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La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English


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(delw 6668) 2009-04-11 2009-03-17

























7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q







7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z





A, a
aa feminine noun
) first letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
..1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
) first letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
..1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


The letter a in Welsh words:
This can represent the long vowel
aa in certain environments; in unusual envirionments it tis written with a circumflex .

As a consequence of the long vowel shift in English of the 1400s,
aa ultimately gave rise to the ei in the English of today. Many loans from English took place before the sound shift and have aa in Welsh, spelt or a

plaat (= plate) < English plate plaat, now pleit
paal (= pole) < English pale paal, now peil
raas (= race, stream) < English race raas, now reis

An a in a tonic syllable is sometimes written y to represent a dialect pronunciation -
a loses its quality to become an obscure vowel ə


the grave accent indicates a short vowel where in a long vowel environment
The a in monosyllables in Welsh with final b, -d, -g is long
maag (North) fry of fish, tiny fish
maab son
taad father

However English words taken into Welsh with the same pattern (monosyllables, final consonant g, b, d) but with a short vowel retain the short vowel in Welsh.
bg bag
cb (crane) cab, enclosed part where a crane operator controls the movements of the machine
fflg flag



1 tonic a >
Calan Gaeaf (= All Saints, (the) calend (of) winter)
> Clangaea / Clangaea
> Clyngaea

2 final -a in certain words in southern Welsh is from an original -gh; in northern Welsh there is no -a

British *kalg- > Welsh *calgh- > cala (south), cal (north) (= penis)
British *kolg- > Welsh *colgh- > cola (south), col (north) (= beard of corn; spike, point)
British *bolg- > Welsh *bolgh- > bola (south), bol (north) (= belly)

3 a in a final syllable < e.
This e can be original (halen = salt), or a reduction of the diphthong au (pethe < pethau = things), ai (cader < cadair = chair), ae (chware < chwarae = to play)
It is typical of three areas
1) South-east Wales
2) North-west Wales
3) northern Sir Ddinbych and Sir y Fflint in north-east Wales





a > o
An original a has become o in a final syllable in certain words
Examples from standard Welsh:
Amrath > Amroth (SN1607, place name, Penfro county)
Lleisian > Lleision mans name, from llais (= voice) + suffix -an
sbectal > sbectol (= spectacles, glasses)

Other instances occur in
COLLOQUIAL WELSH , and are not standard:

(1) adladd (aftermath, aftergrass = a second crop of grass which grows in the same season after the first mowing) > adlodd

(2) afal (= apple) > afol

(3) (an- negating prefix) + (gras = grace) > anras > andras > andros (North Wales, = great, great big, enormous in qualifying a noun andros o ffŵl = a great fool)

(4) crochan (= cooking pot, cauldron) > crochon

(5) dafad (= sheep)
Studies in Welsh Phonology / Samuel J. Evans / 1909 / t19 In Anglesey and Carnarvonshire dafad is regularly pronounced dafod.

(6) gofal (= care) > gofol

(7) hspital (= hospital) > hspitol

(8) neuadd (= hall) > neuodd

(9) penwag (= herring) > *penwog > pennog

(10) gleuad (= cow pats) > gluod (North Wales)

(a + wy) has become (o + wy)
older Welsh marthwyl > modern Welsh morthwyl (= hammer)
older Welsh nadwydd > modern Welsh nodwydd (= needle)


a < o
An a has replaced an original o in a final syllable in certain words

..a/ Bedwas (village name, Caerffili county, south-east Wales) < bedwos (small birch trees)

..b/ ofan (South Wales) < ofon < ofn (= fear)

..c/ Wernas-deg locality in Beddgelert (county of Gwynedd): y wernas deg < y wernos deg (fair small alders)

..d/ rwn (North Wales) (= now) < yr awron < yr awr hon (= this hour, the hour this)

a < e
A final
-a in south-east Wales and North-west Wales which in colloquial Welsh along a broad south-west to north-east axis is -e
This vowel change in the final syllable of a word is found in three areas south-east Wales, north-west Wales, and the coastal strip of the counties of Dinbych and Y Fflint.

bachgen (= boy) > bachgan

Since in much of Wales final ae, ai, au in final syllables are reduced to e, this also occurs as a in these areas

tafodiaith (= dialect) > tafodieth > tafodiath
(= service) > gwasaneth > gwasanath
(things) > pethe > petha
Southeast Wales: esgidiau (= shoes) > sgitsha

Examples of final a place names in North Wales:
..a/ Acaryforwyn (Accar-y-Forwyn)
Street name in Dinbych, north-east Wales
(the) acre (of) the maid = Virgin Marys acre
(acer) + soft mutation + (y definite article) + (morwyn = maid; maiden; the Virgin Mary )

Alafowlia, from ala fowliau (= bowling alley, skittle alley)
In Dinbych, north-east Wales there is a street called Parc Alafowlia (Post Code LL16 3HZ)

(ala = alley) + soft mutation + (bowlia, a form of bowliau = bowls, plural of bowl = bowl)

An a- in a final syllable in south-east Wales and North-west Wales corresponds to the
e- which occurs along a broad south-west to north-east axis.
In many cases
a corresponds to the plural suffix au :

(delwedd 7395)

2 Examples of final -a in place names in South-east Wales:

(in many cases it corresponds to the plural suffix au)

..a/ Y
The south-eastern pronunciation of
blaenau [ˡbləinai] (= upland; sources of streams) is blaena [ˡbləina] . The English spelling of the towns name is Blaina [ˡblainə] , which might in fact be a Welsh spelling to suggest a local pronunciation [ˡblaina]

..b/ Y
The south-eastern form of
bryniau (= hills) is brynnau, without the semi-consonant i- at the start of the final syllable, a general feature of the Welsh in this part of the country. The colloquial pronunciation is Brynna.

..c/ Y Bwlcha

The Gwentian pronunciation of bylchau (passes, gaps), the plural form of bwlch (= pass, gap).

It occurs in the place name Pen Bwlcha east of Pont-y-gwaith ST0897 pen y bylchau (the) top / end (of) the passes / gaps

..d/ Y Caia
ə kai-a farm in Sain Nicolas, county of Bro Morgannwg < y caeau ə kei-ai = the fields

..e/ Y Castella
<ə ka-STE-lha> [ə kaˡstɛɬa] place by Llantrisant, Rhondda Cynon Taf < y castellau ka-STELH-ai> [ə kaˡstɛɬaɪ] = the castles. Nowadays spelt with -au

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849:

(Llantrisant) To the north of the town the appearance of the country becomes more rugged, and assumes a wilder aspect, which is in some degree enlivened by the pleasing appearance of Castella, an ancient seat, that forms a lively and cheerful object in a landscape, of which the prevailing character is that of sombre magnificence.

..f/ Y Cefan

From Y Cefen < Y Cefen, the short form of names with cefn (= hill) as the first element

1 Cefncoedycymer (also Y Ciefan, with a palatalised c)

2 Cefncribwr

..g/ Y Cwarra
Clos y Cwarra
street name in Llanbedr y Fro ((the) close (of) the quarries) < cwarrau (= quarries)

..h/ Y
Y Porth in Dyffryn Rhondda (The Rhondda Valley) was originally known as
Y Cymer (the confluence), a short form of Cymer-rhondda (the confluence of the Rhondda river, where the Rhondda Fach river joins the Rhondda Fawr river). Y Cymer now forms part of Y Porth. The local pronunciation is (or was) Y Cymar.

Y Darran (various places)
Tarren is a rocky slope.

Excerpt from a comment (retrieved 2008-10-18) in the forum at:

BBC South-east Wales Walks: Pant yr Eos / Twm Barlwm

How many people were on Twmbarlwm before me who are still going? My grandfather George Morton who farmed the Darran Farm carried me before I could walk along the top of the Darran Rocks and I was able to point out later on, when I grew a bit the large rock along the coiker [coeca, coetgae upland grazing] where we rested. On that occasion I can't claim to have climbed to the tump, but in my youth my pals and I were always up there always refreshed by the marvellous view. My most recent climb was last year, not bad for 85!

..j/ Y Felindra
In Caer-dydd.

A house name noted by John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)

VELINDRE, Y Felindre (the mill hamlet), often inaccurately spelt "Velindra." A copyhold tenement consisting of a house and garden in the manor of Llystalybont and parish of Llanishen. In 1700 it was devised by Gabriel Lewis. In 1902 it was purchased from the Booker family by the Corporation, for the purposes of an Asylum.

..k/ Llambad <LHAM-bad> [ˡɬambad]
A local form of Llanbedr ((the) church (of) (Saint) Peter).

Iit is used for example for Llanbedr y Fro ST0876 (county of Bro Morgannwg)
(English name: Peterstone-super-Ely)

the Llanbedr which is in Y Fro (= the Lowland)

Y Fro is a short form of Bro Morgannwg (the) lowland (of) Morgannwg

..l/ Llanedarn lhan-EE-darnd

((the) church (of) Edern).

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849:

LLANEDARN (LLAN-EDEYRN), a parish, in the poor-law union of Cardiff, hundred of Kibbor, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, on the banks of the Romney, 4 miles (N. E. by N.) from Cardiff; containing 354 inhabitants. This parish, which lies on the eastern confine of the county, comprises about 2550 acres of land, partly arable and partly pasture.

The current name is is the incorrect Llanedeyrn, where it has been altered to suggest some connection with the Welsh word te
ɥrn (in early Welsh names, king, ruler; though in modern Welsh it means tyrant).

The local form was probably
Llanetarn, with the devocing of the consonant at the head of the final syllable, a typical feature of the historical south-eastern dialect

Y Llwɥna ə LLuIN-a

Name of a farm in Llantrisant by Brynbuga, county of Mynwy (the bushes)

..n/ Y Mynydda ə mə--dha

South-eastern form of Y Mynyddau, the uplands of the old territories of Morgannwg and Gwent (more or less the uplands of the present-day counties of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, Rhondda Cynon Taf, Caerffili, Merthyrtudful, Blaenau Gwent, Torfaen) .

In English these areas were known by the English translation 'The Hills'. The name referred to the areas at the heads of the valleys where the first ironworks and coalmines were situated.

Later on, as coal mines opened down in the valleys, the bulk of the population became were valley dwellers, and so the industrial area became known Y Cymoedd (the Valleys), though whether this expression first took hold in English, and so Y Cymoedd is the translation of an English expression; or the English name is a translation of the Welsh expression; or both came about concurrently still needs to be investigated.

In modern Welsh the plural of mynydd (= upland; mounatain) is mynyddoedd, but historically the plural termination was -au.

..o/ Y Panta ST4999 in Y Dyfawden / Devauden, near The Cot, west of Dindyrn / Tintern (Mynwy) seems to be Y Pantiau (hollows) Y Panta - arwydd / sign Y Panta - ffermdy / farmhouse

..p/ Y Snawdra ə snau-dra feminine noun
Local form of Yn
ɥsawdre, a locality in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr
..1/ transposition of the n so that it occurs after the s;
..2/ the a instead of e in a final syllable is a normal feature of South-eastern Welsh

ynys Hafdref, (the) meadow (of the place called) Hafdre;
hafdre (= summer homestead), with a later changer of [v] > [w] hawdre

..q/ Y
A house name noted by John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911) TIR-CALAD (the hard land.) A free tenement in the parish of Roath and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.) A ruined house and land named in the Heath Enclosure Award of 1809. In 1840 it was called Coed Tir Caled, hard-land wood.
y tir caled (y definite article) + (tir = land) + (caled = hard).

..r/ Y
The village of
Tonnau (pastures, pasture lands, meadowlands) in Castell-nedd ac Aberafan county is pronounced locally Tonna, which is in fact the offical form of this community.

..s/ Y Tyla

....1/ In Dyffrynrhondda (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) there is a street called Heol y Tyla ((the) street (of) Y Tyla) . Y Tyla = the hill

.....2/ Y Tyla is the name of a farm ST2482 (Tyla Farm) by Llanfihangel y Fedw (Michaelston-y-Fedw), in Casnewydd / Newport county

..t/ Y Tyla-gwyn SS9188 hamlet south of Pont-yr-hyl (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (white hill) (tyle = hill)


verb suffix, especially in verbs with the sense of gathering (something), the suffix being added to the noun which is the material being gathered

gwln (= wool)
gwlana < gwln-ha
(= to gather wool; South-east: also, to daydream)

See -


-a is added to the stem of certain verbs to form the second person singular imperative both in the colloquial language and in the literary language
hola! ask! enquire!
gwena! smile!

in colloquial Welsh a, the second person singular imperative of certain verbs, has been generalised to most other verbs

Though it is added to the stem of certain verbs to form the second person singular imperative in colloquial Welsh, in the literary language however the stem serves as the imperative

cana sing! (literary Welsh: cn = sing!)

creda fi!
kree-da vii Believe me (literary form: cred fi kreed vii)

caea dy ben! shut your mouth! (literary form: cae dy ben)

siarada! speak (literary form, siarad)
Bachan, siarada sens, w. Talk sense, mun! (bachan = man. boy, not translated into English)



suffix f
or making a female name from a male name

Eifion (m)
EIV yon, Eifiona (f) eiv YOO na

Ifan (m)
II van, Ifana (f) i VAA na

Illtyd, Illtyda

Iŏlo (m) YO lo, (pet form of Iorwerth), Iŏla (f) YO-la

Meirion (m)
MEIR yon, Meiriona (f) meir YOO na



(child l
anguage) diminutive suffix in titles of relations

ewa < ewythr (= uncle)

bopa < modryb (= aunt)

neina < nain (= grandmother)

teida < taid (= grandfather)


a 1
AA, A (conjunction)
Aberystwyth a Dolgellau = the towns of Aberystwyth and Dolgellau;

before a vowel, ac;
Dolgellau ac Aberystwyth; the towns of Dolgellau and Aberystwyth.

With a determiner - for example,
akh and your
(contraction of a + eich)

in forming linking adverbials (ac
aag before a vowel)
..1/ a bod yn onest to be honest

..2/ a chysidro all things considered, considering the circumstances, in view of the situation

..3/ a defnyddio'r hen air Cymraeg to use the old Welsh word

Mae yna lawer o bobl yn cael trafferth i dyfu persli neu bersyll, a defnyddio'r hen air Cymraeg
A lot of people have trouble growing parsley or persyll, to use the old Welsh word

..4/ ac ystyried yr amgylchiadau all things considered, considering the circumstances, in view of the situation

3 used to link qualifying adjectives
a deep narrow valley > a valley narrow and deep
cum cul a dwfn


a 2
A interrogative particle
a oeddech chwi
a OI dhe khi were you?
a oedd ef
a OIDH e; OO dhe was he?
a oedden ni
a OI dhe ni were we?
a oeddet ti
a OI dhe ti were you?
a oedd hi
a OIDH hi; OO dhi was she?
a oeddwn i
a OI dhe ni was I?
a oeddynt hwy
a OI dhint hui were they?


a 3
A relative pronoun; with a determiner - for example, y wraig ach (= a + eich) gwelodd - the woman who saw you

Used without a subject in sayings;

The subject is understood:

(y neb a... y sawl a...) = (the person) who; whosoever, whoever;

(y peth a...) = (the thing) that , whatsoever, whatever, what

A fyn Duw a fydd (motto) What God wills shall be


for comments on words with a plus circumflex (plt, tn, ms, etc) see a


1 he goes, she goes, it goes (literary Welsh) in COLLOQUIAL WELSH , aiff (South Wales), eith (North Wales)


A (preposition)


..a) r graig (as the rock)
bod mor sefydlog r graig be as steady as a rock

..b) 'r nant i'r afon (as the stream to the river)
mor sicr 'r nant i'r afon no doubt about it as sure as the stream to the river

..c) r oen (as the lamb)
bod mor fwynaidd r oen be as gentle as a lamb

AA preposition
with (should have a circumflex accent - often omitted in the popular press)
gwneud cyfiawnder r dasg rise to the occasion, be up to the job (do justice to the task)

Latin - words in Welsh of Latin origin

Latin > British > Welsh aw.

..1/ fg-us > *ffaw > ffawydden (ffaw = beech) + (gwydden = tree) (= beech tree)

..2/ In a final syllable in modern Welsh this has been reduced to o
cauitt-em > ceudawd > ceudod (= cavity)
diurnt-a > diwrnawd > diwrnod (= day)
Februr-ius > Chwefrawr > Chwefror (= February)
fontn-a > ffynnawn > ffynnon (= well)
excst-io > esgusawd > (esgusod) > esgusodi (= to excuse)
extrn-eus > estrawn > estron (= foreign)
Marin-us > Meiriawn > Meirion (= Marian mans name)
part-us > parawd > parod (= ready)

aa -
1 used in this dictionary to represent the simplification (mostly in monosyllables, and mostly in southern Welsh) of the diphthong ae aai into a long vowel aa
For example, blaen > blaan
The usual way of representing this is either with a circumflex (bln) or (nowadays the recommended form) with an apostrophe (blan).

