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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website


Y Gwe-eiriadur
An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

 

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Cybi <KƏ-bi> [ˡkəbɪ] (masculine noun)
1
Celtic saint (male) (occus in place names: Caergybi, Ynys Cybi, Llangybi)
2 revived as a mans name c. 20c.
:_______________________________.

cybolfa
<kə-BOL-va> [kəˡbɔlva] (feminine noun)
1
mess (North)
y gybolfa = the mess

:_______________________________.

cyboli
<kə-BOO-li> [kəˡboˑlɪ] (verb)
1
say stupid things (North)

:_______________________________.

cybolwr, cybolwyr <kə-BOO-lur, kə-BOL-wir> [kəˡboˑlʊr, kəˡbɔlwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
(North) person who botches things

:_______________________________.

cybl <kə-BOOL> [kəˡboːl] (masculine noun)
1
(North Wales) nonsense

:_______________________________.

cybydd, cybyddion
<KƏ-bidh, kə-BƏDH-yon> [ˡkəbɪ, kəˡbəjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
miser
Hen gybydd, dyna wyt ti An old miser, thats what you are

Tipyn o gybydd oedd e He was a bit of a miser

gwledd y cybydd the misers feast (a potato, onion and bacon stew)

 

ETYMOLOGY: Latin cupīdus (= desirous) < cupīdō (= desire)< cupere (= to desire)

 

:_______________________________.

cybydd-dod
<kə-BƏDH-dod> [kəˡbədɔd] (masculine noun)
1
miserliness

 

:_______________________________.

cybydd-dra
<kə-BƏDH-dra> [kəˡbədra] (masculine noun)
1
miserliness

 

:_______________________________.

cychod
<KƏ-khod> [ˡkəxɔd] (plural noun)
1
boats (plural of cwch)

:_______________________________.

cychwyn
<KƏKH-win> [ˡkəxwɪn] (verb / masculine noun)
1
(vi) start, have as its origin

Mae Cwm Cadlan yn cychwyn rhwng mynyddau y Cadlan ar Glog, yn Sir Frycheiniog

Cwm Cadlan (valley of the Cadlan stream) begins between the hills of Y Cadlan and Y Glog, in the county of Brycheiniog

 

2 (vi) (journey, race) to begin, to set off
arwydd cychwyn starting signal
rhoir arwydd cychwyn to give the starting signal

bloc cychwyn starting block

llinell gychwyn starting line

cychwyn cam false start


cychwyn ir mr set out to sea (begin to the sea)
c
ychwyn am adre set off for home, set off home

cychwyn ar dramp set off on a wander, start out on an excursion

...cychwyn ar dramp i wlad tramor set off on a journey to a foreign country
cychwyn ar gyflymdra set off at speed, speed off
...cychwyn ar gyflymdra or goleuadau traffig set off at speed from the ttraffic lights

cychwyn ar l rhywun set off after somebody, begin to follow somebody

 

postyn cychwyn (horse racing) starting post (post (of) starting)
gadael (ceffyl) wrth y postyn cychwyn (in a horse race) - to leave (a horse) standing, rush ahead before another horse has, or other horses have, started to move off

 

cychwyn ar eich taith i set off on one's journey to / towards

ar gychwyn about to start

Maer gystadleuaeth dynnu rhaff ar gychwyn The tug-of-war competition is about to begin

 

cychwyn tua make for = begin to walk in the direction of
Cychwynnodd tua'r drws He made for the door

 

3 (vi) start = begin to function

Bydd y gwasanaeth newydd yn cychwyn ar y cyntaf o Fehefin

The new service will begin on the first of June

 

Bydd Cwrs Hyfforddi llawn amser yn cychwyn ym mis Tachwedd

A full-time training course will begin in November

 

4 (vi) cychwyn ar eich gwaith begin a job, undertake a task

Bydd y gweithgor yn cychwyn ar ei waith y mis nesaf The executive committee will begin its work next month

 

cychwyn ar eich gyrfa begin one's career, begin one's working life

Dywedir iddo gychwyn ar ei yrfa fel prentis yn Ffowndri Glaslyn

It is said that he began his working life as an apprentice in the Glaslyn Foundry

 

5 (vt) start, begin, set up, establish, set in motion

Cychwynnodd Cangen Merched y De i hyrwyddo'r achos dirwestol

He began the South Wales Womens Branch to promote the cause of teetotalism / abstinence from alcohol

 

Bun obaith ganddo ers amser i gychwyn siop newydd yn y pentref

It had been a long-time hope of his to start a new shop in the village

 

cychwyn busnes set up a business

cychwyn terfysg start a riot

 

gychwyn gwely winwns start an onion bed, prepare a small patch of land to grow onions

 

5 (vt) set (somebody) on a path

 

cychwyn (plentyn) iw wely get (a child) off to bed (start a child to his bed)

cychwyn (rhywun) ar lwybr dinistr set somebody off on the road to ruin

 

6 (m) beginning = start, outset

 

7 (m) start = place where a journey, a race begins

 

8(m) leap, jump

Y ddraig goch ddyry cychwyn The red dragon gives a leap Welsh motto; see draig. The probable reference is to a bull mounting a cow.

Cf English start which has the senses of jump and begin (a word of Scandinavian origin with jump as the original meaning)

 

9 (m) go = energy, iniciative, impetus (in a person)
(North Wales) Does cychwyn arno Hes got no go in him (theres no starting / initiative on him)
digychwyn lacking impetus or initiative
Un digychwyn di o Hes got no go in him

10 (m) (Welsh Laws) movable goods

11 ar y cychwyn at first, at the beginning

Meddyliais ar y cychwyn fod y llwynog wedi dianc trwyr drws

At first I thought the fox had escaped through the door

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cy- prefix) + (chwyn).

The element chwyn (< British < Celtic) is from Celtic *skwin.

Cf Irish scinn (= start, spring; dart, rush; escape, depart suddenly)

 

Cf Latin ascendere (= to climb up), (a- = prefix) + (-scendere; a form of scandere = to climb).

This has given Welsh esgyn (= ascend), and also English ascend.

 

Scandere is also scan verse , as in Welsh sganio (from English scan)

 

NOTE: Page 46 / A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative / John Morris-Jones (1864-1929) /1913:

The following words may be mentioned as those most commonly mispronounced: wy is the falling diphthong in cer2226_wy_mwyn_y_ar_ffurf_h_hanner_cylchn vat, disg2226_wy_mwyn_y_ar_ffurf_h_hanner_cylchl, look, expect, G2226_wy_mwyn_y_ar_ffurf_h_hanner_cylchnedd Venedotia, G2226_wy_mwyn_y_ar_ffurf_h_hanner_cylchndid, id., mor2226_wy_mwyn_y_ar_ffurf_h_hanner_cylchn maiden, ter2226_wy_mwyn_y_ar_ffurf_h_hanner_cylchn fervent; it is the rising diphthong in oher2227_wy_gwych_w_y_ar_ffurf_hdd because of, cych2227_wy_gwych_w_y_ar_ffurf_hn, rise, start, erch2227_wy_gwych_w_y_ar_ffurf_hn protector, [bed]-side, ded2227_wy_gwych_w_y_ar_ffurf_hdd happy



:_______________________________.

cychwynfa
<kə-KHWƏN-va> [kəˡxwənva] feminine noun
PLURAL: cychwynfydd <
kə-khwən-VEIDH> [kəxwənˡvəɪ]
1
start, starting place

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cychwynn- stem of cychwyn = to begin) + (-fa suffix = place)

 

:_______________________________.

cychwyniad <kə-KHWƏN-yad> [kəˡxwənjad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cychwyniadau <
kə-khwən-YAA-dai, -de> [kəxwənˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
start, beginning

2 origin, birth
gwlad eich cychwyniad your country of origin ((the) country (of) your beginning)

ETYMOLOGY: (cychwynn- stem of cychwyn = to begin) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cychwynnydd
<kə-KHWƏ-nidh> [kəˡxwənɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cychwynwyr <
kə-KHWƏN-wir> [kəxˡwənwɪr]
1
starter (person who gives the signal to begin a race)

gwn cychwynnydd starting pistol (gun (of) (a) starter)

gwn y cychwynnydd the starting pistol ((the) gun (of) the starter)


:_______________________________.

cyd-
<kiid> [kiːd] (prefix)
1
together, con-

In modern coinings, used as an equivalent of the Latin prefix con- (= with) (see below c
ytref, cytsain, cytser)

2 (cyd + t) > (cyd-d) > (cyt-)
..a/ cytew (North Wales)
..........(adj) (liquid) thick, stiff;
.......... (m) egg batter (flour, eggs, milk)
cytew < cyd-dew (cyd- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (tew = fat; thick)

..b/ cytir common land (wood, pasture or waste)
cytir < cyd-dir (cyd- = joint) + soft mutation + ( tir = land)

..c/ cytref conurbation
cytref < cyd-dref (cyd- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (tref = town)

3 (cyd + s) > (cyt-s-)

c
ytsain (= consonant),

c
ytser (= constellation)

:_______________________________.

cyd-adrodd
<kiid-A-drodh> [kiːdˡadrɔ] (verb)
1
recite together

:_______________________________.


cyd-daro
<kiid-DAA-ro> [kiːdˡdɑˑrɔ] v
1 coincide

2
cyd-drawiad (qv) coincidence

ETYMOLOGY: hitting together (cyd-
prefix = together) + soft mutation + (taro = to hit, to strike)



:_______________________________.

cyd-ddweud
<kiid-DHWEID> [kiːdˡwəɪd] verb
1
say to each other

Hebryngwyd ef at ei dadau i fynwent plwyf Llanbrynmair, gan dyrfa fawr o wŷr bucheddol, mewn teimladau drylliog; a phawb yn cyd-ddyweud fod tywysog a gŵr mawr wedi cwympo yn Israel." (Cofiant y Tri Brawd / E Pan Jones / 1892 / t11)
He was taken to lie with his forefathers in the cemetery of the parish of Llanbrynmair, by a great crowd of non-chapel people, overcome with emotion; everybody said to each other that a prince and a great man had fallen in Israel.


