
oi GO rin iu SAU dul (adverb)
1
from head to toe ('from your crown to your sole')

:_______________________________.

ochenaid, ochneidiau
o KHE ned, okh NEID ye (feminine noun)
1
sigh
2
(sound) gollwng ochenaid let out a sigh, breathe a sigh

:_______________________________.

ochneidiau
okh NEID ye (plural noun)
1
sighs; plural of ochenaid

:_______________________________.

ochneidio
okh NEID yo (verb)
1
to sigh

:_______________________________.

ochr (ochor), ochrau
O khor, OKH re (feminine noun)
1
side
edrych ar yr ochr dywyll look on the dark side, see only the disadvantages of a situation, see only the defects of a place

 

Maen well gen ti edrych ar yr ochr dywyll o hyd Youd rather look on the dark side all the time


2 opposing side, rival side
mynd at ochr y gelyn go over to the enemy, defect

3 ar un ochr i on one side of

4 allegiance

gorfod dangos eich ochr come off the fence = be obliged to say who one supports
(be obliged to show your allegiance / side)

:_______________________________.

ochr-chwith
-khor khwiith adjective
1
left-hand, left-side, on the left side
Mae'r fersiwn Gymraeg or stori ar y ddalen ochr-chwith, a'r fersiwn Gatalaneg ar y ddalen ochr-dde
The Welsh version of the story is on the left-hand page, and the Catalan version on the right-hand page

ETYMOLOGY: (ochr = side) + (chwith = left)

:_______________________________.

Yr Ochr Draw
ər O khor DRAU
1
the other side (= heaven)

:_______________________________.

Ochr-y-foel
o khor ə VOIL
1
area of
Diserth / Dyserth (county of Dinbych / Denbigh)

 

ETYMOLOGY: (the) side (of) Y Foel

Y Foel is the bare hill

(ochr = side) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (moel = (bare) hill)


:_______________________________.

Ochrymynydd
o-khor ə -nidh feminine noun
1
S00206 locality in Merthyrtudful 3km west of the town centre

ETYMOLOGY: (the) side (of) the mountain
(ochr = side) + (y = definite article) + (mynydd = mountain, highland, pasture on high ground)

:_______________________________.

ochr yn ochr
O khor ən O khor (adverb)
1
side by side

:_______________________________.

Ocsitaneg
ok si TA neg (feminine noun, adjective)
1
Occitan

:_______________________________.

od
od conjunction
1
(obsolete) if

Philipiaid 2:1
Od oes gan hynny ddim diddanwch yng Nghrist, od oes dim cysur cariad, od oes dim cymdeithas yr Ysbryd, od oes dim ymysgaroedd a thosturiaethau,
Philippians 2:1 If there be therefore any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies,

Corinthiaid-1 7:36 Ond os yw neb yn tybied ei fod yn anweddiad tuagat ei wyry, od hi dros flodau ei hoedran, a bod yn rhaid gwneuthur felly; gwnaed a fynno, nid yw yn pechu; priodant
Corinthians-1 1-76 But if any man thinketh that he behaveth himself uncomely toward his virgin, if she pass the flower of her age, and need so require, let him do what he will, he sinneth not; let them marry

Barnwyr-1 6:13 O fy arglwydd, od yw yr ARGLWYDD gyda ni, paham y digwyddodd hyn oll i ni?

Eclesiastes-1 6:13 Oh my Lord, if the LORD be with us, why then is all this befallen us?


ETYMOLOGY: o (= si) + -d added before a vowel. In modern Welsh it is os both before a consonant and before a vowel

:_______________________________.

d
OD (adjective)
1
odd
Mae rhyw bethau d ynddo Hes got some odd ways


NOTE: Usually written without the grave accent, though strictly speaking this is necessary to show that the vowel is short. The word od (long vowel) is an obsolete form meaning if and also an obsolescent word for snow)

:_______________________________.

-od

plural suffix

1 especially with animal names

jerbil (m) jerbilod gerbil

jirff (m) jiraffod giraffe

llew (m) llewod lion

liffant (m) eliffantod elephant

llwynog (m) llwynogod fox

buwch (in earlier Welsh: buch) (f) buchod

cath (f) cathod cat

gwiwer (f) gwiwerod squirrel

baedd
(f) baeddod boar

2 others

ellyll (m) ellyllod sprite, elf

geneth (f) genethod girl

:_______________________________.

o dan
o dan preposici
1
mynd o dan enw ffug go under an assumed name

:_______________________________.

oddf
odhv masculine noun
PLURAL oddfau
odh-ve


1
(obsolete) (in the flesh) swelling, lump


2
(obsolete) knot in wood


3
(obsolete) bulb, tuber

ETYMOLOGY: < British < Celtic
Irish fadhb (= problem; knot
in wood)

:_______________________________.

oddfog
odh-vog adjective
1
bulbous
gweunwellt oddfog (Poa bulbosa) bulbous meadowgrass

ETYMOLOGY: (oddf = bulb) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

oddi
OO-dhi adverb
1
from

Used in combination with a following preposition or adverb

oddi acw from over there

oddi allan from outside

oddi am from around

oddi ar off (from on)

oddi mewn i from inside (something); inside (something)

oddi uchod from above

oddi wrth from

oddi yma from here
oddi yna from there
oddi yno from t place mentioned

ETYMOLOGY: a double preposition: (o = from) + (ddi, an obsolete preposition = from)

 


:_______________________________.

oddi agos
-dhi -gos adverb
1
from close up
2
at point blank range

ETYMOLOGY: (oddi = from) + (agos = near)

:_______________________________.

oddi am preposition
1
After verbs:
..1/ (clothes) tynnu... oddi am = take off

tynnur wenwisg oddi am offeirad defrock a priest, expel a priest from the priesthood (pull / remove the surplice from around the priest)

Also simply tynnu

tynnuch esgidiau take your shoes off

:_______________________________.

oddi ar
o dhi AR (preposition)
1
since

2 tynnu enw rhywun oddi ar restr take somebodys name off a list, remove somebodys name from a list

3 lladrata (rhywbeth) oddi ar (rywun) steal (something) from (somebody)

:_______________________________.

oddieithr
o dhi EI thir (preposition)
1
except for

:_______________________________.

o ddifrif / o ddifri
o DHI vri
1
serious, earnest

2 bod o ddifrif be in earnest, not be joking
bod yn hollol o ddifrif be in deadly earnest, be completely serious

:_______________________________.

oddi wrth
o dhi URTH (preposition)
1
from

2 rhyddhu rhywun oddi wrth bechod absolve somebody of his / her sins
gollwng rhywun oddi wrth bechod absolve somebody of his / her sins

:_______________________________.

odi
OO-di (v)
1
southern Welsh form of ydyw (Northern Welsh ydi) = yes, it is


2
southern Welsh form of a ydyw? (Northern Welsh ydi?) = is it?


The 3rd [person] singular ydiw was so written up to the 16th century; and rhymes with words in -iw, as friw, diw D. G. (= Dafydd ap Gwilym (North Cardiganshire), floruit 1350-80, reference [is] to Barddoniaeth Dafydd ap Gwilym Llundain, 1789) 35 cf. 119, 144, 193, etc. and G. (= Gwalchmai, Anglesey. Floruit 1150-90) 186, 193, 203, 206, 235, 247, also with yw (= iw); see paragraph 77 v. The Late Modern ydyw is an etymological spelling, and is read diw, except by a few affected persons. The Noerth Wales dialect form is di (and, in answering questions only, ndi, a curious attempt to sound y with the tongue in the d position). South Wales dialect, in questions and answers, di.

(delw 7261)

:_______________________________.

-di-coln
oo-dii-ko-loon masculine noun
1
(colloquial) eau de cologne; in standard Welsh with the French spelling (eau de cologne), or dŵr persawrus (perfumed water)

ETYMOLOGY: French eau de Cologne = water of Cologne / Kln

:_______________________________.

odid
O-did (masculine noun)
1
(obsolete) wonderful thing, wonderful person

2 (adverb) hardly, scarcely

odid nad (archaic) it is likely that, it is usually the case that
odid y (archaic) it is unlikely that, it is not usually the case that, its infrequent that

3

ni + odid un
hardly anyone
ni + odid neb hardly anyone

ni + odid ddim
o-did dhim (archaic) practically no..., hardly any...

(odid = hardly) + (niddim = no; not any)

Ni fu odid ddim glaw
There was hardly any snow
Does odid ddim amser ar l Theres not much time left

4 ond odid perhaps, maybe

 

A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative. John Morris(-)Jones, 1913. Page 437: ond odid perhaps (literally except a rarity)


Genesis 18:30 Ac efe a ddywedodd, O na ddigied fy Arglwydd os llefaraf: Ceir yno ond odid ddeg ar hugain. Yntau a ddywedodd, Nis gwnaf os caf yno ddeg ar hugain.
Genesis 18:30 And he said unto him, Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak: Peradventure there shall thirty be found there. And he said, I will not do it, if I find thirty there.

Genesis 24:5 Ar gwas a ddywedodd wrtho ef, Ond odid ni fyn y wraig ddyfod ar fy l i ir wlad hon: gan ddychwelyd a ddychwelaf dy fab di ir tir y daethost allan ohono?
Genesis 24:5 And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest?

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic *au-ttos (Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / The University of Wales Dictionary)

Cf Irish (these are nowadays archaic words and expressions):

uathadh (= a small number, a small quantity),

in uathadh (= alone),

uathaigh (= to lessen, become few, make few)

:_______________________________.

odl, odlau
O dl, OD le (feminine noun)
1
rhyme
odl driphlyg (Poetry) triple rhyme

:_______________________________.

o do
oo doo adverb
1
indeed I / we; you; he / she / it / they did! (after a sentence with a verb in the preterite tense)


Fe lorion ni nhw, o do!
We really floored them; We floored them, and how; We floored them, oh yes we did!

:_______________________________.

odre
<O-dre> (masculine noun)
1
soft-mutated form of godre (= bottom part)

wrth odre at the bottom of, at the foot of

llecyn cysgodol wrth odrer graig a sheltered spot at the foot of the rock


:_______________________________.

odrif
od-riv masculine noun
PLURAL odrifau
od-r-ve
1
odd number = a number which is not a multiple of two

ETYMOLOGY: (od < English odd [number]) + soft mutation + (rhif = number)

:_______________________________.

odrwydd
od-ruidh masculine noun
1 oddness, strangeness

ETYMOLOGY: (d = odd, strange) + (-rwydd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

Odydd
-didh (m)
PLURAL Odyddion
o- dədh -yon
1
Oddfellow, member of an Oddfellows mutual aid society

 

Oddfellows Street in Ystradgynlais would be Heol yr Odyddion in Welsh


ETYMOLOGY: Semi-translation of Oddfellow (d = odd) + (-ydd agent suffix)

The Oddfellows were originally a trade guild of tradesmen and craftsmen of odd (= disparate, different, varying) trades rather than a single trade

 


:_______________________________.

odyn
-din feminine noun
PLURAL odynau
o- d -ne
1
kiln, oven

2 odyn galch limekiln, oven. Simply as odyn this is frequent in field names.
See the separate entry for odyn galch


Cae'r odyn (field of the
lime kiln)


Heol yr Odyn ((the) street (of) the kiln) Name of a street in Tre-lai, Caer-dydd

3
odyn drydan electric kiln

4 odyn frics brick kiln

(Bible) odyn briddfaen brick kiln

Jeremiah 43:9 Cymer yn dy law gerrig mawrion, a chuddia hwynt yn y clai yn yr odyn briddfaen, yr hon sydd yn nrws ty Pharo, yn Tapanhes, yng ngolwg gwyr Jwda
Jeremiah 43:9 Take great stones in thine hand, and hide them in the clay in the brickkiln, which is at the entry of Pharaoh's house in Tahpanhes, in the sight of the men of Judah

5 odyn frag malt kiln (for drying germinated barley grains)

ETYMOLOGY: unknown origin;
From the same British root: Cornish oden (= oven)