The use of aa though has advantages
...(1) it is immediately apparent that the vowel is long

...(2) since a double vowel is not ordinarily used in Welsh, it is immediately apparent that the word so spelt is a dialect form

...(3) In south-east Wales,
aa is modified to a long open e sound, which can be represented as . Usually in popular texts the sound is written as and in more scientific texts as a+e ligature, but these obscure the relationship with the underlying aa.
blaen > blaan > bln

The disadvantages of
a are
...(1) it is not immediately clear that the vowel is long
maan < maen = stone

...(2) because of frequent syllable ommissions and contractions in popular Welsh, the apostrophe is overworked.

The disadvantages of
...(1) It is not immediately apparent that a word is a local form
These are local forms:
bln (blaen = top, end),
mn (maen = stone),
dr (daer, southern for foxs earth)

But the following are standard forms, and so are not phonological variants:
tn = fire,
mn = small,
dr = oak tree.

See also oo(coed > cod / cd / cood)

Examples of words in aa
aath < aeth (= he / she went)
baadd < baedd (= boar)
blaan < blaen (= tip, end) (See also in this list: mlaan)
caa < cae (= field)
dy ben! < cae dy ben! (= shut your mouth!)
caal < cael (= to get)
caar < caer (in place names) (= hillfort) e.g. Y Gaar < Y Gaer,
daath < daeth (= she / he came)
daar < daear (= earth) (via a monosyllabic form daer)
draan < draen (= thorns)
graan < graen (= grain
of wood ; appearance)
gwaad < gwaed (= blood)
gwaath < gwaeth (= worse)
haan < haen (= stratum, layer)
llaath < llaeth (= milk)
maan < maen (= stone)
maa < mae (= is, there is)
maas < maes (= field)
maas < i maes (= outside)
mlaan < ymlen (= forward) (see: blaan)
naath < gwnaeth / wnaeth (= he / she / it did; he / she / it made)
saar < saer (= carpenter)
saath < saeth (= arrow)
traad < traed (= feet)
traath < traeth (= beach)

South-east Wales:
th (= he / she went) / bdd (= boar) / bln (= tip, end) / (See also in this list: mlaan) / c (= field) / caa
dy ben! < c dy ben! (= shut your mouth!) / cl (= to get) / cr (in place names) / (= hillfort) / e.g. Y Gr / dth (= she / he came) / dar (= earth) / drn (= thorns) / grn (= grain of wood; appearance) / gwd (= blood) / gwth (= worse) / hn (= stratum, layer) / llth (= milk) / mn (= stone) / m (= is, there is) / ms (= field) / maas < i ms (= outside) / ymlen (= forward) / (see: blaan) / gwnth / wnth (= he / she / it did; he / she / it made) / sr (= carpenter) / sth (= arrow) / trd (= feet) / trth (= beach)


<aa> [ɑː]
..1/ In many loan words from English, Welsh has <aa> [ɑː] , a
from medieval English
<aa> [ɑː] , corresponding to modern English <ei> [ɛi]

As a consequence of the long vowel shift in English of the 1400s,
<aa> [ɑː] ultimately gave rise to the [ɛi] in the English of today. Many loans from English occurred before this change in the vowel, and maintain the <aa> [ɑː] in Welsh.

<paal> [pɑːl] (= pole) < English pale <paal> [pɑːl] , now <peil> [pɛil]

plas <plaas> [plɑːs] (= mansion) < English place <plaas> [plɑːs] , now <pleis> [plɛis]

plt <plaat> [plɑːt] (= plate) < English plate <plaat> [plɑːt] , now <pleit> [plɛit]

ras <raas> [rɑːs] (= race, stream) < English race ras <raas> [rɑːs] , now ras <reis> [rɛis]

..2/ Certain Welsh words (generally place names) with
aa, first used in English before the sound change took place, have become ei in their English form

..a/ Il > Yale. The name of an upland in the north-east, and the name of a local landowning family; origin of the name Yale in the United States (university)

..b/ Y Clas
klaas in Llangyfelach (county of Abertawe) is Clase kleiz in English


aa aa
1 British aa aa (also spelt as ) > modern Welsh aw au
The corresponding words in Irish have
dawn (= talent) < British *daan- (Corresponds to Irish dn = poetry, formerly gift)
llawr (= floor) < British *laar- (Corresponds to Irish lr = ground, floor; middle, centre)


1 southern form of aeth (= he / she / it went)
Usually spelt th / ath
See aa

1 south-eastern form of aeth (= he / she / it went)
Usually spelt th / th
See aa / aath


<ab> [ab] in patronymics, a form of mab = son; used before a vowel

ab Emwnt
<ab E-munt> [ab ˡɛmʊnt] = son of Edmond

ab Iorwerth <ab YOR-werth> [ab ˡjɔrwɛrθ] son of Iorwerth

ab Edward
<ab-ED-ward> [ab ˡɛdward] son of Edward

ab Ifan
<ab-II-van> [ab ˡiˑvan] son of Ifan / John

ab Owain
<ab-O-wain, wen> [ab ˡɔʊaɪn, ˡɔʊɛn] son of Owain


<AA-bad> [ˡɑˑbad] masculine noun
PLURAL abadau
<a-BAA-dai, -de> [aˡbɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
abbot = head of an abbey

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < Latin abbas, abbt- < Aramaic abba (= father), a title given to bishops in the Coptic, the Ethiopian and the Syrian Churches.

This is a learned borrowing from Latin directly into early Welsh - regular borrowing in the British period would have given *afawd > *afod

From the same British root: Breton abad (= abbot).


a ballu
<a BA-lhi> [a ˡbaɬɪ]
North Wales and so on, et cetera, and suchlike, and things like that
Mi eish i i brynu siampw a sebon a ballu
I went to buy shampoo and soap and things like that

ETYMOLOGY: Form of a rhywbeth felly = and something like this;
(1) In north-west Wales, an e in a final syllable becomes a; thus rhywbeth > rhywbath. Colloquially this is reduced to rwbath (loss of the aspiration in rh, simplification of yw > w
<u> [ʊ]

(2) A number of two-syllable words drop the accented first syllable in
(yma > ma, yna > na, acw > cw, etc; and in the same way felly > lly)

(3) So a rhywbeth felly > a rwbath felly > a (rw)ba(th) (fe)lly / ba lly > a ballu
NOTE: Sometimes written as a single word aballu


<a-BA-ti> [aˡbatɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL abatai
<a-BA-tai> [aˡbataɪ]
abbey = monastery headed by an abbot
abbey church = church which was formerly an abbey

ETYMOLOGY: (abad = abbot) + soft mutation + (ty = house) abad-dy > abaty (d + d) = (t)


<a-BA-ti NEEDH> [aˡbatɪ ˡneː]
incorrect form for Mynachlog-nedd (qv) (monastery by the river Nedd a district in Castell-nedd).

Mynachlog Nedd, the name of the monastery, is Neath Abbey in English either a tranlsation from Welsh, or a name which came about independently in English.

Apparently some Welsh-speakers unaware of the correct Welsh form use a translation of the English name, with abaty to translate abbey.


<AB-do-men> [ˡabdɔmɛn] masculine noun


<AA-ber> [ˡɑˑbɛr] feminine noun
estuary, rivermouth (as in the place name Aberystwyth - mouth of the river Ystwyth)

2 (inland) confluence, meeting place of a streams, of a stream and a river, as in the name Abercynon - the Cynon stream flows into the river Taf at this point

3 (North Wales) stream
Yr oedd asyn un tro yn croesi aber fechan Once upon a time an ass was crossing a small stream

(Aber Las)
Street name in Y Fflint
aber las blue stream (aber) + soft mutation + (glas = blue)

NOTE: In place names, where aber is followed by the name of a stream or river, or by some other element, the vowel becomes short
<A-ber> [ˡabɛr]

<a-ber-DƏ-vi> [abɛrˡdəvɪ]
place name (estuary of the river Dyfi)

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Aber Dyfrdwy
<a-ber DƏVR-dui> [abɛr ˡdəvrdʊɪ]
The estuary of the river Dyfrdwy. English name: The Dee Estuary SJ1886 Aber Dyfrdwy

(delwedd 7438)


<a-ber-EI-ron> [abɛrˡəɪrɔn] feminine noun
place name (estuary of the river Aeron)


<a-ber-A-ngelh> [abɛr ˡaŋɛɬ]
1 (SH8410) locality in Meirionnydd (Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (aber = confluence) + (Angell = river name). It is where the Angell river joins the Dyfi river


Aber-cwm-sgwt <a-ber-kum-SKUT> [abɛrkʊmˡskʊt]
name of a non-existent village used in reply to questions such as Where have you been (Ble rwyt ti wedi bod?) or Where are you going (Ble rwyt tin mynd?) in order to reply without giving the true answer.


Aber Eiddon
<a-ber-EI-dhon> [abɛrˡəɪɔn]
Confluence in Rhyd-y-main, a village north-east of Dolgellau (Gwynedd)

(the) confluence (of) (the) Eiddon (and the river Wnion)

2 Abereiddon street name in the village of Rhyd-y-main (Aber Eiddon)

Abereiddon a grange of Cymer Abbey

Aber Iddon Folk tune name mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). English name appended: The Efflux of the Iddon


Abrffraw (colloquial form: Y Berffro) <a-BER-frau / ə-BER-fro> [aˡbɛrfraʊ / ə ˡbɛrfrɔ)] feminine noun
place name (estuary of the river Ffraw)


<a-ber-ga-VE-ni> [abɛrgaˡvɛnɪ] feminine noun
(History) a cwmwd (kmmud) of the cantref (kntrev) of Gwent Uwch Coed, South-east Wales

2 name of a town here the English name of the town is
Abergavenny; in Welsh however the name has become Y Fenni <ə VE-ni> [ə ˡvɛnɪ]

ETYMOLOGY: confluence (of the river) Gafenni (and the river Wysg) (aber = confluence) + (Gafenni, a river name)

(delwedd 7383)

<a-ber-GWAIN> [abɛrˡgwaɪn]
(town in the south-west) (estuary of the river Gwaun)

The local pronunciation is Aber-gweun
<a-ber-GWEIN> [abɛrˡgwəɪn]


<a-ber-GWEIN> [abɛrˡgwəɪn] settlement name
local pronunciation of Aber-gwaun


<a-ber-GWEN-ffrud> [abɛrˡgwɛnfrʊd]
SO5306 A village in the county of Mynwy / Monmouth. English name: Whitebrook.

The Gwenffrwd stream is mentioned in
Llyfr Llan-daf / The Book of Llandaff c. 1125

(delwedd 7065) Abergwenffrwd

ETYMOLOGY: aber Gwenffrwd (the) confluence (of the) Gwenffrwd (stream) (and the river Gwy / Wye)

Gwenffrwd is white torrent (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white) + (ffrwd = torrent, hillside stream)


<a-ber-gwən-GREE-gin> [abɛrgwənˡgreˑgɪn] 1 SH 6572 original name of the village of Aber (county of Conwy)

ETYMOLOGY: aber Gwyngregyn the mouth of the Gwyngregyn stream (here it enters Afon Menai, the strait between the mainland and the island of Mn)


Aberhafesb <a-ber-HAAV-esp> [abɛrˡhɑˑvɛsp]
(SH0792) locality in the county of Powys, (in the district of Maldwyn) 4km west of Y Drenewydd
The stream name is to seen in the name Bedo Hafesb (fl. 1567-85), a poet from this area Eglwys Wynnog / Gwynnogs Church Afon Hafren / River Severn

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: the confluence of the Hafesb stream (and the river Hafren)
aber = confluence) + (Hafesb).

The name
Hafesb means dry in summer;
hafesb, feminine form of hafysb < haf-hysb dry in summer,
haf = summer) + (hysb = dry).

The Hafesb stream joins the river Hafren below the parish church.

NOTE: The spelling used in English Aberhafesp is from an incorrect Welsh spelling (with final p instead of final b)


<a-ber-HON-dhi> [abɛrˡhɔnɪ] feminine noun
place name ((the)
confluence (of the river) Honddu ( the affluent - and the Wysg the main river at this place)

aber = confluence) + (Honddu = river name)


Aber Mynwy
<a-ber--nui> [abɛrˡmənʊɪ] non-settlement name
confluence of the river Mynwy (English name: Monnow) and the river Wysg (English name: Usk).

Here the town of Trefynwy is situated (English name: Monmouth) .

Monmouth is in fact an early direct English translation of Aber Mynwy

It is (Monnow English form of the river name Mynwy) + (mouth, translation of aber = confluence, river-mouth)

The use of mouth in English to denote a confluence of a streams is very unusual normally it refers only to the place a river enters the sea
Monnow [ˡmɔnou] appears to be very different from the Welsh name Mynwy [ˡmənui] , it is probably a fairly good representation of the local Welsh pronunciation when Welsh was the language of the area.
wy [ui] in COLLOQUIAL WELSH is generally reduced to w [ʊ] . Hence Mynwy [ˡmənʊ] .

ETYMOLOGY: (aber = river mouth, confluence) + (Mynwy river name)


<a-ber NANT> [abɛrˡnant]
SO0103 District name, Aber-dr Aber-nant


Apparently from a farm name Aber-nant-y-groes, from the name of a confluence. Aber Nant y Groes, (the) confluence (of) Nant y Groes [and Afon Cynon]. Nant y Groes is (the) stream (of) the cross (nant = stream) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (croes = cross)


Yr Aber-oer
<a-ber OIR> [abɛrˡɔɪr] feminine noun
SJ2849 Na,e of a farm by Y Bers / Bersham, Wrecsam map

ETYMOLOGY: the cold stream (yr definite article) + (aber = stream (North Wales)) + (oer = cold)


<a-ber-PAN-di> [abɛrˡpanɪ] feminine noun

1 fictional (and most unlikely!) Welsh name for a pit village in the Morgannwg coalfield

ETYMOLOGY: aber pandy < aber y pandy (the) confluence (of) the fulling mill (aber = river mouth, confluence) + (y definite article) + (pandy fulling mill).

Although Aberpandy was probably coined for its euphonious effect, using two common place name elements which are easy for English-speakers to recognise and pronounce, this combination of elements sounds in fact very unnatural since Aber names are almost invariably followed by the name of a lesser stream when it means confluence of a tributary with a main stream or river, or the name of the river when it means confluence with the sea.

The name occurs in the play Change (1913) by the English-language playwright J. O. Francis (John Oswald Francis) (1882 Dowlais 1956 London).


Y Pandy is a well-known elelemnt in the area, as it is the name of a district in Merthyrtudful; and names in aber abound (Aber-dr, Aberaman,


(Interestingly, in middle age J.O. Francis, though by now living in London, learned to speak Welsh fluently, and his plays have been translated into Welsh).

The action of the Play takes place in the living-room of the Prices' Cottage on the Twmp, Aberpandy... I remember Aberpandy before ever the Powell-Griffiths sank the first pit, and the sheep of Pandy Farm were grazing quiet where the Bryndu Pit is now.

es are filmed in the bar of the Aberpandy Rugby Football Club.

<a-ber-TAU-e> [abɛrˡtaʊɛ] feminine noun
City in south-east Wales.

Called Swansea by the English a name of Norse origin..

Ymddiriedolaeth Brifysgol y Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol Abertawe Bro Morgannwg

<əm-dhi-ri-e-DOO-laith briv-ə-skol ə gwa-SAA-naith YEE-khiid GwLAA-dol a-ber-TAU-e BROO mor-GA-nug>

[əmɪrɪɛˡdoˑlaɪθ brɪvˡəskɔl ə gwaˡsɑˑnaɪθ jeˑxɪd gwlɑˑdɔl abɛrˡtaʊɛ brmorˡganʊg]

The Abertawe Bro Morgannwg National Health Service Trust

ETYMOLOGY: (the) estuary (of the river) Tawe (
aber = estuary / confluence) + (Tawe).


<AA-berth> ɑˑbɛrθ] masculine noun
PLURAL aberthau, ebyrth
<a-BER-thai, -e, EE-birth> [aˡbɛrθaɪ, -ɛ, ˡeˑbɪrθ]

sacrifice = an offering of a victim to a god to appease the god

victim = the person or animal who is sacrificed in a religious rite

sacrifice = symbolic offering to a god

Lefiticus 7:11 Dyma hefyd gyfraith yr ebyrth hedd a offryma efe ir Arglwydd... (7:18) Ac os bwyteir dim o gig offrwm ei ebyrth hedd ef o fewn y trydydd dydd, ni byddir bodlon ir hwn ai hoffrymo ef, ac nis cyfrifir iddo, ffieiddbeth fydd; ar dyn a fwyty ohono, a ddwg ei anwiredd.
Leviticus 7:11 And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which he shall offer unto the Lord... (7:18) And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity.

aberth hedd, peace offering

Numeri 7:
88 A holl ychen yr aberth hedd oedd bedwar ar hugain o fustych, trigain o hyrddod, trigain o fychod, trigain o hesbyrniaid
Numbers 7: 88 And all the oxen for the sacrifice of the peace offerings were twenty and four bullocks, the rams sixty, the he-goats sixty, the lambs of the first year sixty

Also: hedd-aberth peace offering

Leviticus 7: 13 Heblawr teisennau, offrymed fara lefeinllyd, yn ei offrwm, gydai hedd-aberth o ddiolch
Leviticus 7: 13 Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings

Hedd-aberth Street name in the village of Onllwyn (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan), South-east Wales

sacrifice = the act of giving something at great personal cost (love, attention, time, money, etc) in order to benefit somebody else

sacrifice = death in a war;
Eu haberth nid n angof = inscription on war memorials (their sacrifice shall not be forgotten)
eu = their, aberth = sacrifice, nid = not, aa = will go, yn = in (linking particle), angof = no-memory, state of forgetting, oblivion

mynd yn aberth i fall victim to

myned yn aberth iw drachwant be the victim of his greed / thirst (e.g. die from drinking too much in a drinking session)

yr aberth, the host, the bread consecrated in the Eucharist (the English word is from Old French oiste from Latin hostia = victim) Also: aberth yr offeren (the host of the mass)

self sacrifice

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic, based on
bher- (= to carry); the element bher- is to be found in other Welsh words, such as aber (= estuary), cymer (= confluence)


<a-BER-thi> [aˡbɛrθɪ] verb
aberthu eich bywyd er mwyn... (rhywbeth) sacrifice your life for (something)


<a-ber-UISK> [abɛrˡʊɪsk]
place name (estuary of the river Tawe), Casnewydd / Newport. District south of the city; it forms the western part of the village of Trefonnen / Nash

The English call it Uskmouth.

