kimkat0959e A description of the Gwentian dialect by Pererindodwr in the year in 1856 in the periodical The Cambrian Journal. (Gwentian is South-eastern Welsh, that is, the form of the language spoken in the former Sir Fynwy and Sir Forgannwg, Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire) I will now endeavour to ascertain what is meant by The Gwenhwyseg or Dialect of Gwent. It may be supposed sometimes, when so much is said about the Gwenhwyseg, that it is a language distinct from the Cymraeg...

 

08-06-2017 08-43


● kimkat0001 Yr Hafan www.kimkat.org

● ● kimkat2001k Y Fynedfa Gymraeg www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwefan/gwefan_arweinlen_2001k.htm

● ● ● kimkat2045k Tafodieithoedd Cymru www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_cymraeg/cymraeg_tafodieitheg_gymraeg_mynegai_2045k.htm

● ● ● ● kimkat0934k Y Wenhwyseg www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/gwenhwyseg_cyfeirddalen_0934k.htm

● ● ● ● ● kimkat0959k Y tudalen hwn

 

 

0003j_delw_baneri_cymru_catalonia_050111
..





Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Galles i Catalunya
Wales-Catalonia Website

The Gwentian dialect in the 1850s


A Treatise on the Chief Peculiarities that Distinguish the Cymraeg, as Spoken by the Inhabitants of Gwent and Morganwg Respectively.
Author: Pererindodwr
Publication: The Cambrian Journal
Volumes 2 (1855), 3 (1856), 4 (1857).



Y Llyfr Ymwelwyr / El Llibre de Visitants / The Guestbook:

http://pub5.bravenet.com/guestbook/391211408/


a-7000_kimkat1356k

Beth syn newydd?


(delwedd 0420)

 

(delwedd 0424) Tair rhan y Wenhwyseg yn l yr erthygl hon / three zones of Gwentian according to tis article

 

(Additions or my comments in brackets and orange letters. Some typing mistakes yet to be hunted down and eliminated. The spelling in English and Welsh is the same as in the original)


(We have omitted the text at the beginning of this section - three pages - remarks on the eisteddfod tradition in Morgannwg).

(Note: (1) in the lists of examples below, where the original has same, I have repeated the phrase.
(2) After the initials representing the zones that Pererindodwr has delineated, I have added a indication of the zone for claritys sake. For example, the author has simply E., but I have added
(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)
(3) In addition, I have altered slightly his order of zones in the examples, which in the original is M / E / W / D / P. (Middle, Eastern, Western, Dyved, Pure). I have placed E first to make a more logical continuum from east to west - E / M / W / D / P.)

____________________________________________

The Cambrian Journal, Volume 3, 1856, pp305-314

 

 



(delwedd 3963) (tudalen 305)

A TREATISE ON THE CHIEF PECULIARITIES THAT DISTINGUISH THE CYMRAEG, AS SPOKEN BY THE INHABITANTS OF GWENT AND MORGANWG RESPECTIVELY,
BY PERERINDODWR

INTRODUCTION

Inasmuch as the subject under consideration bears so closely upon the Welsh language in general, I feel it incumbent to lay down in this introduction a few observations respecting its antiquity, as well as the similarity which exists between it and the dialect of Brittany, &c.

 

 



(delwedd 3964) (tudalen 306)

 

 

 




(delwedd 3965) (tudalen 307)

 

 

 




(delwedd 3966) (tudalen 308)

 

 

 




(delwedd 3967) (tudalen 309)

 

 

 




(delwedd 3968) (tudalen 310)

 

 

 




(delwedd 3969) (tudalen 311)

 

 

 




(delwedd 3970) (tudalen 312)

 

 

 




(delwedd 3971) (tudalen 313)

 

 

 

...

 

 




(delwedd 3972) (tudalen 314)

I am indebted to Mr. J. Jenkins, of Morlaix (lately of Maes y Cwmwr), for a great many of the preceding sentiments, which are scattered throughout his letters in the Gral, and in his An A, B, K. I also received assistance from writers in Seren Gomer. Ere I close these observations, I will confidently say there is not so much resemblance between any other two languages under the sun as there is between the two in question; and that the difference which exists at the present day has been occasioned by the distance of one country from another... (We have omitted the text following this - nine pages referring to the Breton language).

 

 



(delwedd 3973) (tudalen 36)



The Cambrian Journal, Volume 3, 1856, pp36-40



A TREATISE ON THE CHIEF PECULIARITIES THAT DISTINGUISH THE CYMRAEG, AS SPOKEN BY THE INHABITANTS OF GWENT AND MORGANWG RESPECTIVELY,
BY PERERINDODWR
(Continued from page 314, vil. ii)

THE GWENHWYSEG, OR DIALECT OF GWENT
I will now endeavour to ascertain what is meant by The Gwenhwyseg or Dialect of Gwent.

It may be supposed sometimes, when so much is said about the Gwenhwyseg, that it is a language distinct from the Cymraeg. Iolo Morgannwg, at page 20 of his Poems Lyric and Pastoral, thus observes of the dialect of Gwent, or Siluria:-

 

 




(delwedd 3974) (tudalen 37)

The originals of these Triades are in the Silurian . The Silurian differs, in many particulars, from the Biblical dialect of modern writers....

(We have omitted the two paragaphs that followed)

With respect to Iolos statement that the Gwenhwyseg differs greatly from the Biblical style, the same may be predicated of the Dyvedeg (the dialect of Dyfed = south-west Wales), and also of any other dialect in Wales. The Biblical Cymraeg was written in a middle style, the language being preserved smooth, clear, and intelligible for every part of Wales. And this uniformity continues still all over the Principality, for the Bible is understood by the Cymry of Cardiff and Holyhead, Gelli (= Y Gelligandryll. Hay on Wye) and St. Davids Promontory, with equal ease and clearness. It is thus free from provincial accents and phraseologies; and it may be asserted that the Bible is

 

 



(delwedd 3975) (tudalen 38)

not written in the dialect of Dyved, or of Powys, with as much truth as that it is not written in the Gwenhwyseg.
(A footnote adds: The language of the Welsh Bible approaches nearer to the Southern than to the Northern dialects of the Cymraeg - D.S.E.)

In the preface to Cyfrinach y Beirdd (the secret of the poets), p.5, Iolo Morganwg thus remarks:-

Hardly anything may be met with in Cyfrinach y Beirdd that is not tolerably pure Gwenhwyseg; - much purer even than anything found in the Welsh dialects of the other parts of Wales.