Hibernian languages: Irish ith (feminine noun) (= oven)

:_______________________________.

odyn galch
-din galkh feminine noun
PLURAL odynau calch
o-d-ne galkh
1
limekiln = place for burning limestone for fertilising fields (limestone is burnt to obtain calcium oxide; exposed to the air, or mixed with water, it produces calcium hydroxide, 'lime')

2 common in field names simply as "odyn":
Allt yr Odyn (the) wood (of) the limekiln
Cae'r Odyn (the) field (of) the limekiln,
Erw'r Odyn (the) field (of) the limekiln
Heol yr Odyn ((the) street (of) the kiln) Name of a street in Tre-lai, Caer-dydd

Pen yr Odyn (= pen yr odyn) - (the) end (of the field where) the lime kiln (is situated)
(1) Penrodyn street name in the village of Arthog (near Dolgellau, county of Gwynedd),
(2) Penrodyn street name in the town of Tregaron (county of Ceredigion)

Weun yr Odyn (= gwaun yr odyn) (the) (wet) field (of) the limekiln
Wrglo'r Odyn (= gweirglodd yr odyn) (the) field / meadow (of) the limekiln

ETYMOLOGY: (odyn = oven) + soft mutation + (calch = lime, limestone)

:_______________________________.

odyn frics
-din vriks feminine noun
PLURAL odynau brics
o-d-ne briks
1
brick kiln

ETYMOLOGY: (odyn = oven) + soft mutation + (brics = bricks)

:_______________________________.

oed, oedau
OID, OI de (masculine noun)
1
age

2 Beth yw eich oed?
BEETH iu əkh OID (phrase) How old are you?
Mae hin dair blwydd oed
Shes three years old

3 Mae e ddwywaith ei hoed hi Hes twice her age

4 bod yn eich oed ach amser be well on in years, be well on in life, be of advanced years, be of mature years (be in your age and your time)


Mae e yn ei oed ai amser Hes well on in years



:_______________________________.

1 oedd
OIDH (verb)
1
was; colloquially oodd
OODH

:_______________________________.

2 oedd
OI dh (verb)
1
(reply) yes, he she it was

:_______________________________.

 

 

-oedd OIDH

1 plural suffix

 

cannoedd < cant (= one hundred) (m)

darlithoedd (also darlithiau) < darlith (= lecture) (f)

gwyntoedd < gwynt (= wind) (m)

llysoedd < llys (= court of law, royal court) (m)

miloedd < mil (= thousand) (m)

misoedd < mis (= month) (m)

moreoedd < mr (= sea) (m)

mynyddoedd (also mynyddau) < mynydd (= mountain) (m)

shilffoedd < shilff (= shelf) (f)

 


:_______________________________.

oeddach OI dhakh (verb)
1
(North-west) (reply) yes, you were

:_______________________________.

oeddach chi?
OI dha khi (verb)
1
(North-west) were you?

:_______________________________.

1 oeddan
OI dhan (verb)
1
(= nhw) (North-west) (reply) yes, they were

:_______________________________.

2 oeddan
OI dhan (verb)
1
(= ni) (North-west) (reply) yes, we were

:_______________________________.

oeddan?
OI dhan (verb)
1
(North-west) were we?

:_______________________________.

oeddan nhw?
OI dhan nu (verb)
1
(North-west) were they?

:_______________________________.

oeddan ni
OI dhan (verb)
1
(North-west) (reply) yes, we were
2
(reply) yes, they were

:_______________________________.

oeddat
OI dhat (verb)
1
(North-west) (reply) yes, you were

:_______________________________.

oeddat ti?
OI dha ti (verb)
1
(North-west) were you?

:_______________________________.

oeddech
OI dhekh (verb)
1
(reply) you were

:_______________________________.

oeddech chi?
OI dhe khi (verb)
1
were you?

:_______________________________.

oedden
OI dhen (verb)
1
(reply) yes, we were
2
(reply) yes, they were

:_______________________________.

oedden nhw?
OI dhe nu? (verb)
1
were they?

:_______________________________.

oedden ni?
a OI dhen (verb)
1
were we?

:_______________________________.

oeddet
OI dhet (verb)
1
(reply) yes, you were

:_______________________________.

oeddet ti?
a OI dhe ti (verb)
1
were you?

:_______________________________.

oedd o?
OI dho (verb)
1
(North Wales) was he?

:_______________________________.

oeddwn
OI dhun (verb)
1
(reply) yes, I was

:_______________________________.

oeddwn i?
OI dhu ni (verb)
1
(I) was I?


:_______________________________.


oedd e?
OI dhe (verb)
1
was he?

:_______________________________.

oedd hi?
OIDH hi (verb)
1
(she) was she?

:_______________________________.

oedi
OI di (verb)
1
to delay

2
ystryw oedi delaying tactic
Also: tacteg arafu, tacteg arafol


:_______________________________.

oediog
oid -yog adjective
1 (obsolete) old, ancient

2 (obsolete) long-lived

3 slow, delayed

ETYMOLOGY: (oed-i- stem of oedio = to delay) or (oed = age) + (-iog, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

oedran, oedrannau
OI dran, oi DRA ne (masculine noun)
1
age

2 old age, full age

oedran teg ripe old age

byw i oedran teg live to a ripe old age

mewn oedran teg advanced in years (in a fair age)

Er mewn oedran teg dalia Mr Edwards i gerdded deng milltir bob dydd
Although hes well on in years Mr. Edwards continues to walk ten miles every day

Fe welodd oedran teg He had a long life, He lived to a ripe old age (he saw a fair life)

:_______________________________.

oen
in masculine noun
PLURAL wyn
uin
1
lamb

2 lamb = object of sacrifice to God in the Old Testament
Genesis 22:8 Fy mab, Duw a edrych iddo ei hun am oen y poethoffrwm
Genesis 22:8 My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering

3
yr Oen = the Lamb; Oen Duw = the Lamb of God; yr addfwyn Oen = the gentle Lamb
Christ in the New Testament as a symbol of sacrifice (from the practice of sacrificing lambs to Jehovah)

Datguddiad 14:1 ac wele Oen yn sefyll ar fynydd Seion
Revelation 14:1 And lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion

Ioan 1:29 Wele Oen Duw, yr hwn sydd yn tynnu ymaith bechodau'r byd
John 1:29 Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world

4
lamb = an emblem associated with John the Baptist; usually depicted carrying a lamb, or accompanied by a lamb

5
mor ddiniwed ag oen as innocent as a lamb;
also mor ddiniwed 'r oen bach ("as innocent as the little lamb")

6
cyfoen pregnant; dafad gyfoen pregnant ewe, ewe with lamb

7
dod ag oen give birth to a lamb

8
cig oen lamb (= meat); also oen -
coes oen = leg of lamb
ysgwydd oen = shoulder of lamb

9
cwrw oen (obsolete) lamb ale, beer drunk at lamb-shearing

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh oen < British *ogn-os < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish oen (= lamb), Breton oan (= lamb)
From the same Celtic root: Irish uan (= lamb)
cf Latin: agnus (= lamb)

NOTE: South Wales o'n
oon

:_______________________________.

oena
oi -na verb without an object
1
(ewes) to lamb, to give birth

ETYMOLOGY: (oen = lamb) + (-a, suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

oenaidd
oi -nedh adjective
1
lamblike, gentle

ETYMOLOGY: (oen = lamb) + (-a, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Oen Duw
in diu masculine noun
1
the Lamb of God, Christ in the New Testament as a symbol of sacrifice
(from the practice of sacrificing lambs to Jehovah) wele Oen Duw (Ioan / John 1:29) behold the Lamb of God

2 lamb of God = figure of a lamb (representing Christ) bearing a cross or an inscribed banner

3 Eglwys Oen Duw = church of the Lamb of God
...Eglwys Oen Duw = locality 15km west of Llanfair ym Muallt (county of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: (oen = lamb) + (Duw = God)

:_______________________________.

oenig
oi -nig feminine noun
1
literary lambkin, little lamb

ETYMOLOGY: (oen = lamb) + (-ig = diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

oen partha
in par -tha masculine noun
South Wales
1
pet lamb ("lamb (of) hearth")

:_______________________________.

Oenwen
OIN wen (feminine noun)
1
woman's name

:_______________________________.

oer
OIR (adjective)
1
cold
oerach
OI rakh (adjective) colder
oeraf
OI ra (adjective) the coldest

2 oer fel troed hwyaden (cold like foot (of) duck, as cold as a ducks foot)

3 oer fel llyffant cold like a frog
Mae fy nhraed i mor oer llyffaint My feet are as cold as ice (as cold as frogs)

4 in place names, it could possibly mean deserted, abandoned, as can cold in English place names

(See HAFOD and HAFOTY in Welsh Place-names / Melville Richards)
Hafod-oer (SH7615) Name of a farm in Y Brithdir south-east of Dolgellau
cold summer farm (or possibly abandoned summer farm).

Nearby 2km to the west is (SH7824) Waun Oer (cold moor) as if to confirm the cold temperature hereabouts such a name would suggest that it was cold when one would have expected it not to be in the spring, or the summer, or autumn in comparison to negihbouring area.

:_______________________________.

oerfa PLURAL oerfaoedd, oerfydd
OIR vel, oir V odh, oer VEIDH (feminine noun)
1
cold place

2 Pond yr Oerfa ((the) pond (of) the cold place) SN7279 name of a lake in the county of Ceredigion, 3km north of Pontarfynach

:_______________________________.

oerfel
OIR vel (masculine noun)
1
cold

:_______________________________.

oeri
OI ri (verb)
1
get cold

:_______________________________.

Yr Oernant
ər oir -nant
1
Bwlch yr Oernant (pass of Yr Oernant)

SJ1846 Mountain pass in Sir Ddinbych, on Mynydd Maesyrychen near Pentre-dŵr between Llandegla and Llangollen.
The English call it Horseshoe Pass

2 stream name by Penmachno (SH7950), county of Conwy

ETYMOLOGY: the cold valley or the cold stream

(yr definite article) + (oer = cold) + (nant = (older Welsh) valley; (modern Welsh) stream)

:_______________________________.

oerni
OIR ni (masculine noun)
1
cold, coldness

2 oerni rhywiol frigidity, sexual frigidity

:_______________________________.

oerwynt
OIR-wint
1
cold wind

oerwynt Mawrth the cold wind of March

ETYMOLOGY: cold wind (oer = cold) + soft mutation + (gwynt = wind)
:_______________________________.

oes (1)
is feminine noun
PLURAL oesoedd, oesau
oi -sodh, oi-se
1
life = lifetime, the period of existence from birth to death;

yn ystod blynyddoedd olaf ei hoes in the last years of her life;

cael braw mwyaf ei oes to get the fright of his life;

ac yno y buont yn byw hyd ddiwedd eu hoes and this is where they lived until the end of their lives ("the end of their life")

bore eich oes one's childhood ("(the) morning (of) one's life")
cyfeillion bore oes childhood friends

ym more eich oes early on in one's life
yn eich oes in all your born days
Welais i'r fath beth erioed yn f'oes I never saw such a thing in my life

Hir oes! (drinking toast) cheers! (a long life!)

2
life = lifetime, the period of existence of something inanimate, such as a machine, a lease, style of clothing, etc
daeth ei oes i ben its life came to an end

3
life = period of one's life dedicated to work;

Treuliodd Wiliam Roberts ei oes yn y chwarel
William Roberts spent his life in the quarry;

Bu'n of ym mhentre Ponterwyd gydol ei oes
He was a blacksmith in the village of Ponterwyd all his life

4
age, epoch, era, times;
yn yr oes honno in those days, in those times;
yn yr oes sydd ohoni in the age we live in, in the present age;
Oes y Cerrig the Stone Age,
yr Oes Haearn
<ər ois HEI-arn> [ər ɔɪs ˡhəɪarn] the Iron Age,
Oes yr I
<ois ər YAA> [ɔɪs ər ˡjɑː] the Ice Age;
yr Oes Aur
<ər ois AIR> [ər ɔɪs ˡaɪr] the Golden Age

5
oes yr arth a'r blaidd prehistoric times ("the age of the bear and the wolf")
yn oes yr arth a'r blaidd in prehistoric times
rhywun / rhywbeth o oes yr arth a'r blaidd
someone / something from prehistoric times (in exaggerating the age of somebody or an object)

6
yr oes, the age = the present times;
digywilydd-dra llafnau'r oes the impertinence of today's adolescents;
angen yr oes today's needs

7
the people of the present age;
Mae'r oes wedi mynd yn fwy hunanol People have become more selfish

8
bod ar l yr oes be behind the times

9
age, eternity = a long time to wait;
Fe aeth oes heibio Ages went by ("an age went past"),
ar l oes dyma Catrin yn dod nl ages later Catrin came back ("after an age...")