ETYMOLOGY: (the) mouth (of the river) Wysg / Usk. Here it flows into Mr Hafren / the Severn estuary

aber = estuary / confluence) + (Wysg = river name).


<AA-bid> [ˡɑˑbɪd]

feminine noun
PLURAL abidau
<a-BII-dai, -e> [aˡbiˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 habit = clothes of a monk, nun

ETYMOLOGY: 1300-1400 from English habit, now
[hbit], but formerly [abit] - the initial h was at first silent in this words in English) < Old French habit (silent h) < Latin habitus < habre (= to have).

It may however though have come directly from French into Welsh.


<AA-bal> [ˡɑˑbal] adjective
able, capable

2 wealthy


NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:
ABLE, having property or wealth. An able man is a man that is well off, wealthy. He is very able he is rich, or wealthy. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 278 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877).

iation (in a dictionary entry) = abladol ablative


<ab-LAA-dol> [abˡlɑˑdɔl] adjective
Abbreviation: abl.


braham <A-BRA-ham> [ˡabraham] masculine noun
man's name

2 (Hen Dstament / Old Testament) Abraham = the first of the patriarchs, father of Isaac, and progenitor of the Hebrews

mynwes braham Abrahams bosom, the place of rest after death for those who have led a just life

Luc 16:22
A bu, ir cardotyn farw, ai ddwyn gan yr angylion i fynwes Abraham. Ar goludog hefyd a fu farw, ac a gladdwyd.
Luke 16:22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abrahams bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried.


<A-bram> [ˡabram] masculine noun


<A-bred> [ˡabrɛd] masculine noun
(obsolete) delivery, release

diabred withheld, held back, refused, denied

In the north of the county of Powys, between Caer-sŵs and Llandinam, there is land originally called Rhos Ddiabred (literally moor which has been held back, apparently referring to ownership). Nowadays the name is Rhos Ddiarbed (the result of confusion with the word diarbed = ceaseless, relentless, unrelenting)

(South-east Wales) disorder
yn abred gwyllt in wild confusion (in wild disorder)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *ad-brit- (= 'that which is carried to the outside')
cf the ETYMologies of aber (= estuary), aberth (= sacrifice)


absen <AB-sen> [ˡabsɛn] masculine or feminine noun
absence, being away
Angof pob absen Out of sight, out of mind ((it-is) oblivion every absence)

slander, malicious talk of someone in their absence
diabsen who refrains from speaking badly of others (without slander)

ETYMOLOGY: 1300-1400 Welsh < a learnd borrowing from Latin absentia (= absence)


<ab-SE-nol> [abˡsɛnɔl] adjective


absenoldeb <ab-se-NOL-deb> [absɛˡnɔldɛb] masculine noun
yn fabsenoldeb in my absence

2 cennad absenoldeb leave of absence

ETYMOLOGY: (absenol- < absennol = absent) + (-deb suffix for forming abstract nouns)


<AA-buth> [ˡɑˑbʊθ] masculine noun
(South-east Wales) injury
cl abwth ar ei arddwrn injure his wrist

(South-east Wales) shock, fright

(county of Preseli) caal loos ac abwth be hurt and shocked

(county of Preseli) abwth iddo stuff him!

ETYMOLOGY: abwth, possibly a variant of the dialect form adwth < adwyth (= illness, misfortune)


<AA-buid> [ˡɑˑbʊɪd] masculine noun
2 deintior abwyd nibble the bait


<AAG, AG> [ɑːg, ag] (conjunction)
and (before a vowel)


ation (in a dictionary entry)
acen accent
aceniad accentuacion
acennog stressed, accented


<a-ka-DE-maidh, medh> [akaˡdɛmaɪ, -ɛ] adjective


ac ati
<ag-A-ti> [ag ˡatɪ] phrase
and so on





Certain place names have undergone accent shift to a preceding syllable


1 *Bryn-y-groes / *Bryn-croes > Bryncoes (i.e. the pronunciation is Brncroes)

SH2231 in Gwynedd


2 Llan-bedr > Llanbedr (i.e. the pronunciation is Llnbedr) in most cases of this common place name, though the village of this name in Sir Fynwy / Monmouthshire retains the stress on the final syllable (Llan-bedr)


2 Llan-dduw > Llandduw (i.e. the pronunciation is Llndduw) LHAN-dhiu [ˡɬanɪʊ]
SO0561 ancient name of Llandrindod, a town in the county of Powys.

OLOGY: church (of) God, church dedicated to God.
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Duw = God)


Although one might think that Llandduw is an erroneous spelling for Llan-dduw (with the accent on the final syllable), the name is an example of accent shift to a preceding syllable, and so as such the spelling Llandduw correctly indicates the pronunciation.


3 Llan-fair > Llanfair (i.e. the pronunciation is Llnfair) in most cases of this common place name, though the village of this name in the count of Rhnodda Cynin Taf retains the stress on the final syllable (Llan-fair)



4 Llan-y-cil > Llanycil (i.e. the pronunciation is Llancil) lhan-Ə-kil
a village SH9134 and parish in Gwynedd, by Llyn Tegid, south-west of Y Bala, about 20 km south-west of Corwen and 24 km to the north-east of Dolgellau



5 Pen-y-goes > Pen-e-goes > Penegoes (i.e. the pronunciation is Pengoes)


6 Tref-y-clawdd > Trefyclo (i.e. the pronunciation is Trefclo) (English name: Knighton)


acen, PLURAL: acenion
<A-ken, -a-KEN-yon> [ˡakɛn,aˡkɛnjɔn] feminine noun
1 accent
(in a dictionary entry) ac.

acen bwys <a-ken -BUIS> [ˡakɛn ˡbʊɪs] stress accent (accent (of) stress / weight)
acen ddisgynedig
<A-ken dhi-skə-NEE-dig> [ˡakɛn ɪskəˡneˑdɪg] grave accent (descending accent)
acen ddyrchafedig
<A-ken dhər-kha-VEE-dig> [ˡakɛn ərxaˡveˑdɪg] acute accent (rising accent)
acen drom
<a-ken DROM> [ˡakɛn ˡdrɔm] grave accent (heavy accent)
acen grom
<a-ken GROM> [ˡakɛn ˡgrɔm] circumflex (hunched accent)
acen lem
<a-ken LEM> [ˡakɛn ˡlɛm] acute accent (sharp accent)

2 sound, note, song

Acen Colomen (the) note (of) (a) dove. Folk tune name mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). English name appended: The Cooing of the Dove


<a-KEN-yad> [aˡkɛnjad] masculine noun

Abbreviation: (in a dictionary entry) ac.


<a-KE-nog> [aˡkɛnɔg] adjective
stressed, accented
Abbreviation: (in a dictionary entry) ac.


<a-KE-ni> [aˡkɛnɪ] verb
to stress, to accent


<A-ker> [ˡakɛr] feminine noun

2 Acaryforwyn
Street name in Dinbych (incorrectly spelt as Accar-y-Forwyn)
acre / field (of) the Virgin (Mary)
(acer) + soft mutation + (y definite article) + (morwyn = maid; maiden; the Virgin Mary )


ach, PLURAL: achau
<AAKH, AA-khai, -khe> [ɑːx, ˡɑˑxaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
genealogical relationship

remove = a degree of separation in kinship
Mae en gefnder imi o fewn dwy ach Hes my cousin at two removes (= the grandson of my cousin)


<AKH> [ax] suffix
(also iach)
diminutive suffix added to collective nouns or singular nouns

..1/ arian (= money), ariannach (USA: float) (Englandic: petty cash)

..2/ darn (= part), dernyn (= fragment), dernynnach (= small fragments)

..3/ gwln (= wool), gwlaniach (= fine wool, scraps of wool); gwlaniach ysgall (= thistle down) (fluff (of) thistle)

..4/ gwydr (= glass), gwydrach (= bits of broken glass, small pieces of broken glass, fragments of glass)

..5/ tamaid (= fragment), tameidiach (= tiny fragments)

diminutive suffix sometimes added to a singular noun instead of the usual plural suffix
(South-east Wales) peth (= thing), pethach (= things). Standard pethau (= things).

sometimes with a hint of contempt, suggesting unimportance, smallness

.....(1) baw (= dirt), bawiach or bawach (= (people) riff-raff, trash, low-life, scum)

.....(2) cagl sheep droppings, caked dirt; caglach (= cakes of dirt; dirty people)

...(3) cig (= meat), cigach (= bad pieces of meat)

.....(4) crachen (= blood clot, scab; crachach (= (South Wales) contemptous for well-to-do middle-class people)

.....(5) dimai (= hapenny, halfpenny); dimeiach (= small copper coins, worthless small change)

.....(6) dynion (= men), dynionach (= vile men)

.....(7) gr (= gear, equipment), geriach (= bits of gear)

.....(8) gwellt (= straw), gwelltach (= remnants of straw, useless bits of straw)

.....(9) manionach insignificant finer points, unimportant demands

.....(10) pobl > y bobl (= the people, the general public; y boblach (= the common people, the people with no importance)

.....(11) pryfed (= insects), pryfetach (= creepy-crawlies)

The idea of contempt also expressed by prefixing hen (literally old; followed by soft mutation):
Be dir hen weiriach ma sy hyd dy gt di? (example from Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary, page 1622)
What are these wisps of straw all over your coat?

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *-akkos


<AAKH> [ɑˑx]
with your
See the following phrases:
ch pen yn eich plu dejected
ch cynffon yn eich gafl dejected
ch pen yn y cymylau with your head in the clouds


acha (= ar uchaf)
A kha (preposition) (South-east Wales)


<AA-kha> [ˡɑˑxa] (plural noun)


ch cynffon yn eich gafl
<aakh KƏN-fon ən əkh GAA-fal> [ɑˑx ˡkənfɔn ən əx ˡgɑˑfal]
dejected, miserable, unhappy, crestfallen, with your tail between your legs, cowed

ETYMOLOGY: (with your tail in your crotch / between your legs)
(ch = with your) + (cynffon = tail) + (yn = in) + (eich = your) + (gafl = crotch; colloquially gafal)


<AA-khil> [ˡɑˑxɪl] masculine noun
Achilles (Əkliz), a noted Greek warrior in the Trojan war and hero of Homer's Iliad. Achilles was killed by Paris, who wounded him in his heel, his vulnerable spot
sawdl Achil Achilles heel
gwell y ffr / gweyllen y ffr Achilles tendon


<AKH-les> [ˡaxlɛs] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL achlesau
<akh-LE-se> [axˡlɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
refuge, protection, shelter
rhoi achles i give shelter to, give protection to

support, help
Bu yn achles i ddyheadau ein cenedl It was a help for the aspirations of our nation

(South Wales) manure (the sense development is protection, support > help, aid > aid for the land, manure)

achlysur ( = occasion in modern Welsh, but shelter in older Welsh); < *achlesur < (achles = refuge, protection) + (suffix ur)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *ad-kliss, from the root *kel (= to hide, as in modern Welsh celu = to hide)


<akh-LE-si> [axˡlɛsɪ] (verb amb objecte)
1 to protect, to shelter

2 to support, to help, to encourage

3 (South Wales) to manure

ETYMOLOGY: (achles = help, aid; manure) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


<AKH-lod> [ˡaxlɔd] feminine noun
disgrace, dishonour

Yr achlod i ti Shame on you! (the disgrace to you)

Rachlod (expression of suprise) My God! (contraction of yr achlod = the disgrace)

Rachlod fawr! My God!
(yr = the) + (achlod) + soft mutation + (mawr = big) (the great disgrace)

ETYMOLOGY: literally dis-praise, un-praise (a- = negative prefix) + spirant mutation + (clod = praise)


<AKH-lidh> [ˡaxlɪ] verb
obsolete hide, conceal

obsolete (masculine noun) hiding, concealment

survives in modern Welsh in the verb machlud (= (sun) to set, go down), and the noun phrase machlud haul (= sunset)

Origin: (ym- prefix for forming reflexive verbs + achludd)
> ymachludd
> machludd (loss of the pretonic syllable)
> machlud (change of dd
<dh> [] > d <d> [d]

For similar changes see the entries y and d

ETYMOLOGY: achludd < British < Latin occldere (= to close), (ob- intensifying prefix) + (claudere = to close)


<AKH-list> [ˡaxlɪst] masculine noun
PLURAL achlustiau
<akh-LIST-yai, -ye> [axˡlɪstjaɪ, -ɛ]
cael achlust o get to know of
gwrandon astud am achlust keep your ear close to the ground, listen out for any rumours (listen intently for a rumour)

rhoi achlust i (rywun) give (somebody) a tip-off, tip somebody off

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- intensifying prefix) + spirant mutation + (clust = ear)
*ad-chlust > achlust > achlust


<akh--sir> [axˡləsɪr] m
PLURAL achlysuron
<akh-lə-SII-ron> [axləˡsiˑrɔn]
1 occasion = the time when something takes place

2 occasion = circumstance, the combination of time and place and other
factors which can influence an event
Ar ba achlysur fydde chi'n fodlon dweud celwydd? On what occasion would you be willing to tell a lie?

3 bod yn deilwng or achlysur be equal to the occasion, rise to the occasion (be worthy of the occasion)

4 event
Ers rhai blynyddoedd bellach tyfodd y rasus marathon enfawr yn achlysuron
blynyddol poblogaidd iawn.
Over the past few years mass marathon races have become very popular annual events

ETYMOLOGY: ( = occasion in modern Welsh, but shelter in older Welsh); < *achlesur < (achles = refuge, protection) + (suffix ur)

<akh-lə-SII-rol> [axləˡsiˑrɔl] adj
1 occasional, sporadic, happening now and then

ETYMOLOGY: (achlysur = occasion) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


achos (1), PLURAL: achosion
AA-khos, a-KHOS-yon masculine [ˡɑˑxɔs] noun
cause = origin, the reason for the existence of something,
a thing which causes an effect

cause = movement advancing a principle or belief
bradychur achos betray the cause

nid + cael achos yn / mewn not find any fault in
Sant Ioan 18:38 Peilat a ddywedodd wrtho, Beth yw gwirionedd? Ac wedi iddo ddywedyd hyn, efe a aeth drachefn at yr Iddewon, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Nid wyf fi yn cael dim achos ynddo ef.
John 18:38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.

charge, accusation
Sant Mathew 27:37 A gosodant hefyd uwch ei ben ef ei achos yn ysgrifenedig, HWN YW IESU, BRENIN YR IDDEWON
Matthew 27:37 And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS.

5 Llwyddiant i'r achos! Good luck! (success for the cause)

6 case
Uned Ddamweiniau ac Achosion Brys Accident and Emergency Unit (section of a hospital) (unit (of) accidents and urgent cases)

achos (2)
AA-khos masculine [ˡɑˑxɔs] (conjunction)
(= o achos) because


a KHO si <a-KHO-si> [aˡxɔsɪ] verb
to cause

2 achosi cost i rywun cause somebody to go to great expense, cause somebody great expense (cause cost to somebody)

achosi i rywun wneud rhywbeth cause somebody to do something

achosi marwolaeth drwy yrru'n beryglus cause death by dangerous driving

Beth sy'n achosi newid hinsawdd? What causes climate change?

ch pen yn eich plu
<akh PEN ən əkh PLII> [ax ˡpɛn ən əx pliː]
dejected, miserable, unhappy, crestfallen

ETYMOLOGY: (with your head in your feathers)
(ch = with your) + (pen = head) + (yn = in) + (eich = your) + (plu = feathers)


ch pen yn y cymylau
<akh PEN ən ə kə--lai, -e> [ax ˡpɛn ən ə kəˡməlaɪ, -ɛ]
Mae i ben yn y cymylau He lives in a dream world (he is with his head in the clouds)


<AA-khib> [ˡɑˑxɪb] verb
to save
achub rhg angau save from death

2 (Christianity) save, deliver, redeem = preserve from sins

bad achub <baad AA-khib> [bɑːd ˡɑˑxɪb] masculine noun lifeboat


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh achub (= to save, rescue, seize) < *ochub < British < Latin occupre (= grab hold of ); (ob- = intensifying prefix) + (capere = take)


<a-KHII-bidh> [aˡxiˑbɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL achubwyr
<a-KHIB-wir> [aˡxɪbwɪr]

Deuteronomium 22:27: Oblegid yn y maes y cafodd efe hi; gwaeddodd y llances oedd wedi ei diweddo; ac nid oedd achubydd iddi
Deuteronomium 22:27: Deuteronomy 22:27 For he found her in the field, and the betrothed damsel cried, and there was none to save her.