If so, the Gwenhwyseg contained a multiplicity of compound words, such as cadarnfarn, cywirserch, ystyrbwyll, &c., &c. Nevertheless, it is not to be believed that the language of Gwent was other than a spoken dialect of the Cymraeg, throughout the middle ages, and still more recently, was somewhat unsteady in its character and principles. And the same may be said of it even to this day. It has not at present any fixed alphabet, or any system for the orthographical construction of its words, founded upon etymology and composition; for the most learned Welsh scholars differ greatly one from the other in their mode of forming the alphabet; and as to the ways of deriving words, they are endless. Accordingly, the Cymraeg of Iolo Morganwg is (or was) also his Cymraeg. And many other authors may be mentioned , who cross one another, and whose inventions and fancies have no end. But, withal, the old language has not yet attained any fixed and secure anchorage.

The only peculiarities of the Gwenhwyseg are its shortness, elegance, and the clearness of its composition; which, undoubtedly, is owing to the fact that the inhabitants of Siluria were more heroic and courageous than the inhabitants of any other part of Wales. They were brave and energetic, resolute, and working against all


 

 



(delwedd 3976) (tudalen 39)

adversity. How many orthographical changes soever may be seen in old Welsh manuscripts, and however varied are the present modes of spelling the ancient language, yet it cannot be believed for a moment that the language of Gwent, like those of Cornwall and Armorica, possesses a vocabulary peculiar to itself; for, in respect of grammatical construction, the language of Gwent was the same as that of Powys, or of any other part of Wales; its distinctiveness consisted in its provincial conditions and cultivated elegance.

That the Gwenhwyseg is old, may be proved by the antiquity of the Cymraeg in general; that it was under cultivation from an early period, may be proved from the following facts:-

After the departure of the Romans from the Island of Britain, about A.D. 400, or perhaps earlier, the Britons immediately set about the re-establishment of an independent government. During the succeeding interval, until A.D. 500, they recalled to memory the old and primitive system and knowledge of the bards of the Isle of Britain, and a poetical chair was restored at Caerleon-upon-Usk (Caerllion ar Wysg), over which the two Merddins, Taliesin, Saint Mabon, and others, presided; and there, under the patronage of Arthur and his knights, and a convention of wise men, was instituted the system of the Round Table, which was a system of the science and knowledge of the usages and privileges of the bards and men of vocal song. It was then arranged that everything of worth and antiquity should be improved and preserved, where found necessary; and everyting new, adjudged to be an accession to worthy sciences, in respect of wisdom and the cause of country and kindred, was properly distinguished. The motto of that chair was. Truth against the World, (Y Gwir yn erbyn y Byd)- In the Name of God and His peace (Yn Enw Duw ai ?Heddwch / ?Dangnefedd).

According to the testimony of the Roman writers, Siluria considerably surpassed the other provinces of Cymru in polite attainments, as well as in patriotic energy. It is clear that the inhabitants of this province


 

 



(delwedd 3977) (tudalen 40)

added much to the knowledge of their tribe from the learning of the Romans, in which the bards seemed especially to have improved. It was, undoubtedly, from that source that a knowledge of the poetical quantities was derived, - a knowledge which has never to this day been possessed by the bards of any other province of Wales. About the said era, the art of poetry was greatly cultivated,- the principal canons adopted to the tendencies of the language were traced, - and resplendent learning was scattered over the country by the ecclesiastics of the blessed College of Cattwg the Wise, at Llanveithin (Llancarvan) (Llanfeuthin, (Llancarfan)), (Llancarfan), and Bangor Illtyd (Bangor Illtud), in Llanilltyd Vawr (Llanilltud Fawr), as well as of other celebrated schools.

After Arthur had been slain in the battle of Camlan, the Round Table was placed under the protection of Urien Rheged, at Aberllychwr Castle (Aberllwchwr), which was his principal palace: it was thence, about two hundred years subsequently, removed to Caerwynt (Caer-went); and more than a hundred years after that, it was restored to its primitive state at Caerleon-upon-Usk (Caerllion), under the patronage of Iestyn ab Gwrgan, who placed it in his new castle upon the Taf, in the royal town of Cardiff (Caer-dydd). See the Preface to Cyfrinach y Beirdd, by Iolo Morgannwg, pp. 8, 9.

In concluding this account of the Gwenhwyseg, I fell convinced that I have adduced proof enough of what I had asserted before, namely, that the Gwenhwyseg is the same as the Cymraeg in general, - only that the opportunities which the inhabitants of Gwent had for learning excelled those of any other province in Wales. The neatness, clearness and elegance of the language, which was the result of investigation and research, caused the language of this province to become purer than that of any other province; and thus it was raised into eminence.

____________________________________________
The Cambrian Journal, Volume 3, 1856. Section 2 pp239-253

 

 



(delwedd 3978) (tudalen 239)

A TREATISE ON THE CHIEF PECULIARITIES THAT DISTINGUISH THE CYMRAEG, AS SPOKEN BY THE INHABITANTS OF GWENT AND MORGANWG RESPECTIVELY,
BY PERERINDODWR

(Continued from page 40)

THE DIALECT OF MORGANWG

 

 



(delwedd 3979) (tudalen 240)

 

 

 


(delwedd 3980) (tudalen 241)

 

 

 



(delwedd 3981) (tudalen 242)


THE PECULIARITIES THAT CHARACTERIZE THE DIALECTS OF GWENT AND MORGANWG, AS SPOKEN BY THE PRESENT INHABITANTS.

That provinces differ in the mode of articulating, and in the use of the same words, is clear, as may be seen in the variety which exists between Gwent and Dyved, and between Deheubarth and Gwynedd. It is not unusual to see a lay peasant from Gwynedd unable to converse with a man of similar character from Dyved. The acw, efo, cethin &c. , of the Gwyneddian, and the practice of dragging his words to the point of his tongue, into a kind o lisp, his slow mode of speaking, together with a provincial accent, render his speech so strange to the ear of a Dimetian, that the latter cannot, without considerable difficulty, understand what the North-man says. On the other hand, the thin voice, the lively and abrupt

 

 




(delwedd 3982) (tudalen 243)

utterance of the Dimetian, together with his lweth, ymbeidis, siompol, &c., and his peculiar accent, cause his language to be rather unintelligible to the inhabitants of Gwynedd.

A provincial dialect may be divided into several heads, but in order to obviate confusion, I shall consider the point briefly under the four following heads.

First,- The different position of letters in words, such as Lloi for Lloiau, Tai for Teiau, Tade for Tadau, Gweitho for Gweithio, &c.

