A short article in Welsh from 1896 with an English translation in which a Welsh settler gives an account of his arrival in Racine, Wisconsin in the year 1849. "After resting a day or two we became keen to go to Caledonia... After resting a night in Portage, we went on for a distance of five miles till we reached Caledonia, where a few Welshmen had already bought land..." 1052k

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Dechrau Byw Mewn Gwlad Newydd

Beginning Life in a New Country - translation of an article written in 1896 by a Welsh pioneer who arrived in Wisconsin in 1849


(delw 7375)

 

1276k - Y tudalen hwn yn Gymraeg yn unig




TWO PARTS - (1) TEXT AND TRANSLATION; (2) grammatical notes

 

PART 1: THE TEXT

We have split it into fifteen sections.

Grey letters - the article with the original orthography, as it appeared in 1896
Bold black letters - modern orthography, which is slightly different in a few words
Blue letters - the English translation

PART 2: GRAMMATICAL NOTES
The article (or at least, eight out of fifteen sections) is examined word by word


(1)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Dechreu Byw Mewn Gwlad Newydd
Gan E. E. Jones, Genesee Depot, Wisconsin.
Y Teulu, Tachwedd 28 1896. O'r Drych .


(MODERN SPELLING) Dechrau Byw Mewn Gwlad Newydd
Gan E. E. Jones, Genesee Depot, Wisconsin.
Y Teulu, Tachwedd 28 1896. O'r Drych


Beginning Life in a New Country. By E. E. Jones, Genesee Depot, Wisconsin. Y Teulu (The Family magazine name)
28 November 1896. From Y Drych.
(Note: The article was reprinted in Wales from The American Welsh-language paper Y Drych ("the mirror"))

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(2)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Yr wyf lawer gwaith wedi meddwl rhoddi ychydig o hanes dechreu byw mewn gwlad newydd, sef yn Wisconsin, agos i hanner can mlynedd yn ol. Yn mis Mehefin, 1849, cyraeddais i a'm priod a brawd hy^n na mi i Racine, lle yr oedd chwaer i mi yn byw, sef gwraig John Ellis, Skunk Grove.


(MODERN SPELLING) Yr wyf lawer gwaith wedi meddwl rhoddi ychydig o hanes dechrau byw mewn gwlad newydd, sef yn Wisconsin, agos i hanner can mlynedd yn ol. Yn mis Mehefin, 1849, cyrhaeddais i a'm priod a brawd hy^n na mi i Racine, lle yr oedd chwaer i mi yn byw, sef gwraig John Ellis, Skunk Grove.


I've often thought of giving a brief account of beginning life in a new country, namely in Wisconsin, nearly fifty years ago. In June, 1849, I arrived in Racine with my wife and an elder brother, where a sister of mine was living, namely the wife of John Ellis, Skunk Grove

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(3)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Ar ol gorphwys diwrnod neu ddau daethom yn awyddus i fyned i Caledonia, i edrych am deulu H. Roberts o Dalaeth New York, ac i edrych allan am fferm; ond yr unig ffordd i deithio y pryd hwnw ydoedd cyflogi gwedd neu gerdded yno. Nid oedd genym arian i logi cerbyd, ac felly ar ein traed y cychwynais i a'm brawd. Erbyn cyrhaedd Portage yr oeddwn i wedi blino; ond yr oedd fy mrawd yn fwy gwydn na mi i gerdded.


(MODERN SPELLING) Ar ol gorffwys diwrnod neu ddau daethom yn awyddus i fyned i Caledonia, i edrych am deulu H. Roberts o Dalaith New York, ac i edrych allan am fferm; ond yr unig ffordd i deithio y pryd hwnnw ydoedd cyflogi gwedd neu gerdded yno. Nid oedd gennym arian i logi cerbyd, ac felly ar ein traed y cychwynnais i a'm brawd. Erbyn cyrraedd Portage yr oeddwn i wedi blino; ond yr oedd fy mrawd yn fwy gwydn na mi i gerdded.


After resting a day or two we became keen to go to Caledonia, to call on the family of H. Roberts of New York State and to look out for a farm; but the only way to travel at that time was to hire an ox-cart or to walk there. We had no money to hire a cart, an so I set off on foot with my brother. By the time we reached Portage we were tired; but my brother was tougher walker than me

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(4)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Ar ol gorphwys noson yn Portage, aethom ymlaen bellder o bum' milldir nes cyrhaedd Caledonia, lle yr oedd ychydig o Gymry eisoes wedi prynu tir; a phan ddeallodd y cyfryw fod arnaf finnau eisieu tyddyn, dyna lle yr oeddynt yn dangos ac yn denu nes y llwyddasant.


(MODERN SPELLING) Ar l gorffwys noson yn Portage, aethom ymlaen bellter o bum milltir nes cyrraedd Caledonia, lle yr oedd ychydig o Gymry eisoes wedi prynu tir; a phan ddeallodd y cyfryw fod arnaf finnau eisiau tyddyn, dyna lle yr oeddynt yn dangos ac yn denu nes y llwyddasant.


After resting a night in Portage, we went on for a distance of five miles till we reached Caledonia, where a few Welshmen had already bought land, and when they understood that I needed a smallholding, they showed me around and enticed me until they succeeded

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(5)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Yr oedd genyf 'land warrant', a chefais 160 o erwau o dir y llywodraeth, a phrynais 80 o erwau am $1.25 yr erw, nes oedd genyf fferm fawr o dir gwyllt; ond yr oedd yn costio agos i $20 yr erw am grybio ac aredig. Dyna olwg am ddigon o waith onide?


(MODERN SPELLING) Yr oedd gennyf 'land warrant', a chefais 160 o erwau o dir y llywodraeth, a phrynais 80 o erwau am $1.25 yr erw, nes oedd gennyf fferm fawr o dir gwyllt; ond yr oedd yn costio agos i $20 yr erw am grybio ac aredig. Dyna olwg am ddigon o waith onide?


I had a land warrant, and I got 160 acres of government land, and I bought 80 acres for $1.25 an acre, until I had a big farm with uncleared land, but it was costing me nearly $20 an acre to grub and plough. What a prospect for plenty of work, eh?