10
yn gynnar yn eich oes early in your life

11 in expressions suggesting a very long time

oes ci hela (South-east Wales), ("the life of a hunting dog")
oes mochyn
("the life of a pig")
oes mul ("the life of a mule")
oes mulsyn ("the life of a mule")
oes pys ("the life of peas")

12
since some time long ago; when referring to time which has gone by since something happened
Mae oes wedi mynd heibio ers hynny That was ages ago ("an age has gone by since then")
ers oesoedd for ages;
Rw i heb ei weld ers oesoedd I've not seen him for ages;
ers oes Adam since the time of Adam

13
yn oes oesoedd
for ever and ever, for evermore ("in the age of ages")

14 disgwyliad oes life expectancy

15
drwy'r oesoedd down the ages

16
life = remaining time of existence; time from now
cael carchar am oes get life imprisonment, be sentenced to life imprisonment

17
life = length of popularity
archwerthwyr ag iddynt oes byr iawn bestsellers with a very short life

18
Craig yr Oesoedd the Rock of Ages (epithet for Jesus Christ)
((the) rock (of) the ages) (craig = rock) + (yr = the) + (oesoedd ages, plural of oes = age)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic; Cornish oes (= period).
In Hibernian Celtic: Irish aois (= period, age); Scottish aois (= age)

NOTE: South Wales oes > o's
oos (the change oe > o' in monosyllables is a usual feature in the South)

:_______________________________.

oes
ois verb
1
a oes...? is there...? are there...? (colloquially oes...? with the loss of the interrogative particle)

2 nid oes... there isnt / arent (colloquially does dim with the loss of the first syllable)

3 (North) sginti < 's gin ti < nid oes genny ti you dont have
sginti...? < 's gin ti...? < a oes gennyt ti...? do you have...?

Let them see how in their spoken Welsh the accent turns a sentence of many words into a single word of one or two syllables... e.g. a oes gennyt ti? has become sgnti
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

:_______________________________.

o fawr bwys
oo vaur buis
1
of little importance
Nd yw o fawr bwys Its of little importance

ETYMOLOGY: (ni = not)..... + (o = of) + soft mutation + (mawr = big, great) + soft mutation + (pwys = importance)

:_______________________________.

ofer
o-ver adjective
1
fruitless, unsuccessful, futile, pointless

2 ofer... its no use (doing something)
Ofer cuddioch pen yn y tywod its no use hiding your head in the sand

3 Often in the form ofer + bod
ofer yw = there's no point, it's pointless
Ofer yw gwrth-ddadlau phobl felly
Its pointless arguing with people like that
Ofer fur ymdrech It was all in vain
Ofer fu ei ymdrechion hyd yma His efforts have been in vain so far

4 dilyn trywydd ofer go down a blind alley, go along a path that leads nowhere (follow a futile trail)

:_______________________________.

oferdyb
o-ver-dib masculine or feminine noun
1
wishful thinking

ETYMOLOGY: (ofer = futile, useless, pointless) + soft mutation + (tyb = thinking, supposition)

:_______________________________.

ofergoel
o-ver-goil feminine noun
PLURAL ofergoelion
o-ver-goil-yon
1
superstition = an example of irrational belief in supernatural forces

2 superstition = a religion which is held to be false

ETYMOLOGY: (ofer = futile, useless, pointless) + soft mutation + (coel = belief)

:_______________________________.

ofergoeledd
o-ver-goi-ledh masculine noun
1
superstition, superstitiousness = state of being superstitious, of having irrational beliefs in omens

ETYMOLOGY: (ofergoel = superstition) + (-edd suffix)

:_______________________________.

ofergoeliaeth
o-ver-goi-li-e0 feminine noun
1
superstition, superstitiousness = state of being superstitious, of having irrational beliefs in omens

ETYMOLOGY: (ofergoel = superstition) + (-i-aeth suffix)

:_______________________________.

ofergoelus
o-ver-goi-lis adjective
1
superstitious
Un ofergoelus oedd Mam erioed Mother had been superstitious all her life

ETYMOLOGY: (ofergoel = superstition) + (-us = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

oferwas
o- ver -was masculine noun
PLURAL oferweision
o-ver- weis -yon
1 rake, wastrel

ETYMOLOGY: (ofer = futile, useless) + soft mutation + ( gwas = lad)

:_______________________________.

oferweithio
o ver WEITH yo (verb) (North Wales)
1
overwork

:_______________________________.

oferwr
o -ve -rur masculine noun
PLURAL oferwyr
o-ver-wir
1
wastrel, good-for-nothing, ne'er-do-well

Bob tro iddo gyrraedd y porthladd gwariai ei gyflog yng nghwmni oferwyr y dref
Every time he came to port he would spent his pay in the company of the town's ne'er-do-wells

ETYMOLOGY: (ofer = futile, useless, pointless) + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

o fewn
o VEUN (preposition)
1
within

2 o fewn dwy ach at two removes (= with two degrees of separation in kinship)
Mae en gefnder imi o fewn dwy ach Hes my cousin at two removes (= the grandson of my cousin)

:_______________________________.

Offa
-fa masculine noun
1
Offa, King of Mercia (reigned 38 / 39 years, from 757 until his death in 796) who built a demarcation ditch between England and Wales Clawdd Offa (qv) Offas Dyke

2 Trefclo or Tref-y-clawdd (qv) village in the county of Powys ((the) trv / farmstead (of) the dyke)

3 Offa name of an electoral ward in Wrecsam

Ward Offa the Offa ward

4 Brynoffa (qv) (the) hill (of) Offa. The meaning is hill overlooking Offas Dyke.
.....(1) street name in Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam)
.....(2) street name in Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam)
.....(3) name of a district on the western side of Rhos-ddu (county of Wrecsam) and also a street name here

Llwynoffa

Farm name, Argoed / New Brighton, Y Fflint

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=328869

llwyn Offa (the) wood (of) Offa. The meaning is woodland overlooking Offas Dyke.

 

 

Clawddoffa SJ2467 (Clawdd-Offa) (the) dyke (of) Offa, Offas dyke

Farm in Sychdyn, Y Fflint

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=330670


:_______________________________.

offeiriad
o- feir -yad masculine noun
PLURAL offeiriaid, offeiriadon, offeiriadau
o- feir -yed, o-feir-y-don, o-feir-y-de
1
priest = a minister of religion; especially a Catholic priest

2 (Eglwys Loegr = the Church of England) vicar = a clergyman appointed to act as the priest for a parish

3 priest = non-Christian priest

4 archoffeiriad archpriest, (formerly) the chief assistant of a bishop who took over many of his duties in his absence

5 fel piso ffeirad (said of weak beer) ("like (the) piss (of a) priest / vicar")

6 llaur offeiriad (Galium aparine) goosegrass (nits (of) the clergyman)

7 sefyll allan fel ffeirad mewn ffair
stick out like a sore thumb = be very obvious stand out like a clergyman in a fair
(sefyll allan = stand out) + (fel = com) + (ffeirad < ffeiriad < offeiriad = clergyman) + (mewn = in) + (ffair = fair)

ETYMOLOGY: the basic meaning was "one who gives an offering";

(1) offeiriad < effeiriad < offeiriad (see comment 4)

(2) (*offr- = offering) + (-i-ad = prefix).

(3) offr- < Latin offr- < offerere (= to present) < ob (= towards, against) + ferre (= to bring)

(4) The initial o became e due to the influence of the front vowels in the following syllables, but the o later reappeared or reestablished itself, probably reinforced by offrwm (= offering), offrymu (= to make an offering)

NOTE: Often with the loss of the first syllable in spoken Welsh;
(1) North Wales ffeiriad,

(2) South Wales ffeirad, ffirad (with the absence of the semiconsonant "i" at the beginning of a final syllable iad > -ad; and the simplification of the penult diphthong ei > i; both of these are usual features in southern Welsh. The plural is ffeiradon (= offeiriadon), which in the south-east becomes ffiraton (with the devoicing of the initial 'd' of the final consonant; the devoicing of "d", "b" and "g" in this position is typical in the south-east)

John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911), notes a filed called Caer Offeiriad (Kaer ffirad). The pronunciation would have been Cr Ffirad. (cae, southern Welsh caa, south-eastern Welsh c)

1747. Coroner's Inquest taken at the house of John James at Landaff in the Hundred of Kibbor and County of Glamorgan, upon view of the body of Morgan Thomas late of the Parish of Landaff aforesaid, labourer, found that the deceased was undermining a pine end of a certain house in a field called Kaer ffirad in the parish of Landaff, when the said pine end fell suddenly on him and crushed him to death.

 


:_______________________________.

offeiriadol
o-feir- y -dol adjective
1
priestly
coleg offeiriadol seminary

ETYMOLOGY: (offeiriad = priest) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

offer.
1
abbreviation = offerynnol (Grammar) instrumental

:_______________________________.

offeren
o-fee-ren feminine noun
PLURAL offerennau
o-fe-re-ne
1
mass = celebration of Eucharist

2 priest, and may have music and incense

3 isel offeren low mass = one which is simplified and spoken by the priest rather than sung

4 canu'r offeren perform mass ("sing the mass")

5 offeren ddu black mass = blasphemous version of a Christian mass

6 offeren dros y meirw (mass on-behalf-of the dead-ones) requiem mass = (Roman Catholic Church) a Mass for the dead

Also: offeren requiem
o-fee-ren re-kwi-em requiem mass

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh offeren < *offern < Latin offernda < offerre (= to present) < (ob- = in front of, away, etc) + (ferre = to carry)
Breton: oferenn (= mass)

From the same Latin word via British: Cornish: oferenn (= mass) Breton: oferenn (= mass),
From the same Latin word: Irish aifreann (= mass)

:_______________________________.

offeryn, offerynnau
o FE rin, o fe RƏ ne (masculine noun)
1
implement

offer implements, equipment

offer trydanol symudol movable electrical equipment

2
musical instrument

offeryn cerdd musical instrument

3 offer stryd street furniture (seats, lamposts, etc) (equipment (of) street)

:_______________________________.

offeryniaeth, offeryniaethau
o fe RIN yeth, o fe rin YEI the (feminine noun) instrumentation

:_______________________________.

offerynnol
o fe RƏ nol (adjective)
1
instrumental


2 (Grammar) instrumental
Abbreviation: offer.

:_______________________________.

offerynnu
o fe RƏ ni (verb)
1
instrumentalise

:_______________________________.

offerynnydd, offerynwyr
o fe RƏ nidh, o fe RƏN wir (masculine noun)
1
instrumentalist

:_______________________________.

offis, offisus / offisau
O fis, o FI sis / o FI se (feminine noun) SUIDH va
1
(colloquial) office. Standard form: swyddfa

:_______________________________.

offrwm
o -frum masculine noun
PLURAL offrymau
o-frə-me
1
offering, sacrifice of an animal to a god

Lefiticus 7:18 Ac os bwyteir dim o gig offrwm ei ebyrth hedd ef o fewn y trydydd dydd, ni byddir bodlon ir hwn ai hoffrymo ef, ac nis cyfrifir iddo, ffieiddbeth fydd; ar dyn a fwyty ohono, a ddwg ei anwiredd.
Leviticus 7:18 And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity.