Secondly, - Change of terminations, and varied plurals, as cerwn for cerddwn, id for aid, on for ion, offeirid (sometimes ffeiredi) amd meibon, for offeiriaid and meibion, pregethwyrs for pregethwyr, sowdwyrs for sowdwyr, (soldiers) (A footnote adds: Quod illi [Celtici] Soldurios appellant. caes. - ED, CAMB. JOUR.)

Thirdly,- Difference of pronunciation. All the provinces of Wales differ greatly in their local pronunciation; where it is said caseg in one district, it is pronounced casig in another; also tattws instead of tatto, Magws for Margaret; Palws, Malws, Mali (A footnote adds: Mli and Mlen are common in Dyved.-S.E.), for Mary, &c.

Fourthly, - the adoption of words in one district that are obsolete in another: so also dannod (= scold), edliw (= scold), - erfin, maip (= turnips), - ewn, hy (= bold, cheeky), &c.

Now to the subject. The difference which characterizes the dialects of Gwent and Morganwg, as spoken in the present day by the people, is very slight; consequently there are not many peculiarities for us to notice here. It is not easy, indeed, to perceive that there exists between them any particular difference, for the inhabitants are near to one another, and pursue the same avocations, which tend to unite them more closely in the peculiarities of their language than if they had been at a greater distance the one from the other, and less similar in their pursuits.

If a subject had been proposed with a view of showing the difference between Gwent and Dyved, and between Deheubarth and Gwynedd, it would have afforded a scope for noticing a great many of the peculiarities that distinguish

 

 



(delwedd 3983) (tudalen 244)

the dialects of those countries respectively. But though the field on the present occasion is so limited, I will endeavour to creep towards some plan, whereby I may show what I can of the characterisitcs of the dialects of Gwent and Morgannwg.

Perhaps my best plan will be to divide the two countries into three parts, and to endeavour to find the language of both provinces one and the same in the middle; it will then be easy to distinguish the eastern extremes of Morganwg. I will suppose (the numbering is not in the original),

(1) that the eastern line belonging to the central part runs from the mouth of the river Rhymney by Tre Eleirch, (three miles eastward of Cardiff,) to a little eastward of Coed y Cymmer,

(2) and that the western line belonging to the central part runs from the Merthyr Mawr to Aberdare, and that the eastern line of the eastern division terminates where the Cymraeg ceases in Menevia [= Gwent],

(3) and that the western line of the western division terminates at the boundaries of Caermarthenshire.

In arranging the peculiarities of the Cymraeg for the three said divisions, I will also exhibit the examples in the phraseology of Dyved, with the view of showing in what respect that varies from the dialects of Gwent and Morganwg. I will, moreover, write them in pure language wherever it happens to be impure through local corruption. In this way the Cymro will be enabled to see a great variety in the language a spoken in the present day in South Wales.


(A footnote adds: M. denotes the Middle division, E. the Eastern, W. the Western, D. Dyved, and P. the Cymraeg in its purity. Let this be borne in mind throughout all the examples in the following pages.)
(NOTE: The following examples, and the comments made by S.E., need at times to be treated with a certain amount of scepticism!)

.....

Example 1

 

 

(a good day to you)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Dydd da chi

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Dydd da chi

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Dydd da chi, and dydd dawch


(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Dydd da chi, and dydd dawch

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Dydd da i chwi; the verb Bydded being understood

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)

(dawch is nowadays in use only in North-west Wales, nos dawch = good night. From da + iwch, an older form of i chwi, to you)



The pronunciation of the central division is the same as that of the eastern, in the above salutation, but in the

 

 

 



(delwedd 3983) (tudalen 244)

western division it approaches the thinness of the Demetian accent. The foregoing words are not met with in all the divisions; and prydnawn da chi (a good afternoon to you), occurs also in all, though it is not much used in the division of D (Dyfed) is. Again, Diwedydd (Diwedd y dydd) da chi (a good afternoon to you) is of frequent occurrence throughout Gwent and Morganwg, but the expression is quite obsolete in Dyved, and it can scarcely be understood by one out of ten of the illiterate inhabitants of that province.

There is another mode of temporal salutation in Gwentllwg, which is not in general use in any other part of Wales. The word is derived from Echwydd, evening, or autumn, and it is used thus, Gwydechodd da chi (a good evening to you), dewa yn y gwydechodd, (Ill come in the evening) &c. It is inexplicable how such a phraseology could have entered into the Gwenhwyseg. Gwydd denotes knowledge and approximation, and echwydd, evening; so, may a good evening approach to you, is the meaning of the expression. Blwydd newydd dda chi (i chwi) (a good new year to you), priodas dda (good wedding), siwrnai dda (good journey), newydd da (good news), luck dda (good luck). (A footnote adds: Lwc dda is the Cardiganshire pronunciation. -S.E - this pribably means that luck represents the modern English pronunciation, which would be spelt lyc in Welsh), &c., are the same throughout South Wales, except only in point of accent. In Gwentllwg rhwydeb i chi is often used for rhwydd-deb i chi (success to you)
(rwytab would be the local form in fact),
or rhwydd hynt i waith (easy road, trouble-free journey to the work) (shouldnt this be rhwydd hynt ir gwaith? The local form would be rwydd ynt) or taith (journey) &c.

Very frequently it is said throughout Gwent and Morganwg, I ble tin myned? (This would in fact be mynad). Bler i di? (A footnote adds: This appears to be a mistake for Ble chin cadw? (where are you keeping? or, where do you live?) a phrase often used in Western Dyved. - S.E.) Bler ewch chi?
But we never hear Ble chin gado? in the south-east of Deheubarth, as we do in Dyved.


(In fact, ei is often ai in Gwentian, so Bler ai di is in fact correct. It is in standard Welsh I ba ler ei di - where are you going?)

 

..



Example 2

 

 

(where are you going?)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Ble chin mynd?



(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Ble chin mynd?

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Ble chin mynd?

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Ble chin mynd? and very often gado.

(Dyfed = south-west Wales) (Is this from English to gad = go about?)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Pa le yr ydych chwi yn myned?

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


.....

 

 

 

(delwedd 3985) (tudalen 246)

 

 

 

 

Example 3

 

 

(where have you come from / where did you come from?)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
O ble dethoch chi?

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
O ble dethoch chi? Singular number,
O ble dest ti?
from daethost.

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
O ble dethoch chi? Singular number,
O ble dest ti?
from daethost.

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
O ble deithoch chi? Singular,
O ble doest ti?


(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
O ba le y daethoch chi?

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


The above questions are very often asked without the preposition o, as Ble dethoch chwi? There is another inquiry in the past tense of the verb bod, which is thus used:-

Example 4

 

 

(where have you been / where were you?)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Ble buot ti? Plural, Ble buoch chi?