ETYMOLOGY: (cyd = together) + soft mutation + (dweud = to say)

:_______________________________.

c
yddwyso <kə-DHUI-so> [kəˡʊɪsɔ] verb
1
condense = change from gas to liquid in contact with a cold surface

ETYMOLOGY: (c
y- intensifying prefix, form of cyf-) + soft mutation + (dwyso = intensify)
Cf. c
ywasgu (= to compress) < gwasgu (= to press, to squeeze)

:_______________________________.

c
yddwysydd <-DHUI-SIDH> [kəˡʊɪsɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyddwysyddion <-DHUI-sədh-yon> [kəʊɪˡsəjɔn] 1 condenser = apparatus for converting vapour into liquid

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yddwys- stem of cyddwyso = to condense) (-ydd noun suffix for indicating a device or an agent)

:_______________________________.

cyd-drawiad
<kid-DRAU-yad> [kɪdˡdraʊjad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyd-drawiadau <
kid-drau-YAA-dai, -e> [kɪddraʊˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
coincidence

Nid cyd-drawiad yw bod its no coincidence that

ETYMOLOGY: (cyd-draw- stem of cyd-daro = to coincide) +(
i-ad noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyd-drefnedig
<kid-drev-NEE-dig> [kɪddrɛvˡneˑdɪg] adj
1 co-ordinated

ETYMOLOGY: (cyd-drefn- stem of cyd-drefnu = coordinar) + (-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)

:_______________________________.

cyd-enwadol
<kiid-en-WAA-dol> [kiːdɛnˡwɑˑdɔl] (adjective)
1
interdenominational
:_______________________________.

cyd-hyd
<kiid-HIID> [kiːdˡhiːd] masculine noun
1
of the same length
bod gyd-led gyd-hyd be as long as it is broad

(bod = to be) + soft mutation + (cyd-led = co-length) + soft mutation + (cyd-hyd = co-width). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases. hence cyd > gyd

:_______________________________.

cydio
<KƏD-yo> [ˡkədjɔ] (verb)
1
cydio mewn (+ indefinite noun) get hold of

cydio yn (+ definite noun) get hold of; pick up
cydio yn rhywun gerfydd ei goler grab someone by the collar
cydiais mewn cylchgrawn oedd ar y bwrdd I picked up a magazine that was on the table

cydia yn hwnna get hold of that

cydiodd yn y pysgodyn gerfydd ei gynffon he picked up the fish by its tail

South Wales: citsho

Parry-Williams, Thomas Herbert; Some points of similarity in the phonology of Welsh and Breton (1913): In S[outh]. W[ales]. a palatalised d has become dsh 

or dj, or even tsh, citsio or citsho (cydio) [= get hold of], sgidje, or sgitshe (esgidiau) [= shoes]. Cf. jawl for diawl [= devil]

 

citsha yn'o fa (south-east Wales) catch hold of it (= cydia ynddo fe)

North Wales: also cydiad

 

2 (fire) catch = start to burn

dywr tn ddim yn cydio maer pren yn rhy wlyb the fires not catching the woods too wet

 

3 (mechanism) catch = take hold

dyw clor drws ddim yn cydio rhaid imi ei oelio the door lock isnt catching Ill have to oil it

 

4 cydio wrth stick to, get stuck to

maer omled wedi cydio wrth y ffrimpan the omelettes got stuck to the frying pan

 

:_______________________________.

cyd-led
<kiid-LEED> [kiːdˡleːd] masculine noun
1
of the same width
bod gyd-led gyd-hyd be as long as it is broad

(bod = to be) + soft mutation + (cyd-led = co-length) + soft mutation + (cyd-hyd = co-width). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases. hence cyd > gydd

:_______________________________.

cydlynu
<kəd-LƏ-ni> [kədˡlənɪ] verb
1 cohere = stick together in a mass

2 co-ordinate
Fe fydd yn gyfrifol am gyd-lynu gweithgareddau marchnata'r coleg
Hell be the one responsible for co-ordinating the collegess marketing activities

ETYMOLOGY: 'stick together' (cyd- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (glynu = to stick) Calque on English cohere < Latin cohaerre (= stick together), (co- = together) + (haerre = adhere)
:_______________________________.

cydlynus
<kəd-LƏ-nis> [kədˡlənɪs] adj
1 coherent
fframwaith c
ydlynus coherent framework
strategaeth g
ydlynus coherent strategy

ETYMOLOGY: (cydlyn- stem of cydlynu = cohere) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

cydnabod
<kəd-NAA-bod> [kədˡnɑˑbɔd] (verb)
1
to recognise

:_______________________________.

 

cydnabyddedig <kəd-bə-DHEE-dig> [kədnabəˡeˑdɪg] (adj)
1
recognised

cymhares gydnabyddedig (f), cymaresau cydnabyddedig common-law wife (recognised wife)

ETYMOLOGY: (cydnabydd- stem of cydnabod = recognise) + (-edig past participle suffix, equivalent to English -ed)
:_______________________________.

cydol
<KƏ-dol> [ˡkədɔl] masculine or feminine noun
1
totality, whole (in use only in a number of set expressions)
trwy gydol y nos all night long
am gydol y flwyddyn all year long

ETYMOLOGY: noun the whole < adjective total, entire, whole;
(cyd < cyyd < cyhyd = so long, as long) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

 

:_______________________________.

cyd-orwedd
<kiid-OR-wedh> &[kiːdˡɔrwɛ] verb
1
cyd-orwedd to lie together with, to lie alongside


:_______________________________.

cydradd
[KƏD-radh] [ˡkədra] (adjective)
1
of equal rank
2
c
ymal cydradd co-ordinating clause

:_______________________________.

cydran, cydrannau
<KƏ-dran, kə-DRA-nai, -e> [ˡkədran, kəˡdranaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
component (for a car)
y gydran = the component

:_______________________________.

c
ydrannol <kə-DRA-nol> [kəˡdranɔl]
1
shared
2
wal g
ydrannol party wall

ETYMOLOGY: (cyd prefix = together) + soft mutation + (rhannol = partial)


:_______________________________.

cyd-synio
<kiid-SƏN-yo> [kədˡsənjɔ] (verb)
1
to agree with
cyd-synio rhywun to agree with somebody
:_______________________________.

cydweddiad, cydweddiadau
<kəd-WEDH-yad, kəd-wedh-YAA-dai, -e> [kədˡwɛjad, kədwɛˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
analogy
2
camg
ydweddiad false analogy

:_______________________________.

cyd-
weithfa, cyd-weithfydd
<kiid-WEITH-va, kiid-weith-VEIDH> [kiːdˡwəɪθva, kiːiˑdwəɪθˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
1
cooperative
y gyd-weithfa = the cooperative

:_______________________________.

cyd-weithio
<kiid-WEITH-yo> [kiːdˡwəɪθjɔ] (verb)
1
to cooperate

:_______________________________.

cyd-weithredu
<kiid-weith-REE-di> [kiːdwəɪθˡreˑdɪ] (verb)
1
to collaborate

:_______________________________.

Cydweli
<kəd-WEE-li> [kədˡweˑlɪ] (feminine noun)
1
village, south-west; see Cedweli

:_______________________________.

cydymaith, cymdeithion
<kə-DƏ-maith, -meth, kəm-DEITH-yon> [kəˡdəmaɪθ, -ɛθ kəmˡdəɪθjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
travelling companion

:_______________________________.

cyfaddasiad
<kə-va-DHAS-yad> [kəvaˡasjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfaddasiadau <
kə-va-dhas-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvaasˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
adaptation
2
abbreviation (in a dictionary entry) = cfdds.

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfaddas-, stem of cyfaddasu = to adapt) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfaddef
<kə-VAA-dhev, kə-VAA-dhe> [kəˡvɑˑɛv, kəˡvɑˑɛ] (verb)
Colloquially; cyfadde

1 to confess

:_______________________________.

cyfadran, cyfadrannau
<kə-VA-dran, kə-va-DRA-nai, -e> [kəˡvadran, kəvaˡdranaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
university faculty
y gyfadran= the faculty

:_______________________________.

cyfagos
<kə-VAA-gos> [kəˡvɑˑgɔs] (adjective)
1
nearby

:_______________________________.

cyfaill
<KƏ-vailh, -velh> [ˡkəvaɪɬ, ˡkəvɛɬ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfeillion <
kə-VEILH-yon> [kəˡvəɪɬjɔn]
1
friend
cwrdd hen gyfeillion meet old friends
cyfeillion bore oes childhood friends (friends (of) morning (of) life)
cyfaill mynwesol bosom friend
cyfaill calon bosom friend (friend (of) heart)
cyfaill ysgol school friend
cyfaill tywyllodrus a false friend, a friend who deceives (a deceitful friend)

2
some phrases with cyfaill i (friend + to)
bod yn gyfaill i mi be a friend of mine, be friends with me, be my friend (be a friend to me)
Dyw e ddim yn gyfaill i mi Hes not my friend, Hes no friend of mine
bod yn hen gyfaill i mi be an old friend of mine
mynd yn gyfaill i mi become my friend, become friends with me
cyfaill ir teulu a friend of the family ((a) friend to the family)
cyfaill o artist i mi an artist friend of mine ((a) friend of artist to me)

3
Cyfaill ynteu gelyn? (Soldier on watch duty challenging someone unknown) Friend or foe?

4
friend = patron, sponsor, benefactor
cyfaill ir tlodion a friend of the poor

As cyfeillion friends in titles of support groups for some cause or instituion
Cyfeillion yr Amgueddfa Friends of the Museum (society to raise funds for a museum)

5
bod chyfeillion yn y llys to have friends at court, to know people in an influential position who can help

6
Y cyfaill gwir yn yr ing fei gwelir A friend in need is a friend indeed
(the true friend, in the anguish he is seen - i.e. he will appear when you are in an anguished situation)

7
Cyfaill Friend, Quaker
Cymdeithas Grefyddol y Cyfeillion The Religious Society of Friends or Cymdeithas y Cyfeillion The Society of Friends - the proper designation of the Christian body founded by George Fox (1624-91) known popularly as the Quakers

8
as part of the title of certain books, almanacs, magazines in the 1800s
Cyfaill Defnyddiol Useful Friend
Cyfaill yr Aelwyd ((the) friend (of) the fireplace / hearth) magazine 1881-1894