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(6)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Wel, y peth nesaf oedd cael y wraig a'r baban ar y fferm; ac nid oedd dim i'w wneyd ond ei throedio hi yn ol i Racine, a llogi gwedd yno i'w cludo i Caledonia, lle y cyrhaeddasom erbyn canol Gorphenaf. Nid oedd genyf yn fy meddiant ond tua $5.00, ac heb un math o dy i roddi fy nheulu bach ynddo. Yn ein cyfyngder cawsom addewid gan H. Roberts o ystabl log i fyw, nes gallem gael digon o amser i godi ty log. Hefyd cawsom addewid i lusgo y logiau at eu gilydd, pan fuasent yn barod.


(MODERN SPELLING) Wel, y peth nesaf oedd cael y wraig a'r baban ar y fferm; ac nid oedd dim i'w wneyd ond ei throedio hi yn l i Racine, a llogi gwedd yno i'w cludo i Caledonia, lle y cyraeddasom erbyn canol Gorffennaf. Nid oedd gennyf yn fy meddiant ond tua $5.00, ac heb un math o dy i roddi fy nheulu bach ynddo. Yn ein cyfyngder cawsom addewid gan H. Roberts o ystabl log i fyw, nes gallem gael digon o amser i godi ty log. Hefyd cawsom addewid i lusgo y logiau at eu gilydd, pan fuasent yn barod


Well, the next thing was to get the wife and the baby on the farm, and there was nothing for it but to go back to Racine on foot, and to hire an ox cart to carry them to Caledonia, where we arrived towards mid-July. All I had to my name was $5, and no house of any kind to put my family in. In our hour of need we werre promised a log stable to live in by H. Roberts, so we could have enough time to build a log house. Also we had a promise to haul the logs together, when they were ready

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(7)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Y peth nesaf oedd edrych am le cyfaddas i godi ty. Yr oedd yno dri o fn fryniau, a thorais seler ar ben un ohonynt, fel y gallem fod yng ngolwg y ffordd, ond methodd yr ychain dynu y logiau i ben y bryn, felly yr oedd yn rhaid tori seler wrth waelod y bryn.


(MODERN SPELLING) Y peth nesaf oedd edrych am le cyfaddas i godi ty. Yr oedd yno dri o fn fryniau, a thorrais seler ar ben un ohonynt, fel y gallem fod yng ngolwg y ffordd, ond methodd yr ychain dynnu y logiau i ben y bryn, felly yr oedd yn rhaid torri seler wrth waelod y bryn


The next thing was to look for a suitable place for building a house. There were three small hills, and I dug a cellar on top of one of them, so that we could be in view of the road, but the oxen failed to draw the logs to the top of the hill, so I had to dig a cellar at the bottom of the hill

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(8)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Yna yr oedd yn rhaid cael cynnorthwy deg neu ddwsin o ddynion cryfion i godi y logiau, yr hyn gafwyd; ac yna prynais goed i wneyd llawr a llofft a tho gyda $150, a fenthycais gan fy mrawd ar log am chwe mlynedd. Nid oedd dim arall i'w wneyd ond benthyca gan fod yn anmhosibl cael gwaith yn nes na 30 milldir, ac nid oedd modd gadael fy nheulu bach i gymeryd eu siawns mewn gwlad newydd. Fel hyn gorphenais y ty fy hunan, gan fod genyf ychydig o arfau saer wedi eu prynu cyn cychwyn.


(MODERN SPELLING) Yna yr oedd yn rhaid cael cynorthwy deg neu ddwsin o ddynion cryfion i godi y logiau, yr hyn gafwyd; ac yna prynais goed i wneud llawr llofft tho gyda $150, a fenthycais gan fy mrawd ar log am chwe mlynedd. Nid oedd dim arall i'w wneud ond benthyca gan fod yn amhosibl cael gwaith yn nes na 30 milltir, ac nid oedd modd gadael fy nheulu bach i gymeryd eu siawns mewn gwlad newydd. Fel hyn gorffennais y ty fy hunan, gan fod gennyf ychydig o arfau saer wedi eu prynu cyn cychwyn


Then I had to get the help of ten or twelve strong men to lift the logs, and this was obtained; and then I bought wood to make a ground floor and an upstairs floor and a roof for $150, which I borrowed at interest from my brother for six years. There was no alternative but to borrow since it was impossible to find work within 30 miles, and there was no way I could leave my family to their luck in a new country. In this way I finished the house myself, since I had a few carpenter's tools which I had bought before setting out

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(9)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Wedi gorphen y ty log prynais fuwch dda a phr o ychain tair oed, wedi eu tori at waith; ac yr oedd genyf ychydig o arian yn weddill at fyw y flwyddyn gyntaf. Tra yn aros yn yr ystabl daeth "copper head" fawr rhwng y logiau i lawr at y baban i'r gwely, ond cipiodd y fam ei baban heb dderbyn niwed. Bu yr ychydig arfau a brynais o werth mawr hefyd i wneud dodrefn goreu y gallwn.


(MODERN SPELLING) Wedi gorffen y ty log prynais fuwch dda a phr o ychain tair oed, wedi eu torri at waith; ac yr oedd gennyf ychydig o arian yn weddill at fyw y flwyddyn gyntaf. Tra yn aros yn yr ystabl daeth "copper head" fawr rhwng y logiau i lawr at y baban i'r gwely, ond cipiodd y fam ei baban heb dderbyn niwed. Bu yr ychydig arfau a brynais o werth mawr hefyd i wneud dodrefn goreu y gallwn.


After finishing the log house I bought a good house and a pair of three-year-old oxen, broken in for working, and I had a bit of money over for living on in the first years. While staying in the stable a big 'copper head' between the logs down to the baby in the bed, but the mother snatched up her baby without it being harmed. The few tools I'd bought were a great help too to make furniture as best I could

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(10)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Cymerais goed a gwnes brenau gwely, gan ddefnyddio cortyn yn waelod iddo; yna lluniais fwrdd plaen gyda phlanciau, a hanner dwsin o gadeiriau a chadair siglo. Yr oedd genym stove a llestri yn bur dda, ac hefyd ddilladau. Erbyn Hydref 1849, yr oedd genym dair erw o dir wedi ei aredig; a rhwng pob peth daethom i deimlo yn weddol hapus, er fod eisieu llawer o bethau ereill i fod yn gysurus, megys gwagen, aradr, ac g.