ETYMOLOGY: (achub = to save) + (-ydd = agent suffix)


<a-KHUIN-yad> [aˡxʊɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL achwyniadau
<a-khwuin-YAA-dai, -e> [axwʊɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
complaint, denunciation
dwyn achwyniad (yn erbyn) present / lodge a complaint (against)
gwneud achwyniad (yn erbyn) present / lodge a complaint (against)

ETYMOLOGY: (achwyn = to complain) + ( -i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)



styrsiynod sturgeons


act PLURAL: actau
<AKT, AK-tai, -e> [akt, ˡaktaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
act (of a play)


<ak-ti-VAA-di> [aktɪˡvɑˑdɪ] verb
1 activate
Meddalwedd wedi ei actifadu gan lais Voice-activated software

Mae ffn arbennig y gellir ei actifadu trwy fotwm larwm There is a special phone which can be activated by means of an alarm button

Maent yn cael eu actifadu gan llygoden y cyfrifiadur They are activated by the computer mouse

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of the English verb activate. First example 1988


<AKT-yo> [ˡaktjɔ] verb
to act


actor, PLURAL: actorion
<AK-tor, ak-TOR-yon> [ˡaktɔr, akˡtɔrjɔn] masculine noun


actores, PLURAL: actoresau
<ak-TOO-res, ak-to-RE-sai, -e> [akˡtoˑrɛs,aktɔˡrɛsaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
actress, actor (female)


<A-ku> [ˡakʊ] (adverb)
yma ac acw
<Ə-ma ag A-ku> [ˡəma ag ˡakʊ] (adverb) here and there


<A-kwin> [ˡakwɪn] masculine noun
Sant Tomos o Acwin Saint Thomas Aquinas, Italian theologian and philosopher (1225-1274)


+ad Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-

mae wedii adael yn y car hes left it in the car < gadael


<AD> [ˡad] prefix
NOTE: causes soft mutation of the following consonant.
There are nine soft mutations in Welsh:
c > g,
p > b,
t > d,
g > (gh) > zero,
d > dd,
b > f,
m > f,
ll > l,
rh > r

..1/ Before an original b- the prefix ad- has the form at-
(ad + p) > (ad-b) > (atb...)
(plygu = fold, atblygol = reflexive, etc)

..2/ Before an original c-, the prefix ad- has the form at-
(ad + c) > (ad-g) > (atg...)
(cof = memory, atgof = memory, etc)

..3/ Before chw- the prefix ad- has the form at-
(chwel- = turn; obsolete as an independent element; atchweliad = reversion, etc)

..4/ Before an original d-, the prefix ad- has the form at-
(ad + d) > (ad-dd) > (att) > (at...)
(dodi = put, atodi = append, etc)

..5/ Before s- the prefix ad- has the form at-
(sain = sound, atsain = echo, etc)

..6/ in some words ad + c- > ach-
achanu (obsolete) to murmur (ad + canu- = to sing)
acharu (obsolete) to love (ad + caru- = to love)
achlust rumor / rumour, tip-off (ad + clust- = ear)
achlwm tight knot (ad + clwm = knot)
achre shivering (ad + cre- = shiver)
achudd (obsolete) seclusion (ad + cudd = hidden)

intensifier: very
..1/ cas = odious; atgas = detestable
..2/ cof = memory; atgof = memory (something remembered)
..3/ dal = to hold, d-ddal > atal = to stop
..4/ dodi = to place, ad-ddodi > atodi = to append

denotes repetition: similar to the prefix re- in English
..1/ argraffu = print; adargraffu = reprint
..2/ byw = live, adfywio = resuscitate
..3/ cyfodi (codi) = get up; atgyfodi = resurrect
..4/ cyweirio = rectify, atgyweirio = repair
..5/ ennill = win; adennill = regain
..6/ heb obsolete element = say; ateb = answer
..7/ lladd = cut, adladd = aftermath, second crop of hay in the same season after the first is cut
..8/ llais = voice; adlais = echo
..9/ llofnodi = sign ; adlofnodi = countersign
..10/ porthi = feed, adborthi = to feed back
..11/ print = print, adbrint = off-print
..12/sain = sound, atsain = reverberation
..13/ talu = pay; ad-dalu = repay
..14/ ysgrif = written document; adysgrif = transcription

..1/ blas (= taste), adflas (= aftertaste)
..2/ byd (= world, situation); adfyd (= adversity)
..3/ dyn (= man), adyn (= scoundrel)bad

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ad < British -ate
From the same Celtic root: Irish ath- = re-, for a second time


+adael Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gadael = to leave


adain <aden>
<AA-den> [ˡɑˑdɛn] feminine noun
gosod gwynt o dan adenydd (rhywun) give an impulse to somebody (in some enterprise) (put wind under the wings of (someone))


<AA-dar> [ˡɑˑdar]
birds; plural of aderyn = bird


<a-DAA-ra> [aˡdɑˑra] verb
catch birds
ci adara (also ci adar) gundog, one trained to work with hunters who shoot birds

ETYMOLOGY: (adar = birds) + (-a suffix for forming verbs, especially with the sense of collecting, hunting)


<a-DAA-rur> [aˡdɑˑrʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL adarwyr
<a-DAR-wir> [aˡdarwɪr]
birdcatcher, fowler

Diarhebion 6:5 Gwared dy hun fel yr iwrch o law yr heliwr, ac fel aderyn o law yr adarwr.
Proverbs 6:5 Deliver thyself as a roe from the hand of the hunter, and as a bird from the hand of the fowler.

ETYMOLOGY: (adar = birds) + (-wr suffix = man)


<AA-dar ə MOOR> [ˡɑˑdar ə ˡmoːr]
1 house name, Y Barri (county of Bro Morgannwg) (Adar y Mr)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) birds (of) the sea, sea birds

(adar = birds) + (y = definite article) + (mr = sea):


+adawiad Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gadawiad =


<AA-dha> [ˡɑˑa] masculine noun
2 bod yn hen fel Adda to be as old as the hills (be old like Adam)


addas <AA-DHAS> [ˡɑˑas] adjective
1 appropriate, suitable, adequate
anaddas inappropriate, unsuitable

2 goroesiad yr addasaf survival of the fittest

pennu cosb addas ir trosedd make the punishment fit the crime (set an adequate punishment for the crime)

adas (= worthy, apt) < (*ad- = to organise)


<a-DHA-si> [aˡasɪ] verb
to adapt


addef <adde>
<AA-dhev / AA-dhe> [ˡɑˑɛv / ˡɑˑɛ] verb
acknowledge, admit
cymal addef concessive clause


<AA-dhev> [ˡɑˑɛv] masculine noun
(obsolete) home, abode, dwelling

ETYMOLOGY: Corresponds to Irish adhbha (= dwelling, abode)

NOTE: A variant of addef (= abode, dwelling, home.) is haddef
The reason for the initial h is unclear. It could be

..a/ from the use of the word in a phrase such as yn ei haddef (in her home),

..b/ an initial h which has occurred before an accented first syllable in certain words (hun, hunan = self; un ar hugain one on twenty;

..c/ from the intensifying prefix hy- (hy-addef > haddef) theres an example in Old Irish of a form with initial so- which corresponds to Welsh hy-.

Modern Irish has adhbha (= dwelling, abode; a literary word). The Old Irish form would be in modern Irish *soadhbha

Haddef is found as a house name in Ffordd Llanberis, Caernarfon (county of Gwynedd) (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)


addewid, PLURAL: addewidion
<a-DHEU-id, a-dheu-ID-yon> [aˡɛʊɪd, aɛʊˡɪdjɔn] (masculine or feminine noun)
2 tor addewid breach of promise


<ad-DREV-ni> [adˡdrɛvnɪ] verb
to reorganise, to rearrange


<AA-dho> [ˡɑˑɔ] verb
to promise

addo mr a mynydd <AA-dho MOOR a MƏ-nidh> [ˡɑˑɔ ˡmoː r a ˡmənɪ] verb to promise the earth (lit: promise sea and mountain)

In some districts addo has been mistaken for a soft-mutated form, and a radical form gaddo is used


<a-DHOL-di> [aˡɔldɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL addoldai
<a-DHOL-dai> [aˡɔldaɪ]
place of worship, chapel, church

Sometimes seen denoting the denomination of a chapel on chapel signs
Addoldy y Bedyddwyr = (the) Baptist Chapel

ETYMOLOGY: (addol-, stem of the verb addoli = to worship) + soft mutation + (ty = house)


<a-DHOO-li> [aˡoˑlɪ] verb
to worship


<a-DHOL-yad> [aˡɔljad] masculine noun


addolwr, PLURAL: addolwyr
<a-DHOO-lur, a-DHOL-wir> [aˡoˑlʊr, aˡɔlwɪr] masculine noun


adduned, PLURAL: addunedau
<a-DHII-ned, a-dhi-NEE-dai-ai, -e> [aˡiˑnɛd, aɪˡneˑdaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun


addurniad, PLURAL: addurniadau
<a-DHIRN-yad, a-dhirn-YAA-dai, -e> [aˡɪrnjad, aɪrnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun


<a-DHIR-no> [aˡɪrnɔ] verb


<AA-dhisk> [ˡɑˑɪsk] feminine noun


Addysg Grefyddol
<AA-dhisk gre-VƏ-dhol> [ˡɑˑɪsk grɛˡvəɔl] feminine noun
Religious Instruction (RI), Religious Education (RE)


<ad-DREVN-yant> [adˡdrɛvnjant] masculine noun
PLURAL ad-drefniannau
<ad-drev-ni-A-nai, -e> [ad drɛvnɪˡanaɪ, -ɛ]

ad-drefniant cbinet cabinet reshuffle; a reorganisation of ministers in a government, generally as a result of a crisis

ad-drefniant y cbinet the cabinet reshuffle

ETYMOLOGY: (ad-drefn- stem of ad-drefnu = reform, rearrange) + (-iant suffix for forming nouns)


<ad-DREV-ni> [adˡdrɛvnɪ] verb
reorganise, restructure

2 ad-drefnur cbinet (verb) to reshuffle the cabinet; (masculine noun) cabinet reshuffle; a reorganisation of ministers in a government, generally as a result of a crisis

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (trefnu = to organise)


adeg, PLURAL: adegau
<AA-deg, a-DEE-gai, -e> [ˡɑˑdɛg, aˡdeˑgaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
period, occasion


adeilad, PLURAL: adeiladau
<a-DEI-lad, a-dei-LAA-dai, -e> [aˡdəɪlad, adəɪˡlɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun


<a-dei-LAA-di> [adəɪˡlɑˑdɪ] verb
to build
llain adeiladu building plot


adeiladwr, PLURAL: adeiladwyr
<a-dei-LAA-dur, -a-dei-LAD-wir> [adəɪˡlɑˑdʊr,adəɪˡladwɪr] masculine noun


<a-DEIN-yog> [aˡdəɪnjɔg] adjective
1 winged
(Swimming) strc adeiniog butterfly stroke (winged stroke)

3 nyten adeiniog wingnut


aden, PLURAL: adenydd
<AA-den, a-DEE-nidh> [ˡɑˑdɛn, aˡdeˑnɪ] feminine noun
ALSO: adain

naill adain one-winged
Used of a man whose wife has died or a woman whose husband has died;

bod yn naill adain = be at a real loss, find it hard to live alone, be all alone

(Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary, tudalen / page 2550): Druan fach, naill aden fydd hi nawr, wedi collii gŵr
The poor thing, shell find it hard now / shell be at a loss now after losing her husband


<ad-E-nilh> [adˡɛnɪɬ] verb
1 win back

2 (plural noun) adenillion returns
Deddf Adenillion Lleihaol Law of Diminishing Returns


aderyn, PLURAL: adar
<a-DEE-rin, AA-dar> [aˡdeˑrɪn,ˡɑˑdar] masculine noun

2 aderyn ysglyfaethus bird of prey

esgidiau dala adar = sneakers, rubber-soled shoes (shoes (of) catching birds)

ci adar (dog (of) birds) gundog, one trained to work with hunters who shoot birds
Also ci adara (dog (of) bird-hunting)

5 Mae eisiau aderyn gln i ganu Dont accuse others of faults which you yourself have (there is need of a clean bird to sing)

Deryn Gln i Ganu novel title (Sonia Edwards)

6 aderyn and adar are found in certain names of houses and streets
In the following street names:

..1 Sŵnyradar ((the) sound (of) the birds)
.a/ Pen-y-fai (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Swn yr Adar)

..2 Sŵnyraderyn ((the) sound (of) the bird)
.a/ Mynyddcynffig (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Swn yr Aderyn)

..3 Cn yr Aderyn house name, Caernarfon (the) song (of) the bird, birdsong

7 Adar or unlliw a hedant ir unlle birds of a feather flock together (birds of the same colour fly to the same place)

NOTE: Often only the first part used of the saying is used: Adar or unlliw..., the rest being understood

8 Gwell aderyn mewn llaw na dau yn y llwyn A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush ([it is] better a bird in a hand than two in the bush)

NOTE: Often only the first part used of the saying is used: Gwell aderyn mewn llaw..., the rest being understood

9 Mae en dipyn o deryn (said of someone who is no quite reliable or not very responsible, someone who is carefree and mischievous but is likeable and amusing) Hes a bit of a lad

NOTE: A very common phenomenon in Welsh is the loss of a pretonic syllable, hence colloquially aderyn > deryn

The singular form was ederyn, with vowel affection (a > e caused by the y in the final syllable) extending over two syllables; but the plural form adar has influenced the singular form; ederyn > aderyn

aderyn drycin, PLURAL: adar drycin
<a-DEE-rin DRƏ-kin> [aˡdeˑrɪn ˡdrəkɪn] masculine noun
storm petrel


aderyn du, PLURAL: adar duon
<a-DEE-rin DII, AA-dar DII-on> [aˡdeˑrɪn ˡdiː, ˡɑˑdar ˡdiˑɔn] masculine noun


aderyn y bwn
<a-DEE-rin-ə-BUN> [aˡdeˑrɪn ə ˡbʊn] masculine noun

(Bitterns form a monophyletic subfamily in the heron family, or the Botaurinae.)


aderyn y to, PLURAL: adar y to
<a-DEE-rin ə TOO> [aˡdeˑrɪn ə ˡtoː] masculine noun
house sparrow


ETYMOLOGY: (aderyn = bird) + (definite article y) + (to = thatch; thatched roof; roof)


In the English dialect of Llanidloes:

THATCH-BIRD, the house-sparrow. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 308 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)


+adewir Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gadewir =


<AD-vail> [ˡadvaɪl] masculine noun
PLURAL adfeilion
<ad-VEIL-yon> [adˡvəɪljɔn]

ETYMOLOGY: (ad-) + (bel- = unknown element) + (some unknown suffix with i which has caused the diphthongisation of the preceding vowel) > ad-fel-(i) > adfeil > adfail


<ad-VEIL-yon> [adˡvəɪljɔn]
ruins; plural of adfail


<AD-ver> [ˡadvɛr] verb
to restore


<ad-VER-yad> [adˡvɛrjad] masculine noun
PLURAL adferiadau
<ad-ver-YAA-dai, -de> [advɛrˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
recovery (of health)

Gobeithiai gael adferiad hyd y ddau ddiwrnod olaf y bu fyw
He hoped to recover from his illness (hoped to get recovery) until the last two days he was alive

2 y tu hwnt i adferiad irredeemable, beyond help, beyond redemption (beyond restoration)


adfyd <AD-vid> [ˡadvɪd] masculine noun
1 adversity, distress, affliction

2 adfyd a loes pain and distress, pain and anguish
yn ei hadfyd a'i loes
in her pain and anguish

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix = bad ) + soft mutation + ( byd = situation, coindition; world)


<ad-LAKH> [adˡlax] feminine noun
PLURAL adlachiau
<ad-LAKH-yai, -ye> [adˡlaxjaɪ, -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (llach = whiplash)


<AD-ladh> [ˡadla] masculine noun
aftermath, second growth of grass after mowing


<AD-lam> [ˡadlam] masculine noun
PLURAL adlamau
<ad-LA-mai, -me> [adˡlamaɪ, -ɛ]

recoil (gun)


3 clo adlam spring lock

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (llam = jump)


<ad-LON-yant> [adˡlɔnjant] masculine noun


<ad-NAA-bod> [adˡnɑˑbɔd] verb

Or braidd mod in ei nabod
I hardly know her
Or braidd rw in ei nabod I hardly know her


Dywedir i Dafi a Siemsyn adnabod eu gilydd am y tro cyntaf mewn ffair ddefaid

It is said that Dave and Jum first met (knew each other for the first time) in a sheep fair


3 (Bible) know = have sexual intercourse with

Samuel-1 1:19 A hwy a gyfodasant yn fore, ac a addolasant gerbon yr Arglwydd; ac a ddychwelasant , ac a daethant iw tŷ i Rama. Ac Elcana a adnabu Hanna ei wraig; ar Arglwydd ai cofiodd hi. (1:20) A bu, pan ddaeth yr amser o amgylch, wedi beichiogi o Hanna, esgor ohoni ar fab; a hi a elwodd ei enw ef Samuel...
Samuel-1 1:19 And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD remembered her. (1:20) Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son, and called his name Samuel...