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Ble buot ti? Plural, Ble buoch chi?

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Ble buest ti? Plural, Ble buoch chi?

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Ble buest ti? Plural, Ble buoch chi?

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Pa le y buaist ti? Plural, Pa le y buoch chwi?

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)

Example 5

 

 

(Its very cold weather)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Main dywydd gr iawn



(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Main dywydd gr iawn

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Main dywydd r iawn


(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Main dewi wr iawn; sometimes ymbeidis, or embydus

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Mae yn dywydd oer iawn

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


If the weather be fair, the expression throughout Gwent and Morganwg is, Main dywydd fine uncomon, but this is never heard in Dyved. If the atmosphere be close it is said, main dywydd mwrn iawn, and main fwrn uncomon; also, Main dywydd moglyd uncomon, and main dywydd brwnt uncomon.

Example 6

 

 

(Shes a very beautiful girl)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Merch ln fudyr yw hi

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Merch ln fudyr yw hi

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Merch ln iawn yw hi
Sometimes Merch ln fudyr yw hi

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Merch ln iawn yw hi; or Merch ln odiaeth yw hi

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Merch ln iawn yw hi; or Merch ln odiaeth yw hi

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


The above import of the word budr is sadly misplaced. Its real meaning is dirty or loathsome; highly complimentary to the fair sex! The expression is heard in various forms; thus merch led ln yw hi; merch gryn



 

 

 

 

(delwedd 3986) (tudalen 247)

 

 

 

 

ln yw hi, and merch bert yw hi.The last adjective is very often used in Dyved. The same words are employed throughout all the above divisions to denote the quality of anything created or made.
(In standard Welsh gln = pure, clean; in the south it is also beautiful, pretty, fair. In the north and in standard Welsh budr = dirty. In the south the word for dirty is brwnt, and budr is used as an intensifier, rather as in English terribly, awfully, dead, etc. - awfully pretty, dead pretty. In the spoken Welsh in both north and south, budr > budur)

Example 7

 

 

(Go to the market to buy veal)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Ewch tshiar farchnad i brynu cig llo

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Ewch ir farchnad i brynu cig llo

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Ewch ir farchnad i brynu cig llo


(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Cerwch ir farchnad i bwrnu cig llo
[A footnote adds: This is not correct as regards the greater part of Dyved. A Cardiganshire peasant would say, - Cerwch ir farchnad i brynu cig llo. - S.E.]

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Ewch ir farchnad i brynu cig llo

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


In Gwent and Morganwg they often say, cerwch, dos, cera; the two latter words are very frequently employed in every case of a command in Gwentllwg. In the western division they say, when haste is enjoined, Pant a chi.(in fact, Bant chi). This expression would be scarcely understood in any part of Gwent.

Example 8

 

 

(Hurry up, and come back at once)

(delwedd 4000)

(1)   E.

Gwnech hast, a dewch nol whaff



(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Gwnech hast, a dewch nol whaff

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Gwnech hast, a dewch nol whaff

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Gwnech hast, a dewch nol whap

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Gwnewch frys a deuwch yn ol chap

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)

 

(chap = ??)
(whaff / whap are colloquially waff / wap)
.


The words clau and cloi are used throughout Morganwg, and they are known in all Gwent, though not in use. The word brys is also known in both provinces, as is buan, and the two are very frequently enployed, but not in such sentences as the above. Example, - Brysiwch Tomos mai bron nos. Pryd dewch chwin ol? Yn fuan, &c, (dewch chwi would be rather dewch chi)

Example 9

 

 

(go to the house)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Myned idd y tŷ, in Gwentllwg

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river) (This would in fact be mynad)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Myned ir tŷ

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (This would in fact be mynad)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Myned ir tŷ

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Mynd ir tŷ

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Mynd ir tŷ

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)



..................

 

 

 

(delwedd 3987) (tudalen 248)

 

 

 


The excellent old word idd is still found in Gwent; and is in constant use in Gwentllwg, even in the discourse of the most illiterate of the inhabitants. The words has of late been very generally employed by Welsh writers; and wherever dd is wanted in a symphonic arrangement by the bards, the word idd is placed in the concatenation. Iw cannot be pluralised without being reduced into its root; as i ei dad, plural i eu tad; but idd is rendered into iddei in the singular possessive, and into iddeu in the plural. (In fact, to his / to her / to its - iddi - is the same as to their - iddi) The words mad (??) and odd (= from) are quite obsolete in Gwent and Morganwg.

Example 10

 

 

(mind your business)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Minda dy fusnes

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Minda dy fusnes

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Minda dy fusnes

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Gofala am dy fisnis (fusnes, Ceredigion)

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Gofala am dy achos.

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


An unusual corruption has crept into the above phrase throught Gwent and Morganwg. The word business has ascended the throne, and it would be difficult to meet with a person in all the country who can turn the expression into Welsh. Mindwch eich bisnis. Gofalwch am eich achos, neu eich galwad; cera a dos o bothdy dy fisnis; dos is correct, but bothdy is only a corruption of o amgylch, and o bob tu, &c.

It would be endless work to give instances of this corruption, for Menevia and Morganwg have appropriated the word business as much as the English.

Example 11

 

 

(Whats the bad taste that can I taste on ths meat?)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Beth ywr blas cas yr wyn glywed ar y cig yma?

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river) (in fact, clywad would be the pronunciation) (literal translation: what is the bad taste I am perceiving (also hearing) on the meat here?)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Beth ywr blas cas yr wyn glywed ar y cig yma?

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (in fact, clywad would be the pronunciation)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Beth ywr blas cas yr wyn deimlo ar y cig yma?

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)
(literal translation: what is the bad taste I am perceiving (also feeling) on the meat here?)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Beth ywr blas cas yr wyn archwaethu ar y cig yma?

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)
(literal translation: what is the bad taste I am tasting on the meat here?)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Pa beth yw y blas cas yr wyf yn gael ar y cig yma?

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)
(literal translation: what is the bad taste I having / getting on the meat here?)


Mynwy is extremely fond of applying the word clywed to the sense of taste. If anything omits a bad odour, the people of Gwent clywed (hear) it. If any food or drink be agreeable to the palate, they say one to



 

 

 

(delwedd 3988) (tudalen 249)

 

 

 

 

 

another they never clywed anything better, &c. This use of the word reaches the central divison, but is never heard by the inhabitants of the western part.
(A footnote adds: Clywed, decidely, is the word employed in Dyved. And this is quite idiomatic; the word clywed being used for all the senses, except seeing, in most of the Celtic dialects. - S.E.)

Example 12

 

 

(Sin, how are you, how is Sin?)