(MODERN SPELLING) Cymerais goed a gwnes brennau gwely, gan ddefnyddio cortyn yn waelod iddo; yna lluniais fwrdd plaen gyda phlanciau, a hanner dwsin o gadeiriau a chadair siglo. Yr oedd gennym stove a llestri yn bur dda, ac hefyd ddilladau. Erbyn Hydref 1849, yr oedd gennym dair erw o dir wedi ei aredig; a rhwng pob peth daethom i deimlo yn weddol hapus, er fod eisiau llawer o bethau eraill i fod yn gysurus, megis gwagen, aradr, ac og.


I took some wood and made a bedstead, using cord for the base; then I fashioned a plain table with planks, and half a dozen chairs and a rocking chair. We had a stove and a sufficient quantity of plates and bowls, and also clothes. By October 1894 we had three acres of land ploughed, and all in all we came to feel quite happy, although we needed a lot of other things needed to be comfortable, such as a wagon, a plough, etc

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(11)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Erbyn y gwanwyn gwnaethum g i lyfnu y tair erw, a thelais $1.50 i ddyn am lifio pedair olwyn o bren trwchus. Tyllais hwy, a gwnes ddwy echel a bocs gyda lle i ddau eistedd - yna yr oedd y cwbl yn barod i fachu yr ychain wrthi.


(MODERN SPELLING) Erbyn y gwanwyn gwneuthum g i lyfnu y tair erw, a thelais $1.50 i ddyn am lifio pedair olwyn o bren trwchus. Tyllais hwy, a gwnes ddwy echel a bocs gyda lle i ddau eistedd - yna yr oedd y cwbl yn barod i fachu yr ychain wrthi.


For spring we made a harrow to harrow the three acres, and I paid $1.50 to saw four wheels out of thick wood. I put holes in them and made two axles and a box with a place for two people to sit - then all was ready to hitch the oxen to it.

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(12)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Bu raid i'r wagen hono wneyd y tro i mi am bedair blynedd; yna gwerthais hi i Gymro gerllaw am $1.50. Bu hwnw drachefn yn ei defnyddio am dair blynedd, a gwerthodd hi i Ellmyn am $2. Go dda, onide?




(MODERN SPELLING) Bu raid i'r wagen honno wneud y tro i mi am bedair blynedd; yna gwerthais hi i Gymro gerllaw am $1.50. Bu hwnnw drachefn yn ei defnyddio am dair blynedd, a gwerthodd hi i Ellmyn am $2. Go dda, onide?


That wagon had to do me for four years; then I sold it to a Welshman living nearby for $1.50. He in turn used it for three years, and he sold it to Germans for $2. Not bad, eh?

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(13)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Pan ymsefydlais i yn Caledonia yn 1849 nid oedd yno yr un lle pwrpasol i addoli; ond yn sicr yr oedd yno addoli gwirioneddol er hyny, a rhyw naws nefolaidd yn cydfyned a gweddiau a phrofiadau yr hen frodyr a'r chwiorydd yn y moddion. Toc, cododd Cymry yr ardal ysgoldy logiau i gadw ysgol ddyddiol ac Ysgol Sabbothol, a phob moddion o ras; ac yr wyf yn cofio i ddau Gyfarfod Misol rhagorol gael eu cynnal yn yr hen adeilad hwnw.


(MODERN SPELLING) Pan ymsefydlais i yn Caledonia yn 1849 nid oedd yno yr un lle pwrpasol i addoli; ond yn sicr yr oedd yno addoli gwirioneddol er hynny, a rhyw naws nefolaidd yn cydfyned gweddiau a phrofiadau yr hen frodyr a'r chwiorydd yn y moddion. Toc, cododd Cymry yr ardal ysgoldy logiau i gadw ysgol ddyddiol ac Ysgol Sabbothol, a phob moddion o ras; ac yr wyf yn cofio i ddau Gyfarfod Misol rhagorol gael eu cynnal yn yr hen adeilad hwnnw.


When I settled in Caledonia in 1849 there was there no purpose-built place for worship; but certainly there was real worship in spite of that, and a kind of heavenly atmosphere which went with the prayers and the revelations of religious experience of the old brothers and sisters in the religious meetings. By and by, the Welsh of the district built a log schoolhouse to hold a day school and a Sunday School, and all religious meetings; and I remember two excellent Monthly Meetings being held in that old building.

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(14)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Buom ni fel teulu ugeiniau o weithiau yn myned yno yn yr hen wagen bren, a'r ddau ych yn ei thynu gan gnoi eu cil; ac os byddem yn brin o iraid, clywid yr hen wagen yn gwichian ei chalon hi, nes oeddym yn cael digon o fiwsig ar hyd y ffordd.
O! amser dedwydd oedd hi y pryd hwnw! Dim balchder neu gwag ymffrost yn blino neb!


(MODERN SPELLING) Buom ni fel teulu ugeiniau o weithiau yn myned yno yn yr hen wagen bren, a'r ddau ych yn ei thynu gan gnoi eu cil; ac os byddem yn brin o iraid, clywid yr hen wagen yn gwichian ei chalon hi, nes oeddym yn cael digon o fiwsig ar hyd y ffordd. O! amser dedwydd oedd hi y pryd hwnw! Dim balchder neu gwag ymffrost yn blino neb!


As a family we went there scores of time in the old wooden wagon, with the two oxen pulling it chewing their cud; and if we were short of grease, you'd hear the old wagon squeaking for all it was worth, so we had enough music along the road. Oh! that was a happy time! There was no pride or empty boasting to vex you

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(15)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Ond fe godwyd capel tua'r flwyddyn 1858 - os iawn y cofwyf. Cawsom lawer o oedfaon cysurus yn y capel hwnw; a chlywais lawer yn gwaeddi am faddeuant ac achubiaeth, yr hyn sydd yn dra dyeithr yn y dyddiau hyn. Codasom ail gapel yn yr ardal, ac yr oedd hwn yn tra rhagori ar y cyntaf. Codwyd hwn yn 1889; ac fe dalodd y bobl amdano, yn gystal ag am y lall, heb ofyn cent gan neb o'r tu allan i'r ardal.


(MODERN SPELLING) Ond fe godwyd capel tua'r flwyddyn 1858 - os iawn y cofiaf. Cawsom lawer o oedfaon cysurus yn y capel hwnnw; a chlywais lawer yn gweiddi am faddeuant ac achubiaeth, yr hyn sydd yn dra dieithr yn y dyddiau hyn. Codasom ail gapel yn yr ardal, ac yr oedd hwn yn tra rhagori ar y cyntaf. Codwyd hwn yn 1889; ac fe dalodd y bobl amdano, yn gystal ag am y lall, heb ofyn sent gan neb o'r tu allan i'r ardal.