2 offering, money given at the end of a religious service for church funds

3 North-west Wales offrwm y clochydd ("(the) offering (of) the sexton') or offrwm pen pl ("offering (of) end (of) spade") - tip given to a church sexton after a funeral service - placed on the blade of the spade which the sexton holds out on the horizontal as mourners leave the funeral

4 Foel Offrwm SH7420 mountain in the district of Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd) "hill (of the) offering"

ETYMOLOGY: offrwm < offrwng < Old English ofrung (= offering). The change ng > m is also to be seen in the place name Y Trallwm (local form) < Y Trallwng (standard form)

:_______________________________.

o flaen
o VLAIN (preposition)
1
in front of

2 after verbs in certain expressions:
..1/ arllwys eich cwd o flaen (South) unbosom / unburden yourself to (open your bag in front of...)

..2/ mynd o flaen gofid look for difficulties where there are none (go in front of affliction)

3 Mae cryn daith on blaenau We have a long way to go
Mae cryn bellter on blaenau We have a long way to go
Mae cryn siwrnai on blaenau We have a long way to go

4 o flaen gwn at gunpoint (in front (of) (a ) gun)
o flaen dryll at gunpoint (in front (of) (a ) gun)

:_______________________________.

ofn, ofnau
O von, OV ne (masculine noun)
1
fear

2 Mae ofn arna i
mai O von ar nai (phrase) I'm afraid (there is fear on me)

3 codi ofn am eich enaid arnoch scare the living daylights out of, scare the shit out of, put the fear of God into, frighten somebody stiff (raise fear for your soul on you)
bod yn ddigon i godi ofn arnoch be creepy (be enough to raise fear on you)

4 bod ofn arnoch ar eich hyd be very afraid (be fear on you on your length - from top to bottom, all your length)

:_______________________________.

ofnadwy
ov NA dui (adjective)
1
terrible

 

mewn tymer ofnadwy (mewn tymer ofnadw) in a terrible temper

 

2 mor ofnadwy o terribly

mynd mor ofnadwy o become terribly

 

Rwyt ti wedi mynd mor ofnadw o grintachlyd
Youve become really stingy

:_______________________________.

-ofni
OV ni (verb)
1
to fear, be afraid of

Ofnai Rhiannon iw chwaer fach syrthio Rhiannon was afraid that her little sister would fall


:_______________________________.

ofnus
OV nis (adjective)
1
fearful

:_______________________________.

og, ogiau / ogau
OOG, OG ye / O ge (feminine noun)
1
harrow (implement for evening the ground)

:_______________________________.

-og
OG (suffix) adjectival suffix;
1
gwynt (= wind), gwyntog (= windy);

haul (= sun), heulog (= sunny)

niwl (= fog), niwlog (= foggy)

cwmwl (= cloud), cymylog (= cloudy)

2 many adjectives from an earlier period have become nouns in their own right (marchog, literally 'equine', hence 'equine man', horse nam, now 'knight')

-awg (now og) was used in hypochoristic forms of names in the early Welsh period

Cadog
KAA-dog for Cadfael

(cad-, first element of the name Cadfael) + (-awg / -og suffix)

:_______________________________.

o ganlyniad
oo gan- lən -yad
1
as a result, as a consequence
bod o ganlyniad i be a consequence of, as a result of

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (canlyniad = consequence, result)

:_______________________________.

ogla
O gla (masculine noun)
1
smell (North-west)

:_______________________________.

ogof <OO-gov> [ˡoˑgɔv] (feminine noun)
PLURAL ogofu, ogofydd
<o-go-VAAI, o-go-VEIDH> [ɔgɔˡvaɪ, ɔgɔˡvəɪ]
1 cave = an underground hollow or chamber

celfyddyd yr ogofu cave art
preswylydd ogof cave dweller;
plural preswylwyr ogof (if living in one cave) , preswylydd ogofu (if living in caves in general)
peintiad ogof plural peintiada ogofu cave painting

2 den
ogof lladron a den of thieves, robbers' hideout, thieves' den, brigands' cave
ogof opiwm opium den

3 Place names:

Danyrogof ((the house) below (the entrance to) the cave),

Gallt yr Ogof ((the) hill (of) the cave),

Llandysilio Gogo (the church of Llandysilio in the locality known as Gogo, i.e. cave)

4 Ogof Arthur Arthur's Cave, a cave in which the Welsh leader is said to be in a charmed sleep with his warriors, waiting for the call to awake and lead his people, and reclaim the island of Britain for the Welsh.
Many caves in Wales are known by this name, for example:

..a/ at Deuarth Fach / Little Doward, England SO 540160 (King) Arthurs Cave

..b/ cave by the lake known as Marchlyn Mawr, North Wales

..c/ cave in Llangwyfan, county of Mn
(John Rhys / Celtic Folklore / Vol 2 / 1901 : Ogof Arthur, Arthurs Cave, in the southern side of Mynydd y Cnwc in the parish of Llangwyfan, on the south-western coast of Anglesey. The foot of Mynydd y Cnwc is washed by the sea, and the mouth of the cave is closed by its waters at high tide)

4 Ogof Owain Glyn-dŵr SH5547 (the) cave (of) Owain Glyn-dŵr

Moel yr Ogof SH5547 (the) hill (of) the cave

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/58538 map

 

 

ETYMOLOGY: Unknown origin, though probably < British < Celtic

Cornish has gogo (= cave), and from this Cornish-language word the English dialect of Cornwall gug (= cave)

NOTE: If the original form is ogof then the form gogof shows a prosthetic g as in southern gallt (= hill, wood) for original allt (= hill). (allt is still the literary form, and is also the form used in the north).

As with all polysyllables in final -f, this -f has disappeared in the spoken language ogof > ogo.

In the county of Penfro, the change o > a, occurring in the final syllable other words in Welsh in other dialects, is to be seen in oga < ogo


:_______________________________.

o gwbl
<o GUU-bul> [ɔ ˡguˑbʊl] o GU bul (adverb)
1
at all

:_______________________________.

Ogwen
<OG-wen> [ˡɔgwɛn]
1
riu del nord-oest

2 Minogwen / Min Ogwen street name in Bangor ((the) bank (of the river) Ogwen)

3 Bro Ogwen <broo OG-wen> [br ˡɔgwɛn] Ogwen Country, the district around the river Ogwen, the focal point of which is the town of Bethesda
Bro-ogwen / Bro Ogwen (Bro Ogwen) house name, Bangor (Gwynedd)

 

4 Brynogwen <brin OG-wen> [brɪn ˡɔgwɛn]street in Bangor (Gwynedd) (Bryn Ogwen)

(the) hill (overlooking) (the river) Ogwen

 


:_______________________________.

o gwmpas
<o GUM-pas> [ɔ ˡgʊmpas] (preposition)
1
around

2 gogor-droi o gwmpas (pwnc) (turn around
(a subject)) beat about the bush, not get straight to the point, skate around a subject, avoid getting to the point

3 troi rhywun o gwmpas eich bys bach twist somebody round your little finger

:_______________________________.

Ogwy
<OO-gui> [ˡoˑgʊɪ]
1 fanciful name for the river Ogwr
In the village of Nant-y-moel (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) there are

..a/ Ogwy Street (which would be Heol Ogwy in Welsh) and

..b/ Brynogwy Terrace (which would be Brynogwy or Rhestr Brynogwy in Welsh)
Brynogwy is (the) hill (overlooking the) Ogwy (river)

ETYMOLOGY: (Og- first syllable of the river name Ogwr) + (-wy, a supposed suffix meaning water.) See the entry gwy = water

:_______________________________.

oherwydd
<o-HER-widh> [ɔ ˡhɛrwɪ] (conjunction)
1
because

NOTE:
Page 46 / A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative / John Morris-Jones (1864-1929) /
1913: The following words may be mentioned as those most commonly mispronounced: wy is the falling diphthong in cern vat, disgl, look, expect, Gnedd Venedotia, Gndid, id., morn maiden, tern fervent; it is the rising diphthong in oherdd because of, cychn, rise, start, erchn protector, [bed]-side, deddd happy



:_______________________________.

ohon-
<o-HON> [ɔ ˡhɔn] (preposition)
1
stem for the conjugated forms of 'o' - from 'o' + the element 'han' indicating 'separation' (as in gwahanu = to separate)

:_______________________________.

ohoni
o- ho -ni preposition
1
from it

2 dod allan ohoni get out of a difficulty (get out of it)

3 ohoni ei hunan of her own accord, without being pressured or forced
ymadael ohoni ei hunan leave of her own accord

:_______________________________.

o hyd
<o HIID> [ɔ ˡhiːd] (adverb)
1
still

:_______________________________.

o hyn allan
oo hin a-lhan adverb
1
from now on
-"Shwd ych chi'n hoffi gwaith fferm?"
-"Yn iawn."
-"Felly, ffermio byddwch chi o hyn allan?"

-How do you like farm work?
-Its all right.
-So youll be farming from now on?

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + (hyn = this (time)) + (allan = out)

:_______________________________.

o hyn ymlen
oo hin om-lain adverb
1
from now on, henceforward

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + (hyn = this (time)) + (ymlen = forward)

:_______________________________.

oi
1
diphthong = vowel
o and semi-consonant i

(1) in loans
boi (= boy) < English boy

(2) words with final o and addition of a suffix -i
ffo (= flight), ffoi (= to flee)
llo (= claf), lloi (= calves)

(3) contraction of o + i with loss of medial dd
rhoi (= to give) < rho|i < rhoddi

2
In South Wales, the diphthong au
i in monosyllables and eu ei in the penult are colloquially ou oi (better spelt ou, since both i and u are pronounced the same, as i, in the south, and ou maintains a vidual link with eu; but in the north the u is differentiated, and so the spelling oi is usual.)

..a/ beudy (= cowshed, cowhouse) > boudy / boidy

..b/ ceulan (= river bank) > coulan / coilan

..c/ clau (= quick, fast, rapid) > clou / cloi

..d/ haul (= sun) > houl / hoil (and since especially in the south-east the h is lost, oul / oil)

..e/ neuadd (= hall) > nouadd / noiadd

3 In South Wales, the diphthong oe oi is sometimes written in dialect writing as oi oi.
coesau (= legs) > coise, coisa

:_______________________________.

oi
1
oi for au / eu in southern Welsh

oil = haul (sun)

cloi = clau (quick)

 

See ou


:_______________________________.

oian
OI an interjection
1
(obsolete) oh!

2 Yr Oianau (the hush-a-byes)
title of series of stanzas in Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin / The Black Book of Carmarthen c.1250, each beginning with the words hoian o Barchellan, Hush-a-bye little piggie

:_______________________________.

oifad
OI vad (verb) = nofio NOV yo
1
(South-east Wales) to swim

:_______________________________.

-ol
ol (suffix) adjectival suffix
1
sir = county, sirol = belonging to a county or counties

:_______________________________.

l, olion / olau
OOL, OL yon / O le (masculine noun)
1
trace, track; back track

2 l bys fingerprint; finger mark PLURAL olion bysedd finger prints; finger marks
Mae l ei fysedd arno Hes left finger marks on it

3
gadael eich l ar (rywbeth) leave your mark on something

4 rear, behind

drych l rear-view mirror


5 mynd yn eich l go back (go in your back track)

troir cloc yn ei l turn the clock back (turn the clock in its back trail)

:_______________________________.

olaf, ola'
O la (adjective)
1
last, final

2 yr hyd olaf the home stretch, the home straight = the final stretch on a racetrack, from the last bend to the winning post

yr darn syth olaf the home stretch

3 cyffyrddiad olaf finishing touch

rhoi cyffyrddiad olaf i rywbeth give something a finishing touch

cerbydau blaenaf a cherbydau olaf y trn the front carriages and the end carriages of the train

:_______________________________.

 

olau OO-lai, -e

1 tracks; plural form of l (= track)


:_______________________________.