9
Christianity y Cyfaill gorau gaed said of Jesus (the best friend that was ever had)

10
Christianity Cyfaill Duw The Friend of God = Abraham, a patriarch of the Old Testament and founder of the Hebrew people

Iago 2:23 A chyflawnwyd yr ysgrythur yr hon sydd yn dywedyd, Credodd Abraham i Dduw, a chyfrifwyd iddo yn gyfiawnder: a Chyfaill Duw y galwyd ef
James 2:23 And the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, Abraham believed God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness: and he was called the Friend of God

11
(in addressing a friend or friends),
gyfaill, friend!, gyfeillion! friends
(in Welsh there is generally soft mutation of the initial in vocative forms)

Einion, gyfaill da My good friend Einion (in beginning a letter)

ETYMOLOGY: cyfaill < cyfaillt
(cyf- prefix) + (aillt) < British *kom-alt-jos (= joined together; joined in friendship)
The element alt is to be seen

(1) in obsolete Welsh cyfalle (= union, joining together; spouse) < cyfalledd < British *kom-alt-ij

(2) in Cornish kevals (= joint, articulation) (British kom-alt),

(3) and in the Irish words alt (= joint, articularion); comhalta (= foster brother, foster sister; member);
and comhaltas (= association)

NOTE: cyfeilles (= female friend) (cyfaill + -es, suffix denoting a female);
y gyfeilles the (female) friend

:_______________________________.

c
yfaint <KƏ-vaint> [ˡkəvaɪnt] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfeintiau <kə-VEINT-yai, -ye> [kəˡvəɪntjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 volume = space in a container occupied by a liquid or gas
space holding cubical content

ETYMOLOGY:
(c
y- < cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (maint = size)

:_______________________________.

c
yfair <KƏ-vair -ver> [ˡkəvaɪr, ˡkəvɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfeiriau <kə-VEIR-yai, -ye> [kəˡvəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 (obsolete) direction

2 region, place, spot
From this sense is the preposition ar g
yfer (= opposite; ar facing + soft mutation + cyfer / cyfair (= direction, place). Cf Scottish fa chomhair (= opposite, literally: under + direction )

3 acre = measure of land, 4,840 square yards

4 acre = land measuring an acre

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British.
From the same British root: Breton kever, kever-douar (= acre)
From the same Celtic root: Irish comhair in the preposition phrase faoi chomhair (= for, intended for); Scottish fa chomhair (= opposite)

:_______________________________.

cyfalaf
<kə-VAA-lav> [kəvˡɑˑlav] masculine noun
1
capital = wealth used for the production of more wealth

2
capital = a persons savings
byw ar eich cyfalaf live off ones capital (live on ones capital)

3
capital, = money invested
croniad cyfalaf capital accumulation (accumulation / gathering (of) capital)
cyfalaf cyfrandaliadau share capital (capital (of) shares)
cyfalaf gweithredol working capital (capital + working, operative)
dibrisiad cyfalaf capital depreciation (depreciation (of) capital)
enillion cyfalaf capital gains (gains / earnings (of) capital)
gwariant cyfalaf capital expenditure (expenditure (of) capital)
treth ar enillion cyfalaf capital gains tax (tax on earnings (of) capital)

4
Capital = the capitalist class and its interests (cf Llafur = labour)
cyfalaf a llafur capital and labour

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + (alaf (obsolete) = herd of cattle)

:_______________________________.

cyfalafiaeth
<kə-va-LAV-yaith -yeth> [kəvaˡlavjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
1
capitalism = economic system where wealth used for production is owned by individuals and not the state

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfalaf = capital) + (-i-aeth, suffix to form abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyfalafol
<kə-va-LAA-vol> [kəvaˡlɑˑvɔl] adjective
1
capitalist

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfalaf = capital) + (-ol = suffix to form adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfalafwr
<kə-va-LAA-vur> [kəvaˡlɑˑvʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfalafwyr <
kə-va-LAV-wir> [kəvaˡlavwɪr]
1
capitalist = person who owns capital; private owner, as opposed to a a state (as an agent of public ownership)

2
capitalist = supporter of capitalism

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfalaf = capital) + (-wr, suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

cyfan
<KƏ-van> [ˡkəvan] (adjective)
1
whole, total, all
mentror c
yfan go for broke (venture the whole lot)

2
y cyfan o, the whole of, all
bron y cyfan o almost all, nearly all

Mae en
treulio bron y cyfan o'i amser hamdden yn y tafarn
He spends nearly all of his leisure time in the pub

y cyfan bron o almost all, nearly all

:_______________________________.

cyfandir, cyfandiroedd
<kə-VAN-dir, kə-van-DII-roidh, -rodh> [kəˡvandɪr, kəvanˡdiˑrɔɪ -ɔ] (masculine noun)
1
continent

:_______________________________.

cyfandirol
<kə-van-DII-rol> [kəvanˡdiˑrɔl] (adjective)
1
continental

:_______________________________.

cyfanfor
<kə-VAN-vor> [kəˡvanvɔr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfanforoedd <kə-van-VOO-roidh, -rodh> [kəvanˡvoˑrɔɪ -ɔ]
1
ocean
Dros Gyfanfor a Chyfandir (over ocean and continent) title of a book by William Davies Evans (Aberystwyth 1883) relating his travels in the USA in 1881-2

There is an on-line edition of this book in our website: Type kimkat, gyfanfor into Google search box

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfan = entire, complete) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)

:_______________________________.

cyfannedd
<kə-VA-nedh> [kəˡvanɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfanheddau <
kə-va-NHEE-dhai, -e> [kəvaˡnheˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
dwelling place

Habacuc 1:6 Canys wele fi yn codi y Caldeaid, cenedl chwerw a phrysur, yr hon a rodia a r hyd lled y tir, i feddiannu cyfanheddoedd nid yw eiddynt
Habakkuk 1:6 For, lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the breadth of the land, to possess the dwellingplaces that are not theirs

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + (annedd = dwelling)

:_______________________________.

cyfannol
<kə-VA-nol> [kəˡvanɔl] adj
1 integrated
Rheoli Ansawdd C
yfannol Integrated Quality Management
cylched gyfannol (f) plural cylchedau c
yfannol integrated circuit
Rhaglen
Ymchwil Gyfannol Integrated Research Programme
cludiant cyfannol integrated transport
trafnidiaeth gyfannol integrated transport

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfann- penultimate syllable form of cyfan = complet) (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfansoddi
<kə-van-SOO-dhi> [kəvanˡsoˑɪ] (verb)
1
to compose

:_______________________________.

cyfansoddiad
<kə-van-SODH-yad> [kəvanˡsɔjad] (masculine noun)

PLURAL: cyfansoddiadau <
kə-van-sodh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvansɔjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
constitution

2 composition

:_______________________________.

cyfanswm, cyfansymiau
<kə-VAN-sum, kə-van-SƏM-yai, -e> [kəˡvansʊm, kəvanˡsəmjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
total amount

:_______________________________.

c
yfar <KƏ-VAR> [ˡkəvar] masculine noun
1
(obsolete) joint ploughing, co-tillage

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- prefix = co-, together) + (r = tillage)
Cornish kevar (= joint tillage ), Breton kever (= direction; arpent unit of length)
Cf Irish: comhar (= combined work, co-operation)

:_______________________________.

cyfarch
<KƏ-varkh> [ˡkəvarx] verb
1
greet = say hello to

2
cyfarch ei gilydd say hello to each other, greet each other

ni chyfarchodd yr un or ddau ei gilydd neither of the two greeted the other

3
cyfarch (rhywun) fel chi use the chi form with someone (the polite way of saying you, equivalent in use to French vous, Catalan vos, as distinct from the familiar form ti, equivalent to French tu, Catalan tu)

4
cyfarch gwell i to greet
cyfarch gwell iw gilydd to greet each other

ETYMOLOGY: the verb is from the noun cyfarch = greeting

:_______________________________.

cyfarch
<KƏ-varkh> [ˡkəvarx] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfarchion <
kə-VARKH-yon> [kəˡvarxjɔn]
1
greeting
cyfarchion oddi wrth... greetings from...
cyfarchion y tymor (in Christmas cards, etc) compliments of the season, seasons greetings

2
attributive complimentary = given free as a courtesy;
copi cyfarch complimentary copy

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = each other) + (-arch = order)

:_______________________________.

cyfarchfa
<kə-VARKH-va> [kəˡvarxva] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyfarchfydd <
kə-varkh-VEIDH> [kəvarxˡvəɪ]
1
(obsolete) reception place
y gyfarchfa = the reception place

2
possibly hailing place, place on a riverbank to call a ferry boat from the other bank
Cyfarchfa Lost place name in Caer-dydd

According to John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911):
CYFARCHFA (the hailing-place.) An old thatched cottage on the east bank of the river Taff, a little south of Llandaff bridge.

If this interpretation is correct (hailing place, hallowing point, place on a riverbank to call a ferry boat from the other bank) it is equivalent to the American place name Hallowing Point, which George R. Stewart, in American Place-Names 1970 notes as occuring in Maryland and Virginia, and defines it as a place at one end of a ferry passage... where a person had to stand and hallow, i.e. halloo or shout to gain the attention of the ferryman on the other side.