But a chapel was built in the year 1858, if I remember rightly. We had many cheering services in that chapel, and I heard many shouting out for foregiveness and salvation, which these days is rather strange. We built a second chapel in the area, and this was far better than the first. It was built in 1889, and the people paid for it, as well as the other, without asking for a cent from anyone outside the area .

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PART 2

GRAMMATICAL NOTES

(2)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Yr wyf lawer gwaith wedi meddwl rhoddi ychydig o hanes dechreu byw mewn gwlad newydd, sef yn Wisconsin, agos i hanner can mlynedd yn ol. Yn mis Mehefin, 1849, cyraeddais i a'm priod a brawd hy^n na mi i Racine, lle yr oedd chwaer i mi yn byw, sef gwraig John Ellis, Skunk Grove.


(MODERN SPELLING) Yr wyf lawer gwaith wedi meddwl rhoddi ychydig o hanes dechrau byw mewn gwlad newydd, sef yn Wisconsin, agos i hanner can mlynedd yn l. Ym mis Mehefin, 1849, cyrhaeddais i a'm priod a brawd hy^n na mi i Racine, lle yr oedd chwaer i mi yn byw, sef gwraig John Ellis, Skunk Grove.



I've often thought of giving a brief account of beginning life in a new country, namely in Wisconsin, nearly fifty years ago. In June, 1849, I arrived in Racine with my wife and an elder brother, where a sister of mine was living, namely the wife of John Ellis, Skunk Grove

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Yr wyf = I am
The spoken form is based on yr wyf fi, which becomes rw i, or even w i.
(In the North, the spoken form is mi rydw i, or simply dw i, based on a variant literary form yr ydwyf fi)
llawer = many
gwaith (masculine) = work, but gwaith (feminine) = time, occasion
llawer gwaith = many a time. Used as an adverb, if it is not at the beginning of a sentence, it has soft mutation > lawer gwaith
meddwl
= thinking; to think
wedi = after
yr wyf wedi meddwl = I have thought (I am after thinking)
rhoddi = to give. In spoken Welsh the 'dd' has been dropped, to give rhoi
newydd
= new
gwlad (feminine) = country
gwlad newydd = new country
mewn
= in a
mewn gwlad newydd = in a new country
byw
= to live
dechrau = beginning; to begin
dechrau byw = to begin to live, to begin a new life; it also means 'to begin married life'
ychydig o
= a bit of
hanes (feminine) = story, history, account
sef = namely, that is
yn = in
agos = near
i = to
agos i = close on, nearly
cant = one hundred. Before a consonant it becomes can
blwyddyn
(feminine) = year
un = one. Before a feminine noun it causes soft mutation of the intial consonant
un flwyddyn = one year
blynedd = years (after a numeral)
tri (masculine), tair (feminine) = three
tair blynedd = two years
mlynedd = form of blynedd after certain numerals
can mlynedd = one hundred years
hanner cant = fifty ("half (a) hundred")
hanner can mlynedd = fifty years
l = trail, footprint
yn l = (direction) back ("in + trail", the idea being 'retracing one's footsteps')
mynd yn l
= going back; go back
yn l
(with expressions of time) = ago
hanner can mlynedd yn l = fifty years ago
Mehefin = June (the root is haf = summer, and me- is an obsolete element meaning 'half', as in English words of Latin origin mean, medium, median)
mis = month
mis Mehefin = (the) month (of) June
cyrraedd = arriving; to arrive (stem: cyrhaedd-)
fi [vii] = I, me
i = I, me; it is a form of fi used after verbs and prepositions
-ais verb ending, first-person singular simple past
cyrhaeddais, or cyrhaeddais i = I arrived
priod = spouse, husban, wife
fy = my. It causes the spirant mutation of c, p, t, g, b, d
fy mhriod = my wife
a = and
a + fy
becomes a'm = and my. There is no spirant mutation after 'm
a'm priod
= and my wife
brawd = brother, a brother (there is no indefinite article in Welsh)
hen = old
hyn = older
na = than
mi = me (form of fi after na = than, i = to, and some other words)
hyn na mi = older than me
i = to, but in some expressions it is equivalent to English in
cyrhaeddais i i Racine = I arrived in Racine
lle = place
yr oedd = there was
lle yr oedd = where there was
yn = linker, literally 'in'; links the verb bod 'to be' and a verb-noun: The idea of being 'in' an action is found in older English, where the form 'on' (meaning 'in') was used before a gerund, later becoming an obscire vowel [] but spelt 'a', and still used in dialect English. She's a-coming soon.
byw = living; to live. The verb in Welsh corresponds most closely to the English gerund (living). Since it can be used as a noun or a verb in Welsh, it is called a 'berfenw' in Welsh, in English a 'verb-noun', that is, a verb-cum-noun.
bod yn byw = to be living ('be in living')
chwaer = sister
chwaer i mi = a sister of mine ("a sister to me")
sef = namely
gwraig = wife
gwraig John Ellis = (the) wife (of) John Ellis. The practice after the annexation of Wales to England in 1536 has been to use English names as official names, an obligation of the English administration in Wales, rather as native American peoples have been obliged to do, although in a community a more native names would have been used (John would usually be Sin, and instead of the surname a farm name might be used, or the father's name, or a descriptive adjective, amongst other ways of qualifying a first name )

(3)

(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Ar ol gorphwys diwrnod neu ddau daethom yn awyddus i fyned i Caledonia, i edrych am deulu H. Roberts o Dalaeth New York, ac i edrych allan am fferm; ond yr unig ffordd i deithio y pryd hwnw ydoedd cyflogi gwedd neu gerdded yno. Nid oedd genym arian i logi cerbyd, ac felly ar ein traed y cychwynais i a'm brawd. Erbyn cyrhaedd Portage yr oeddwn i wedi blino; ond yr oedd fy mrawd yn fwy gwydn na mi i gerdded.



(MODERN SPELLING) Ar l gorffwys diwrnod neu ddau daethom yn awyddus i fyned i Caledonia, i edrych am deulu H. Roberts o Dalaith New York, ac i edrych allan am fferm; ond yr unig ffordd i deithio y pryd hwnnw ydoedd cyflogi gwedd neu gerdded yno. Nid oedd gennym arian i logi cerbyd, ac felly ar ein traed y cychwynnais i a'm brawd. Erbyn cyrraedd Portage yr oeddwn i wedi blino; ond yr oedd fy mrawd yn fwy gwydn na mi i gerdded.