 

olau OO-lai, -e

1 soft-mutated form of golau (= light)

 

Bronolau (qv) (house name) < bron olau light hill, sunlit hill

Wernolau < wern olau light alder-swamp, sunlit alder-swamp

Waunolau < waun olau light moor, sunlit moor

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/558223 hamlet west of Pen-clawdd (Abertawe)

:_______________________________.

o lam i lam
oo lam ii lam adv
1
cynyddu o lam i lam increase by leaps and bounds

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + soft mutation + (llam = leap) + (i = to) + soft mutation + (llam = leap)

:_______________________________.

o lawer
oo LAU er (adverb)
1
(after a comparative adjective) greatly, very much
am brisiau is o lawer at greatly reduced prices (for prices greatly lower)

:_______________________________.

OLD NORSE WORDS IN WELSH

Generally they have come into Welsh via English

Particulary noticeable are words beginning with sg-

sgert (f) skirt = kind of garment for the lower part of the body

sgertin (m) skirting, skirting board

English skirting < skirting board; to skirt (verb, = to lie along the edge of) < skirt (noun, = skirt, i.e. a kind of garment) < Old Norse skyrta (= skirt)

sgil (f) skill = acquired aptitude
English 1100+ skill < Old Norse skil (= distinction, difference).
Cf Dutch geschil (= difference, dispute, argument)

sgrap (m) scrap = discarded material
English scrap < Old Norse skrap

:_______________________________.

olew, olewau / olewon
O leu, o LEU e / o LEU on (masculine noun)
1
oil

2 oil = petroleum

llwyfan olew oil rig

3 olew india-corn oli de blat de moro

4 olew olewydd
o leu o LEU idh olive oil (oil (of) olive trees)

:_______________________________.

l-lyngesydd
ool lə- nge -sidh masculine noun
PLURAL l-lyngesyddion
ool-lə-nge- sədh -yon
1
rear-admiral (rank junior to a vice-admiral)

ETYMOLOGY: direct translation of English rear-admiral

(l = rear, back) + soft mutation + (llyngesydd = admiral)


:_______________________________.


olrit
ol-REIT adj

1 (colloquial) all right

bod yn olrit to be all right

 

Chi'n meddwl fydd hi'n olreit? Do you think shell be all right?

ETYMOLOGY: English all right
:_______________________________.

olrhain
Ol hren (verb)
1
to trace

:_______________________________.

Olwen
OL wen (feminine noun) KIL hukh ag OL wen
1
woman's name; see Culhwch ac Olwen (tale from the Mabinogi)

:_______________________________.

olwg
OO-lug feminine noun
1
soft-mutated form of golwg (qv) (= view, sight)

2 olwg In compound words, sometimes found in house names or street names

.....(1) Brynolwg house in Y Bont-goch, Tal-y-bont, Ceredigion (= hill view, place with a view of a hill)

.....(2) Caerolwg house in Llandre, Tal-y-bont, Ceredigion (= hillfort view, place with a view of a hillfort)

.....(3) Gartholwg
a) village by the Garth mountain (= Garth view, place with a view of the Garth mountain). English name: Church Village.

b) street in Pen-tyrch (though misspelt as if two words Garth Olwg)

c) in other villages by Y Garth, the street names with this meaning have the English form Garth View (a) in Gartholwg itself, (b) Nantgarw, (c) Llantrisant

.....(4) Morolwg house name (= sea view, place with a view of the sea)

.....(5) Mynyddolwg house in Y Garndiffaith, Pont-y-pŵl, Torfaen (= upland view, place with a view of the upland hill)

.....(6) Tafolwg street in Treharris (though misspelt as if two words Taf Olwg) (= Taf view, place with a view of the river Taf)

.....(7) Tirolwg house name, Nebo, Llan-non

(= view of the land, place with a view of the land)

:_______________________________.

olwyn, olwynion
OL win, ol WƏN yon (feminine noun)
1
wheel

:_______________________________.

olwyn dn, olwynion tn
ol win DAAN, ol WƏN yon TAAN (feminine noun)
1
Catherine wheel

:_______________________________.

olwyn ddŵr, olwynion dŵr
ol win DHUUR, ol WƏN yon DUUR (feminine noun)
1
waterwheel

:_______________________________.

olwyn Gatrin, olwynion Catrin feminine noun)
ol win GA trin, ol WƏN yon KA trin
1
Catherine wheel

:_______________________________.

olynol
o--nol adjective
1
consecutive, successive

am y ddegfed flwyddyn yn olynol for the tenth year in succession

ETYMOLOGY: l yn l (adverb) 'step in step', track in track, in succession; since many adjectives end in the suffix -ol (for example cyfrif = account, cyfrifol = reponsible) eventually it was thought that it too was an adjective from this class, as if it were (*olyn) + (-ol)

:_______________________________.

omled, omledau
OM led, om LE de (masculine noun)
1
omelette

:_______________________________.

omled caws
om led KAUS (masculine noun)
1
cheese omelette

:_______________________________.

omled madarch
o led MA darkh (masculine noun)
1
mushroom omelette

:_______________________________.

omled plaen
om led PLAIN (masculine noun)
1
plain omelette

:_______________________________.

-on
-on
1 In the south, often the plural suffix -ion > -on
(the initial
y of the first syllable is generally lost in South Wales).
Examples:
..a/ hoelion (= nails) > hoelon
..b/ polion (= poles) > polon

:_______________________________.

ond
OND (conjunction)
1
but

2
petwn i ond yn gallu! if only I could! (if I were + but + be able)

3 Doedd gennyf ond mynd I had no option but to go (there wasnt with me but to go)

4 (preposition) except for

y .... dyfnaf ond un the second deepest ....

y .... hwyaf ond un
the second longest ....

y .... uchaf ond un
the second highest ....

Hon ywr gopa uchaf ond un ar Fynydd Pumlumon This is the second highest summit in the Pumlumon mountain


:_______________________________.

 

ond onid adverb
1
contraction of onid (= is it not)

..a/ before a noun

 

..b/ before a verb beginning with a vowel

Her is corresponds to English [is] it not.

If the vowel begins with a consonant, oni is used, and this causes mixed mutation of

c p t / g b d / m ll rh

 

c p t > ch ph th (aspirate mutation)

g b d > ZERO f dd(soft mutation)

m ll rh > f l r (soft mutation)

 

ond yw isnt.

ond oes isnt there.

ond oedd wasnt., wasnt there

 

Ond ywr prifathro yn ddyn caredig! (exclamation) Isnt the headmaster a kind man!

Ond oedd y plant y edrych yn braf yn eu cotiau newydd? (exclamation) Werent the children looking / Didnt the children look smart in their new coats?

 

:_______________________________.

ond antur
o-nid an-tir adverb
1
obsolete; Bible perhaps, maybe
Genesis 32:20 ac wedi hynny edrychaf yn ei wyneb ef; ond antur efe a dderbyn fy wyneb innau
Genesis 32:20 and afterward I will see his face; peradventure he will accept of me

ETYMOLOGY: < on'd antur < onid antur ('but, if not') + ('venture, chance')

:_______________________________.

ond i
OND i conjunction
1
provided that, on condition that

Bydda in ddedwydd ond i mi gael digon o arian Ill be happy provided I get enough money

Dyma lased o laath i ti, ac ond i ti yfed hwnna, cei un arall wedyn
Heres a glass of milk for you, and if you drink it, youll get another one

Bydda in ddedwydd ond i mi gael digon o arian
Ill be happy provided I get enough money

Does gan y maethegwyr ddim yn erbyn sglodion tatws ond iddynt gael eu rhostio mewn olew corn
The nutritionists have no objection to chips providing they are cooked in corn oil

Mae 'na reis i'w gael ond i chi dalu
There is rice available provided you pay / Theres rice to be had too but its extra

Mi af fi, ond i chi ddweud
I'll go - just say the word

Yr wyf in fodlon anghofior cyfan ond i chi wneuthur yr un modd
Im prepared to forget everything provided you do the same

ETYMOLOGY: (ond = but) + (i = to)


:_______________________________.

ond odid
ond OO didii
1
perhaps, maybe

 

A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative. John Morris(-)Jones, 1913. Page 437: ond odid perhaps (literally except a rarity)


Genesis 18:30 Ac efe a ddywedodd, O na ddigied fy Arglwydd os llefaraf: Ceir yno ond odid ddeg ar hugain. Yntau a ddywedodd, Nis gwnaf os caf yno ddeg ar hugain.
Genesis 18:30 And he said unto him, Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak: Peradventure there shall thirty be found there. And he said, I will not do it, if I find thirty there.

Genesis 24:5 Ar gwas a ddywedodd wrtho ef, Ond odid ni fyn y wraig ddyfod ar fy l i ir wlad hon: gan ddychwelyd a ddychwelaf dy fab di ir tir y daethost allan ohono?
Genesis 24:5 And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest?

Dacw dŷ bwyta, ni a gawn ymborth acw ond odid

Over yonder there is a restaurant, we shall get sustenance there perhaps


:_______________________________.



ond oes OND ois (phrase)
1
= onid oes

:_______________________________.



ond ydi...
ond ə-di
1 (North Wales) (at the beginning of a sentence) isnt... doesnt...
Ond ydi hin ddigywilydd! What a cheek she has! (Isnt she shameless)
Cf Ond yw (South Wales)

:_______________________________.


ond y dim
ond ə dim adverb
1
almost, very nearly
Yr un peth yw, ond y dim Its the same, or very nearly

2
ond y dim i almost, very nearly (+ verb)
Bu ond y dim imi achub y shilff rhag syrthio I only just managed to stop the shelf from falling
Bu ond y dim imi fynd yno i fyw rai blynyddoedd yn l I almost went to live there years ago

ETYMOLOGY: (but the least thing) (ond = but) + (y = definite article) + (dim = something; the least amount)

:_______________________________.

ond yw on -diu
1 (South Wales) (at the beginning of a sentence) isnt... doesnt...
Ond ywr byd man fach! Its a small world!
Ond ywr amser yn mynd heibio! How time flies!
Cf Ond ydi (North Wales)

:_______________________________.

onennau o-NE-nai, -e
1
plural of onnen (= ash tree)


:_______________________________.

Onennau Meigion o-NE-nai, -e MEIG-yon
1
locality on the border of Shropshire and Staffordshire the neighbouring villages of Six Ashes (Shropshire) SO7988 and Four Ashes (Staffordshire) SO8087

 


(delw 7436)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/307996 Six Ashes

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1223377 FourAshes

 

(delw 7525)

 

In the Triparte Indenture of (28 February 1405) (an agreement between the three noblemen Owain Glwn-dŵr (the Tywysog (ruler) of Wales), Henry Percy (First Earl of Northumberland), and Edmund Mortimer (son-in-law of Owain Glyn Dŵr, and cousin of the English king Henry IV), the English king Henry IV would be deposed and the island of Britain below Scotland would be divided into three, with Northern and Midland England for Percy, Southern England for Mortimer, and a larger Wales (incorporating lands to the east which had been lost some centuries earlier to English control and settlement).

 

The land which would Glyn-dŵr would rule was defined as being (in updated English) the whole of Cambria of Wales divided from Loegria now commonly called England by the following borders, limits, and bounds: from the Severn estuary as the River Severn flows from the sea as far as the northern gate of the city of Worcester; from that gate directly to the ash trees known in Cambrian or Welsh language as Onennau Meigion which grow on the high road from Bridgnorth to Kinver; then directly along the highway... to the head or source of the River Trent; thence to the head or source of the river commonly known as the Mersey and so along to the sea.

(Information from wikipedia, 2009-05-19, Tripartite Indenture)

 

ETYMOLOGY: Meigions ash trees (the) ash trees (of) Meigion

(onennau = ash trees, plural on onnen = ash tree) + (Meigion)

:_______________________________.

ongl, onglau
O ngol, O ngle (feminine noun)
1
angle

:_______________________________.

oni
O ni (conjunction)
1
if not

:_______________________________.