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfarch, stem of the verb cyfarch = greet; call, hail, summon) + (-fa suffix = place)

:_______________________________.

cyfarchiad, cyfarchion
<kə-VARKH-yad, kə-VARKH-yon> [kəˡvarxjad, kəˡvarxjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
greeting

:_______________________________.

c
yfardir <KƏ-VAR-dir> [ˡkəvarˡdɪr] masculine noun
1
(obsolete) joint ploughland

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yfar = co-tillage) + soft mutation + (tir = land)

:_______________________________.

cyfarfod
<kə-VAR-vod> [kəˡvarvɔd] (verb)
1
to meet

:_______________________________.

cyfarfod, cyfarfodydd
<kə-VAR-vod, kə-var-VOO-didh> [kəˡvarvɔd, kəvarˡvoˑdɪ] (masculine noun)
1
meeting

:_______________________________.

cyfartal
<kə-VAR-tal> [kəˡvartal] (adjective)
1
equal
bod
yn gyfartal r gofynion be equal to the occasion (be equal to the requirements)
2
(football match) drawn

:_______________________________.

cyfarth
<KƏ-varth> [ˡkəvarθ] (verb)
1
to bark

2
gwaeth eich cyfarth nach brath your bark is worse than your bite;
(she) gwaeth ei ch
yfarth nai brath her bark her bite
(he) gwaeth ei g
yfarth nai frath his bark his bite

Gwaeth ei gyfarth nai frath is said of a man whose angry words are worse than any action he may do, that is, of man who can be very angry but who wont really carry out any threats he makes

(gwaeth = worse) + (eich = your) + (c
yfarth = bark) + (na = than) + (eich) + (brath = bark)

:_______________________________.

cyfarthiad
<kə-VARTH-yad> [kəˡvarθjad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfarthiadau <
kə-varth-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvarθˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]

1
bark; barking

cyfarthiad ci ar y lleuad the barking of a dog at the moon said of some action which has no effect whatsoever

Ni effeithia fwy arnynt na chyfarthiad ci ar y lleuad
It wont effect them any more than the barking of a dog at the moon

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfarth-, stem of cyfarth = to bark) + (-iad prefix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyfarwydd
<kə-VAA-ruidh> [kəˡvɑˑrʊɪ] (adjective)
1
familiar

:_______________________________.

cyfarwyddiadau
<kə-va-ruidh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvarʊɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
instructions

:_______________________________.

cyfarwyddo
<kə-va-RUI-dho> [kəvarˡʊɪɔ] (verb)
1
instruct, advise, guide
2
clinig c
yfarwyddo plant child guidance clinic

:_______________________________.

cyfarwyddwr
<kə-va-RUI-dhur> [kəvarˡʊɪʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfarwyddwyr <
kə-va-RUIDH-wir> [kəvarˡʊɪwɪr] 1 director

Cyfarwyddwr Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru The director of the University of Wales
cyfarwyddwr addysg director of education
cyfarwyddwr gweithredol executive director
cyfarwyddwr ariannol financial director

2
supervisor = tutor supervising the research work of a student

3
guide
cyfarwyddwr ysbrydol spiritual guide

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfarwydd- stem of cyfarwyddo = direct; advise; instruct) + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

cyfatal
<kə-VA-tal> [kəˡvatal] (adjective)
variable (weather)

:_______________________________.

cyfathrach
<kə-VATH-rakh> [kəˡvaθrax] (feminine noun)
1
intercourse
y gyfathrach = intercourse

2
sexual intercourse
cyfathrach rywiol sexual intercourse
cyfathrach eneuol oral sex
cyfathrach refrol anal sex

:_______________________________.

cyfathrebu
<kə-va-THRE-bi> [kəvaˡθreˑbɪ] (verb)
1
to communicate

:_______________________________.

cyfeb
<KƏ-veb> [ˡkəvɛb] adjective
1
pregnant (mare, ewe); in foal; in lamb

ETYMOLOGY: with horse (cyf- = with) + (eb = horse)

:_______________________________.

Cyfeiliog
<kə-VEIL-yog> [kəˡvəɪljɔg] (feminine noun)
1
locality, north-east

:_______________________________.

cyfeillgar
<kə-VEILH-gar> [kəˡvəɪɬgar] adjective)
1
friendly

:_______________________________.

cyfeillion
<kə-VEILH-yon> [kəˡvəɪɬjɔn] (plural noun)
1
friends; plural of cyfaill

:_______________________________.

cyfeiliorn
<kə-VEIL-yorn> [kəˡvəɪljɔrn] masculine noun
1
stray
buwch gyfeiliorn PLURAL: buchod cyfeiliorn stray cow

ETYMOLOGY: cyfeiliorn < cyfeiriorn < British *kom-are-org-n;

Dissimilation of the sequence r-r, which becomes l-r
(kom = modern Welsh cym-, cf Latin cum = with),
(are = in front of, modern Welsh ar);

as regards the element org-n cf dilorni < dyfal-orni (dyfal- < dyfalu = mock) + (orn = blame)
+ (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyfeilydd, cyfeilyddion
<kə-VEI-lidh, kə-vei-LƏDH-yon> [kəˡvəɪlɪ, kəvəɪˡləjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
accompanyist

:_______________________________.

cyfeiriad, cyfeiriadau
<kə-VEIR-yad, -kə-veir-YAA-dai, -de> [kəˡvəɪrjad, kəvəɪrˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
direction, address

i gyfeiriad croes ir cloc in an anti-clockwise direction

:_______________________________.

cyfeirio
<kə-VEIR-yo> [kəˡvəɪrjɔ] (verb)
1
to refer
2
to direct
cyfeirioch ymdrechion tuag at (ryw nod) direct your efforts towards (some goal)
arwydd cyfeirio direction sign

:_______________________________.

cyfelin
<kə-VEE-lin> [kəˡveˑlɪn] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyfelinau <
kə-ve-LII-ne> [kəvɛˡliˑnaɪ, -ɛ]

1
ell, the length between the elbow and the hand
y gyfelin the ell

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + (elin = elbow)

:_______________________________.

cyfenw, cyfenwau
<kə-VEE-nu, kə-VEN-wai, -we> [kəvˡeˑnʊ, kəvˡɛnwaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
surname
ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + (enw = name)

:_______________________________.

cyferbyniol
<kə-ver-BƏN-yol> [kəvɛrˡbənjɔl] (adjectiu)
1 cyferbyniol i opposed to, contrary to
yr oll sydd gyferbyniol i ryddid, dyna yw Toriaeth
everything that goes against freedom, thats what Toryism is
:_______________________________.

cyff, cyffion
<KIIF, KƏF-yon> [kiːf, ˡkəfjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
stump of tree;
2
cyffion = shackles

:_______________________________.

cyffaith, cyffeithiau
<KƏ-faith / KƏ-feth, kə-FEITH-yai, -ye> [ˡkəfaɪθ / ˡkəfɛθ, kəˡfəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
toffee

:_______________________________.

cyffes, cyffesau
<KƏ-fes, kə-FE-sai, -se> [ˡkəfɛs, kəˡfɛsaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
confession

:_______________________________.

cyffesu
<kə-FE-si> [kəˡfɛsɪ] (verb)
1
confess

2 cyffesuch pechodau confess your sins

:_______________________________.

cyffin
<KƏ-fin> [ˡkəfɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyffiniau <
kə-FIN-yai, -ye> [kəˡfɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
boundary

2
cyffiniau bounds, confines
cyfyngu i gyffiniaur ysgol restrict to the area of the school, to within the bounds of the school

3
y cyffiniau = the area, the locality, the surrounding district
Tir Iarll ar Cyffiniau Tir Iarll and the surrounding district

4
Y Gyffin SH7776 (the frontier) locality in the county of Conwy (a suburb on the south side of the town of Conwy)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin confnium (con- = with, finis = limit, boundary, end)

:_______________________________.

cyffiniwr
<kə-FIN-yur> [kəˡfɪnjʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyffinwyr <
kə-FIN-wir> [kəˡfɪnwɪr]
1
borderer, border dweller, one who lives on the border

2
Cyffinwyr De Cymru South Wales Borderers, name of a Welsh regiment based in Aberhonddu / Brecon since 1873 (in the former county of Sir Aberhonddu / Breconshire, in south-eastern Wales, bordering on England)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffin = frontier) + (-i-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

cyffordd
<KƏ-fordh> [ˡkəfɔr] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyffyrdd <
KƏ-firdh> [ˡkəfɪr]
1
(railway) junction
y gyffordd = the junction

Wedi ir trn gyrraedd cyffordd y Gaerwen
after the train reached Gaerwen junction

2 (railway) junction = station where railway lines come together
Cyffordd Llandudno (qv) station on the North Wales coastal railway route;
English name: Llandudno Junction

3
road junction
Ym Maes y Frenhines y mae Capel y Morfa, ar g
yffordd Heol Portland a Morfa Mawr, gyferbyn Neuadd y Dref
Morfa Chapel is in (the square called) Maes y Frenhines, at the junction of (the road called) Heol Portland and (the road called) Morfa Mawr, opposite the town hall

4
motorway junction, place where one can join or leave a motorway

Mae yn hawdd ei gyrraedd o gyffordd 48 yr M4
Its easy to reach from Junction 48 on the M4 motorway

ETYMOLOGY: (cy- prefix = together) + (ffordd = road)

:_______________________________.

Cyffordd Llandudno
<KƏ-fordh lhan-DID-no> [ˡkəfɔr ɬanˡdɪdnɔ]
1
station on the North Wales coastal railway route.
English name: Llandudno Junction

2
locality in the county of Conwy, by Cyffordd Llandudno railway station.

English name: Llandudno Junction

(If the general rule for settlement names were to be applied, of spelling them as a single word wherever possible, Cyfforddllandudno would be the form)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) junction (for) Llandudno i.e. the junction formed by a branch line off the main Chester to Caergybi (Holyhead) railway line which goes in a northerly direction to the town of Llandudno (cyffordd = junction) + (Llandudno = name of the town to which the branch line goes).

The Welsh name is a direct translation of the English name.

:_______________________________.

cyfforddus
<kə-FOR-dhis> [kəˡfɔrɪs] (adjective)
1
comfortable

:_______________________________.

cyffredin
<kə-FRE-din> [kəˡfreˑdɪn] (adjective)
1
usual, common, general, frequent

2
Dibarch rh
y gyffredin Familiarity breeds content ((it-is) without-respect (a thing) (which-is) too common)

Ni bydd h
ybarch rhy gyffredin Familiarity breeds contempt (It is not venerable (the thing) too usual)

3 canfod tir cyffredin find common ground

4 metel cyffredin base metal

:_______________________________.

cyffredinol
<kə-fre-DII-nol> [kəfrɛˡdiˑnɔl] (adjective)
1
general

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffredin = common, general) + (-ol adjectival suffix)


:_______________________________.

cyffro
<KƏ-fro> [ˡkəfrɔ] (m)
1 excitement, commotion, uproar, furore
Aeth yn gyffro trwyr ystafell pandemonium broke out in the room

2 cyffro meddyliol mental disturbance

:_______________________________.

cyffroi
<kə-FROI> [kəˡfrɔɪ] (v)
1
excite, stir


Er hyn oll prin y cyffry neb;

In spite of all this almost nobody stirs
(Nicander = Morris Williams 1809-74 / Yr Adgyfodiad = The Resurrection / 1851)

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffro = excitement) + (-i verbal suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyffrous
<kə-FROIS> [kəˡfrɔɪs] (adjective)
1
exciting

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffro = excitement) + (
-us adjectival suffix)
:_______________________________.

cyffty
<KƏF-ti> [ˡkəftɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfftai <
KƏF-tai> [ˡkəftaɪ]
1
log cabin, log house

ETYMOLOGY: (cyff- < cyff = stump, log) + soft mutation + (tŷ= house) > cff-dy > cyffty (mutation annulled through the influence of preceding voicelss consonant)

:_______________________________.

cyffur, cyffuriau
<KƏ-fir, kə-FIR-yai, -ye> [ˡkəfɪr, kəˡfɪrjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
drug

2
tawddg
yffur suppository (tawdd-, stem of toddi = to melt) + soft mutation + (cyffur = drug)

:_______________________________.

cyffurgi
<kə-FIR-gi> [kəˡfɪrgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyffurgwn <
kə-FIR-gun> [kəˡfɪrgʊn]
1
junkie, drug addict

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffur = drug) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)

:_______________________________.

cyffurio <kə-FIR-yo> [kəˡfɪrjɔ] verb
1 drug (somebody)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffur = drug) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyffwrdd ()
<KƏ-furdh> [ˡkəfʊr] (verb)
1
to touch


:_______________________________.