NOTE: Colloquially the clipped form nabod is used (the first syllable is lost)


adnabyddadwy ad-na-bə-DHAA-dui [adnabəˡɑˑdʊɪ] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (adnabydd-, stem of adnabod = to know) + (-adwy adjectival suffix equivalent to English -able)


<ad-na-BƏDH-yaith, -yeth> [adnaˡbəjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
knowledge, acquaintance
colli nabyddieth ar (rywun) forget who (someone) is (lose acquaintance on somebody)

Ma blynydde lawer er pan weles i Dai, a wi wedi braidd colli nabyddieth arno
Its many years since I saw Dai, and I wouldnt really know him now

ETYMOLOGY: (adnabydd-, stem of adnabod = to know) +(-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)

NOTE: the colloquial form of adnabyddiaeth s nabyddieth, with the loss of the first syllable and simplification of final ae > e


<ad-na--dhis> [adnaˡbəɪs] adjective

Roedd yn adnabyddus drwy Gymru gyfan
he was well known through the whole of Wales

Yr oedd William Griffith yn adnabyddus am ei ddoethineb
William Griffith was well-known for his wisdom

Nid ywr planhigyn hwn mor adnabyddus yng Nghymru
This plant is not so well-known in Wales

well-known (used preceding a name)

Ei gyd-letywr yn y stafell yn y cartref ir henoed oedd yr adnabyddus John Hughes, Y Wern
His fellow resident in the room in the old peoples home was the well-known John Hughes, Y Wern...


ETYMOLOGY: (adnabydd-, stem of adnabod = to know (somebody)) + (-us, suffix for forming adjectives)


<AD-nai, -ne> [ˡadnaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL adneuon
<ad-NEI-on> [adˡnəɪɔn]
(Hire Purchase) deposit

(Banking) deposit
adneuon bancwyr bankers deposits
adneuon arbennig special deposits

cyfrif adnau = (American: savings account) (Englandic: deposit account) an account in which money cannot be withdrawn except after an agreed period, and which yields interest, unlike a current account in which interest is not given and money may be withdrawn at any time

ar adnau = on deposit, in ones bank account

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic; cf Irish aithne (= acquaintance, knowing)


<ad-NEI-o> [ˡadˡnəɪɔ] verb
deposit (money)
deposit (documents)
adneuor gweithredoedd eiddo deposit the title deeds

ETYMOLOGY: (adnau = deposit) + (-o, suffix for forming verbs)


adnod, PLURAL: adnodau

<AD-nod, - ad-NOO-dai, -de> [ˡadnɔd, adˡnoˑdaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
verse (from the Bible)


+ado Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gado =


adran, PLURAL: adrannau
<A-dran, -a-DRA-nai, -ne> [ˡadran, aˡdranaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun

department = division of a local council
yr adran addysg the education department
yr adran lanhu the cleansing department


<a-DRA-nol> [aˡdranɔl] (adjective)
department (attributive), departmental
siop adrannol department store

ETYMOLOGY: (adran = department) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)


adref / adre
<A-drev, A-dre> [ˡadrɛv, ˡadrɛ] adverb
home = towards home
2 talur echwyn adref give tit for tat (pay the loan home)


adrodd <A-drodh> [ˡadrɔ] verb
<ail-A-drodh> [aɪlˡadrɔ] repeat


adroddiad, PLURAL: adroddiadau
<a-DRODH-yad, -a-drodh-YAA-dai, -de> [aˡdrɔjad, adrɔˡ jɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun


+adu Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gadu =


<ad-IN-yad> [adˡɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL aduniadau
<ad-in-YAA-de> [adɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
reunion = bringing together again

reunion = social gathering for old friends or work colleagues to renew acquaintance and friendship
aduniad cyn-ddisgyblion school reunion = gathering of ex-pupils of a school
aduniad cyn-ddisgyblion Ysgol Tregaron school reunion for ex-pupils of Ysgol Tregaron
aduniad cyn-fyfyrwyr university reunion = gathering of ex-students of a university

ETYMOLOGY: (adun- stem of the verb aduno = reunite, become reunited) + (-iad, suffix for forming nouns)


<ad-II-no> [adˡiˑnɔ]
verb with an object
reunite = cause to come together
verb without an object
reunite = come together, meet

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix = again) + (uno = unite, become reunited)


<AA-dir> [ˡɑˑdɪr]
suffix which forms nouns

(a) kind of book, reference book

(a) kind of book, reference book
..1/ blwyddiadur yearbook
..2/ bywgraffiadur biographical dictionary
..3/ cyfeiriadur directory
..4/ digwyddiadur events list (concerts, lectures, films, religious services, etc)
..5/ geiriadur dictionary
..6/ gigiadur list of gigs, performances by a singer or group
..7/ gwyddoniadur encyclopedia
..8/ gwyliadur calendar of religious festivals
..9/ holiadur questionnaire
..10/ newyddiadur newspaper
..11/ odliadur rhyming dictionary
..12/ orgraffiadur spelling dictionary
..13/ swyddiadur job directory
..14/ teithiadur itinerary, guidebook for travelers
..15/ treigladur mutation handbook (one showing the circumstances in which mutations are used, i.e. the phonetic changes of initial consonants in Welsh),

(b) kind of device (sometimes words with this meaning
are adaptations of English words with -ator)
..1/ carpiadur shredder
..2/ cyfrifiadur computer
..3/ cylchdroadur revolution counter
..4/ teipiadur typewriter
..5/ gwniadur thimble
..6/ percoladur coffee percolator
..7/ pladur scythe < paladur (palu = to dig) + (adur noun-forming suffix, indicating an implement or a book).
..8/ rheiddiadur radiator
..9/ generadur generator

(c) person
..1/ cofiadur recorder (= clerk who records details of meetings, etc)
..2/ curadur museum curator
..3/ procuradur procurator
..4/ penadur chief, leader

ETYMOLOGY: Detached from a word of Latin origin with final -adur and used as a suffix.
Cf Welsh pechadur < British < Latin pecct-r-(em) (= sinner)
NOTE: sometimes -i-adur


<AD-waith> [ˡadwaɪθ] m

PLURAL: adweithiau <ad-WEITH-yai, -ye> [adˡwəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ] verb
cael adwaith gwael i suffer / have an adverse reaction to

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (gwerthu = to sell)
NOTE: Colloquially no reduction of ai > e (occurs along the countrys south-west to north-east axis) or ai > e > a (north-west, and vestigially in the south-east) as this is a literary word


<ad-WER-thi> [adˡwɛrθɪ] verb
to retail, to sell direct to the customer

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (gwerthu = to sell)


<ad-WER-thur> [adˡwɛrθʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL adwerthwyr
<ad-WERTH-wir> [adˡwɛrθwɪr]
retailer = person or business that sells directly to a customer

ETYMOLOGY: (adwerth-, stem of the verb adwerthu = to retail) + (-wr, suffix for forming nouns, = man)


adwy, PLURAL: adwyau
<AA-dui, a-DUI-ai, -e> [ˡ ɑˑdʊɪ, aˡdʊɪaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
gap, breech

dod i'r adwy come to the rescue, save the day (come to the breech / come to the gap)

camu i'r adwy come to the rescue, save the day (step into to the breech / step into the gap)

Dyma hi ir adwy eto She came to the rescue yet again (you-see-here her to the breech / to the gap again)

neidio i'r adwy come to the rescue (jump into the breech / jump into the gap)

taflu eich hun i ganol yr adwy rush to help (throw yourself into the middle of the breech)

2 gap between hills

Adwy-wynt (Adwy Wynt)
Street name in Y Fflint
gap (of) wind
(adwy) + soft mutation + (gwynt = wind)
Equivalent to the English name Windy Gap

Yr Adwy-ddu

Name of a housing estate in Penrhyndeudraeth, Gwynedd
teh black gap
(yr definite article) + (adwy = gap) + soft mutation + (du = black)

2 eyebrow


<AIL> [aɪl] (f)

PLURAL: aeliau
<EIL-yai, -e> [ˡəɪljaɪ, -ɛ]
1 = eil, eiliau aisle (church, chapel, cinema, theatre)

ETYMOLOGY: English aisle < Middle English ele < Old French < Latin ala (= la)


Aeleg Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See Gaeleg = Scottish, Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic


aelod, PLURAL: aelodau
<EI-lod, ei-LOO-dai, -e> [ˡəɪlɔd, əɪˡloˑdaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
2 aelod seneddol member of parliament (parliamentary member) (abbreviation: A.S.) (= M.P.)


<ei-LOO-daith, -deth> [əɪˡloˑdaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
tl aelodaeth membership fee

aelod = member) + (-aeth noun suffix)

<EIL-wen> [ˡəɪlwɛn] feminine noun
womans name (fair brow)

ETYMOLOGY: feminine form of aelwyn (= fair-browed)

NOTE: The name Eilwen
EIL wen is possibly a spelling variant of this name. The pronunciation remains the same, at least in Southern Welsh

(Penult ae is pronounced eu
<eɨ> [əɨ] in the North and ei <ei> [əɪ] in the South)


aelwyd, PLURAL: aelwydydd
<EI-luid, ei-LUI-didh> [ˡəɪlʊɪd, əɪˡlʊɪdɪ] feminine noun


<EIL-win> [ˡəɪlwɪn] adj

ETYMOLOGY: (ael (f) = brow) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white; fair, attractive)


aer (1)
<AIR> [aɪr] masculine noun


aer (2) aerion
<AIR, EIR-yon> [aɪr, ˡəɪrjɔn] masculine noun


aeres, PLURAL: aeresau
<EI-res, ei-RE-sai, -e> [ˡəɪrɛs, əɪˡrɛsaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun


<EI-ron> [ˡəɪrɔn] feminine noun
river name

(History) in names of two medieval districts or kntrevs in Ceredigion - (kntrev = cantref, literally: one hundred trvs)

..a/ Ceredigion Is Aeron Ceredigion below (the river) Aeron, that is, the main part of Ceredigion, where the court is, bounded by the river Aeron.

..b/ Ceredigion Uwch Aeron Ceredigion above (the river) Aeron, the far part of Ceredigion


<ei-ROO-na> [əɪˡroˑna] feminine noun
womans name


<ei-RON-wen> [əɪˡrɔnwɛn] feminine noun
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: Based on the name of the river Aeron in Ceredigion.
the river Aeron (
Aeron) + (suffix wen (qv), used to form female forenames)


<ei-ROO-nui> [əɪˡroˑnʊɪ] feminine noun
womans name
ETYMOLOGY: Based on the name of the river Aeron in Ceredigion.
the river Aeron (
Aeron) + (suffix wy, meaning river)

However, an interesting footnote can be added to this.

There was a tendency in the 1800s for some literati to correct the names of rivers by adding the suffix -
wy (the soft-mutated form of gwy), which they presumed had been part of the river name but had been worn away over the passage of time.

Indeed, the fact that other river names end in -
wy (Elwy, Conwy, Mynwy, etc) and that one important river was actually called simply Gwy (in English, the Wye) led them to believe that all river names had had it, but not all had maintained it.

William Owen-Pughes dictionary published from 1797 onwards was to a great extent to blame for this misconception, as he included the word
gwy (said by him to mean fluid or water, but really the product of his imagination) in his Dictionary of Welsh and English dictionary published gradually from 1797 onwards and into the first decade of the 1800s. .

Though many river names do end in
wy, there are a variety of explanations, depending on the particular name, and indeed it may be some kind of suffix in some names, but it certainly does not mean fluid or water.

In his dictionary, on page 195, under gwy, which William Owen-Pughe marks as a masculine noun with the plural gwyon, he states that it is: A fluid, or liquid; water. This word, and Aw, are in the composition of a great number of terms, which relate to fluidity; and especially the names of rivers; as Dyfrdonwy, Edwy, Efyrnwy, Llugwy, Mawddwy, Mynwy and Tredonwy.
Dyfrdonwy is his entirely fanciful correction for Dyfrdwy (Dee in English), and Tredonwy is a mystery or at least, to me.

But since there was a general conception amongst many that there was a suffix
wy meaning fluid, water, and hence river, it is not incorrect to say that Aeronwy means river Aeron (Aeron) + (suffix -wy meaning river)


<EI-rui> [ˡəɪrʊɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL aerwyau, aerwyon
<ei-RUI-ai, -e, ei-RUI-on> [əɪˡrʊɪaɪ, -ɛ, əɪˡrʊɪɔn,]
collar, torque
(South-west Wales) eirw buwch neck-chain, cow collar, cow-house yoke

ETYMOLOGY: British *ad-reig-o < Celtic
Breton ere (= link)
Irish rach (= bond, i.e. fetter; and bond, i.e. security; advantage)

NOTE: Penult ae is pronounced eu in the North (eurwy) and ei in the South (eirwy).

A final wy
<ui> [ʊɪ] in the South regularly becomes w <u> [ʊ]
Hence aerwy > eirw


Yr Aes
<ər-AIS> [ər ˡaɪs]
street in the centre of Caer-dydd
English name: The Hayes

According to John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911): le heys. A part of the town near the east wall. To describe it in terms of the present day, it is a street running from south to north, from the north end of Bute Street to the Free Library. In 1550-1610 the Hayes (as its name implies) was open ground, largely consisting of gardens, with small detached tenements interspersed; yet it lay within the town wall. The name was applied particularly to one cottage and piece of ground (1817), approach to which was by a footpath and a stone stile (1820.) The Hays Close is named in a document of 1786. These premises were situate about where is now the Batchelor statue.

Cf The Hayes, farm by Reynoldston (county of Abertawe / Swansea)

haye < Old English haga = hedge


<AITH> [aɪθ] verb
he / she / it went


<EITH-nen> [ˡəɪθnɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL aethnennau, aethnenni
<eith-NE-nai, -ne, -ni> [əɪθˡnɛnaɪ, -ɛ, -ɪ]
aspen, trembling poplar (Populus tremula) tree of the genus Populus

pa bryd bynnag y gelwid arno i wneud hyny crynai fel aethnen

whenever he was called upon to do it he would shake like a leaf (like an aspen)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh aethn- < British *aktn-


aethnen ddu
<EITH-nen DHII> [ˡəɪθnɛn ˡiː] feminine noun
PLURAL aethnenni duon
<eith-NE-nai, -ne, -ni DII-on> [əɪθˡnɛnaɪ, -ɛ, -ɪ ˡdiˑɔn]
black poplar (Populus nigra)

ETYMOLOGY: (aethnen = aspen) + soft mutation + (du = black)


<AV, A> [av, a]
superlative ending for adjectives; as in English -est

Colloquially the final
<v> [v] in polysyllables is not pronounced
cyntaf = primer > cynta

est, the most...
Often the superlative form is found in Welsh in a comparison between two, where in English the comparative form would be used. As an attributive adjective, corresponds to the English comparative form -er, more..

..1/ y rhyw wannaf (= women) the weaker sex (the weakest sex)

..2/ y tu clytaf ir clawdd on the sheltered side of the hedgebank

..3/ Uchaf / Isaf in farm names or village names, literally highest / lowest, corresponds to English upper, higher / lower

Y Wern Uchaf Upper Wern farm
Y Wern Isaf Lower Wern farm
(wern < gwern, = alder swamp)

..4/ pen praffaf y ffon the thicker end of the stick, the thick end of the stick

3 (am + definite article and superlative adjective)
cystadleuaeth am y cryfaf a competiton to see whos the strongest, a trial of strength

Since -af was originally -haf, final consonants b d g are devoiced by the following h which is now lost
gwlyb > gwlypaf wet > wettest
caled > caletaf hard > hardest
gwag > gwacaf empty > emptiest

The comparative forms which have -ach have imitated the superlative forms in modern Welsh

gwlybach is now gwlypach (= wetter)
caledach is now caletach (= harder)
gwagach is now gwacach (= emptier)

ETYMOLOGY: -af < -haf (qv)


+afael Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gafael =


+afaelgar Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gafaelgar =


+afaeliad Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gafaeliad =


<a-VAG-dhi> [aˡvagɪ] (f)

1 The nickname (exact meaning unknown, though it seems to be based on du = black) of Morfran eil Tegid, the son of Ceridwen, referring to his terrible ugliness.

Utter darkness at night came to be compared to the extreme ugliness of Morfran, tywyll fel Afagddu, with the first syllable of the name becoming the obscure vowel (as has happened with several place names in Wales), and then understood as the definite article tywyll fel y fagddu.