..1 onid
o-nid conjunction
1
if (it is) not (+ an abnormal first element, an element which is not a verb is placed at the head of sentence, for emphasis)

Onid Gwyn a ddaw gyntaf i
If it isnt GWYN who comes first, if GWYN doesnt come first

However, colloquial Welsh has os nad
Os nad Gwyn ddaw gyntaf
If GWYN doesnt come first, if it isnt GWYN who comes first

-Pa liw ydynt? -Du a gwyn. -Anghywir. -Onid du a gwyn, llwyd a coch ynteu
-What colour are they? -Black and white -Wrong -If not black and white, then grey and red

ETYMOLOGY: Literally if not - (o = if) + (nid, negative particle, 'not'). (The form o meaning if is now obsolete in modern Welsh it has a final s - os)

NOTE: The affirmative forms are (north) os mai, (south) os taw, os ta, and in literary Welsh simply os
(north) os mai Gwyn ddaw gyntaf its Gwyn who comes first
(south) os taw Gwyn ddaw gyntaf its Gwyn who comes first
(literary Welsh) os Gwyn a ddaw gyntaf

:_______________________________.

..2 onid
o-nid preposition
1
obsolete; Bible (with numerals) minus, except for

Genesis 17:1 a phan oedd Abram onid un mlwydd cant, yr ymddangosodd yr Arglwydd i Abram
And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram
("when Abram was, except for 1 year, a hundred")

Genesis 11:25 A Nachor a fu fyw wedi iddo genhedlu Tera, onid un flwyddyn chwech
ugain mlynedd, ac a genhedlodd feibion a merched.

Genesis 11:25 And Nahor lived after he begat Terah an hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters.
("Nahor lived ..., except for 1 year, six score of years")

Numeri 26:22 Dyma dylwyth Jwda, dan eu rhif; onid pedair nil pedwar ugain a phum cant
(76,500 is expressed as except for 4,000,
they were 80,000 + 500)
Numbers 26:22 These are the families of Judah according to those that were numbered of them, three score and sixteen thousand and five hundred
The English version has simple addition of thousands and hundreds - (60,000 + 16,000 + 500)

Luc 15:7 y bydd llawenydd yn y nef am un pechadur a edifarhao, mwy nag am onid un pum ugain o rai cyfiawn, y rhai nid rhaid iddynt wrth edifeirwch
Luke 15:7 joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, over ninety and nine just persons which need no repentance
The Welsh version has more than, except for one, five score of just persons


cant a deugain one hundred and forty
Before a vowel a > ac:
cant ac (onid pedwar) deugain 136 (one hundred and except for four forty)

Esra 2:66 eu meirch oedd saith gant ac onid pedwar deugain
(seven hundred and forty, minus four) (700 and, except for 4, two score)
Ezra 2:66 Their horses were seven hundred thirty and six

2
obsolete; except, apart from; in modern Welsh ond

ETYMOLOGY: literally if not See onid 1

:_______________________________.

..3 onid
o-nid interrogative
1
is it not...?, is he not...?, is she not...?, are they not...?

Brenhinoedd-2 5:12
Onid gwell Abana a Pharpar, afonydd Damascus, na holl ddyfroedd Israel?
Kings-2 5:12
Are not Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel?

ETYMOLOGY: literally if not - See onid 1

:_______________________________.

..4 onid
O nid (conjunction)
1
(colloquial form: ond) if (it is) not

 

ETYMOLOGY: (o = if) + (nid = it-is-not)

The word o (= if) is obsolete in modern Welsh, and has been replaced by a derived form os (= if)

See ond

:_______________________________.

- onid do?
O nid DOO (phrase) (after a verb in the past tense)
1
didn't (it, she, he, etc)?

:_______________________________.

onid e?
o -ni-de -
1
isn't that so? Used in verb-in-second-position sentences
Usually the verb is a the head of the sentence in Welsh

Yr wyf yn iawn, ond wyf? I'm right, am I not?

but
Fi yw'r gorau, onid e? I'm the best, am I not? (ynde, ontefe; see Note at the foot of this entry)
Some first-language Welsh-speakers translate it as 'isn't it?' and so produce such sentences in English:
I'm the best, isn't it?

2
ac onid e but if not

Daniel 3:17, 18
Wele, y mae ein Duw ni, yr hwn yr ydym ni yn ei addoli yn abl i'n gwared ni allan o'r ffwrn danllyd boerth, ac efe a'n gwared ni o'th law di, o frenin. Ac onid e, bydded hysbys i ti, frenin, ni addolwn dy dduwiau... (In the Beibl Cymraeg Newydd the phrase is: ac hyd yn oed os na wna...)
Daniel 3:17, 18
If it be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver us out of thine hand, O king. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve they gods...

ETYMOLOGY: (onid = if no) + (e, pronoun, from ef = he)

NOTE: the colloquial forms of onide are (1) south-west onte fe, (2) south-east ynta fa, (3) north yn te, yn de

:_______________________________.

- onid oes...?
O nid OIS (phrase) (colloquially: ond oes)
isn't there...?

:_______________________________.

- onid yw...?
O nid OIS (phrase) (colloquially: ond yw)
1
isn't it...?

:_______________________________.

onis
o -nis
1
literary Welsh (conjunction + object pronoun)
Used with the impersonal form of the verb

Onis danfonir, dychweler at yr anfonydd
If undelivered, please return to sender


ETYMOLOGY: (oni = if not) + (-s = her / him / it, object of the following verb which appears in its impersonal form)

:_______________________________.

onnen, PLURAL: onn / ynn
O nen, ON / IN (feminine noun)
1
ash tree

2 Taironnen
y tair onnen = the three elms (y = the) + (tair, feminine form of tri = three) + (onnen = elm tree)
..a/ (ST0374) a farm in Llantriddyd, on the road from Caer-dydd to Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr
..b/ (SN6503) locality by Felindre (county of Abertawe)

3
onllwyn ash wood, ash grove
llwyn on ash wood, ash grove

:_______________________________.

onor -nor mf
1 honor / honour

Mi glywais i Rhobat Gruffydd yn deyd laweroedd o weithia, fod honor
sic Jehofa tu cefn iw addewidion.
I heard Rhobat Gruffudd say many times that Jehovahs honor was behind his promises
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910 t173

ETYMOLOGY: English honour < Old French onor < Latin honor


:_______________________________.

onte fe?
on te VEE (phrase)
1
See onid e

:_______________________________.

oo
-
1
used in this dictionary to represent the simplification (mostly in monosyllables, and mostly in southern Welsh) of the diphthong oe i into a long vowel oo
For example, coed (= wood) > cood
The usual way of representing this is either with a circumflex (cd) or with an apostrophe (cod). (nowadays the recommended form)

The use of oo though has advantages
...(1) it is immediately apparent that the vowel is long
...(2) since a double vowel is not ordinarily used in Welsh, it is immediately apparent that the word so spelt is a dialect form

The disdvantages of o are
...(1) it is not immediately clear that the vowel is long
pon
poon < poen = pain
...(2) because of syllable omissions and contractions in popular Welsh, the apostrophe is overworked.

The disadvantages of are
...(1) It is not immediately apparent that a word is a local form
Local forms: cs (coes = leg), r (oer = cold), ml (moel = bald)
Standard forms: dl = meadow, tn = melody, bn = base.

See also a similar situation with ae - (blaen > blan, bln, blaan)

2
Examples
coog < coeg (= empty
of a nut, dry of a well)
cood < coed (= wood)
coos < coes (= leg)
cooth < coeth (= pure, elegant, cultured)
croon < croen (= skin)
croos < croes (= cross)
ddoo < ddoe (= yesterday)
dooth < doeth (= wise)
ffroon < ffroen (= nostril)
hoo < hoe (= rest, break, repose)
loos < loes (= ache)
mool < moel (= bald)
nooth < noeth (= bare, nakd)
ood < oed (= age)
oor < oer (= cold)
poon < poen (= pain)
pooth < poeth (= hot)
oodd..? < a oedd..? (= was there..?)
oos..? < a oes..? (= is there..?)
soog < soeg (= draff, brewers' grains)
toos < toes (= dough)
trood < troed (= foot)

:_______________________________.

oodd
OODH (verb)
1
colloquial form (especially southern) of oedd = was

:_______________________________.

o l
oo ool preposition
1
behind
gadael popeth och l get away from it all (leave everything behind you)
chwarter milltir o'i hl quarter of a mile behind her
Rhaid cau'r drws o'n hl We have to close the door behind us

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + (l = behind)

:_______________________________.

pera, operu
O pe ra, o per RAI (feminine noun)
1
opera

:_______________________________.

opiwm op -yum masculine noun
1 opium
caeth i opiwm opium addict (m)
caethes i opiwm opium addict (f)
bod yn gaeth i opiwm be an opium addict (slave)
pabi opiwm opium poppy

2 ogof opiwm opium den

ETYMOLOGY: English opium < Latin < opium (= poppy juice) < Greek
opion, diminutive of opos plant juice
:_______________________________.

-or
1
from the Latin element -e.g canghellor < cancellarius - later taken as a suffix, and added to native roots:
telyn (= harp), telynor (= harpist)
and also to the word of Latin origin carchar (= prison) > carcharor (= prisoner)

:_______________________________.

oraensh, oraenshus
O rainsh, o RAIN shis (masculine noun) (North Wales)
1
orange

:_______________________________.

o ran
oo RAN (preposiiton)
1
as regards
Byddair tyddyn yn ei daro i'r dim o ran maint a rhent
The smallholding would
suit him down to the ground as regards its size and the rent

:_______________________________.

o ran arfer
oo ran ar -ver adverb
1
out of sheer habit

ETYMOLOGY: (o ran = from + part) + (arfer= habit)

:_______________________________.

o ran cywilydd
oo ran kə- w -lidh adverb
1
out of shame, in shame
Er nad oedd ganddo ran flaenllaw yn y trosedd, yr oedd wedi ffoi i America, o ran cywilydd
Although he didnt have a prominent part in the crime, he had fled to America in shame ,

ETYMOLOGY: (o ran = from + part) + (cywilydd = shame)

:_______________________________.

o ran difyrrwch
oo ran di- -rukh adverb
1
for fun

ETYMOLOGY: (o ran = from + part) + (difyrrwch = fun, amusment)

:_______________________________.

o ran egwyddor
oo ran e- gui -dhor adverb
1
on principle
nid o ran unrhyw egwyddor not on principle of any kind

Ychydig iawn o lcohol yr wyf fi'n ei fwyta - nid o ran unrhyw egwyddor - ond oherwydd ei fod yn codi cygog arna i yn syth
I drink very little alcohol not out of any priciple but because it immediately makes me feel sick

ETYMOLOGY: (o ran = from + part) + (egwyddor = principle)

:_______________________________.

o'r blaen
or BLAIN (adverb)
1
previously

:_______________________________.

o'r braidd
or braidh adverb
1
hardly
Or braidd daw e bellach Hes hardly likely to come now

O'r braidd yr oeddwn yn disgwyl i Gymro Cymraeg o Arfon gefnogi mewnlifiad aruthrol y Saeson ir Fro Gymraeg
I hardly expected a Welsh-speaking Welshman from Arfon to support the massive influx of English people into the Welsh-speaking zone (of Wales)

Or braidd y medr hi ddarllen Shes scarcely able to read, she can hardly read

ETYMOLOGY: (or = of the) + (braidd = almost)

:_______________________________.

o'r bron
or BRON (adverb)
1
in succession

:_______________________________.

Orchwy
<OR-khui> [ˡɔrxʊɪ]
1
Pseudo-antique form of the name Gorci

In the early 1800s it was supposed by some that all river names at one time ended in -wy, from gwy meaning water. In fact, there is no such word (though its popularity no doubt stems from its inclusion in the dictionary of William Owen-Pughe, 1797; it seems to be his own coining).

Many river names though (for various reasons) DO have a final syllable wy, which explains the misunderstanding

Gorci > Orchwy:
..1/ Orci (the soft mutated form of Gorci, as in the place name Treorci) is taken as the base form

..2/ A remodelled form of Orci with
<kh> [x] Orchi instead of <k> [k] seems to have become the basis of the name used in English, Treorchy, though it is pronounced in English with <k> [k]

A more usual spelling in Welsh would be with i - Treorchi, though this form in Welsh probably has never really existed.