 

(delwedd 4000)

(1)   E.

Same very nearly

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river) (i.e. very nearly the same as the next example; in the original text, the east sentences come after the middle sentences)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Sion bi shwt i chi, bu shwt yw Sian?
Ans.- (answer) Shwt dost iawn main frwnt digynig

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
(Shes in a bad way (a very ill state) shes very bad (shes extremely dirty))

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Sion (sometimes John or Jack) shwt i chi, shwt yw Sian?
Ans.- Run in weddol iawn, or, tost

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr) (Im fine (fairly all right), or bad)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
John, or Sicci, shwt i chi, shwt mae Jinny?
Ans.- Weddol, or, sl iawn

(Dyfed = south-west Wales) (Im fine, or very sick)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
John, pa sut yr ydychwi a Sian?
The answer will be the state of health.

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


Here, again, there is a wide field to travers. In Gwent and the middle division, if the person accosted enjoys tolerably good health, the answer will be iawnda; if worse, it will be tost iawn, or brwnt digynig.

Sl and clf are never heard in Gwent and the central division, though the inhabitants understand the meaning of the words pretty well. Neither is iawnda or iawndda to be met with within the confines of Dyved, and very seldom in the western division. Harty and nail ile (i.e. yn ail i le) is the answer in Dyved and sometimes one hears shwt i chi? i chin dda iawn (how are you? are you very well?) there also.
(A footnote adds: Rwyn weddol, or yn ganolig, or yn symol, is much more common in Dyved. Right harty, thanky is the Venedotian phrase.-S.E.)
Iawnda,
tost iawn,
harty,
canolig,
sl,
clf,
&c.
are employed, upon the whole, oftener in the western division than in Gwent and Dyved. The word digynnyg (di-cyd-dyg) is a very rustic one

(A footnote adds: Digynnig - Not so rustic. The word is heard every day in Dyved; and its meaning, as understood there, is not void of trial or attempt, but incomparable, matchless or unequalled. Merch ln digynnyg is, therefore, equivalent to a paragon of beauty. - (See Pughes Dict. sub voce.) - S.E. )

its meaning being void of


.....

 

 


(delwedd 3989) (tudalen 250)

 

 

trail or attempt. In the face of such meaning, what sense is there in merch ln ddigynnyg, or clf tost, or brwnt digynnyg?

Example 13

 

 

(Theres an election this year, and Edwards is canvassing, and all the gentry are voting for him)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Main electshwn leni, ar Edwards yn canvaso, ar boniddigions y gyd yn voto gydag e.

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Main election leni, ar Edwards yn canvaso, ar boniddigions y gyd yn voto gydag e.

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Main election leni, ar Edwards yn canvaso, ar bonddigion y gyd yn voto gydag e.

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Main election leni, ar Edwards yn canvaso, ar bonddigion y gyd yn voto gydag e.

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
Mai etholiad eleni, a Edwards yn caslu pleidleisiau, ac mae y Boneddigion y gyd yn pleidleisio gydag ef.

 

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


Great many phrases like these may be culled out of the conversation of the people of Gwent and Morganwg, and it would be difficult to decide whether in Gwent or Morganwg is the greatest corruption, and which of the two countries has received most English words.

It is certain that in the sequestered agricultural districts a purer dialect is spoken than in the vicinities of railroads and canals. There is less English mixed with the Cymraeg of Gwentllwg than there is with that of the country along the railway from Newport to Tredegar, and along the canal from the same place to Fenni, &c.

In like manner may be contrasted the respective dialects of the people from Llantrisant to Aberddawen, and the banks of the Tav from Cardiff to Merthyr, or from Pen y bont ar Ogwr to Aberafon and the banks of Tawy.

There are often works and villages along railways and canals, whither resort the Englishman, the Irishman and the Scot, who speak English, and mock the language and manners of the Cymro.

They also come into the country with implements having each a name; and they treat the Welshman with incivility for daring to speak his native tongue in his presence. Then an attempt is made to talk English with the strangers; and as the illiterate Cymro has no designations for one-half of the implements used in the machinery, &c., the consequence is that Saxon names diversify the Cymraeg throughout all the districts aforesaid; and, unless an English-Welsh dictionary be soon published, which shall receive the approbation


 

 

 

 

(delwedd 3990) (tudalen 251)

 

 



of the literati of the Cymru (sic), the English language must needs succeed to the monarchical throne in all the works (= the industrialised valleys and uplands of the south-east).

The moroseness of the Saxon, as well as his ambitions desires, are the same now as they ever were; and insomuch as the generality of the Cymry have no names for implements, &c., ready at hand, and observe that the English have them, the same dispiritedness and dejection lay hold of them in respect of their language, as what seized their ancestors in respect of their country, when their third Llewelyn fell in the cantred of Buallt, A.D. 1290-2.

Example 14

 

(Twm, were you in the quarry today? Yes-I-was, and I brought a good load from there)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Twm, buo ti yn y gnare heddy?
Ans.- (Answer) Buo ac a ddes a load iawn oddyno

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river) (Seems to be a misprint for gware)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Twm, buo ti yn y gnare heddy?
Ans.- (Answer) Buo ac a ddes a load iawn oddyno

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Twm, buist ti yn y gnare heddy?
Ans.- (Answer) Bues, ac a ddes a load ffamws oddyno

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Twm, buo ti yn y gnare heddy?
Ans.- (Answer) Buo ac a ddes a load iawn oddyno

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P. Tomos, buaist ti yn y gloddfa heddyw?
Ans.- (Answer) Buais, ac a ddaethym a llwyth da oddiyno

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


Example 15

 




(Have you finished sowing wheat? Yes, we finished yesterday)

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Ydych chi wedi derw hau gwinith?

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Ydych chi wedi derw hau gwinith?
Ans.- (Answer) Odyn, ni gwplson ddo


(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Ydych chi wedi darfod hau gwenith?
Ans.- (Answer) Odyn, ni ddarfyddson ddo

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Odich chi wedi penu hoi gwenith?
(Footnote: Dybenu, or darfod, is the form used in Cardiganshore.-S.E.)
Ans.- (Answer) Odyn, ni benson ddoe

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
A ydych chwi wedi gorphen hau gwenith?
Ans.- (Answer) Ydym, ni a orphenasom ddoe.