After resting a day or two we became keen to go to Caledonia, to call on the family of H. Roberts of New York State and to look out for a farm; but the only way to travel at that time was to hire an ox-cart or to walk there. We had no money to hire a cart, an so I set off on foot with my brother. By the time we reached Portage we were tired; but my brother was tougher walker than me

__________________________________

l = trail
ar l ("on trail") = after
gorffwys = to rest
ar l gorffwys = after resting
diwrnod = day, a day
neu = or (cuases soft mutation of the follwing consonant)
dau = two
neu ddau = or two
dod = coming; to come
daethom = we came
awydd = desire, want, inclination
awyddus = desirous, keen
awyddus i = keen to
myned = going, to go; in spoken Welsh, and also nowadays in literary Welsh too, it is a monosyllable mynd
i
(preposition) = to, causes soft mutation
i fynd
= to go
i Caledonia = to Caledonia. One might expect i Galedonia, but before names of places which are not Welsh, generally there is no mutation after i.
teulu = family (etymologically, it corresponds to the two words in modern Welsh ty = house, llu = group of people)
edrych = to look

am = for, around. This preposition causes soft mutation
edrych am = to look for; or to call on, to visit (somebody)
teulu H. Roberts = (the) family (of) H. Roberts
teulu > deulu = soft-mutated form
talaith = province; state of the USA
o = from. This preposition causes soft mutation
For New York it is more usual nowadays to use the Welsh form Efrog Newydd
o Dalaith Efrog Newydd
= from (the) state (of) New York
a = and
ac [ag] = and, used before a vowel
ac i = and to...
fferm (feminine) = farm
edrych allan am = to look out for, to try and find
ond = but
ffordd (feminine) = road, way
unig = only
yr = the (before a consonant it is y)
y fferm = the farm
yr unig ffordd = the only way
taith = journey
teithio = to travel
pryd = time
hwnnw = (pronoun) that one (something talked about, something not seen)
y + noun + hwnnw = that (noun)
y dyn hwnnw = that man (we are talking about)
y pryd hwnnw = (literally: that time), used as an adverbial, = at that time, in those days
oedd or ydoedd = was. Ydoedd is a more literary form
gwedd = yoke; two animals yoked together; ox-cart pulled by two oxen
cyflogi = hiring; to hire
neu (+ sofrt mutation) = or
cerdded = walking; to walk
neu gerdded = or to walk
yno = there (place talked about, not seen)
llogi = hiring; to hire (different from cyflogi because it can also mean 'to rent a house', but basically the same word - cyflogi (cyf, prefix meaning 'together') + soft mutation + (llogi = to hire)
cerbyd = vehicle; carriage; here the meaning is cart
arian = silver; money
gan = with
mae gennym = there is with me, I have
nid = not
oedd = was
nid oedd gennym = there wasn't with me, we didn't have
i logi cerbyd = to hire / rent a cart
felly = so
ac
= a form of 'a' (and) used before a vowel, and a few words beginning with a consonant
ac felly = and so
troed (masculine) = foot
traed (plural) = feet
ein = our
ar ein traed = on our feet, on foot
cychwyn = setting off on a journey; set off on a journey; beginning, begin
cychwynnais or cychwynnais i = I set off, I began
y = linker (before a verb. The normal sentence in Welsh is (VERB + other elements). But for emphasis another element may be placed first - a noun or pronoun, a verb, an adjective, an adverbial. After an adverbial the linker y is used (adverbial + y + verb). If the verb begins with a vowel, this linker is yr
a'm brawd
= and my brother
erbyn = against; before a verb-noun, in can mean 'in preparation for', or 'on (doing something')
erbyn cyrraedd = on arriving, when I / we / you etc arrived
blino = to tire (make somebody tired); to tire (become tired)
y = particle used before the verb bod to be (yr before a vowel)
y mae = there is (colloquially y is dropped)
yr oedd = there was (colloquially y is dropped, to give roedd)
yr oeddwn or yr oeddwn i = I was
yr oeddwn i wedi blino = I was tired ("I was after getting-tired")
ond = but
fy = my. It causes the spirant mutation of c, p, t, g, b, d
brawd = brother
fy mrawd = my brother
gwydn [gwi din] = tough
mwy = more
mwy gwydn = tougher 'more tough'
yn = verb linker between bod (to be) and a verb. There is no mutation after yn
yn = noun linker between bod (to be) and a noun, and also an adjective, . There is soft mutation after this yn
bod yn fwy gwydn
= be tougher
na mi = than me
cerdded = walking; to walk
i gerdded = to walk

(4)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Ar ol gorphwys noson yn Portage, aethom ymlaen bellder o bum' milldir nes cyrhaedd Caledonia, lle yr oedd ychydig o Gymry eisoes wedi prynu tir; a phan ddeallodd y cyfryw fod arnaf finnau eisieu tyddyn, dyna lle yr oeddynt yn dangos ac yn denu nes y llwyddasant.



(MODERN SPELLING) Ar l gorffwys noson yn Portage, aethom ymlaen bellter o bum milltir nes cyrraedd Caledonia, lle yr oedd ychydig o Gymry eisoes wedi prynu tir; a phan ddeallodd y cyfryw fod arnaf finnau eisiau tyddyn, dyna lle yr oeddynt yn dangos ac yn denu nes y llwyddasant.