..3/ However, this the basis for Orchwy, with wy taking the place of i

There is a street called Heol Orchwy in Treorci (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

2
man's name

(In a paragraph referring to an Eisteddfod in Treorci) Er mai eisteddfod "W.P." y Bedyddiwr oedd hi, Annibynia oedd yn cipio'r gwobrau. Fred Jones (Treorci gynt) oedd yn 'gaffro' yno, ac Orchwy Bowen yn ennill gwobr (Seneddwr ar Dramp / Rhys J Davies / 1935 / t105) Although it was the eisteddfod of "W.P." of the Baptists, the Independents were winning the prizes. Fred Jones (formerly of Treorci) was the gaffer there, and Orchwy Bowen won a prize.

:_______________________________.

o'r cychwyn cyntaf
<or kəkh-win KƏN-tav, KƏN-ta> [ɔr ˡkəxwɪn ˡkəntav, ˡkənta] (adverb)
1
from the very beginning

:_______________________________.

o'r cychwyn hyd y diwedd
<or KƏKH-win HIID ə DI-wedh> [ɔr ˡkəxwɪn ˡhiːd ə ˡdɪwɛ] (adverb)
1
from start to finish

:_______________________________.

o'r dde i'r chwith
<or DHEE ir KHWIITH> [ɔr ˡeː ɪr ˡxwiːθ] (adverb)
1
from the right to the left

:_______________________________.

ordeiniad
<or-DEIN-yad> [ɔrˡdəɪnyad] masculine noun
PLURAL ordeiniadau
<or-dein-YAA-dai, -e> [ɔrdəɪnˡyɑːdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
ordination = the conferring of Holy Orders on, consecration as a priest or minister
hefyd: urddiad

ETYMOLOGY: (ordein- stem of ordeinio = ordain) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

o'r diwedd
<or-DI-wedh> [ɔr ˡdɪwɛ] (adverb)
1
at last

:_______________________________.

ordor, ordors
<OR-dor, OR-dorz> [ˡɔrdɔr, ˡɔrdɔrz] (feminine noun) (colloquial)
1
order

:_______________________________.

ordro
<OR-dro> [ˡɔrdrɔ] (v) (colloquial)
1
to order

:_______________________________.

o'r diwedd
<or DI-wedh> [ɔr ˡdɪwɛ] (adverb)
1
at last

:_______________________________.

o'r dwyrain i
<or DUI-rain, -ren, i> [ɔr ˡdʊɪraɪn, -ɛn, ɪ] (preposition)
1
from the east of

:_______________________________.

o reidrwydd
<o-REI-druidh> [ɔ ˡrəɪdrʊɪ] (adverb)
1
out of necessity

:_______________________________.

oren, orennau
<OO-ren, o-RE-nai, -ne> [ˡoːrɛn, ɔˡrɛnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun) (standard)
1
orange
2
lliw oren orange, orange colour

:_______________________________.

orenshyn, orenshus
<o-REN-shin, o-REN-shiz> [ɔˡrɛnʃɪn, ɔˡrɛnʃɪz] (masculine noun) (South Wales)
1
orange

:_______________________________.

org.
1
abbreviation for orgraff (= spelling, orthography)


:_______________________________.

organ, organau
<OR-gan, or-GAA-nai, -ne> [ˡɔrgan, ɔrˡgɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
organ

:_______________________________.

organydd
<or-GAA-nidh> [ɔrˡgɑˑnɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL organyddion
<or-ga-NƏDH-yon> [ɔrgaˡnəyɔn]
1
organist = one who plays the organ

Roedd Dr George Guest yn organydd Coleg Sant Ioan, Caer-grawnt, rhwng 1951 ac 1991
Dr George Guest was the organist of Saint John's College at Cambridge between 1951 and 1991

ETYMOLOGY: (organ = organ) + (-ydd, suffix to denote an agent)

:_______________________________.

orgasm
<OR-gazm> [ˡɔrgazm] (masculine noun)
1
orgasm

:_______________________________.

orgasmig
<or-GAZ-mig> [ɔrˡgazmɪg] (adjective)
1
orgasmic

:_______________________________.

o'r gloch
<or GLOOKH> [ɔr ˡgloːˑx] (adverb)
1
o'clock
2
Faint yw hi o'r gloch?
<VAINT iu hi or GLOOKH> [ˡvaɪnt ɪʊ hɪ ɔr ˡgloːx] (phrase) What time is it?

:_______________________________.

o'r gogledd i
or GO gledh i (preposition)
1
from the north of

:_______________________________.

o'r gorau
or GO re (adverb)
1
OK, very well, all right then

:_______________________________.

o'r gore
or GO re (phrase)
1
colloquial form of o'r gorau

:_______________________________.

o'r gorllewin i
or gor LHEU in i (preposition)
1
from the west of

:_______________________________.

orgraff, orgraffau
OR graf, or GRA fe (feminine noun)
1
spelling

Abbreviation: org.


:_______________________________.

orgraffiadur, orgraffiaduron
or gra fi A dir, or graf ya DI ron (masculine noun)
1
spelling dictionary

:_______________________________.

orgraffyddol
or gra FƏ dhol (adjective)
1
orthographic, spelling

:_______________________________.

oriau
OR ye (plural noun) AUR
1
hours (see awr)

:_______________________________.

oriel, orielau
OR yel, or YE le (feminine noun)
1
gallery; art gallery

:_______________________________.

oriel gelfyddyd
or-yel gel--dhid feminine noun
PLURAL orielau celfyddyd
or-ye-le kel--dhid
1
art gallery

ETYMOLOGY: (oriel = gallery) + soft mutation + (celfyddyd = art)


:_______________________________.

orji, orjis
OR ji, OR jis (feminine noun)
1
(colloquial) orgy

:_______________________________.

o'r neilltu
or NEILH-ti (prepositional phrase)
1
to one side, aside

sefyll or neilltu stand aside, stand to one side (e.g. to let people go past)



:_______________________________.

oror
oo-ror
1
soft-mutated form of goror (= border, boundary)

Oror (= yr oror) SJ0847 Farm name, 1851 Gwyddelwern Census

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ0847



:_______________________________.

or math gwaethaf
oor math gwei-tha
1
of the worst sort
cnaf or math gwaethaf the worst of rogues, a rogue of the first order

ETYMOLOGY: (or = of the) + (math = type, sort) + (gwaethaf = worst)

:_______________________________.

o'r radd flaenaf
oor raadh vlei -na
1
or radd flaenaf top-notch, top-quality, foremost, top-grade, first-class, top-class, top-ranking
Cantorion ifanc o'r radd flaenaf o bedwar ban byd
Top-ranking young singers from all over the world


ETYMOLOGY: (or = of the) + soft mutation + (gradd = degree) + soft mutation + (blaenaf = foremost, superlative form of blaen = front)

:_______________________________.

Yr Orsedd
ər OR sedh (feminine noun)
1
see: Gorsedd y Beirdd

:_______________________________.

o'r tu l
oor tii ool adverb
1
from behind
ymosod or tu l attack from behind


Oodd hi ddim wedi nabod i o'r tu l
She hadnt recognised me from behind

ETYMOLOGY: (or = from the) + (tu = side) + (l = rear, behind)

:_______________________________.

Orwig
OR-wig
1
place name

Tai-orwig (Tai Orwig) Brynrefail (Gwynedd) (= Orwig houses)

Llysorwig (Llys Orwig)

..a/ house name, Pendalar, Caernarfon (Gwynedd) (= Orwig court)

..b/ house name Llan-rug (Gwynedd)

..c/ house name, Bangor (Gwynedd)

:_______________________________.

-os

diminutive suffix

plantos little children

Found in place names based on vegetation names, which are usually collective in meaning. Such words often have en, a singulative suffix, to denote the individual plant. Diminutives with -os added to a feminine noun behave as feminine singular nouns after the definite article there is soft mutation.

 

 

curn (f) pile, heap, mound
y gurn the pile, the heap, the mound

curnos kir -nos small mounds, small heaps, small

y gurnos the small nouns


grug
heather clumps
grugen / y rugen heather clump / the heather clump
grugos / y rugos small heather clumps / the small heather clumps
As in Y Rugos, near Aber-dr, nowadays spelt erroneously as Y Rhigos


gwern alder trees
gwernen / y wernen alder tree / the alder tree
gwernos / y wernos small alder trees / the small alder trees

celyn holly bushes
celynnen / y gelynnen holly bush / the holly bush
celynnos / y gelynnos small holly bushes / the small hollybushes

 

Gelynos, Llanwrtud, is apparently Y Gelynnos

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/432208 chapel site commemoration sign



:_______________________________.

os
OS (conjunction)
1
if

2 os + inflected verb
os cofiaf yn iawn if I remember rightly
os myn Duw God willing

3 os + adjective in inverted word-order sentence
os da y cofiaf if I remember rightly (if good / well I remember)
os iawn y cofiaf if I remember rightly, if my memory serves me well, if my memory's not mistaken

4 os + noun in inverted word-order sentence
os Duw ai myn
God willing

:_______________________________.

os byth os bith
1
(os byth + verb, os byth y + verb) if ever

Os byth y gofynniff i ti...
If he ever asks you...

Os byth bydd angen atgyweirio cyfrifiadur, fe gewch wasanaeth effeithlon gan ein staff
If you ever need to repair a computer, youll get efficient service from our staff

ETYMOLOGY: (os = if, byth = ever)

:_______________________________.

os dawn fater o raid
os daun fa-ter o raid
1
should it become necessary

ETYMOLOGY: (os = if) + (daw = if will come / become) + (yn linking particle) + soft mutation + (mater = matter) + (o = de) + soft mutation + (rhaid = necessity)

:_______________________________.

osgo
o SKO (masculine noun)
1
slope, inclintation

bod ar osgo i (house) be at an angle to (the street, etc)
sefyll ar osgo i (house) be at an angle to (the street, etc)

3 posture
gwneud osgo mynd make as if to go (make (a) posture (of) going)


:_______________________________.

osgoad o- sko -ad masculine noun
PLURAL osgoadau
o-sko- -de

ETYMOLOGY: (osgo- root of osgi = to evade) + (-ad suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

osgi
o SKOI (verb)
1
to avoid

:_______________________________.

osgoilyd
o- skoi -lid adjective
1
evasive

ETYMOLOGY: (osgi = to evade) + (-lyd adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

os gwelwch yn dda
os GWE lukh ən DHAA
1
(phrase) please

:_______________________________.

os gwn i
os gun -i -
1
I wonder

ETYMOLOGY: "if I know" (os = if, gwn = I know, i = I)
NOTE: the colloquial forms are ys gwn i, and sgwn i

:_______________________________.

os mai
os mai
1
colloquial Welsh if (it is) (+ an abnormal first element, an element which is not a verb is placed at the head of sentence, for emphasis),
Os mai Gwyn ddaw gyntaf
If GWYN comes first

However, literary Welsh has simply os
Os Gwyn a ddaw gyntaf if GWYN comes first

NOTE: In South Wales this is os taw or os ta.
Os taw Gwyn ddaw gyntaf
Os ta Gwyn ddaw gyntaf

NEGATIVE FORM:

In literary Welsh, the negative of os is onid
The colloquial negative form of os mai / os taw / os ta is os nad (both in the north and the south)

Onid Gwyn a ddaw gyntaf (literary Welsh) if it isnt Gwyn who comes first
Os nad Gwyn ddaw gyntaf (colloquial, north and south) if it isnt Gwyn who comes first

:_______________________________.

Osmeridae
1 brwyniaid sparlings, smelts

:_______________________________.