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


Example 16

 

 

(Have you gathered in harvest? Yes )

(delwedd 4000)

(1) E.
Ydych chi wedi cael y cynhauaf?
Ans.- (Answer) Ydyn, and often odyn

(East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

(delwedd 4001)

(2) M.
Ydych chi wedi cael y cynhauaf?
Ans.- (Answer) Ydyn, and often odyn

(Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 4002)

(3) W.
Odych chi wedi cael eich llafyr?
Ans.- (Answer) Odyn

(West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

(delwedd 4004)

(4) D.
Odych chi wedi cwain eich llafur?
Ans.- (Answer) Odyn

(Dyfed = south-west Wales)

(delwedd 4005)

(5) P.
A ydych chwi wedi cywain eich llafur?
Ans.- (Answer) Ydym.

(= Cymraeg in its purity, that is, Standard Welsh)


...................



 

 

 

(delwedd 3991) (tudalen 252)

 

 

 



The word cywain is found in Gwent in its corrupt form cwin, but they never say there, Yr ydym wedi cywain, the word used being cael; but on the day of the cael they say, Yr im nin myned i gwin heddy.

Looking upon this field as a very diversified one, I d o not consider it necessary to pursue the foregoing order any further, though I might do so so long as memory holds out. In this place I shall arrange the words peculiar to the three divisions, and those of Gwynedd, for the sake of variety, in parallel columns: -

 


(NOTE: The following table, and the comments made by S.E., need to be treated with a certain amount of scepticism!)

 W. (West = the area west of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Cwm Rhondda / Aber-dr)

 M. (Middle, = the area between the Rhymni river and Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

E. (East = the area east of the Rhymni river)

Gwynedd  

(delwedd 4002)

(delwedd 4001)

(delwedd 4000)

(delwedd 4003)

th

ath, for aeth

th (= fright)

arswyd (= fright)
Plural -ion

 

 

 

 

tacu

tadcu

tadcu

taid (= grandfather)
Plural teidi
au

 

 

 

 

teulu

teulu

teulu

tylwyth (= family)
Plural tylwythau

 

 

 

 

dodi

dodi

dodi

rhoddi (= to give)
Plural -ion

 

 

 

 

mangu

mangu

mamgu

nain (= grandmother)
Plural neiniau

 

 

 

 

crotes, rhoces, and scenes

crotis

crotes

same
(Footnote: Hogen in Gwynedd)

 

 

 

 

crwt and rhocyn

crwt

crwt

same
(Footnote: Crwt, croten, and their derivatives are quite unknown on the northern side of the Dyvi.-S.E.)

 

 

 

 

smeityn

smityn

smityn

hawg, yr hawg (= a while)

 

 

 

 

lled hynod

lled od

lled od

go hynod (= quite strange)

 

 

 

 

gwrol

gwrol

gwrol

glew (= brave)

 

 

 

 

llawer iaw (sic)

llawer iawn

llaweriawl (sic)

gryn lawr (= very many)

 

 

 

 

rhwydddeb (rhwydd-deb)

rhwydeb

rhwydeb

ffyniant

 

 

 

 

sythu

sythu

sythu

fferi (= freeze, become very cold)

 

 

 

 

digrif

dimofal

dimwfal

ysmala

 

 

 

 

ffin

perth unberth

perth ymberth

gwahanglawdd

 

 

 

 

llyn pysgod, fishpond

pysgodlyn

pysgodlyn

pysgodlyn

 

 

 

 

coff hau

coff ha

coff ha

coff hau, crybwyll

 

 

 

 

bara cn, Gwenith (= bara gwenith)

bara cn

bara cn

bara gwyn (Footnote: Bara peillied the people of Gwynedd call wheat bread.-S.E.)

 

 

 

 

brs, tew

brs

brs

tew

pen draw

pen hwnt

pen hwnt

pen draw

ffolcyn

inislinit

inislinit

ffolddyn

 

 

 

 

trysau

tyrfau, trysau

tyrfau, trysau

taranau (= thunderclaps)

 

 

 

 

lleched

llechid

llechid

llch, mellt (= lightning flashes)

 

 

 

 

treised

trisad

trisad

aber (Footnote: Anner is the Dimetian word; heffer the Venedotian.-S.E.)

 

 

 

 

teliaidd

teliaidd

teliaidd

taclusaidd


.....

 

 

 

 

 

(delwedd 3992) (tudalen 253)

 



 

 

 

 

teisen freu

tisen froi (in fact, this would be tishan froi)

tisen froi (in fact, this would be tishan froi)

teisen frau, anaml (= infrequent)

 

 

 

 

tyle

tyle (in fact, this would be tyla)

tyle (in fact, this would be tyla)

rhiw (Footnote: Rhiw in Dyved, and gallt in Gwynedd.-S.E.)

 

 

 

 

ca

ca

ca

cae, a field

 

 

 

 

pound (= pownd), pwys

pound (= pownd)

pound (= pownd)

pwys

 

 

 

 

cariter

caritor

caritor

caritor

 

 

 

 

winch

pydew

pydew

pydew

 

 

 

 

cowrw

cywrw

cywrw

cyfrwy

 

 

 

 

diod

cwrw

cwrw

diod rhiw ( Footnote: In Gwynedd, diod is applied to any drink; cwrw to ale, or beer..-S.E.)

 

 

 

 

haidd, barlys

haidd

haidd

haidd

 

 

 

 

bachgen

bachgan

bachgan

bachgenyn

 

 

 

 

tn, gwndwn

tn

tn (sic)

gwyndon (Footnote: More commonly tyndir.-S.E.)

 

.....

The Cambrian Journal, Volume 3, 1856, pp306-314




 

 

(delwedd 3993) (tudalen 36)

 

 

 

 


A TREATISE ON THE CHIEF PECULIARITIES THAT DISTINGUISH THE CYMRAEG, AS SPOKEN BY THE INHABITANTS OF GWENT AND MORGANWG RESPECTIVELY.
BY PERERINDODWR

 

(Continued from Vol. III, page 253)


PECULIAR PHRASEOLOGIES
Menevia and Morganwg vary particularly in their mode of designating persons. In the middle and eastern divisions it is very seldom that an individual is called by his proper name, but they begin with one man, and join to him his immediate ancestors as far as the fifth degree; thus Twm Shn, Harri Twm Shn, Wil Harri Twm Shn, Dai Wil Harri Twm Shn, and Rhys Dai Wil Harri Twm Shn.


The names of the women are regulated in exactly the same way. This usage causes a great confusion in the names of individuals.