 

 

cyffylog <kə-FƏ-log> [kəˡfəlɔg] (m)
PLURAL cyffylogod
<kə-fə-LOO-god> [kəfəˡloˑgɔd]

1 Scolopax rusticola, woodcock


ETYMOLOGY: cyffylog < ceffylog (noun) < ceffylog (adj, horse-like, resembling a horse) (ceffyl = horse) + (-og adjectival suffix) < British *kappilk-

From the same British root; Breton kefeleg

 

NOTE: In Penfro county cwffwlog

 

:_______________________________.

cyffyrddiad
<kə-FƏRDH-yad> [kəˡfərjad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyffyrddiadau <
kə-fərdh-YAA-dai, -de> [kəfərˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
touch = act of touching

2
touch = light contact
Teimlodd gyffyrddiad ar ei ysgwydd He felt a touch on his shoulder

3
y cyffyrddiad touch = sense of touch, sensation by which contact is felt

4
touch = application of gentle pressure
Roedd y maen chwyf yn siglo gydar cyffyrddiad lleiaf
The rocking stone moved with the lightest touch

5
touch = (art) stroke with a pen, pencil or brush
cyffyrddiad ysgafn a light touch, a light stroke

6
touch = contact
cadw mewn cyffyrddiad keep in touch with, keep in contact with

7
cyffyrddiad olaf finishing touch

8
touch = small detail which improves an object

Dyma wneud wyneb ar dop y pwdin cheirios siwgwr. Ac yn wir roedd y cyffyrddiad bach yno yn fodd i wneud y pwdin bach dinod yn llwyddiant mawr
Then I made a face on top of the pudding with glac cherries. And indeed this little touch was a means to make the insignificant little pudding into a great success

cyffyrddiad bach chwithig an unfortunate touch, small detail which spoils something

Maer parc wedi eu gweddnewid, ond mae pob arwydd yn uniaith Saesneg. Cyffyrddiad bach chwithig y dylair cyngor feddwl amdano o ddifri
The park has been transformed, but all the signs are in English only. An unfortunate touch that the council should give serious consideration to

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffyrdd- penult stem of cyffwrdd = to touch) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyffyrddus
<kə-FƏR-dhis> [kəˡfərɪs] = cyfforddus

:_______________________________.

cyfiau
<KƏV-yai> [ˡkəvjaɪ]

1 (obsolete) joint field, field in the ownership of more than one person.
Common in old field names in Wrecsam and Y Waun, north-east Wales

2 Cyfiau name of a farm in Carno, Caer-sŵs, Powys

 

7582_map_100314_wrecsam_y_waun

ETYMOLOGY: joint plough(land) (cyf- prefix = together, joint) + (iau = a plough)
Cf Old English plog, which meant both plough (the implement) and ploughland (a measure of land; probably based on the amount of land that can be ploughed in one day)

 


:_______________________________.

cyfiawn
<KƏV-yaun> [ˡkəvjaʊn] (adjective)
1
just

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together, joint) + (iawn = right, just)
:_______________________________.

cyfiawnder
<kəv-YAUN-der> [kəvˡjaʊndɛr] (masculine noun)
1
justice
2
gwneud cyfiawnder r dasg rise to the occasion, be up to the job (do justice to the task)

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfiawn = just) + (-der noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfiawnhu
<kəv-yaun-HAI> [kəvjaʊnˡhaɪ] (verb)
1
justify
2
Maer diben yn cyfiawnhur modd The end justifies the means

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfiawn = just) + (-hu suffix for forming verbs from adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfieithiad, cyfieithiadau
<kəv-YEITH-yad, kəv-yeith-YAA-de> [kəvˡjəɪθjad, kəvjəɪθˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
translation

2 camg
yfieithiad mistranslation

3 cyfieithiad rhydd a loose translation, a rough translation (free translation)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfieith-, stem of cyfieithu = translate) + (-i-ad noun suffix)

 

:_______________________________.

cyfieithu
<kəv-YEI-thi> [kəvˡjəɪθɪ] (verb)
1
to translate


2
camgyfieithu mistranslate

:_______________________________.

cyfieithydd, cyfieithyddion
<kəv-YEI-thidh, kəv-yei-THƏDH-yon> [kəvˡjəɪθɪ, kəvjəɪˡθəjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
translator

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfieith-, stem of cyfieithu = translate) + (-ydd noun suffix denoting an agent)


:_______________________________.

cyflafar
<kəv-LAA-var> [kəvˡlɑˑvar]
1
noisy
2
(m) speaking together, parley, conference

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + soft mutation + (llafar = loud, noisy; spoken)

:_______________________________.

cyflafaredd
<kəv-la-VAA-redh> [kəvlaˡvɑˑrɛ] masculine noun
1
(obsolete) conversation
2
discussion, conferring, settling differences, reconciliation, parley, arbitration

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafar-, stem of cyflafareddu = discuss together, confer, arbitrate) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyflafareddiad
<kəv-la-va-REDH-yad> [kəvlavarˡɛjad] masculine noun
1
arbitration

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafaredd-, stem of cyflafareddu = discuss together, confer, arbitrate) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyflafareddu
<kəv-la-va-REE-dhi> [kəvlavarˡeˑɪ] verb
1
arbitrate

2
(m) arbitration
cyflafareddu rhyngwladol international arbitration
llys cyflafareddu court of arbitration
cymal cyflafareddu arbitration clause

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafaredd = dicussion) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyflafareddwr
<kəv-la-va-REE-dhur> [kəvlavarˡeˑʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyflafareddwyr <
kəv-la-va-REDH-wir> [kəvlavarˡɛwɪr]
1
arbitrator

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafaredd-, stem of cyflafareddu = discuss together, confer, arbitrate) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyflaith
<KƏV-laith -leth> [ˡkəvlaɪθ, -ɛθ] masculine noun
1
toffee, treacle toffee; a sweet made of black treacle, sugar and butter
cyflaith du treacle toffee

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + soft mutation + (probably llaith = humid, damp, wet)

NOTE: cyflaith literary pronunciation
<KƏV-laith> [ˡkəvlaɪθ]

In the e-final districts and in standard colloquial pronunciation cyfleth <KƏV-leth> [ˡkəvlɛθ],

In the a-final districts cyflath <KƏV-lath> [ˡkəvlaθ]

:_______________________________.

cyflawni
<kəv-LAU-ni> [kəvˡlaʊnɪ] (verb)
1
commit
2
cyflawni trosedd commit a crime
3
c
yflawni hunanladdiad commit suicide
4
cyflawni hunanddistryw gwleidyddol commit politicial suicide
5
cyflawni pechod commit a sin, to sin

:_______________________________.

cyfle
<KƏV-le> [ˡkəvlɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfleoedd <
kəv-LEE-oid,, -odh> [kəvˡleˑɔɪ, - ɔ]
1
opportunity, chance, occasion, break (= opportunity)

y cyfle cyntaf a gewch chi
at the earliest opportunity, as soon as ever you can

Fei gwnaeth y cyfle cyntaf a gafodd He did it at the first opportunity he had

cael digon o gyfle have plenty of opportunity (get plenty of opportunity)

Trueni na fuaset tin setlo lawr i wneud rhyw waith pendant. Rwyt ti wedi cael digon o gyfle
Its a pity you havent settled down to do some definite job. Youve had plenty of opportunity

bod ch ll
ygad ar eich cyfle be on the lookout for your chance (to do something), have an eye on the main chance

y cyfle gorau a fu eried (it was) the chance of a lifetime

ar y cyfle cyntaf at the first opportunity, the first opportunity you get (to do something)

2
cyfle euraid golden opportunity = a very advantageous opportunity

3
achub ar gyfle
seize an opportunity
bachu ar gyfle
seize an opportunity
dal ar gyfle
seize an opportunity

4
cael y cyfle i get the chance to, get the opportunity to

5
cael cyfle i get a chance to
Os ca i gyfle If I get the chance, If I get the opportunity

6
gwneud yn fawr or cyfle make the most of the opportunity (make greatly of the opportunity)

7
cyfle coll lost opportunity

8
obsolete place

9
(in the district of Dwyfor, North-west Wales)
caethgyfle fix (eg inability to get down from a tree, cliff), predicament
(caeth = restricted) + soft mutation + (cyfle = position, place)

bod wedi mynd i gaethgyfle end up in a blind alley, end up in a real fix
mewn caethgyfle in a fix
y caethgyfle yr oedd Ffrainc ynddo yn ddiweddar the difficult situation that France was in recently

10
neidio ar y cyfle jump at the chance = seize an opportunity with enthusiastically
neidio ar y cyfle i (wneud rhywbeth) jump at the chance (to do something)

11
Chaiff e fawr o gyfle He wont get much of a chance

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (cyf-, prefix = intensifier) + soft mutation + (lle = place)

:_______________________________.

cyflenwad, cyflenwadau
<kəv-LEN-wad, kəv-len-WAA-dai, -de> [kəvˡlɛnwad, kəvlɛnˡwɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
supply
2
atal
y cyflenwad dŵr cut off the water supply