Cf Aber-ffraw > Abrffro > Y Beffro, Aber-mawdd > Abrmaw > Y Bermo

2 complete darkness, pitch blackness

yn dywyll fel y fagddu pitch dark

mor dywyll r fagddu pitch dark

Job 10:22
Tir tywyllwch fel y fagddu, a chysgod angau, a heb drefn; lle y mae y goleuni fel y tywyllwch.

Job 10:22
A land of darkness, as darkness itself; and of the shadow of death, without any order, and where the light is as darkness.

Eseia 59:9
Am hynny y ciliodd barnedigaeth oddi wrthym, ac nin goddiweddodd cyfiawnder: disgwyliasom am oleuni, ac wele dywyllwch; am ddisgleirdeb, ac yn y fagddu yr ydym yn rhodio.

Isaiah 59:9 Therefore is judgment far from us, neither doth justice overtake us: we wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, but we walk in darkness.

Eseia 60:2
Canys wele, tywyllwch a orchuddia y ddaear, ar fagddu y bobloedd: ond amat ti y cyfyd yr ARGLWYDD, ai ogoniant a welir arnat.

Isaiah 60:2 For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.

3 hell


afal, PLURAL: afalau
<AA-val, a-VAA-lai, -e> [ˡɑˑval, aˡvɑˑlaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
pren afalau apple tree (also: afallen)

2 calon afal apple core
craidd afal apple core

cael yr afal ai fwyta
have your cake and eat it (get the apple and eat it)
cael eich afal i chwarae ac iw fwyta have your cake and eat it (get your apple to play and to eat it)
Chewch chi moch afal i chwarae ac iw fwyta You cant have your cake and eat it

NOTE: Colloquially afalau > fale

pren fale apple tree

pwys o fale a pound of apples

afal Adda
<AA-val AA-dha> [ˡɑˑval ˡ ɑˑa] masculine noun
Adams apple

ETYMOLOGY: (the) apple (of) Adam (afal = apple) + (Adda = Adam)


afallen, afallennau
<a-VA-lhen, a-va-LHE-nai, -e> [aˡvaɬɛn, avaˡɬɛnaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
apple tree
(Malus domestica)

Yr Afallennau (the apple trees) name of a series of penillion in the Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin / The Black Book of Carmarthen c.1250 beginning with the refrain "Afallen beren" (= sweet-apple tree; that is, not an afallen sur = crab-apple tree)

Yr Afallenchwerw SN9854 Farm near Cilmeri, Powys (= crab-apple tree, bitter + apple tree)

(Though the derivation could be another, since the farm is by Afon Chwerfri the farm name may have something to do with the name of the river)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (afall = apple tree) + (-en diminutive suffix); afall < British < Celtic

From the same British root: Breton avalenn


<a-VA-lhon> [aˡvaɬɔn] feminine noun

1 Afallon ('Avalon') = the paradise of the Celts, in the form of an island in the western sea

Also Ynys Afallon

2 The Isle of Glastonbury, in Somerset (England). According to one legend, Arthur, the king of the British retreated to Afallon to recover from a wound sustained in battle against the invading English.

Twelfth-century authors sought to place Afallon in the west of the island of Britain and made an erroneous identification with Glastonbury (which was an island in fenland at the time)

3 (figurative) Paradise
Byw yn Llundain yr oeddwn ar y pryd, ond roedd gen i Afallon bell, sef fferm Nhaid ym Meirionnydd
I was living in London at the time, but I had my own distant Paradise (i had a distant Paradise), my grandad's farm in Meirionydd

Uwchaled oedd bro fy mebyd. Ddeugain mlynedd yn l ymadewais r Afallon hon o Gymreictod a symud i Gaerdydd
Uwchaled was the district of my younger days. Forty years ago I departed from that Paradise of Welshness and moved to Caer-dydd / Cardiff.

4 house name

..a/ House in Clydach, Abertawe

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly abundant in apples (afal = apple) + soft mutation + (llawn = full) > *afal-lawn > afallawn > afallon


afal pob (North Wales)
<AA-val POOB> [ˡɑˑval ˡpoːb] masculine noun
cooking apple

ETYMOLOGY: cooked apple (afal = apple) + (pob = cooked, baked; stem of the verb pobi = to cook. In Welsh, the verb stem often serves as a past participle)

afal sur
<AA-val SIIR> [ˡɑˑval ˡsiːr] masculine noun
crab apple

afallen sur crab-apple tree


afal taffi
<AA-val TAA-fi> [ˡɑˑval ˡtɑˑfɪ] masculine noun
toffee apple

ETYMOLOGY: (the) apple (of) toffee (afal = apple) + (taffi = toffee)

<AA-van> [ˡɑˑvan] feminine noun
river name


<AA-van> [ˡɑˑvan]masculine noun
mans name


afanc, PLURAL: afancod
<AA-vangk, a-VANG-kod> [ˡɑˑvaŋk, aˡvaŋkɔd] masculine noun

Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton, 
T.H. Parry-Williams, 1913
In W[elsh], however, the interchange of f and dd is quite common, especially in the dial[ect]s
One example given of the change f > dd is afanc (= a beaver) > addanc


afanen, PLURAL: afan (South Wales)
<a-VAA-nen, AA-van> [aˡvɑˑnɛn, ˡɑˑvan] feminine noun


afanen goch, PLURAL: afan cochion (colloquially pronounced afan cochon)
<a-VAA-nen GOOKH, AA-van KOKH-yon> ɑˑ[aˡvɑˑnɛn ˡgoːx, ˡɑˑvan ˡkɔxjɔn] feminine noun
(South Wales)


<A-fliu> [ˡaflɪʊ] masculine noun
(North Wales) particle, fragment

dim affliw not the least bit

dim affliw o (rywbeth) no (something) at all

Doedd dim affliw o syniad gen i I didn't have the least idea, I had no idea at all

affliw o ddim nothing at all

Doedd affliw o ddim ar l There wasnt a morsel left

Dywr wasg Seisnig yn gwybod affliw o ddim am Gymru ai hiaith
The English-language press knows nothing at all about Wales and its language

Does wnelo'r peth affliw o ddim ag arian The matter has nothing at all to do with money

ETYMOLOGY: possibly affliw < arlliw (= tint, shade), with the substitution of ff for r due to the influence of affaith (= effect)


Affrica / Yr Affrig
<A-fri-ka, ər A-frig> [ˡafrɪka, ər ˡafrɪg] feminine noun


<AV-yakh> [ˡavjax] adjective
unhealthy; sick

Yr iach a gach y bore,
Yr afiach a gach yr hwyr,
Yr afiach a gach bob yn dipyn bach
A'r iach a gach yn llwyr.

The healthy person shits in the morning

The unhealthy person shits in the evening

The unhealthy person shits little by little

And the healthy person shits completely


<av-YEE-khid> [avˡjeˑxɪd] masculine noun


+afl Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gafl = crotch


<AV-lan> [ˡavlan] adjective


<av-LEN-did> [avˡlɛndɪd] masculine noun


<a-VLEER> [aˡvleːr] adjective
(obsolete) gluttonous

(North Wales) untidy, shabby, messy, scruffy (development of sense 1, because a glutton makes a mess while eating)

(North Wales) dirty

ETYMOLOGY: aflr < aflerw
(af- = privative prefix) + soft mutation + (llerw = weak)

NOTE: Also: blr < aflr.

Cf southern bradu (= to waste) < afradu


<AV-les> [ˡavlɛs] masculine noun
detriment, disavantage, hurt

er afles i to the detriment of

Gweithredodd y sustem addysg er afles ir iaith Gymraeg
The education system functioned to the detriment of the Welsh language

ETYMOLOGY: (af- = negative prefix ) + soft mutation + (lles = wellbeing)


<av-LE-sol> [avˡlɛsɔl] adjective
bwyd aflesol unwholesome food


<av-LOI-u> [avˡlɔɪʊ] adjective


aflwydd, PLURAL: aflwyddau, aflwyddion
<AV-luidh, av-LUI-dhai, -e, av-LUIDH-yon> [ˡavlʊɪ, avˡlʊɪaɪ, -ɛ, avˡlʊɪjɔn] masculine noun
(North Wales) defect
Fe gafodd fy nghar ryw aflwydd My car broke down (my car got some defect)

bod aflwydd ar not work, not function
Mae rhyw aflwydd ar y peth The things not working, Its not working
Mae rhyw aflwydd arno Its not working


<AV-lim> [ˡavlɪm] adjective
retuse = (leaf) with a rounded apex and central depression

aflymddail retuse-leaved
helygen aflymddail(Salix retusa) retuse-leaved willow

ETYMOLOGY: (af- = negative prefix ) + soft mutaiton + ( llym = sharp)


afon, PLURAL: afonydd
<AA-von, a-VOO-nidh> [ˡɑˑvɔn, aˡvoˑnɪ]
feminine noun

isafon tributary minor river flowing into a main river
(is = lower, inferior) + (afon = river)

Examples of river names with soft mutation after the element afon
(In most cases there is no such mutation in modern Welsh, but a handful of examples occur, survivals from older Welsh)
..1/ (SH8449) Afon Conwy / Afon Gonwy river in Conwy county, north-west Wales
..2/ (SH8227) Afon Dyfrdwy /Afon Ddyfrdwy river in the north-east
..3/ (SH5167) Afon Menai / Afon Fenai = straits in Gwynedd, between Mn and Arfon, north-west Wales

4 mor sicr 'r nant i'r afon no doubt about it as sure as the stream to the river

5 troi afon oi chwrs divert a river

Names of houses and streets

..1/ Tremyrafon / Trem yr Afon view (of) the river, river view
..2/ Tremafon / Trem Afon view (of the) river, river view

(The linking definite article is often omitted in place names)
House name, and also a street name in a number of places

..3/ Gwelafon river view (gwl = view) + (afon = river)

..4/ Sŵnyrafon ((the) sound (of) the river)
Street name in
....a/ Llangefni (county of Mn) (Swn yr Afon)
....b/ Mynyddcyffig (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Swn yr Afon)
....c/ Y Gelli, Pentre (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (Swn yr Afon)
....d/ Treorci (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (Swn-yr-Afon)
....e/ Aberdulais (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (Swn-y-Nant)
....f/ Llanfechain (county of Powys)

..5/ House name:
Llais yr Afon / Llaisyrafon ((the) sound / voice (of) the river)
Street name:
Llaisafon Ffair-fach, Llandeilo (county of Caerfyrddin) (Llais Afon)

(adverb of place) yn is ar yr afon downstream, downriver

8 rhedai y dagrau yn afonydd i lawr ei gruddiau the tears ran in rivers down her cheeks

helygen yr afon (Salix fluviatilis) river willow

10 yr Afon Benwaig jocular name for the sea ((the) river (of) herrings, the Herring River)
mynd dros yr Afon Benwaig go over the sea

Lampetra fluviatilis) llysywen bendoll yr afon (f), llysywod pendoll yr afon river lamprey

12 min afon riverside
caffi min afon riverside caf


Afon Braint
<AA-von BRAINT> [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡbraɪnt] feminine noun
river in Mn


Afon Conwy
<AA-von KOO-nui> [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡkoˑnʊɪ] feminine noun
river in North-west Wales


<a-VON-lan> [aˡvɔnlan]

1 riverside, riverbank

Afonlan House name in Y Cae-gwyn, Caernarfon

ETYMOLOGY: (afon = river) + soft mtuation + (glan = riverside, riverbank)


Afon Fach
<AA-von VAAKH> [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡvɑːx] feminine noun
river in Patagonia


Afon Llynfi
<AA-von LHƏN-vi> [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡɬənvɪ]
name of two rivers in the south
..a/ SS
8983 A river rising north of the town of Maes-teg, runs southwards through the town and flows into the Ogwr 4 km north of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

Cwm Llynfi the valley of the Llynfi river which passes through Y Caerau, Cymfelin, Llangynwyd and Y Ton-du

..b/ SO1738 A river rising 1km north of Y Bwlch (Powys), between Aberhonddu and Crucywel, which flows north into the lake known as Llyn Syfaddan; it leaves the lake flowing northwards and joins the river Gwy at Aberllynfi, near Y Clas ar Wy

Aberllynfi village 3km north of Talgarth ((the) confluence (of) Llynfi (and Gwy))
English name: Three Cocks

(delwedd 7077)

ETYMOLOGY: Llynfi < Llyfni (llyfn = smooth) + (suffix -i)
<nv> [nv] > <vn> [vn]

In the north there is a river with the original form of this name - Afon Llyfni SH4852 flowing west from the lake Llyn Nantlle Uchaf into the Bay called Bae Caernarfon, 4km south-west of Llandwrog


Afon Mynach
<AA-von -nakh> [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡmənax] feminine noun
SN7576 Afon Mynach river in Ceredigion, formed by the junction of the Myherin and Rhuddnant streams, and flowing west to join the river Rheidol north of Pontarfynach (Ceredigion)

SH9041 Afon Mynach river in the district of Meirionnydd which flows south into the river Tryweryn, 4km north-west of the town of Y Bala

ETYMOLOGY: (the) river (of the) monk; (afon = river) + (mynach = monk)


<AA-von WEN> [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡwɛn]
SJ1371 Village in the county of Y Fflint, south-east of Caerwys map

ETYMOLOGY: yr afon wen (the) white river; (afon = river) + soft mtuation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)


+afr Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gafr = goat


<a-VRAD-lon> [aˡvradlɔn] adjective
prodigal = wasteful, spendthrift


afrad <AV-rad> [ˡavrad] adjective
byw yn afrad live extravagantly

Afrad pob afraid What is not really essential is a waste
((it is) wasteful every unnecessary thing)

Afrad pob ynfyd Sensible people are thrifty (wasteful each fool)

afrad = extravagance, originally (adjective) evil, (noun) evil; (af- = privative suffix ) + soft mutation + ( rhad = grace)


<av-RAA-di> [avˡrɑˑdɪ] verb
waste, squander
afradu arian waste money, throw money down the drain


afraid <AV-raid> [ˡavraɪd] adjective


(masculine noun) Plural: afreidiau something unnecessary

Cadwch afraid erbyn eich rhaid Be thrifty, Keep what you don't need now for possible future use; put something away for a rainy day; Waste not, want not = if you do not waste things, you won't be poor
keep your unneeded against your need (
cadw = keep) + (ch < eich = your) + (afraid (adjective) unnecessary, (noun) unnecessary things) + (erbyn = against) + (eich = your) + (rhaid necessity)

Afrad pob afraid What is not really essential is a waste

rhoi o'ch afraid give away what you dont need

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (af- = privative suffix ) + soft mutation + ( rhaid = necessity)


<AV-ruidh> [ˡavrʊɪ] adj
1 difficult

Afrwydd pob gorchwyl ar y cyntaf Every task is difficult at the outset (difficult every task on the first)

ETYMOLOGY: (af- = negative prefix) + soft mutation + ( rhwydd = easy)

<av-RUIDH-o> [avˡrʊɪɔ]
(verb with an object) (not in common usage)
1 hinder, obstruct


Nid yw y byd hwn ond yn wlad y mae eich ffordd yn myned drwyddi i dir Immanuel; fel hyny ewch trwyddo fel deieithriaid (sic) a phererinion; heb ymyraeth ai drafferthion, i afrwyddo eich taith

This world is but a country that your road passes through to the land of Emmanuel; so go through as strangers nd pilgrims, without interfering inits troubles, to hinder your journey


Pedwar Cyflwr Dyn (the four states of man), published in 1821 by John Parry (1775-1846), a translation, probably by Ieuan Glan Geirionydd (Evan Evans, 1795-1855) of Human Nature in its Fourfold State, by Scottish Puritan Thomas Boston (1676-1732), fisrt published in 1720

ETYMOLOGY: (afrwydd = difficult) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)


afu, PLURAL: afuau
<AA-vi, a-VII-ai, -e> [ˡɑˑvɪ, aˡviˑaɪ, -ɛ]
masculine noun
liver (South Wales). In the North it is iau


ag =
<ag> [ag]
with (= before a vowel)


ag a
1 as (+ conjugatd verb)
Nid yw cynddrwg ag a ddywedoch chi He isnt as bad you said / as you made him out to be


agen, PLURAL: agennau
<AA-gen, a-GE-nai, -e> [ˡɑˑgɛn, aˡgɛnaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
split, crevice

2 yr agen rhwng y bronnau cleavage between a woman's breasts (the cleavage / split between the breasts)

Historically this was gagen, but the soft-mutated form (loss of intial g-) has become the radical form. Irish has gg (f) (= crack, chink, crevice)

agenda, PLURAL: agendu
<a-GEN-da, a-gen-DAI> [aˡgɛnda, agɛnˡdaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun


<a-ger-BEIR-yant> [agɛrˡbəɪrjant] masculine noun
PLURAL agerbeiriannau
<a-ger-beir-YA-nai, -e> [agɛrbəɪrˡjanaɪ, -ɛ]
(literary word) (railway) steam engine

ETYMOLOGY: (ager = steam) + soft mutation + (peiriant = engine)


<a-GEN-dor, > [aˡgɛndɔr] masculine or feminine noun


1620 Bible: Luc 16:26 Ac heb law hyn oll, rhyngom ni a chwithau y sicrhawyd gagendor mawr: fel na allo y rhai a fynnent, dramwy oddi yma atoch chwi: nar rhai oddi yna, dramwy attom ni


(In twentieth century editions, agendor is the form used - y sicrhawyd agendor.)