After resting a night in Portage, we went on for a distance of five miles till we reached Caledonia, where a few Welshmen had already bought land, and when they understood that I needed a smallholding, they showed me around and enticed me until they succeeded

__________________________________

ar l ("on trail") = after
gorffwys = to rest
ar l gorffwys = after resting
nos (feminine) = night (nos da! = good night!) (after a feminine noun, there is soft mutation of the adjective, so one would expect nos dda; this for phonetic reasons is an exception to the rule)
hwn = this one (masculine)
y dyn hwn = this man
hon = this one (feminine)
y fferm hon = this farm
noson = evening (historically nos + hon)
gorffwys noson = to rest (for) a night
aethom = we went
blaen = tip, front
ymlaen = forward, onward
pell = distant, far
pellter = distance
milltir = mile
pump = five
pum = five (before a noun)
pum milltir = five miles
o = from, of (this preposiiton causes the soft mutation)
pellter o bum milltir = a distance of five miles
bellter o bum milltir = for a distance of five miles (an adverbial phrase results if the first word in the sequence has soft mutation. Here p > b)
nes = until
nes cyrraedd Caledonia = until reaching Caledonia, until I / we / you etc reached Caledonia
lle yr oedd = where there was
ychydig o = a bit of; a few
Cymro = a Welshman
Cymry = Welshmen, Welsh men and women, Welsh people. In modern Welsh the letter y and u are pronounced the same. Wales in modern Welsh is Cymru [km ri], which is a respelling of Cymry = Welsh people.
eisoes
= already
prynu = buying, to buy
tir [tiir] = land (the same word in all the Celtic languages; a related word is Latin terra = land)
pan = when; it causes the soft mutation
a = and; it causes the spirant mutation of a following c, p, t
a phan = and when
deall = understanding; to understand
deallodd = he / she / it understood
deallodd ef = he / it understood
deallodd hi = she / it understood
deallodd Sin = John understood
deallodd y dynion = the men understood
pan ddeallodd = when he understood
cyfryw = (adjective) of the same kind
y cyfryw = suchlike people; these selfsame people, they
eisiau = need
ar = on
arnaf, or arnaf fi = on me
mae arnaf eisiau = I need ("there-is on-me (a) need")
fi = I, me. An emphatic form is finnau [vi-ne] = me myself, me too
bod = to be
fod
(soft mutated form of bod) = that there is, that there was
deallodd fod... = he understood that there was...
tyddyn = smallholding, small farm, croft. An element in numerous place names in Wales, usually in the reduced form tyn (as in rhoddi / rhoi = to give, the medial 'dd' has dropped away). Tyn-rhos = tyddyn y rhos, (the) farm (of) the upland
dyna = there is. Literally 'you see there' from 'gweli di yna' (you see + you + there). Used in narrations to give immediacy.
dyna lle yr oeddynt = there they were
dangos = showing; to show
ac = and (form of a used before a vowel)
denu
= enticing, to entice / attracting, to attract / luring, to lure
ac yn denu = and enticing
nes
= until. Before an inflected verb it is nes y (or nes yr before a vowel)
llwyddo
= succeeding; to succeed (stem: llwydd-)
-asant = verb ending, third person plural simple past
llwyddasant =
they succeeded

(5)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Yr oedd genyf 'land warrant', a chefais 160 o erwau o dir y llywodraeth, a phrynais 80 o erwau am $1.25 yr erw, nes oedd genyf fferm fawr o dir gwyllt; ond yr oedd yn costio agos i $20 yr erw am grybio ac aredig. Dyna olwg am ddigon o waith onide?



(MODERN SPELLING) Yr oedd gennyf 'land warrant', a chefais 160 o erwau o dir y llywodraeth, a phrynais 80 o erwau am $1.25 yr erw, nes oedd gennyf fferm fawr o dir gwyllt; ond yr oedd yn costio agos i $20 yr erw am grybio ac aredig. Dyna olwg am ddigon o waith onide?



I had a land warrant, and I got 160 acres of government land, and I bought 80 acres for $1.25 an acre, until I had a big farm with uncleared land, but it was costing me nearly $20 an acre to grub and plough. What a lot of money for all that. It's hard to believe, isn't it?
yr oedd gennyf = I had ("there was with me")
cael = getting, to get; receiving, to receive
cefais, or cefais i = I got, I received
a chefais = and I got
erw = acre
erwau = acres (there are many different plural terminations in Welsh; -au is the most usual, however)
ugain = twenty
deugain = forty (dau = two, + ugain = twenty)
cant a deugain o erwau
= one hundred and sixty acres ("(a) hundred and three-(times)-twenty of acres")
llywodraeth = government
tir y llywodraeth = ("(the) land (of) the government"), government land
erw o dir = an acre of land
prynu = to buy
prynais = I bought
a phrynais = and I bought
pedwar ugain = eighty ("four-(times)-twenty")
a phrynais bedwar ugain o erwau = I bought eighty acres. After an inflected verb there is soft mutation
doler (feminine) = dollar
un ddoler = one dollar (soft mutation of the initial consonant of a feminine noun after un = one)
pum sent ar hugain = twenty-five cents (five cent on twenty)
nes oedd gennyf = until there was with me, until I had
mawr = big
fferm (feminine) = farm
fferm fawr = a big farm (soft mutation of mawr after a feminine noun)
gwyllt = wild
tir gwyllt = wild land, uncultivated land, land not brought into cultivation
fferm fawr o dir gwyllt = a large farm of unlceared land
costio = costing, to cost
yr oedd yn costio = it was costing, it cost
agos i = close on, nealry ("near to")
ugain doler = twenty dollars
yr erw = the acre, per acre
am = for, in order to (causes the soft mutation)
grybio = to grub, clear the top of weeds and roots. From English 'to grub'. One would expect am rybio, but words taken from English with inital g generally resist this mutation
aredig = ploughing; to plough
ac aredig = to plough
golwg = sight
dyna
= that is. It is followed by the soft mutation
digon = enough, sufficient amount, sufficiency
gwaith = work
digon o waith = ("(a) sufficiency (of) work").
onide = isn't it? (o = if, nid = not, e = it). Used as a question tag after sentences that begin with sentences which do not begin with a verb (so-called 'normal' sentences), but with another element (so-called 'abnormal' sentences - noun, adjective, adverbial, verb-noun); or beginning with dyma = here is, dyna = there is. In spoken Welsh, onide > ynde (North), ontefe (South)


(6)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Wel, y peth nesaf oedd cael y wraig a'r baban ar y fferm; ac nid oedd dim i'w wneyd ond ei throedio hi yn ol i Racine, a llogi gwedd yno i'w cludo i Caledonia, lle y cyrhaeddasom erbyn canol Gorphenaf. Nid oedd genyf yn fy meddiant ond tua $5.00, ac heb un math o dy i roddi fy nheulu bach ynddo. Yn ein cyfyngder cawsom addewid gan H. Roberts o ystabl log i fyw, nes gallem gael digon o amser i godi ty log. Hefyd cawsom addewid i lusgo y logiau at eu gilydd, pan fuasent yn barod.