:_______________________________.

cyflenwr
<kəv-LEN-ur> [kəvˡleˑnʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyflenwyr <
kəv-LEN-wir> [kəvˡlɛnwɪr]
1
supplier = person or company providing a product or service

2 cyflenwr adeiladwyr builders merchant (supplier (of) builders)

3 cyflenwr llongau ships chandler (supplier (of) ships)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflenw-, stem of cylenwi = provide, supply) + (-wr, suffix = agent)

:_______________________________.

cyflus <kəv-LEIS> [kəvˡləɪs] adj
1 convenient

2 cyflus gan convenient for
os bydd hi'n gyflus gennyt ti if it's convenient for you
anghyflus inconvenient

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfle = oportunity) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfleuster, cyfleusterau
<kəv-LEI-ster, kəv-lei-STEE-re> [kəvˡləɪstɛr, kəvləɪsˡteˑraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
convenience

2 cyfleusterau cyhoeddus
kəv lei STE re kə HOI dhis (plural noun) <kəv-lei-STE-rai, -re kə-HOI-dhis> [kəvləɪsˡteˑrai -ɛ kəˡhɔɪɪs]
public convenience

:_______________________________.

cyfliw
<KƏV-liu> [ˡkəvlɪʊ] adjective
1
obsolete of the same colour, homochromous
2
pan fo gyfliw gŵr a llwyn
at nightfall, at dusk (when man and bush are the same colour)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + soft mutation + (lliw = colour)

:_______________________________.

cyflo
<KƏF-lo> [ˡkəflɔ] adjective
1
(cow) in calf
buwch gyflo, PLURAL: buchod cyflo cow in calf, cows in calf

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + soft mutation + (llo = calf)
cf Breton kevleue = in calf

:_______________________________.

cyflog
<KƏV-log> [ˡkəvlɔg] masculine and feminine noun
PLURAL: cyflogau <
kəv-LOO-gai, -ge> [kəvˡloˑgaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales - masculine noun y cyflog
South Wales - feminine noun y gyflog

1
salary = payment for ones work or service
Fei penodwyd yn athro cynorthwyol am gyflog o 20,000 y flwyddyn
He was appointed as an assistant teacher at a salary of 20,000 a year

2
cyflog mwnci = derisory pay, peanuts (salary (of) (a) monkey)
cael cyflog mwnci be paid peanuts
talu cyflog mwnci pay peanuts

3
reward

Rhufeiniaid 6:23 Canys cyflog pechod yw marwolaeth; eithr dawn Duw yw bywyd tragwyddol, trwy Iesu Grist ein Harglwydd
Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord

Pedr-2 2:13 Ac a dderbyniant gyflog anghyfiawnder
Peter-2 2:13 And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness

4
South Wales employment agreement, terms for hiring, engagement for service (an agreement made between a farmhand / servant / maid, and a master or mistress)

torri ar eich cyflog (employee) break ones agreement

South Wales gwneuthur cyflog gwas take on a servant, hire a servant (make (an) agreement (of) servant)

South Wales gwneuthur eich cyflog hire onself out as a servant, enter into an agreement as a servant (make your agreement)

5
adjective = hired, employed
gwas cyflog = hired servant
Dw i ddim ond gwas cyflog Im only doing my job (Im just a hired servant i.e. I can only do what Ive been told to do)
morwyn gyflog = hired maid

6 isafswm
yr Isafswm Cyflog Cenedlaethol the National Minimum Wage, the minimum salary which employers must pay workers in in the English state
(isaf = lowest) + (swm = sum, total, quantity

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + soft mutation + (llog = profit, wage)

:_______________________________.

cyflogadwy
<kəv-lo-GAA-dui> [kəvlɔˡgɑˑdʊɪ] adjective
1 employable

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-aeth = adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyflogaeth
<kəv-LOO-gaith -geth> [kəvˡloˑgaɪθ, -ɛθ]

feminine noun
1
employment

2
cyflogaeth lawn full employment

3
gorgyflogaeth overemployment - the situation of people having to work too many hours for a subsistence income

4
tangyflogaeth underemployment - the situation of people working only partially or being overqualified for a low-paying job

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-aeth = suffix for forming abstract nouns

:_______________________________.

cyflogai
<kəv-LOO-gai> [kəvˡloˑgaɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyflogeion <
kəv-lo-GEI-on> [kəvlɔgˡəɪɔn]
1
(USA: employe) (Englandic: employee)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-ai = suffix, person who is the object of an action

:_______________________________.

cyflog clir
<KƏV-log-KLIIR> [ˡkəvlɔg ˡklɪr] masculine noun
1
take-home pay, net salary

ETYMOLOGY: clear salary

:_______________________________.

cyflogedig
<kəv-lo-GEE-dig> [kəvlɔˡgeˑdɪg] adjective
1
(person) stipendary, receiving a salary
ynad cyflogedig stipendary magistrate

2
(work, employment) gainful = paid
gwaith cyflogedig = paid work, gainful employment

3
hunan-gyflogedig self-employed

4
masculine noun : Bible hired person

Malachi 3:5 A mi a nesf atoch chwi i farn; a byddaf dyst cyflym yn erbyn yr hudolion, ac yn erbyn y godinebwyr, ac yn erbyn yr anudonwyr, ac yn erbyn camatalwyr cyflog y cyflogedig
Malachi 3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-edig = suffix, past participle, passive)

:_______________________________.

cyflogi
<kəv-LOO-gi> [kəvˡloˑgɪ]
verb with an object
1
employ = make use of a persons labour in return for payment

2
take on, hire = engage a person to work
Gwn am ysgolion syn ei chael yn wirioneddol anodd cyflogi staff
I know of schools which are finding it a real problem to hire staff

3
hire = give payment for borrowing something
Yr unig ffordd i deithio yn Wisconsin y pryd hwnnw ydoedd cyflogi gwedd neu gerdded

The only way to travel in Wisconsin in those days was to hire a pair (of oxen and a cart) or to walk

verb without an object
4
hire servants for the year
ffair gyflogi hiring fair (where farm labourers and servants would go in the hope of being taken on for a year by a farmer) (until the early 1900s)

5
engage oneself as a servant / farmhand / maid, enter service with
Mi gyflogodd o efo Js Pen-bryn am flwyddyn
He hired himself out to Jones of Pen-bryn farm for a year

6
Adran Gyflogi Department of Employment (government department)

7
swyddfa g
yflogi employment agency; employment office

NOTE: a colloquial form is clogi / clogi <KLO-gi> [ˡklɔgɪ]

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog = salary) + (-i suffix to form verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyflogwr
<kəv-LOO-gur> [kəvˡloˑgʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyflogwyr <
kəv-LOG-wir> [kəvˡlɔgwɪr]
1
employer
2
y cyflogwyr the employers

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-edig = agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfli
<kəv-LOI> [kəvˡlɔɪ] verb
1
(cow) calve
Myswynog neu byswynog a ddywedir am fuwch heb gyfloi, ac o ganlyniad ddim yn llaetha
Myswynog or byswynog is the word used for a cow which has never calved, and so does not give milk

2
impregnate (bull impregnating a cow)

Job 21:10 Y mae eu tarw hwynt yn cyfloi, ac ni chyll ei had; ei fuwch ef a fwrw lo, ac nid erthyla
Job 21:10 Their bull gendereth, and faileth not; their cow calveth, and casteth not her calf.

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflo = in calf) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyfluniad
<kəv-LIN-yad> [kəvˡlɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfluniadau <
kəv-lin-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvlɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] 1 configuration = form given to a programme or computer system so that it is appropriate for specific purposes

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflun-, stem of cyflunio = configure) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyflunio
<kəv-LIN-yo> [kəvˡlɪnjɔ] verb
1
configure = insert information to shape a program or computer system

Nid yw'r porwr wedi ei gyflunio i fedru anfon post-e The browser isnt configured to send e-mail
2
cyflunio yn shape into, transform into, make into

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (llunio = to shape, to form)

:_______________________________.

c
yflusg <KƏV-LISK> [ˡkəvˡlɪsk] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyflusgion <kəv-LƏSK-yon> [kəvˡləskjɔn]
1
(music) slur

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- prefix = together) + soft mutaiton + (llusg = dragging)

:_______________________________.

c
yflusgo <kəv-LƏ-sko> [kəvˡləskɔ] verb
1
(music) slur
c
yflusgo dau nodyn slur two notes

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (llusg = to drag)

:_______________________________.

cyflwr
<KƏV-lur> [ˡkəvlʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyflyrau <
kəv-LƏ-rai, -re> [kəvˡləraɪ, -ɛ]
1
condition = situation, state, existing circumstances

mewn c
yflwr gwael in a bad state, in a bad way, serious condition

Yr oedd y ty newydd ar y pryd mewn llawer gwaeth cyflwr nag yr hen dy
At the time the new house was in a far worse state then the old house

Mae pryder am gyflwr y coedwigoedd hyn
There is concern about the condition of these woods

2
(health) condition, state
mewn cyflwr gwael
in a serious condition, very poorly, in a pretty bad way, in quite a bad state,

3
(grammar) case
cyflwr meddiannol genitive case
cyflwr traws or gair hwn an oblique case of this word

4
condition = ailment

cost y cyffuriau a ragnodir yn fynych gan feddygon ar gyfer cyflyrau fel arthritis rhiwmatoid
the cost of the drugs often prescribed by doctors for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis


bod yn fodlon ich cyflwr be satisfied with your lot in life

 

(Apocrypha) Eccelsiasticus 40:18 Melys yw buchedd yr hwn a weithio, ac a fyddo bodlon i'w gyflwr; gwell na'r ddau yw yr hwn a gaffo drysor.

(Apocrypha) Eccelsiasticus 40:18 To labour, and to be content with that a man hath, is a sweet life: but he that findeth a treasure is above them both.