Luke 16:26 And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence.

Historically this was gagen, but the soft-mutated form (loss of intial g-) has become the radical form. See gagen (see above).


British -ag- > Old Welsh -agh- > modern Welsh -ae-

..a/ CAE
Celtic > British *kag- > Old Welsh kagh > modern Welsh cae (hedge; now generally field)

..b/ DRAEN
Celtic > British *dragn- > Old Welsh draghn > modern Welsh draen (= thorn)

..c/ HAEL
Celtic > British *sagl- > Old Welsh haghl > modern Welsh hael (= generous)

..d/ MAEL
Celtic > British *magl- > Old Welsh maghl > modern Welsh mael (in old forenames, = chieftain, lord)

..e/ MAEN
Celtic > British *magn- > Old Welsh maghn > modern Welsh maen (= stone)


gnatha (Genus)
1 (pysgodyn di-n) jawless fish


<AA-gor> [ˡɑˑgɔr] verb
1 to open

2 ar agor open (eg sign in a shop window)


<a-GOO-red> [aˡgoˑɛd] adj

2 cadw drws agored keep open house, be very hospitable, welcome all and sundry keep (an) open door


agoriad, PLURAL: agoriadau
<a-GOR-yad, a-gor-YAA-dai, -e> [aˡgɔrjad, agɔrˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] adjective


<a-gor-YAA-dol> [agɔrˡjɑˑdɔl] adjective
opening, inaugural


<AA-gos> [ˡɑˑgɔs] adjective


see agosaf = nearest

quasi-prefix nowhere near
Nid yw hon agos gymaint This is nowhere near as big (also: agos cymaint)
agos gystal almost as good as (also: agos cystal)

5 Mae hi agos yn sicr Its fairly certain


agosaf <agosa>
<a-GO-sav, a-GO-sa> [aˡgɔsav, aˡgɔsa] adjective
nearest (colloquiall clipped form: gosa)
ffordd gosa improvised, makeshift, impromptu ((the) nearest way)
pryd ffordd gosa an improvised meal

2 bu + agosaf eried has never been closer (to have been closest ever)
Fan hon, ychwanegai, gan gerdded yn l a blaen yn y set fawr, y bu y nefoedd ar ddaear agosaf erioed.
Here, he said, pacing to and fro by the big pew, heavven and earth have never been closer


<a-go-SAI> [agɔˡsaɪ] verb
to approach
agosu at (rywun) approach (someone)


<a-GOS-ruidh> [aˡgɔsrʊɪ] masculine noun
nearness, proximity




agwedd A-gwedh [ˡagwɛ] (f)

PLURAL agweddau a-GWEE-dhai, -e [ aˡgweˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1 attitude


2 aspect

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh agwedd < *angwedd (an- = intensifying prefix) + nasal mutation + (gwedd = aspect, appearance)




agweddi a-GWEE-dhi [ aˡgweˑɪ] (m)

PLURAL agweddau a-gwe-DHII-ai, -e [agwɛˡiˑaɪ, -ɛ]


1 dowry
ty^ agweddi dower house 

(Wikipedia 2009-04-27: A dower house is usually a moderately large house on an estate which is occupied by the widow of the late owner. The widow, often known as the dowager (a widow who holds a title or property, or dower, derived from her deceased husband) usually moves into the dower house, from the larger family house, on the death of her husband, the new heir occupies the now vacated principal house.)


ag y AAG ə, AG ə [ˡɑˑg ə, ˡag ə]
as (after an equative form of the adjective)
gynted fyth ag y gellir as soon as possible, as soon as you possibly can
(as-soon / ever / as / it-can-be (done))

ETYMOLOGY: (ag < = with) + (y relative particle)


a hefyd
<aa / a HEE-vid> [ɑˑ / a ˡheˑvɪd]
and also...
Sometimes found incorrectly as ac hefyd


a hi
<aa HII> [ɑˑ ˡhiː] conjunction
when it is / was, and it being

Genesis 15:17 A bu, pan fachludodd yr haul, a hi yn dywyll, wele ffwrn yn mygu, a lamp danllyd yn tramwyo rhwng y darnau hynny.
Genesis 15:17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.

ETYMOLOGY: (a = and) + (hi = it)


1 In a fi
nal syllable, generally it is reduced to e; in the north-west e > a, and in the south-east this ai is often i

(delwedd 7423)


1 <ai> [aɪ] in English. <ii> [iː] in Welsh

Words taken from English
ii which have conserved ii in Welsh, but have undergone the long vowel shift in English c. 1500 ii > ai

..a/ Brid [BRIID] name of Irish saint; English Saint Brides [seint BRAIDZ]
Words with English
<ii> [iː] taken from Welsh into English which have undergone the long vowel shift in English c. 1500 <ii> [iː] > <ai> [aɪ]

..b/ English Pendine [pen DAIN] (for
Pen-din) <pen DIIN> [pen ˡdiːn]. Village in Caerfyrddin.

..c/ Y Pil
<ə-PIIL> [əpiːl], village in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr; English Pyle <pail> [paɪl]

..d/ Rhys [HRIIS] > English surname Rice
<RAIS> [raɪs]



In non-standard spellings of place names in the south-east, possibly represents [ai] instead of the expected [ei] within the
colloquial Welsh of the area

Another possiblity is that it is an attempt to spell the sound
<ei> [əi] a langlaise, as in paint, saint, main, wait etc


The south-eastern pronunciation of
blaenau <BLEI-nai, -e> [ˡbləinai, - ɛ] (= upland; sources of streams) is <BLEI-nai, -e> blaena [ˡbləina].


The English spelling of the towns name is Blaina <BLAI-nə> [ˡblainə], which might in fact be a Welsh spelling to suggest a local pronunciation [ˡblaina]

..b/ CAEAU

Y Caia
<ə-KAI-a> [əˡkaɪa] farm in Sain Nicolas, county of Bro Morgannwg < y caeau <ə-KEI-ai, -e> [əˡkəɪaɪ, -ɛ] = the fields


A farm marked on maps as Pantyddrainan, near Coedeli, Rhondda Cynon Taf

Standard Welsh would be Pantyddraenen. The a in the final syllable is a typical feature of south-eastern Welsh.


<ai-a-TOO-la> [aɪaˡtoˑla] masculine noun
<ai-a-TOO-laz> [aɪaˡtoˑlaz]
ayatollah = Shiite leader, member of the religious hierarchy who has an expert knowledge of Islamic law

ETYMOLOGY: Persian < Arabic sign of Allah / God (yat = sign) + (Allah = God)


<AID, ED> [aɪd, ɛd] suffix
has the sense of 'full', 'the contents of'; similar to the use of the English suffix -ful; the amount a container will hold
bagaid o bapur a bagful of paper
barilaid o gwrw bROOTful of beer
basgedaid o flodau basketful of flowers
llwyaid o halen spoonful of salt
potaid o ddŵr a pot of water
potelaid o ddŵr bottle of water
sosbanaid o a saucepan full of
tyaid o blant houseful of children

In the north, normalment -aid > -ied (North-east) > -iad (North-west)
potaid (= potful) > potied / potiad


a i ddim <AA-i-DHIM> [ɑˑ ɪ ˡɪm] verb
A i ddim o ma (= ni af fi ddim oddi yma) I wont go from here, I wont leave here

ETYMOLOGY: (ni negative particle) + (af = I shall go) + (fi = I) + (ddim = not)


aiff <AIF> [aɪf] verb
colloquial form of the form = she, he will go
Does gen i ddim aiff amdanoch chi
Ive got nothing in your size, nothing thatll fit you (that will go around you)


yr Aifft
<ər-AIFT> [ər ˡaɪft] feminine noun

Eifftiwr Egyptian

adjective Eifftaidd Egyptian (people, country)

(noun and adjective) Eiffteg Egyptian (language)

rhoir Aifft ar dn (set Egypt on fire) set the Thames on fire = do something wonderful and remarkable which will come to everybodys attention (said of something unlikely to happen)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Aifft < Eifft < ˒ifft < *Eghifft < British *egipt- < Latin egyptus (= Egypt)


<AIL> [aɪl] (m), (adjective)
1 second
cyfeilio to second = give support to (a motion)
(cyf- prefix = together, eil- < ail = second, -io verbal suffix)

2 semblance, likeness, counterpart
Welas i moi hail hi rioed! Ive not seen anybody like her ever before!

3 yr ail orau second best
bodloni ar yr ail orau settle for second best

4 nid oes ail i there's nothing that can compare with

5 am yn ail (+ noun) very second...
am yn ail ddydd Iau every second Thursday, every other Thursday

am yn ail (adverb) alternately, in turn
chwerthin a llefain
am yn ail laughing and crying one after the other

am yn ail alternating with
yfed diodydd di-alcohol
am yn ail diodydd alcoholig
alternating alcoholic drinks with non-alcoholic drinks

Mae'r ddogfen hon yn ddwyieithog gyda thudalennau
am yn ail yn y Gymraeg a Saesneg This document is bilingual with alternate pages in Welsh and in English

6 bob yn ail (+ noun) very second...

bob yn ail ddydd Iau every second Thursday, every other Thursday

cael ei gyhoedd bob yn ail fis be published every two weeks

bob yn ail (adverb) alternatively, in turn

Ar l llifior boncyff, fe welid cylchoedd amlwg yn y pren, rhai

tywyll a golau
bob yn ail After sawing the tree trunk, distinct rings were to be seen, dark ones alternating with light ones

7 bob yn ail (+ noun) very second...
bob yn ail ddydd Iau every second Thursday, every other Thursday

cael ei gyhoedd bob yn ail fis be published every two weeks

ar yn ail (adverb) alternatively, in turn

Canwyd rhai penillion yn Sbaeneg ac yn y Gymraeg
ar yn ail
Some verses were sung alternately in Castilian and in Welsh

Trechwyd y Sais gan y Cymro, am y rheswm, fe ddywedir, fod Thomas Dafydd yn gallu taro ar yn ail r llaw chwith pan fyddai y llaw ddeheu wedi blino. The Englishman was beaten by the Welshman because, it is said, that Thomas Dafydd could strike alternatively with the left hand when the right hand was tired

8 gorfod derbyn yr
ail orau have to take second best, have to make do with second best
son < second, like, similar to

9 heb ei hail = incomparable, be far ahead of any other (without his second)
Crydd heb ei ail oedd Sam yn ol barn ei gwsmeriaid
Sam was a shoemaker who far outshone any other, the opinion of his customers Other shoemakers werent a patch on Sam in the opinion of his customers

10 (obsolete) son < second, like, similar to
Dylan Ail Don = Dylan son of the wave - sea god in the 'Mabinogi'.
..a/ Dylan < dylanw (dy- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (llanw = tide)
..b/ ail = second; in older Welsh, used with the sense of son
..c/ + soft mutation + Ton = sea

11 am yr eildro per segona vegada

12 the second (of a prince / primcess / king / queen etc with the same name as a previous monarch)
Ar Ragfyr 11 ryn ni'n dathlu Dydd Gŵyl
Llywelyn yr Ail
On December the eleventh we celebrate the festival of Llywelyn II

ETYMOLOGY: Celtic *aljos
Gaulish al- (= other); Breton eil, Irish eile (= other)
The same as Latin alius (= other)


<AIL> [aɪl] (m)
(obsolete) son < second, like, similar to
Dylan Ail Don a sea god in the 'Mabinogi'
Dylan son of Wave / son of Sea

..a/ Dylan literally great tide < dylanw (dy- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (llanw = tide)
..b/ ail = second; used as a noun in older Welsh, with the sense of son
..c/ + soft mutation + ton (= sea)


<ail-A-drodh> [aɪlˡadrɔ] verb


<ail-AA-gor> [aɪlˡ ɑˑgɔr] verb


ailargraffiad, PLURAL: ailargraffiadau
<ail-ar-GRAF-yad, ail-ar-graf-YAA-dai, -e> [aɪlarˡgrafjad, aɪlargrafˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun


ail A sho verb reset (a broken bone)


ail DHEKH re verb
recommence, begin again


ail DHO sparth adjective


aildhə-vod-yad masculine noun
PLURAL ailddyfodiadau
return, reappearance

Yr Ailddyfodiad the Second Coming, the Second Advent, the return of Jesus Christ to the world according to Christian belief

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (dyfodiad = coming)


aildroedio ail- droid -yo verb
walk again
aildroedior un llwybr retrace ones steps, go back the way one has come (retread the same path)

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (troedio = tread, walk)


ail VE dhul verb
rethink, think again


ail vo-dee-li verb
(building) remodel, refurbish
Yn ystod yr hydref eleni ailfodelwyd Siop y Siswrn
this autumn (the shop called) Siop y Siswrn has been remodelled

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = re-) + soft mutation + (modelu = to model, to shape)


ail- vaa -gi verb
ailfagu archwaeth regain ones appetite

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = re-, a second time ) + soft mutation + (magu = to raise, to develop, to produce)


ailviu-o-kaad masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (ailfywiog-, stem of ailfywiocu reanimate, revive) + (-had suffix for forming nouns)


ailviu-o-kai verb

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = re-) + soft mutation + (bywiog = lively) + (-hau suffix for forming nouns from adjectives)


ail gar TRE vi verb


ailgla-vəkh-yad masculine noun
PLURAL ailglafychiadau
ailgla-vəkh- yaa-de

ETYMOLOGY: (ailglafych- stem of the verb ailglafychu = suffer a relapse) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)


ailgla--khi verb
suffer a relapse

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = re-, for a second time) + soft mutation + (clafychu = fall ill)


ail gə va NHE dhi verb


ail hə FORDH yant verb


ail law
ail LAU adjective


ail orau
ail oo-re adjective
second best, good but not of the highest quality

Rhoddodd ei ffrog ail orau amdani
She but on her second-best frock

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = second) + soft mutation + (gorau = best)


ail wei -ledh m
(Medecina) relapse = deterioration in the health of a sick person after an improvement

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = second) + soft mutation + (gwaeledd = sickness)


ail wei -li m
(Medicine) relapse = (health) deteriorate after an improvement

ETYMOLOGY: (ail = second) + soft mutation + (gwaeledd = become sick)


+aing Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gaing = chisel, wedge


+air Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gair = word


aich feminine noun
PLURAL aitshus
ai -chis
name of the letter aich (H, h)
collich aitsh drop your hs (not pronounce an h which is present in the standard language; a feature of the
COLLOQUIAL WELSH of south-east Wales)

name of the letter aich (H) as the initial letter of a name

John Herbert Jones (Je Aitsh) a wnaeth waith mor nodweddiadol fel golygydd Y Brython
John Herbert Jones (J H) who did a notable job as editor of (the magazine) Y Brython

ETYMOLOGY: from English aich, from the French name of the letter (modern French = ache


a laddo a leddir
aa laa dho aa lee-dhir -
he who lives by the sword will die by the sword

ETYMOLOGY: (a = (it is) the person who) + soft mutation + (laddo = kills, third person singular subjunctive of lladd = to kill) + (a (who is) the person who) + soft mutation + (lleddir it / she / he is killed / will be killed, impersonal form of the


ala aA-la (f)
Yr Ala name of a street in Pwllheli


ala fowlia a-la voul -ya
bowling alley, skittle alley
The modern expression for a bowling alley is alai fowlio (also as ala / ale / ali fowlio)
In Dinbych there is a street called Parc Alafowlia (Post Code LL16 3HZ)

ETYMOLOGY: (ala = alley) + soft mutation + (bowlia, a form of bowliau = bowls, plural of bowl = bowl)


+alanas Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galanas =


+alanastra Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galanastra =


+alar Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galar =


alarch, PLURAL: elyrch/alarchod
A larkh, E lirkh / a LAR khod masculine noun

golchi traed alarch try to do the impossible (wash (the) feet (of) (a) swan)

3 Cwmalarch name of a street in Aberpennar (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
(Cwm Alarch on maps)
cwm yr alarch (the) valley (of) the swan

Alarch Dof Cygnus olor Mute swan (= tame swan)

Alarch Du Cygnus atratus Black swan (Australia,and introduced in New Zealand to replace an extinct native black swan Cygnus (atratus) sumnerensis) (= black swan)

Alarch Gyddfddu Cygnus melanocoryphus Black-necked swan (South America) (= black-necked swan)

Alarch y Gogledd Cygnus cygnus Whooper swan (migrates to temperate Europe and Asia in winter, breeds in Iceland and subarctic Europes and Europe and Asia) (= sawn (of) the north)

Alarch Utganol Cygnus buccinator Trumpeter swan (North America) (= trumpeting swan)

Alarch Chwibanol, Cygnus (columbianus) columbianus Whistling swan (small northern North America) (= whistling swan)