(MODERN SPELLING) Wel, y peth nesaf oedd cael y wraig a'r baban ar y fferm; ac nid oedd dim i'w wneud ond ei throedio hi yn l i Racine, a llogi gwedd yno i'w cludo i Caledonia, lle y cyraeddasom erbyn canol Gorffennaf. Nid oedd gennyf yn fy meddiant ond tua $5.00, ac heb un math o dy i roddi fy nheulu bach ynddo. Yn ein cyfyngder cawsom addewid gan H. Roberts o ystabl log i fyw, nes gallem gael digon o amser i godi ty log. Hefyd cawsom addewid i lusgo y logiau at eu gilydd, pan fuasent yn barod



Well, the next thing was to get the wife and the baby on the farm, and there was nothing for it but to go back to Racine on foot, and to hire an ox cart to carry them to Caledonia, where we arrived towards mid-July. All I had to my name was $5, and no house of any kind to put my family in. In our hour of need we were promised a log stable to live in by H. Roberts, so we could have enough time to build a log house. Also we had a promise to haul the logs together, when they were ready

__________________________________

wel = well
nesaf = next (in spoken Welsh, the final f [v] of such words of more than one syllable is not pronounced (nesa)
y peth nesaf = the next thing
cael = getting; to get
y wraig = the wife
baban = baby
y baban = the baby
a'r baban = and the baby (the base form is yr baban; in modern Welsh yr becomes y before a consonant; but yr is reduced to r after a vowel)
ar y fferm = on the farm
ac = and, form of a before a vowel and certain words
ac nid = and not
dim = something, anything, nothing
gwneud = doing, to do
ei = his, its (causes soft mutation)
gwraig = wife
ei wraig
= his wife
ei wneud =
its doing
i = to, for
i + ei = i'w (to his, to its; for his, for its)
i'w wneud = to its doing, for its doing
dim i'w wneud = nothing to be done ("nothing for its doing")
ond = but, except, apart from
troed = foot
troedio = walking; to walk
ei = her (followed by the spirant mutation)
hi = she; as a tag after ei + noun, it is 'of her'
ei... hi = her + of her
ci = dog
ei chi
= her dog
ei chi hi = her dog ("her dog of her"). The addition of the tag is very usual in spoken Welsh
ei throedio hi = to walk it, to foot it, to go on foot
yn l i Racine = back to Racine
eu = their (no mutation)
i + eu = i'w to their (no mutation)
cludo =carrying, to carry; transporting, to transport
i'w cludo
= to carry them
canol = middle
gorffen = finishing; to finish
haf (masculine) = summer
Gorffennaf = July ("(the) end (of) summer")
canol Gorffennaf = mid-July
erbyn = by
erbyn canol Gorffennaf = by mid-July, towards mid-July
cyrraedd = arriving, to arrive (stem = cyrhaedd-, and cyraedd- if two syllables are added)
cyraeddasom = we arrived
meddiant = possession
yn fy meddiant = in my possession
nid oedd gennyf ond... = I had only ("there was nothing with me but...")
tua = towards, about, approcimately
pum doler = five dollars
heb = without
ac
= and, form of a before a vowel and certain words
ac heb= and without
math = sort
un math o = one sort of
heb un math o
= without any sort of
ty = house
math o dyn = a sort of house
rhoddi = giving; to give
i roddi
= for giving, to give
fy = my. It causes the spirant mutation of c, p, t, g, b, d
teulu = family
fy nheulu = my family
bach
= little
fy nheulu bach = my little family
ynddo
= in him, in it
cyfyng
= narrow
cyfyngder = straitened circumstances, plight
yn ein cyfyngder = in our straitened circumstances
addewid = promise
cael addewid i = get a promise to
gan = with, from
ystabl = stable
lg
= log
ystabl lg =
stable made of logs
nes = until
gallu = to be able
gallem = we could, we would be able
gallem gael = we could get, we would be able to get (cael > gael soft mutation after an inflected verb)
amser = time
digon o amser = enough time
codi = raising, to raise; building, to build
ty lg = log house, house made of logs
hefyd = also
cawsom = we received
llusgo = dragging, to drag; hauling, to haul
cilydd = (Old Welsh) fellow, companion
at = to
eu
= their
at eu gilydd =
together ("to their fellow"). Should logically be 'at eu cilydd', but it 'gilydd', found in 'at ei gilydd' (= to his fellow) has been generalised
lg, logiau = log, logs (-iau is a plural termination)
buasent = they would be
pan fuasent = when they would be
parod = ready
bod yn barod = be ready (yn = noun linker, used also with adjectives; causes soft mutation)

(7)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Y peth nesaf oedd edrych am le cyfaddas i godi ty. Yr oedd yno dri o fn fryniau, a thorais seler ar ben un ohonynt, fel y gallem fod yng ngolwg y ffordd, ond methodd yr ychain dynu y logiau i ben y bryn, felly yr oedd yn rhaid tori seler wrth waelod y bryn.



(MODERN SPELLING) Y peth nesaf oedd edrych am le cyfaddas i godi ty. Yr oedd yno dri o fn fryniau, a thorrais seler ar ben un ohonynt, fel y gallem fod yng ngolwg y ffordd, ond methodd yr ychain dynnu y logiau i ben y bryn, felly yr oedd yn rhaid torri seler wrth waelod y bryn



The next thing was to look for a suitable place for building a house. There were three small hills, and I dug a cellar on top of one of them, so that we could be in view of the road, but the oxen failed to draw the logs to the top of the hill, so I had to dig a cellar at the bottom of the hill

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edrych am = look for
am = (preposition) for; causes the soft mutation
lle = place
edrych am le = look for a place
cyfaddas = suitable, appropriate
i godi ty = for building a house
bryn, bryniau = hill, hills
mn = small
mn fryniau = small hills (an adjective before a noun causes soft mutation)
tri o fn fryniau = three small hills ("three of small hills")
torri = cutting, to cut; digging, to dig
torrais = I dug
a thorrais = and I dug
seler (feminine) = cellar
pen = head, top
ar = on (followed by soft mutation)
ar ben = on top of
ohonynt = of them
un ohonynt = one of them
fel y = so that
gallem
= we might be able to
bod = to be
gallem fod = we might be able to be
golwg = sight
yng ngolwg = in sight of
y ffordd = the road
methu = failing; to fail
methodd = he / she / it failed
ych, ychain = ox, oxen
methodd yr ychain = the oxen failed
tynnu = pulling, to pull
methodd yr ychain dynnu = the oxen failed to pull (Soft mutation of a verb after an inflected verb)
pen y bryn = (the) top (of) the hill
i pen y bryn = to (the) top (of) the hill
felly = so
rhaid = necessity
mae yn rhaid = it is necessary to ("it is a necessity") (follwed by a verb-noun)
gwaelod = bottom
gwaelod y bryn = (the) bottom (of) the hill
wrth = by, next to, at (this prepostion is followed by the soft mutation)
wrth waelod y bryn = at (the) bottom (of) the hill