Not unfrequently are persons found in Gwentllwg with only two names; but for the most part this is an interruption of the appellative lineage. Again, may be seen two brothers by the same parents, who call themselves by different names. For instance, if the above Rhys had a brother of the name of Harri, the latter, perhaps, would be called Harri Rhys, whilst Rhys would style himself Rhys Harri, supposing that Wil Harri was his grandfather. (Thai is, the father is called Rhys and the grandfather is Harri: one son - Harri - adds his fathers name and is Harri Rhys; the other son - Rhys - adds his grandfathers and is Rhys Harri)

Thus the mode of naming the people is subject to the greatest disorder; and since the parish registers are full of this confusion, the state of genealogy in Gwent is extremely critical. It must be borne in mind that this usage is hardly perceptible on the western side of the river Tf, in Morganwg.
There is, also, throught Gwent and Morganwg, a peculiar mode of distinguishing the condition of persons in regard to their marriage, or widowhood. When a female is seen at hand, it is asked,

Pwy yw y ferch-neu-wraig eco (accw)? and,

Pwy yw y gwr-neu-was eco?


 

 

 

 

(delwedd 3994) (tudalen 37)

 

 

 



And when there is a desire to accost, or call the attention of some stranger, it is said,

Hei! y y gwr-neu-was, and

Hei! y ferch-neu-wraig.

This distinction is very fair, for a female cannot be other than a merch, or gwraig; nor can a male be other than a gwr, or gwas; i.e., a man in a servile condition, since he is not in the state of wedlock as a husband.
(Gwas does not necessarily mean a servant; but it was formerly, and it is still partly, used as a general term for a young man, without any reference to his wordly position. In the Mabinogion young noblemen are frequently called gweision. Compare, also, the opening line of the Gododin (sic)
, - Gredyf gwr oed gwas. - S.E.)

Widowhood does not change the man, nor the woman, into gwas, or merch, according to the conventional usage of the country. It is right to remember, likewise, that it is customary throughout Gwent and Morganwg to call peasants and poor children by what are termed nick-names; thus, Twm, Shn, Dai, Mocyn, Harri, Wil, Ned, Palws, Sal, Magws, &c. are made to stand for Thomas, John, David, Henry, William, Edward, Mary, Sarah, Margaret, &c.

The inhabitants of Gwent and Morganwg have divers modes of giving names to houses and places, as ty Twm Shn, ty Bet or Cwm, &c. The manner of calling a place according to its geogrqphical position prevails very extensively in this country, as Penlan, Pen y pl, Penhil, Glan rumi, Nantarw, &c; whilst Dimetia confers a name upon every hut, thus, Treaser, Trebwrnallt, Treganhaethw, Trewein, Tregadwgan, Trelodan, Treglemais, Treleter, Treteio, Trewallter, Tredduog, Trefin, Trebufired, Trearched, Tregwynt, Tremichol, &c., &c.

There is a great difference between the dialects of Menevia and Morganwg. Throughout the middle and eastern districts the vowel i has almost its full sound in hundreds of words, as shall be noticed hereafter. Towards the Saxon border, a certain strangeness dwells on the faces of the men, somewhat similar to the gloomy appearance that ensues when the sun is hidden by a cloud previous to its setting in the west.

From Ergyng to Talgoed (Caldicot) one meets with heavy, lanky, and

.....

)

 

 

 

(delwedd 3995) (tudalen 38)

 



very ignorant men; and the old people that are there, especially towards Trer Esgob (in modern Welsh Trefesgob, in English Bishton, 5 miles / 8 kilometres east of Casnewydd / Newport), speak Welsh, which is unintelligible to the uni-lingual Cymro. They have so much the English accent, and occasionally an old word like ebargofi , that they cause a mixture of grief and astonishment in the bosom of the visitor.

When he proceeds from Crughywel to Coed y Cymmer, he hears clearly the accent and pronunciation of the Brecknockian; ar yr un (? = ), lad (gwlad = contry) raig (gwraig = woman, wife) ferch y forwn ( ?y ferch y forwyn = the miad), &c, present themselves there very distinctly.

When we go from Coed y Cymmer through Cwmamman to Pont ar Ddulas, we hear the pronunciation of the Brecknockian, and that of the boys of Caermarthen. Here the speech becomes vigorous, and the voice thin, and yn wirionedd fach anwyl i (= dear me!), thinci fawr (= thank you very much) come to light; and in returning, a change will be perceived towards Margam, and a little after towards Pont Faen.

Then the body of the country is reached, and the tone becomes slow and grave, the tongue lisps a little, and the voice is thick. Abertawy, Merthyr, and all the works (= the uplands where the iron works were situated), Cardiff and Newport, are like Van Diemans Land. They contain people from every country (i.e. all over Wales), and accordingly one meets in them with the dialects and accents that distinguish every portion of the inhabitants of the Principality.

.....


Cambrian Journal, Volume 4, Year 1857, pages 207-210


 

 

 

(delwedd 3996) (tudalen 207)

 

 

 



A TREATISE ON THE CHIEF PECULIARITIES THAT DISTINGUISH THE CYMRAEG, AS SPOKEN BY THE INHABITANTS OF GWENT AND MORGANWG RESPECTIVELY,
BY PERERINDODWR

 

(Continued from page 38)


GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES
I will begin with the letters. A is uttered throughout Gwent to rapidly - too much like ha. B is articulated properly throughout both provinces; likewise C, Ch, D, Dd. Too much of the sound H is impatred to E, F, Ff, G, Ng are pronounced tolerably well; but as for H, it has to answer several purposes. It is most frequently heard where it stands as an aspirate; but throughoutthe county of Monmouth it is irregular in hanfon, haraf, hadref, &c. About half the sound of I is perceptibly used throughout the middle and eastern divisions in numbers of words, as
rhiad for rhad (= grace, blessing); so in the following,
Gwiliad (gwyliad = watch),
Tiad
(tad = father),
Niage
(nage = no),
Rhiaff
(rhaff = rope),
Hiaff
(? = ),
Cielwydd
(celwydd = celwydd),
Ciader
(cadair = chair),
Miab
(mab = son),
Biad
(bad = boat),
Gris
(grs = grace),
Gwias
(gwas = farm servant),
Miaes
(maes = field),
Cias
(cas = he / she got),
Cieffyl
(ceffyl = horse), &c.

I could not detect any such pronunciation from Penbont ar Ogwr to Pont ar Ddulas.
L is sounded correctly.

From about Penmarc and Llanddunod to Gwentllwg, Ll is changed, in respect of sound, to Th, as in arall, which is pronounced arath.

M,N,O,P,Ph,R,S,T,Th,U,W,Y, are sounded properly, except the last three.

The aspirate H is frequently associated with W, as whern for wern, &c.

The O is not quite free from this peculiarity.

The U is generally uttered quite at variance with its proper pronunciation; indded, it is not often that we can call the sounds of this vowel singly by their right names, much less its sounds in composition.

Such is the matter in which the Welsh alphabet is vocalised throughout Gwent and Morgannwg.