Osmerus eperlanus
1 brwyniad Conwy (m), brwyniaid Conwy smelt, European smelt, sparling

:_______________________________.

os nad
os naad
1
if (it is) not (+ an abnormal first element, an element which is not a verb is placed at the head of sentence, for emphasis),
os nad Gwyn ddaw gyntaf if it isnt GWYN who comes first, if GWYN doesnt come first

NOTE: In literary Welsh it is onid
Onid Gwyn ddaw gyntaf (collloquially, north and south) if it isnt Gwyn who comes first
The affirmative forms are (north) os mai, (south) os taw, os ta, and in literary Welsh simply os
(a) (colloquial, north and south) os mai Gwyn ddaw gyntaf if its not Gwyn who comes first
(b) (literary Welsh) onid Gwyn a ddaw gyntaf

:_______________________________.

os nad oes gwahaniaeth gennych chi os naad ois gwa-han-yeth ge-ni khii
1
if you dont mind

ETYMOLOGY: if there isnt any difference with you (os = if) + (nad = no, not) + (oes = is) + (gwahaniaeth = difference) + (gennych chi = with you)

:_______________________________.

os taw
os tau
1
colloquial Welsh if (it is) (+ an abnormal first element, an element which is not a verb is placed at the head of sentence, for emphasis),

os taw Gwyn ddaw gyntaf if GWYN comes first

However, literary Welsh has simply os
Os Gwyn a ddaw gyntaf if GWYN comes first

NOTE: Also os ta. In North Wales this is os mai. The colloquial negative form of os mai / os taw / os ta is os nad (both in the north and the south), which in literary Welsh is onid
Os mai Gwyn ddaw gyntaf

NEGATIVE FORM:
Os nad Gwyn ddaw gyntaf (colloquial, north and south) if it isnt Gwyn who comes first
Onid Gwyn a ddaw gyntaf (literary Welsh) if it isnt Gwyn who comes first


:_______________________________.

os yw
os iu
1
os yw o ryw werth if its of any interest to you, for what its worth, if its of any use to you, if itll help you at all

Fe weda i wrtho ti beth oedd nhad-cu yn feddwl am y Blaid Lafur yn y Cwm hyn, os yw o ryw werth
Ill tell you what my grandad though of the Labour Party in this valley, if its of any worth

ETYMOLOGY: (os = if) + (yw = it is)

:_______________________________.

-ota
o-ta suffix
1
verb ending in verbs formed from a plural noun with the suffix -od and the verb suffix -ha
(-od + -ha) = -ota

..a/ chwilen (= beetle), chwilod (= beetles), chwilota (= search; originally used of a hen or other birds, looking for insects)

..b/ malwoden / malwen (= snail, slug), malwod (= snails, slugs), malwota (= collect snails)

..c/ merlyn (= pony), merlod (= ponies), merlota (= go pony-trekking. A modern coining and somewhat exceptional, since it suggests rather look for ponies, collect for ponies)

..d/ pysg (obsolete singular form = a fish), pysgod (= fishes), pysgota (= to fish)

:_______________________________.

toman
o-tə-man masculine noun
PLURAL Otomaniaid
o-tə- man -yed
1
Ottoman; the Ottomans were a Turkish people who invaded the Near East in the 1200s

ETYMOLOGY: English < French < medieval Latin < Arabic Othman (= Turkish) < the Turkish word Othman, from the name of the sultan Osman 1 (1259-1356), founder of the Ottoman Empire

:_______________________________.

toman
o-tə-man masculine noun
PLURAL otomanau
o-tə- ma -ne
1
ottoman; a seat which is a chest for storing things with a cushioned top

ETYMOLOGY: English < French ottomane, feminine form of ottoman = Ottoman

:_______________________________.

otomatig
o-to- ma -tig adjective
1
automatic; a more literary form is awtomatig

ETYMOLOGY: from the English pronunciation automatic, with the English suffix -ic replaced by Welsh -ig. English 1800- < Greek automatos self moving

:_______________________________.

oti
o- tii verb
1
south-eastern form of odi, the southern form equivalent to
(a) northern ydi, (b) standard colloquial ydi, (c) literary ydyw
(in south-east Wales, the three consonants d / g / b at the beginning of a final syllable are devoiced and become repectively t / c / p)
(1) is it / is she / is he; has it / has she / has he;
(2) yes, it is, / yes, she is / yes, he is; yes, it has, / yes, she has / yes, he has
-Oti a wedi mynd ms? -Oti Has he gone out? Yes (literally "(he) has")

ETYMOLOGY: ydyw > ydy > ydi > odi > oti.

:_______________________________.

ou
1
In South Wales, the diphthong au
AI in monosyllables and eu EI in the penult are colloquially ou oi (that is, the middle Welsh pronunciation has been retained in the south, but has become au / eu in the north, in in literary Welsh).

In representing this South Wales pronunciation
OI, instead of ou the sound is often written oi, and in place names sometimes also as oy




(1)

boudy, boidy

< beudy (= cowshed, cowhouse)

(2)

clou, cloi
Deren glou! (= Come quickly!)

< clau (= quick, fast, rapid)

(3)

cou, coi

< cau (= hollow, sunken; enclosed)

(4)

coul, coil

< caul (= rennet, substance that curdles milk in cheese-making)

(5)

counant

< ceunant (= ravine) (cau = hollow, nant = valley)

(6)

Counant (on English maps Coynant)

farm 6km ssw of Llanboudy (Llanboidy) SN2123 (county of Caerfyrddin)

(7)

Cwm-ynys-gou (on English maps Cwmynyscoy)

< Cwm-ynys-gau (the valley of the enclosed water-meadow) (village in the county of Torfaen)

(8)

dou , doi

< dau (= two)

(9)

Y Goufron (on English maps Goyfron)

farm north of the village of Llanfihangel Brynpabuan, county of Powys (ceufron = hollowed hillside)

(10)

houl, hoil

< haul (= sun) (in the south-east, oul)

(11)

nouadd, noiadd, noyadd

< neuadd (= hall)

(12)

our, oir

< air (= gold)

(13)

Pendoulan (on English maps Pendoylan)

< Pendoulwn < Pendeulwyn = pen y ddeulwyn, pen y ddau lwyn (the end of the two groves)
(village in Bro Morgannwg county)

(14)

Trefrouan (on English maps Trefroyan)

< Trefreuan


Crouddyn a local form of the name Creuddyn (qv) in Ceredigion

Llanbadarn y Creuddyn (parish name) > Llanbadarn y Crouddyn

Llanfihangel y Creuddyn (parish name) > Llanfihangel y Crouddyn

 

Trouddyn is a local form of the name Treuddyn (qv) found as part of some farm names in Caeo parish in Ceredigion

 

Maestrouddyn < Maestreuddyn (maes = field)

Llystrouddyn < Llystreuddyn (llys = court)

Glantrouddyn < Glantreuddyn (glan = brookside)

Nant Trouddyn < Nant-treuddyn (nant = brook, stream)

 

In the county of Mynwy, The village of Cwm-iou SO3023 (spelt as Cwmyoy on the map) shows a local pronunciation; the valley from which it takes its name is spelt in standard orthography Cwm Iau SO3023.

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/127353 map
:_______________________________.

o un i un o iin i iin adverb
1
one by one
Ym mhen ychydig wythnosau fe sylwodd Dewi fod y cynion yn diflannu o un i un
After a few weeks Dewi noticed that the chisels were disappearing one by one

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + (un = one) + (i = to) + (un = one)

:_______________________________.

ow
1
diphthong: vowel
o + semi-consonant u

..a/ Occurs rarley in monosyllabes

Now pet name for Owen

___________


..b/ Sometimes for aw- [au] in dialect pronunciations

..i/ mowr < mawr (= big)

..ii/
Variants of dawnsio are downsio, downso; dowsio

 

..iii/ Mowddy, a local pronunciation of the river name Mawddwy (North-west Wales)

___________


..c/ Sometimes for yw- [əu] in dialect pronunciations

Towyn < Tywyn

Howel < Hywel

Also Owain, Owen, from an original Ywain

..d/ Often, in borrowings into Welsh, it corresponds to modern English au


English counter
kaun-tə > Welsh cownter koun-ter
English round
raund > Welsh rownd round
English trousers
trau-zəz > Welsh trowsus trou-sis

:_______________________________.

Owain
O wen (masculine noun) ma bi NO gi
1
Man's name.

 

This is the medieval form of the name which later became Owen in standard Welsh.

 

The older form Owain has been revived in the past hundred years or so, probably through its familiarity as it is the name of Owain Glyn-dŵr, Welsh patriot, c.1400, and in allusion to this this Welsh historical figure

:_______________________________.

Owain Glyn-dŵr
O wain / O wen glin DUUR (masculine noun)
1
("Owain of Glyndyfrdwy"). Owain ap Gruffudd, who fought for the liberation of Wales from English domination from 1400-1412, dying in an unknown location in 1415, but proabaly in the Welsh area near the city of Hereford, given to the county of Herefordshire, and so included in England, just over a century later with the legislation to annex Wales to England (or more mundanely, the Laws in Wales Acts 15351542)

The epithet is a shortening of the name of a mansion called Glyndyfrdwy in the district of Glyn Dyfrdwy (the valley of the river Dyfrdwy).

By the village of Glyndyfrdwy there is a Norman castle motte from the 1100s which was situated next to Owain Glyn-dŵrs manor.

According to a Cadw plaque at the site, it is known locally as Owain Glyn Dŵrs Mount. On the right of the English verson is a Welsh version, apparently a translation of the English text, where it says that locally the castle mound is known as Mynydd Owain Glyn Dŵr, which would seem to be a poor translation of the English name rather than a Welsh name in use in the area.

:_______________________________.

o wawr hyd fachlud
oo waur hiid vakh-lid adverb
1
from dawn to dusk

ETYMOLOGY: from dawn to sunset (o = from) + soft mutation + (gwawr = dawn) + soft mutation + (machlud = sunset)

:_______________________________.

Owen
O wen (masculine noun)
1
Owen (man's name)

:_______________________________.

Owenna
o WE ne (feminine noun) (Owen + -a)
1
woman's name, formed from Owen + the feminine suffix -a

:_______________________________.

Owen-Pughe, William
wil-yam o-wen piu
1
Welsh lexicographer (1759-1835) who published a somewhat eccentric dictionary ("A Welsh and English Dictionary") in 1793 / 1803 (i.e. between the ages of 33/34 and 43/44) with many neologisms, some of which are now in general use in Welsh

..1/ amgueddfa museum

..2/ arobryn a reintroduction of an obsolete verb (= to deserve), which he made into a noun (= prize) - but nowadays it as used an adjective (= prizewinning, having been awarded the prize)

..3/ Bryn Athyn village in Pennsylvania (qv) (athyn = cohesion; this invention of William Owen-Pughe is nowadays found only in this place name)

..4/ catrawd regiment (in fact a reintroduction, slightly remodelled, of an obsolete word)

 

..5/ clodwiw KLOD-wiu [ˈklɔdwɪʊ] (adjective) praiseworthy, laudable ((of) fitting praise) (clod = praise) + soft mutation + (gwiw = fitting)


..6/ cysawd system (solar system, computer system)

..7/
dathlu celebrate

..8/ efryd study

..9/ eirianedd brightness, splendour, beauty; (not in general use, but there is an example of its use as a house name Eirianedd (qv) )

..10/
goben penultimate syllable

..11/ maelfa shop (and used as a place name (Maelfa) for the shopping centre in the suburb of Llanedern, Caer-dydd)

:_______________________________.

owns, ownsus
OUNS, OUN sis (feminine noun)
1
ounce (28,35 grams)

:_______________________________.

oxo
ok-so feminine noun
1
(American: crisscross, tic-tac-to) (Englandic: noughts and crosses);
chwarae oxo to play crisscross / tic-tac-to / noughts and crosses

:_______________________________.

oy
1
oy for au / eu in southern Welsh

 

Pendoylan on English maps for Pendoulan


:_______________________________.

o ychydig ddiddordeb
oo ə-khə-dig dhi-dhor-deb
1
of minor interest, of little interest

ETYMOLOGY: (o = from) + (ychydig = little) + soft mutation + (diddordeb = interest)



 


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