(8)
(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Yna yr oedd yn rhaid cael cynnorthwy deg neu ddwsin o ddynion cryfion i godi y logiau, yr hyn gafwyd; ac yna prynais goed i wneyd llawr a llofft a tho gyda $150, a fenthycais gan fy mrawd ar log am chwe mlynedd. Nid oedd dim arall i'w wneyd ond benthyca gan fod yn anmhosibl cael gwaith yn nes na 30 milldir, ac nid oedd modd gadael fy nheulu bach i gymeryd eu siawns mewn gwlad newydd. Fel hyn gorphenais y ty fy hunan, gan fod genyf ychydig o arfau saer wedi eu prynu cyn cychwyn.


(MODERN SPELLING) Yna yr oedd yn rhaid cael cynorthwy deg neu ddwsin o ddynion cryfion i godi y logiau, yr hyn gafwyd; ac yna prynais goed i wneud llawr llofft tho gyda $150, a fenthycais gan fy mrawd ar log am chwe mlynedd. Nid oedd dim arall i'w wneud ond benthyca gan fod yn amhosibl cael gwaith yn nes na 30 milltir, ac nid oedd modd gadael fy nheulu bach i gymeryd eu siawns mewn gwlad newydd. Fel hyn gorffennais y ty fy hunan, gan fod gennyf ychydig o arfau saer wedi eu prynu cyn cychwyn


Then I had to get the help of ten or twelve strong men to lift the logs, and this was obtained; and then I bought wood to make a ground floor and an upstairs floor and a roof for $150, which I borrowed at interest from my brother for six years. There was no alternative but to borrow since it was impossible to find work within 30 miles, and there was no way I could leave my family to their luck in a new country. In this way I finished the house myself, since I had a few carpenter's tools which I had bought before setting out

__________________________________


yna = there; then
yr oedd yn rhaid = it was necessary
cael = to get
cynorthwy
= help
deg = ten
dwsin = a dozen
deg neu ddwsin = ten or twelve ("ten or a dozen")
dyn, dynion = man, men
-ion = plural suffix with some nouns and adjectives
deg neu ddwsin o ddynion = ten or twelve men ("ten or a dozen of men")
cryf [kriiv] = strong (plural form: cryfion)
dynion cryfion = strong men
codi = lifting up, to lift up; raising, to raise
lg, logiau = log, logs
yr hyn = this; something which
cafwyd = it was obtained
a gafwyd = which was obtained
yr hyn a gafwyd = something which was obtained
ac yna = and then
prynu = buying / to buy
prynais = I bought
coed = wood
prynais goed = I bought wood (RULE: soft mutation of following noun object after an inflected verb)
i = to
gwneud = making; to make
i wneud
= to make, in order to make (RULE: soft mutation of following noun after the prepositons am, ar, at, dros, drwy, dan, i, wrth, o, hyd, heb, gan)
llawr = floor; ground floor
lloft = upstairs floor
= with (followed by spirant mutation)
to = roof
tho = with a roof
gyda = with
benthyg = a loan
benthyca = borrowing; to borrow
benthycais = I borrowed
a = which (Rule: causes soft mutation of the following verb)
a fenthycais = which I borrowed
gan = with; after verbs of borrowing, buying, receivin, equivalent to Englisg 'from'
llog [lhoog] = interest
ar = on (RULE: soft mutation of following noun after the prepositons am, ar, at, dros, drwy, dan, i, wrth, o, hyd, heb, gan)
ar log = at interest
chwech = six (chwe before a noun)
chwe mlynedd = six years (properly chwe blynedd, but 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 are followed by mlynedd, and 6 has fallen into line, at least in spoken Welsh)
am chwe mlynedd = for six years
nid oedd dim arall = there was nothing else
i'w wneud = "for its doing", to be done
ond = but, except fot
gan = with
gan fod = since it is, since it was, being (gan ei bod would be nore usual., 'with her being, with its being')
posibl = possible
amhosibl = impossible
cael gwaith = get work, find work
nes na = nearer than
bod yn nes na = be nearer than
gwaith yn nes na = work nearer than (sydd = 'which is', oedd = 'which was' is understood here; gwaith sydd yn nes na - work which is nearer than)
deg = ten (deng before words beginning in n or m)
deng milltir ar hugain = thirty miles
modd = means (from Latin 'modus')
nid oedd modd = there was no way / means
gadael = leave behind
teulu bach = little family
fy nheulu bach = my little family
siawns = chance, luck, fate
cymeryd ei siawns = 'to take his / her luck', that is, to trust to fate
i gymeryd = to take
eu siawns = their luck
mewn = in a (in with an indefinite noun following)
mewn gwlad newydd = in a new country
fel hyn = in this way, like this
gorffennais = I finished
fy hunan = myself, without help from others
gan fod = (since / because / as) + (there is, there are, there was, there were)
gan fod gennyf = since I had ("since there was with me")
ychydig o = a few
arfau = arms, weapons; tools
saer = craftsman; carpenter
Often saer coed ('craftsman of wood') to distinguish it from saer maen ('craftsman of stone') = stone mason
wedi eu prynu = "after their buying", (which were) bought
cyn = before
cychwyn = starting out on a journey; to start out




DOLENNAU AR GYFER GWEDDILL Y GWEFAN HWN / LINKS TO THE REST OF THE WEBSITE

1050e

Gogledd Amrica

North America

0043c
Yr iaith Gymraeg

The Welsh Language

0005k
Mynegai yn nhrefn y wyddor ir hyn a geir yn y gwefan; or tudalen hwn gellir hefyd
chwilior gwefan hwn r archwiliwr mewnol

Index of contents of the website

1051e
Testunau Cymraeg throsiad Saesneg yn y gwefan hwn

Welsh texts with English translations

 

Sumbolau arbennig: ŷ ŵ

Adolygiad diweddaraf / Darrera actualitzaci 13 12 2000

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