Alarch Bewick Cygnus (columbianus) bewickii Bewicks swan a Eurasian bird similar to the North American whistling swan which migrates from Arctic Russia in the winter to western Europe and eastern Asia (Japan, China) (= swan (of) Bewick)


+alarnad Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galarnad =


+alaru Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galaru =


+alarus Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galarus =


alaw, PLURAL: alawon
A lau, a LAU on feminine noun


alaw werin, PLURAL: alawon gwerin
a lau WE rin, a LAU on GWE rin feminine noun
folk song


Yr Alban
ər al -ban feminine noun
Eglwys Esgobol yr Alban Church of Scotland (episcopal church of Scotland)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
Scottish Alba (= Scotland)


Albaneg al BA neg feminine noun


al BAN ya feminine noun


lbatros, PLURAL: albatrosiaid
AL ba tros, Al ba TROS yed masculine noun


alcam al -kam masculine noun
tin = metal
gwaith alcam stannary, tin mine, tinworks
NOTE: also alcan (influenced by the word can = white)

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English alcamy (= tin)


lcohol AL ko hol masculine noun


al-ko- hoo -ledh adjective
Dywedodd y meddyg wrth y claf alcoholaidd fod hwisgi yn niweidiol iddo
The doctor said to the alcoholic patient that whisky was harmful to him

ETYMOLOGY: (alcohol = alcohol) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


al-ko- hoo-lig m
PLURAL alcoholigion, alcoholics
al-ko-ho- lig-yon, al-ko- hoo-liks
alcoholic = person addicted to alcohol
Alcoholigion Anhysbys Alcoholics Anonymous
plentyn bychan ac alcoholig o fam a small child with an alcoholic mother

ETYMOLOGY: English alcoholic, with change of final c to g


aa-led feminine noun
SH9260 Afon Aled river in the county of Conwy
Dyffryn Aled the valley of the river Aled Dyffryn Aled

2 Until its abolition in 1974, name of an administrative district (rural district) in the county of Dinbych
Dosbarth Gwledig Aled Aled Rural District

Is Aled
iis aa-led History neighbourhood (cwmwd) of the hundred (cantref) of Rhufoniog (in the country of Gwynedd Is Conwy) place on this side of the river Aled (is = lower; below ) + (Aled)

Uwch Aled
iukh aa-led History neighbourhood (cwmwd) of the hundred (cantref) of Rhufoniog (in the country of Gwynedd Is Conwy) place on the other side of the river Aled (uwch = higher; above, beyond) + (Aled)

Llyn Aled
lhin aa-led SH9157 lake south of the village of Llansannan, in the county of Conwy (llyn = lake)

Bro Aled
broo aa-led the area around Llansannan, a village in the county of Conwy on the river Aled
Eisteddfod Bro Aled, Llansannan, Dydd Sadwrn Hydref 20fed 2001
Eisteddfod of Bro Aled, (in the village of) Llansannan, 20 Octuber 2001

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish Aled in the place name: Lannaled (English name = Saint Germans)


A led masculine noun
mans name (from the river name)


+alfanedig Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galfanedig = galvanised


+alfaneiddio Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galfaneiddio = to galvanise


al-ga masculine noun
algu algae = unicellular or multicellular freshwater or saltwater plants

Mae algu gwyrddlas yn wenwynig ywr neges ar arwyddion o gwmpas y llyn
Green algae is poisonous is the message on signs around the lake

ETYMOLOGY: English alga < Latin, of unknown origin


+all Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gall = he / she / it can


alh prefix

allfudo (qv) emigrate
allfwrw (qv) exorcise

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh all- < British *all- < Celtic *all-
From the same Celtic root: Irish all- (allrach = stranger)

Cf Greek allos (= other, differen)t, and specialist words in many languages coined with Greek elements as in English allotropy, allomorph, allophone, etc


+alla Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galla > gallaf = I can


+allaf Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gallaf = I can


+alla i ddim
aa-lhai dhim verb
I cant
Alla i ddim deall eich meddwl chi I dont know what youre getting at, what you mean, what you want to say (I cant understand your mind)

Alla i moi wneud I cant do it

ETYMOLOGY: literary form ni allaf (ni = negative particle) + soft mutation + (gallaf = I can); colloquial form alla i ddim, with the loss of the particle ni, and the final f
v of gallaf, and the addition of (i = I) + (ddim = not). Before a possessive determiner (my, your, her. his, its, etc) , ddim o (= nothing of) > mo

NOTE: Colloquially, in rapid speech, there is a tendency
for the first syllable to be dropped lla i ddim


+alla i mo...
a-lhai moo... verb
I cant + verb + direct object
alla i moi ddeall (matter, situation maesculine noun) I cant figure it out, I just dont get it; (person) I cant understand him

ETYMOLOGY: (literary form) ni allaf ei ddeall not I-can its understanding > (basis of the colloquial form) ni allaf fi ddim oi ddeall not I-can I anything of its understanding > (colloquial form) alla i mo ddeall


+alla i yn fy myw
a-lhai ən və miu verb
I can't for the life of me

Alla i yn fy myw weld beth ydi'r dileit mewn rhedeg dros chwe milltir ar hugain mewn cylch
I cant for the life of me see what the fun is in running over twenty-six miles in a circle
NOTE: More colloquially, y instead of fy yn y myw


alh a- lei -thol adjective
extragalactic = from outside the galaxy

ETYMOLOGY: (all-, prefix = outside) + soft mutation + (morio = galactic)


<A-lhan> [ˡaɬan] (adverb)

y tu allan i
ə tii A lla ni (preposition) outside
y tu allan ir ty outside the house

o hyn allan
from now on, henceforward
(o = from) + (hyn this (time)) + (allan = out)

(a) rhedeg allan run out
(South) rhedeg maas

(b) (commodity) rhedeg allan run out
(South) rhedeg maas
Maer llaeth wedi rhedeg allan The milks run out

(c) rhedeg allan o rywbeth run out of something
(South) rhedeg maas o rywbeth
Ryn ni wedi rydeg maas o de Weve run out of tea

codi allan
..1/ (North Wales) be out and about after an illness
..2/ turn out = come out of one's house, go onto the stret (to see a procession, etc)
Mi glywson ni'r 'band' yn y dre heddiw. Yr oedd yno gantoedd o bobl wedi codi allan i'w clywed nhw
We heard the band in the town today. Hundreds of people had turned out to listen to them

6 dod allan ohoni get out of a difficulty (get out of it)

7 (North Wales) dysgu allan learn off by heart; learn Bible verses off by heart
Addysgid y plant i ddarllen y Beibl Cymraeg a
dysgu allan Gatecism yr Eglwys The children were taught to read the Welsh Bible and learn by heart the Church (of England) Catechism

Sticker in a book advertised for sale on ebay, 2005-12-29 (Cyfres Ffynnon Loew / Hau a Medi sef nifer o hanesion dyddorol ac addysgiadol i blant ac eraill. Gan Edward Thomas, Llanrhaiadr. Hughes a'i Fab, Cyhoeddwyr, Gwrecsam, 1908):

"Ysgol Sabothol, Milner Road. - Cyflwynedig i Gwladys Owen am ffyddlondeb a dysgu allan. 1913. H. Trevor Williams. Ysg."
Sunday School, Milner Road:
this book was Presented to Gwladys Owen for regular attendance and for learning Bible verses by heart. 1913. H. Trevor Williams. Secretary."


allanfa, PLURAL: allanfydd
a LHAN va, a lhan VEIDH feminine noun

allanfa dn, alllanfydd tn fire exit (sometimes seen on signs as allanfa tn, but this is incorrect)

ETYMOLOGY: (allan = outside) + (-fa suffix, = place)


a- lhaa -nol adjective
exterior, outside, external; situated on the outside

2 trwydded allanol off licence = a permit which allows a shop to sell alcohol if it is taken away for consumption; a shop with this permit

cylch allanol outer circle

yn allanol - outwardly, on the face of it; in the eyes of the public
mi roedd hithan ddynas neis iawn yn allanol she was a very nice woman outwardly
ymddangos yn allanol yn gwbl hyderus appear outwardly very confident

(patient) not staying in a hospital
claf allanol outpatient
cleifion allanol outpatients
(Sign) Cleifion Allanol Outpatients, Outpatients Department
adran y cleifion allanol the outpatients department

barnu (rhywun) ar yr olwg allanol judge (somebody) by his appearance (judge (somebody) on the external appearance)

ETYMOLOGY: (allan = out) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


alh -daith feminine noun
PLURAL alldeithiau
alh- deith -ye
expedition; See alltaith


alh- dhoo-din masculine noun
PLURAL allddodion
alh- dhod-yon
substitute, substance which takes the place of another
allddodyn siwgr sugar substitute

ETYMOLOGY: (alldod-, stem of the verb allddodi = substitute) + (-yn, suffix)


allech chi
allech chi...? could you..? (requesting a favour)
Allech chi ddangos imir ffordd ir orsaf? Could you show me the way to the station?

2 could you? would you be able to?

could you? were you able to?

ETYMOLOGY: a allech chi

(a interrogative particle) + soft mutation + (gallech = you could) + (chi = you) (in
COLLOQUIAL WELSH the particle a is dropped but the mutation remains)

allech chi ddim
a-lhekh khii dhim verb
you couldnt, you could not, you would not be able to
you couldnt, you could not, you werent able to

ETYMOLOGY: a allech chi (a interrogative particle) + soft mutation + (gallech = you could) + (chi = you) (in
COLLOQUIAL WELSH the particle a is dropped but the mutation remains)


alh-vor-yo verb
export = send goods to another country
toll allforio export duty

ETYMOLOGY: (allfor-, stem of the verb allforio = to export) + (-io, suffix for forming nouns)


alh- vor-yon plural noun
allforion anweledig = invisible exports, exports of services and payment abroad of incomes

ETYMOLOGY: (allfor-, stem of the verb allforio = to export) + (-io, suffix for forming nouns)


ALH-vro feminine noun
PLURAL allfroydd
(poetic) foreign land

2 masculine noun foreigner
a phob un or trigolion bron, boed frodor neu allfro...
and every one of the inhabitants, whether native or foreigner...

ETYMOLOGY: (all- prefix = out) + soft mutation + (bro = land);

Cf Gaulish allo-brog-es, name of a Gaulish tribe


alh- vid -yad masculine noun
PLURAL allfudiadau
alh-vid- yaa -de
outmigration, emigration

ETYMOLOGY: (allfud-, stem of the verb allfudo = emigrate) + (-i-ad suffix for forming nouns)


alh- vii -do verb

ETYMOLOGY: (all-, prefix = outside) + soft mutation + (mudo = move, move house)


alh- vii -dir masculine noun
PLURAL allfudwyr
alh- vid -wir

ETYMOLOGY: (allfud-, stem of the verb allfudo = emigrate) + soft mutation + (gwr = man)


alh- vur -yad masculine noun
PLURAL allfwriadau

ETYMOLOGY: (allfwr-i- stem of the verb allfwrw = exorcise) + (-i-ad suffix for forming nouns)


alh- vur -yur masculine noun
PLURAL allfwrwyr
alh- vur -wir

ETYMOLOGY: (allfwr-i- stem of the verb allfwrw = exorcise) + soft mutation + (gwr = man)


alh-VUU-ru verb

ETYMOLOGY: (all-, prefix = outside) + soft mutation + (bwrw = throw)


allor, PLURAL: allorau
A-lhor, a-LHOO-rai, -e feminine noun


allt, PLURAL: elltydd
ALHT, ELH tidh feminine noun

Y Felallt
Y Fēlăllt (SJ5458) Welsh name for the village of Beeston, Cheshire, England; 4km south of Tarporley
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (melallt = honey hill):
(ml = honey) + (allt = hill)

3 Rallt place name. This is Y Rallt, a wrong division of Yr Allt (= the hill) with the loss of the definite article

Pen-rallt / Pĕn-răllt (qv) (the top of the hill) place name and street name


Pen-rallt Fach SN1942 Farm in Cilgerran (Penfro) (Penrallt Fach)

Pen-rallt Hywel SN1841 Farm in Cilgerran (Penfro) (Penrallt Howel)


Pen-rallt SH6343 Farm by Croesor, Gwynedd (Penrallt)


Penrallt SH3735 district of Pwllheli (Gwynedd)


Y Rallt SS5294

Farm south-west of Llanmorlais, Abertawe



Rallt-goch /
Răllt-gōch (Rallt Goch) (the red hill) name of a street in Llanberis (county of Gwynedd)


Tan-rallt house name (below the hill)


In the South allt has been mistaken for a soft-mutated form, and a radical form gallt is used (and it has developed the additional meaing of wood; wood on a hillside)

moelallt <MOIL-alht> [ˡmɔɪlaɬt] bare hill

(moel = bare, treeless) + (allt = hill)
There is a Pen Moelallt SO0009 (Penmoelallt) north-west of Cefncoedycymer

(the) peak (of) (the hill called) Moelallt Pen Moelallt

See Allteisteddfod, Alltwalis, Allt-y-gog

5 garwallt
<GAR-wallt> [ˡgarwaɬt] rough hill

(garw = rough) + (allt = hill)

Yr Arwallt the rough hill SO3318, south of Llanfihangel Crucornau (Mynwy)

(on the Ordnance Survey map as The Arwallt)


alh -taith feminine noun
PLURAL allteithiau
alh- teith -ye
expedition = organised journey for military purposes

arweinydd yr alltaith Seisnig anfonwyd i Gymru i geisio darganfod Owain Glyndwr
the leader of the English expedition sent to Wales to try and find Owain Glyndwr

ETYMOLOGY: (all- = ex, outside) + soft mutation + (taith = journey) > alldaith > alltaith


alht- ei- stedh -vod
1 street name, Gwynfryn, county of Wrecsam (Allt Eisteddfod)

ETYMOLOGY: allt yr eisteddfod (the) hill (of) the eisteddfod


Yr Allt-goch
ər alht GOOKH
1 house west of Biwmaris / Beaumaris (On Ordnance Survey map as Red House) map

RED HILL (YR ALLT GOCH). To those who love the shade in the blaze at noon, the foot-way to the Red Hill will be found a complete Ruraliathe centre of a Westphalian forest, where every object but foliage is excluded.

Beaumaris Bay: The Shores of the Menai, and the Interior of Snowdonia; Scenery Unrivalled in its Comprehensive Variety, The Interesting Objects which it includes, and the Sublime Prominence of its Features. Richard Llwyd. 1832

ETYMOLOGY: the red hill (yr definite article, the) + (allt = hill) + soft mutation + (coch = red)


alh -tid adjective

Cymry alltud Welsh people in exile, those from Wales who have left their country to seek a living elsewhere, especially outside the island of Britain

banned, banished
oherwydd ei gamweddau mae ef yn alltud o neuadd y pentre
because of his transgressions he is banned from the village hall

gair alltud a foreign word

ETYMOLOGY: See alltud (noun)


alh -tid masculine and feminine noun
PLURAL alltudion
obsolete foreigner, alien, non-tribesman

exile = a person forced to abandon her or his country for political reasons

exile = a person who has left her or his country to make a better living

troin alltud become an exile

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh alltud < all-dud (all- = out) + soft mutation + (tud = people) < British *allo-touto


alh TID yo verb
to exile, to send into exile
ymalltudio go into exile (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (alltudio = to exile)


alht-wa -lis
SN4431 hamlet 12km north of the town of Caerfyrddin (county of Caerfyrddin)

rhegir maer ar ben Alltwalis criticise from a safe distance (swear at the mayor (of Caerfyrddin) on top of (the hill called) Alltwalis) Yr Ysgol Gynradd / The Primary School

ETYMOLOGY:(allt = hill, wood) + ??


alht ə goog
street name in the town of Caerfyrddin

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hill / wood (of) the cuckoo

(allt = hill / wood) + (
y definite article) + soft mutation + (cog = cuckoo)


+allu Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gallu =


+alluog Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galluog =


+alluogi Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See galluogi =


+allwch chi ddim
aa-lhukh khii dhim verb
you cant
Allwch chi ddim gwrthod ei gynnig You cant refuse his offer

ETYMOLOGY: literary form ni allwch (ni = negative particle) + soft mutation + (gallwch = you can); colloquial form allwch chi ddim, with the loss of the particle ni and the addition of (chi = you ) + (ddim = not)


allwedd, PLURAL: alweddau
ALH wedh, alh WE dhe feminine noun

2 allwedd Mair ashkey = winged seed of an ash tree ((the) key (of) (the Virgin) Mary)
Allwedd pob cist yw cwrw In vino veritas ((it-is) (the) key (of) every chest that-is beer, beer is the key to every chest)



Yr Almaen, PLURAL:
ə RAL main feminine noun


al MEI nedh adjective


al MEI neg f,adj
German (language)


al MEI nes feminine noun
German woman


Almaenwr, PLURAL: Almaenwyr
al MEI nur, al NEIN wir masculine noun
German (man)


al MEIN wir plural noun
German people


Alosa alosa
1 herlyn (m), herlynod allis shad


Alosa fallax
1 gwangen (m), gwangod twaite shad


Alpau, PLURAL: Yr
ə RAL pe plural noun
The Alps
helygen yr Alpau (Salix hegetschwei