ETYMOLOGY: (1400-; cyflwr < cyflwrw (cyf-, prefix, together) + soft mutation + (llwrw = path, form)

:_______________________________.

cyflwyno
<kəv-LUI-no> [kəvˡlʊɪnɔ] (verb)
1
to present
2 cyflwyno (rhywun i rywun arall) introduce (somebody) to (someone else)
Cyflwynodd ei frawd ir offeiriad. He introduced his brother to the vicar

:_______________________________.

cyflychwyr <kəv-LƏKH-uir> [kəvˡləxʊɪr] (m)
1 twilight, dusk

Yn llwydni'r cyflychwyr ddiwrnod talu'r rhent t25 Plant y Gwrthrwm / Gwyneth Vaughan / 1908 In the greyness of the dusk of the rent payment day

ETYMOLOGY: cyflychwyr < cyflychwr (cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (llychwr = (obsolete) daylight, light, brightness).

wr > hwyr under the influence of the word hwyr (= evening).

:_______________________________.

cyflymder <kəv-LƏM-der> [kəvˡləmdɛr] (m)
1
speed

2 pace

gosod y cyflymder to set the pace

pennur cyflymder to set the pace

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflym- < cyflym = fast, quick, rapid) + (-der noun sufix)

NOTE: Also cyflymdra

 

:_______________________________.

cyflymdra <kəv-LƏM-dra> [kəvˡləmdra] (m)
1
speed

2 pace

gosod y cyflymdra to set the pace

pennur cyflymdra to set the pace

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflym- < cyflym = fast, quick, rapid) + (-dra noun sufix)

NOTE: Also cyflymder

 

:_______________________________.

cyflymu
<kəv-LƏ-mi> [kəvˡləmɪ] (verb)
1
to go quicker, to accelerate; to make go quicker, to accelerate

:_______________________________.

cyflym
<KƏV-lim> [ˡkəvlɪm] (adjective)
1
quick, rapid, fast

:_______________________________.

cyfnerthedig
<kəv-ner-THEE-dig> [kəvnɛrθˡeˑdɪg] adjective
1
reinforced
concrid cyfnerthedig reinforced concrete

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfnerthu = strengthen) + (-edig = past participle passive suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfnewid
<kəv-NEU-id> [kəvˡnɛʊɪd] (m)
1
exchange
cyfnewid teg fair exchange

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + (newid = to change)

:_______________________________.

cyfnewidfa
<kəv-neu-ID-va> [kəvnɛʊˡɪdva] (m)

PLURAL: cyfnewidfydd <
kəv-neu-id-VEIDH> [kəvnɛʊɪdˡvəɪ] (m)
1
interchange = highway intersection

Cyfnewidfar Gabalfa the Gabalfa Interchange ST1679
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/39500

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + (newid = to change)

:_______________________________.

cyfnewidiol
<kəv-neu-ID-yol> [kəvnɛʊˡɪdjɔl] (adjective)
1
(weather) changeable

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfnewid-i- stem of c
ynewid = to change, to exchange) + (-ol = adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfnither, cyfnitheroedd
<kəv-NII-ther, kəv-ni-THEE-roidh, -rodh> [kəvˡniˑθɛr, kəvnɪˡθeˑrɔɪ, -rɔ] (feminine noun)
1
female cousin
y gyfnither = the cousin
Often reduced colloquially to cnither / y gnither

:_______________________________.

cyfnod, cyfnodau
<KƏV-nod, -kəv-NOO-dai, -de> [ˡkəvnɔd, kəvˡnoˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
period

:_______________________________.

c
yfnodol <KƏV-NOO-DOL> [ˡkəvˡnoˑdɔl] adjective
1
periodic
2
staggered = arranged in a series of time periods instead of all at once
m
ynediad cifnodol staggered entry

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yfnod = period) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfoethog
<kə-VOI-thog> [kəˡvɔɪθɔg] (adjective)
1
rich

:_______________________________.

cyfoglyn
<kə-VOG-lin> [kəˡvɔglɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfoglynnoedd, cyfoglynnau <
kə-vog-LƏ-noidh -nodh, -nai, -ne> [kəvɔgˡlənɔɪ -ɔ, kəvɔgˡlənaɪ, -ɛ]
1
emetic = a medicine to induce vomiting

ETYMOLOGY: (first recorded example: 1708) (cyfog- stem of cyfogi = to vomit) + soft mutation + (llyn = liquid )

:_______________________________.

cyfr- <KƏVR> [kəvr] prefix
1 intensifying prefix = completely, very

cyfrwys cunning (cyfr- + unknown element gwys <gwiis> [gwiːs] )

cyfrgoll completely lost

amgyffred (= to understand) (am = around) + (cyfr = complete) + rhed- = to run) > (cyffred-)

cyffredin (= general) (cyfr = complete) + (rhed- = to run) + (-in adjectival suffix)

ETYMOLOGY: British *kom-ro < *kom-pro
Cf Latin cum (= with), pro (= for)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd
<KƏV-radh> [ˡkəvra] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyfraddau <
kəv-RAA-dhai, -dhe> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
rate = price, charge per unit;
y gyfradd = the rate

cyfradd gyfnewid = rate of exchange;
cyfradd unffurf = flat rate

2
rate = comparative amount, proportional measure
cyfradd genedigaethau birth rate

3
rate = price with reference to a standard
cyfradd llog rate of interest

4
rate = relative speed of change of a variable
cyfradd trydarthu = transpiration rate

5 cyfradd wahaniaethol differential rate

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (gradd = degree)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd adennill
<KƏV-radh ad-E-nilh> [ˡkəvra adˡɛnɪɬ] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyfraddau adennill <
kəv-RAA-dhai, -dhe ad-E-nilh> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ adˡɛnɪɬ]
1
rate of return = the amount of profit generated
y gyfradd adennill = the rate of return

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + (adennill earn again)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd benodol
<KƏV-radh be-NOO-dol> [ˡkəvra bɛˡnoˑdɔl] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyfraddau penodol <
kəv-RAA-dhai dhe pe-NOO-dol> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ pɛˡnoˑdɔl]
1 set rate
y gyfradd benodol = the set rate

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + soft mutation + (penodol = fixed)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd cyfnewid
<KƏV-radh kəv-NEU-id> [ˡkəvra kəvˡnɛʊɪd] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyfraddau cyfnewid <
kəv-RAA-dhai dhe kəv-NEU-id> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ kəvˡnɛʊɪd]
1 rate of exchange
y gyfradd cyfnewid = the rate of exchange

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + (cyfnewid = change)

:_______________________________.

cyfraddiad
<kəv-RADH-yad> [kəvˡrajad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfraddiadau <
kəv-radh-YAA-dai, -de> [kəvraˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
rating = process of establishing a rate
2
rating = score

:_______________________________.

cyfradd leol
<KƏV-radh LEE-ol> [ˡkəvra ˡleˑɔl] feminine noun

PLURAL:
cyfraddau lleol <kəv-RAA-dhai dhe ɬeˑɔl> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ ɬeˑɔl]
1
local rate = price for making a local telephone call
y gyfradd leol = the local rate

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + soft mutation + (lleol = local)

:_______________________________.

cyfraith, cyfreithiau
<KƏV-raith, -reth, kəv-REITH-yai, -ye> [ˡkəvraɪθ / ˡkəvrɛθ, kəvˡrəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
law
y gyfraith = the law

2
gweithredur gyfraith apply the law, enforce the law
rhoir gyfraith mewn grym apply the law, enforce the law
parch at y gyfraith respect for the law

3
cymryd y gyfraith yn eich dwylo eich hunan take the law into your own hands

4
rhoir gyfraith ar (rywun) take (someone) to court, prosecute (someone)
5
yn enwr gyraith in the name of the law

6
cyfreithiwr
lawyer / cyfreithiol legal / cyfreithlon legal / anghyfreithlon illegal

7 cyfreithiau gorthrymus repressive laws
cyfreithiau gormesol repressive laws

:_______________________________.

cyfranc
<KƏV-rangk> [ˡkəvraŋk] feminine or masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfrangau <
kəv-RANG-ai, -e> [kəvˡraŋaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(obsolete) tale, history, story.

y gyfranc / y cyfranc = the story

It occurs in the name of the seventh tale in the Mabinogion compilation,
Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys
<KƏV-rank LHIIDH a lhe-VEE-lis> [ˡkəvraŋk ˡɬiː a ɬɛˡveˑlɪs] (the tale of Lludd {and his brother} Llefelys)

ETYMOLOGY: cyfranc = (1) tale < (2) history of a battle < (3) battle.

(cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (the obsolete element *rhanc = satisfaction < Celtic *ro-ank-, probably meaning reaching, attaining).

*Rhanc is the basis of the verb in the expression rhyngu bodd (= to gratify, to please)

 

There is a corresponding word in Irish: comhrac (= battle, encounter)

:_______________________________.

Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys
<KƏV-rank LHIIDH a lhe-VEE-lis> [ˡkəvraŋk ˡɬiː a ɬɛˡveˑlɪs]
1
tale in the Mabinogion (the tale of Lludd {and his brother} Llefelys)

:_______________________________.

cyfrandaliwr, cyfrandalwyr
<kəv-ran-DAL-yur, kə-vran-DAL-wir> [kəvranˡdaljʊr, kəvranˡdalwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
shareholder

:_______________________________.

cyfraniad, cyfraniadau
<kəv-RAN-yad, kəv-ran-YAA-dai, -de> [kəvˡranjad, kəvranˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
contribution

:_______________________________.

cyfrannedd
<kəv-RA-nedh> [kəvˡranɛ] masculine noun
1
proportion
mewn cyfrannedd gwrthdro inversely proportional to (in an inverse proportion with)
mewn cyfrannedd union directly proportional to (in an direct proportion with)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrann- = penult form before a vowel of cyfran = portion) + (-edd suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfrannu
<kəv-RA-ni> [kəvˡranɪ] (verb)
1
contribute

:_______________________________.

cyfrdy <KƏVR-di> [ˡkəvrdɪ] m
1 (obsolete) beerhouse, tavern

ETYMOLOGY: cyfrdy < cyrfdy (penult form of cwrf = beer) + soft mutation + ( = house). Modern Welsh cwrw (= beer) < cwrwf < *cwryf < cwrf


:_______________________________.

cyfredol <kəv-REE-dol> [kəvˡreˑdɔl] adjective
1 current

yn ystod y flwyddyn ariannol gyfredol during the current financial year


:_______________________________.