ACCENTUATION.-The accents, ascending, descending,

.....



 

 

 

(delwedd 3997) (tudalen 208)

 



and circumflex, are as many in both provinces as might be naturally required.

The ascending accent is found in such words as
cymmanfa (= meeting, association),
diotta (= drink alcohol), &c.

the descending in
dilu (= do away with);

and the circumflex in
parhd (= continuation).

Nature has also taught the inhabitants the proper use of the grave and light sounds, such as
gln mr (= sea side),
gln iawn (= very pretty);
tn (= wave; pastureland) and
tn (= tune), &c.

In like manner, they have learned the mutation of initial consonants, as Bara, fy mara, ei bara, ei fara (= bread, my bread, her bread, his bread), &c. All this prevails through both provinces.

NOUN AND ITS NUMBER.- Substantives are pronounced pretty much alike through all the districts, with the exception of a very slight provincial drawl.
Angel (= angel),
gwynt (= wind),
Tf (= river name),
Ffrainc (= France),
Jerusalem,
dyn (= man),
coed (= wood),
mynydd (= upland),
&c.
have all the common and correct articulation. In respect of the singular number all the provinces are equal, but in reference to the plural, Gwent loses ground; thus dyn, dynon; offeriad, offerid. Gwent is tolerably well in brawd, brodyr, bardd, beirdd, &c.

The termination ion is uttered properly in the western division; the termination au is pronounced wrongly in the eastern division, where it has the sound like eu, as angeu, dyddieu. The termination od is the same through both provinces.

The inhabitants say on for oen: and in the plural ŵyn, which is used alike in all divisions.

The plurals of
bran (= crow),
march (= stallion),
llestr (= dish),
collen (= hazel tree),
plentyn (= child),

namely brain, meirch, llestri, cyll, plant, are by them pronounced correctly; but they fail in

merchid ed,
hidden (= heidden, barleycorn)
he,
llysodd oedd,
trad aed,
(what is meant here it that colloquially merched > merchid, heidden > hidden, llysoedd > llysodd, traed > trad)
,

the plurals of
merch (= girl)
,
haidd (= barley; barley plants) (in fact the singulative of this word),
llys (= court),
troed (= foot)
 
GENDER OF NOUN.- The masculine and feminine genders are tolerably consistent with the general rules; but the unknown class is very irregular. Very often they commit sad mistakes in the gender, and vary widely from what the grammars teach. Asyn is asen, and mwlsyn is asyn, always through all the divisions.

It is not often that they use the word hwrdd, because they have minharan instead, whilst dafad is used for the feminine.

The

____________________________________________



 

 

(delwedd 3998) (tudalen 209)

 

 



es is employed pretty correctly, as brenin, brenhines. I do not remember meeting with a conjunction of name and gender, except in matters pertaining to the dairy, as hafodwraig and hafodferch. Many hafottai may be seen throughout Gwent and Morgannwg.
 
ADJECTIVE.- Under this head the word peth frequently occurs, as peth drwg, peth mawr, peth gwan, &c., throughout both districts. Their mode af rendering an adjective plural is similar to that which refers to substantives,
llas e,
llison ei ion,
main, minon ei io,
noth, noethion, noithon ei io,
trwm, trymon, trwmon ym io,
bychan, bychin ai,
gwan, gwinid ei ai,
&c.
 
COMPARATIVE DEGREES.- This class is also much in accordance with nature, and there is considerable accuracy in the arrangement of comparison throughout the country. Tha positive, comparative and superlative degrees are found to be tolerably regular, as byr, byrach, byraf; tal, talach, talaf. They use some that are derived from the comparative, and not from the positive; as agos, nes, nesaf; the comparitive neasach is sometimes found in this degree. Again, bach, llai, lleiaf (lliaf). We have also cyn laned, lled dda, mwy mawr, mwyaf. I know not how the difference, being so little, between the usages of both provinces on this head can possibly be described.
 
PRONOUN.- Through Gwent and Morgannwg no first person singular other than mi,fi, y, I, is used; and ninau, which in the plural is pronouced nin, and in the singular (!) ni, which is all that is heard in the several divisions:

In the second person singular we have ti and tith, chi and chith.

Nyninau and chwychwithau are never heard in the colloquial converstaion of the people.

The third person singular is efe, ef, hi, fe; seldom or never is heard anything but nhw in the plural.


In the possessive class the custom is to have fy for the first person singular, and ein in the plural.


In the second person singular they use dy, th and eith; in the plural, eich, ch (ych), and eiddoch.


In the third person singular they use ei and eiddo; in the plural eu, and sometimes eiddont.


Through
-----



 

 

(delwedd 3999) (tudalen 210)

 

 



the region of Morganwg the word hun is very frequently used, as fy hun; but, in the region of Monmouth, mihinan is the most usual form; also hunein instead of hunain.

The Demonstrative Pronouns, which are generally used, are the following: -
Singular, hon, hwn, hyn; plural, y rhain, y rhai yma.


Hwn yma, hon yma, &c. are never heard in the country, but hwna, hona and rhai yna, are very frequently used.


Instead of hwnacw and honacw, the people say hwnco and honco. Hw`nw, hno and y rhai hyny are in proper use with them.

The Relative Pronouns that are used in both countries are yr hwn, yr hon, yr hyn, y rhai, y neb, y naill, y llall, y sawl, y rhai hyn, y rhai hyny, &c.

The Interrogative Pronouns are pwy, pa un, pa rai, pa beth, beth, &c.

They use the Indefinite Pronouns thus, arath (arall); nall (llall), naill, pon, rhai, rhwyn (rhywun) rhwrai (rhywrai), llill (lleill), un. neb, erill (eraill), oll, pawb, &c. These are used colloquially throughout the country, but an occasional bard is found who uses pronouns more in accordance with grammar; the same may be said of some of the readers of Welsh periodicals, and acute men who are in the habit of listening to some religious minister, famed for the correctedness of his style. Nevertheless, particular occasions like these will not alter the manners of the thousands who talk in the vulgar style, following the dialect and custom of the country, without making an effort to correct themselves.

(to be continued)


(Maen debyg na chwblheuwyd mor gyfres yn y diwedd. O leiaf, nid wyf wedi dod ar draws y rhan olynol yn rhifynnau nesar cylchgrawn.)
(But it seems that in fact it never was! I have found no follow-up in further issues of The Cambrian Journal)
.


_________



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Adolygiadau diweddaraf / Latest updates / Darreres actualitzacions: 31-05-2017, 24 07 2000, (cywiro gwallau teipio - typos corrected), 11-05-2006,

20 07 2002 (cywiro gwallau teipio - typos corrected)

 

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