c
yfrei <KƏV-rei> [ˡkəvrəɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfreion <
kəv-REI-on> [kəvˡrəɪɔn]
1
(obsolete) leash = a rope or chain for restraining a dog, etc
fel cŵn ar gyfreion straining at the leash (like dogs on leashes): eager to begin some task

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly a variant of cyfrwy (qv) (= saddle).
Breton has kevre (= leash, tether)

:_______________________________.

cyfreithiol
<kəv-REITH-yol> [kəvˡrəɪθjɔl] (adjective)
1
legal

:_______________________________.

cyfreithiwr, cyfreithwyr
<kə-VREITH-yur, kə-VREITH-wir> [kəˡvrəɪθjʊr, kəˡvrəɪθwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
lawyer

:_______________________________.

cyfreithlon
<kəv-REITH-lon> [kəvˡrəɪθlɔn] (adjective)
1
legal

:_______________________________.

cyfres, cyfresi
<KƏ-vres, kə-VRE-si> [ˡkəvrɛs, kəˡvrɛsɪ] (feminine noun)
1
series
y gyfres = the series

2 drama gyfres
<DRA-ma GƏV-res> [ˡdrama ˡgəvrɛs] (feminine noun)
drama which is part of a series (on radio, TV)

:_______________________________.

cyfrif (cyfri)
<KƏV-ri> [ˡkəvrɪ] (verb)
1
to count

2
Peidiwch chyfrir cywion cyn iddyn nhw ddeor
Dont count your chickens before they are hatched
(cease with counting the chickens before to-them them hatching)

:_______________________________.

cyfrif, cyfrifon
<KƏV-ri, kəv-RII-von> [ˡkəvrɪ, kəvˡriˑvɔn] (masculine noun)
1
account

2
ar sawl cyfrif in many respects
ar lawer cyfrif in many respects

3 ar gyfrif yn y byd on any account

:_______________________________.

cyfrifiad
<kəv-RIV-yad> [kəvˡrɪvjad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfrifiadau <
kəv-riv-YAA-dai, -de> [kəvrɪvˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
census = a count of a population

2
census = information from a count of the population, with additional information such as place of birth, age, sex, occupation, (and in Wales, ability to speak Welsh) and so on

3
census = any official count (eg traffic census)

4
computation, counting, reckoning

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrif-i = stem of cyfrif = to count) + (-ad, suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyfrifiadur
<kəv-riv-YAA-dir> [kəvrɪvˡjɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfrifiaduron <
kəv-riv-ya-DII-ron> [kəvrɪvjaˡdiˑrɔn]
1
computer

ETYMOLOGY: counter, computer, reckoner (cyfrif-i = stem of cyfrif = to count, to compute, to reckon) + (-adur = suffix indicating a machine)

:_______________________________.

cyfrifiadureg
<kəv-riv-ya-DII-reg> [kəvrɪvjaˡdiˑrɛg] (feminine noun)
1
computer science

:_______________________________.

cyfrifol
<kəv-RII-vol> <kəvˡriˑvɔl> (adjective)
1
responsible

:_______________________________.

cyfrifoldeb
<kəv-ri-VOL-deb> [kəvrɪˡvɔldɛb] (masculine noun)
1
responsibility = obligations

2
responsibility = liablity, ability to be responsible for ones conduct
cyfrifoldeb lleihadig dimished responsibility

3
Bonedd a ddwg gyfrifoldeb Noblesse oblige, to be born into the nobility implies just behaviour and the need to act according to high moral principles
((it is) nobility which brings responsibility)

:_______________________________.

cyfrifydd
<kəv-RII-vidh> [kəvˡriˑvɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyfryddion, cyfrifwyr <
kəv-RƏDH-yon, kəv-RIV-wir> [kəvˡrəjɔn, kəvˡrɪvwɪr]
1
accountant = person who maintains and audits the accounts of businesses
2
cyfrifydd siartredig chartered accountant

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrif- stem of cyfrif = to count) + (-ydd agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfrinach, cyfrinachau
<kə-VRII-nakh, -kə-vri-NAA-khai, -e> [kəˡvriˑnax, kəvrɪˡnɑˑxaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
secret
y gyfrinach = the secret

2
Rw i ar fy llw i gadwr gyfrinach Ive sworn not to tell the secret, Im sworn to secrecy (Im on my oath to keep the secret)

3
gollwng cyfrinach let out a secret, reveal a secret, let a secret slip out, let slip a secret
datgelu cyfrinach (i rywun) reveal a secret (to someone), let (someone) into a secret

4 cael cyfrinach o groen rhywun prise / wheedle a secret out of somebody (get a secret from the skin of someone)

5 Nid cyfrinach ond rhwng dau, rhwng tridyn, cannyn ai clyw tell a secret to more than one person and it becomes everybodys secret ((it is) not a secret except between two; between three people, one hundred people will hear it)

Rhin deuddyn, cyfrin yw; rhin tridyn, cannyn ai clyw tell a secret to more than one person and it becomes everybodys secret (secret of two people, (it is) (a) secret that-it-is; secret of three people, one hundred people will hear it)

 

6 chapel society meeting

Un noson digwyddodd fod yno gyfrinach anarferol o faith

One night there happened to be a meeting there [that was] unusually long


:_______________________________.

cyfrinachedd <kə-vri-NAA-khedh> [kəvrɪnˡɑˑxɛ] (masculine noun)
1
secrecy
perygl i gyfrinachedd security risk ((a) danger to secrecy)

:_______________________________.

cyfrinachgar <kə-vri-NAKH-gar> [ˡkəvrɪnˡaxgar] adjective
1 secretive

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yfrinach = secret) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, < car-, the root of caru = to love)

:_______________________________.

cyfrinair, cyfrineiriau
<kə-VRII-nair, kə-vri-NEIR-yai, -e> [kəˡvriˑnaɪr, kəvrɪˡnəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
password

:_______________________________.

cyfrol, cyfrolau
<KƏ-vrol, -kə-VRO-lai, -e> [ˡkəvrɔl, kəˡvrɔlaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
volume (= book)
y gyfrol= the volume

:_______________________________.

cyfrwy, cyfrwyau
<KƏ-vrui, kə-VRUI-ai, -e> [ˡkəvrʊɪ, kəˡvrʊɪaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
saddle = leather seat for a horse rider

lliain cyfrwy saddle-cloth ("cloth (of) saddle")

bod yn y cyfrwy be in the saddle = be in a commanding position, in control, in power

 

2 saddle = seat on a bicycle


2
(landscape) saddle = saddle-shaped hill, col (= saddle-like formation, dip between two higher parts of a ridge), pass between hills


ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) +
soft mutation + (rhwy)

Cf modrwy (= ring), aerwy (in Breton the corresponding word is kevre = leash, tether, tie, bond)

 

NOTE: Variants are:

cyfrwydd <KƏ-vruiɪdh> [ˡkəvrʊɪ] (county of Ceredigion) -dd is added at the end;

cowrw <KƏ-vruiɪdh, kə-VRUIDH-ai, -e> [ˡkəvrʊɪɪ, kəˡvrʊɪɪaɪ, -ɛ] (South-west Wales) final wy reduced to w (a typical development in southern Welsh), [v] becomes [w], and the obscure vowel becomes o. Cf taflu (= to throw) > towlu in the south

 


:_______________________________.

Y Cyfrwy <KƏ-vrui> [ˡkəvrʊɪ] (masculine noun)

1 the saddle SH7013 a mountain in Gwynedd (Height: 811 metrres)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/358687 (here the saddle shape is clearly seen)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/358653

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1025875

 

ETYMOLOGY: The saddle. See previous entry

 

:_______________________________.

cyfrwydd, cyfrwyddau <KƏ-vruɪdh, kə-VRUIDH-ai, -e> [ˡkəvrʊɪ, kəˡvrʊɪaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

1 See cyfrwy
:_______________________________.


cyfrwysgall <kə-VRUIS-galh> [kəˡvrʊɪsgaɬ] adjective
1 crafty, wily, cunning

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrwys = wily, cunning) + soft mutation + ( call = sensible)

:_______________________________.

cyfrwyso <kə-VRUIS-o> [kəˡvrʊɪsɔ] verb
1 become crafty, wily, cunning
2 make crafty, wily, cunning

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrwys = astute, cunning, wily, crafty) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyfryngol <kə-VRƏ-ngol> [kəˡvrəŋɔl] adj
1 media (qualifier)
y cwmnau cyfryngol blaenllaw yng Nghymru the leading media companies in Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfryng- < cyfrwng = medium, cyfryngau = media) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

cyfuchlin <kə-VIKH-lin> [kəˡvɪxlɪn] m
PLURAL: cyfuchlinau <kə-vikh-LIN-yai, -e> [kəvɪxˡlɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 contour line
map cyfuchlin = contour map

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfuch- = equal height) + soft mutation + ( llin = line )

:_______________________________.

cyfun <KƏ-vin> [ˡkəvɪn] adjective
1
comprehensive = including everything

ysgol gyfun comprehensive school (school for pupils of all abilities, instead of the traditional English model of a grammar school ysgol ramadeg for academically competent students who are expected to stay at school until the age of 18 and enter tertiary education, and the secondary modern school (ysgol uwchradd fodern) for students who are prepared for work at 16.

2
combined, united
(Teyrnas Gyfun Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon translation of the official English name for the English state The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

Y Deyrnas Gyfun the United Kingdom = a short title for the English state, sometimes as an initialism y D.G. (ə dee eg)

3
prefix = integrat, combinat
(a) trefn = order, cyfundrefn = system
(b) rhif = number, cyfunrhif = combination, number of a combination lock (of safe, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + (un = one)

:_______________________________.

cyfundrefn
<kə-VIN-drevn> [kəˡvɪndrɛvn] feminine noun
PLURAL: cyfundrefnau <
kə-vin-DREV-nai, -e> [kəvɪnˡdrɛvnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
system
y gyfundrefn nerfol the nervous system
y gyfundrefn heulol the solar system

2
organisation
Cyfundrefn y Cenhedloedd Unedig (CCU) the United Nations Organisation (UNO)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfun = joint ) + soft mutation + (trefn = order)

:_______________________________.

c
yfuno <kə -VII-no> [ˡkəˡviˑnɔ] verb
1
(verb with an object) join together, combine, bring together
c
yfuno busnes phleser combine business with pleasure

2
(Chemistry)
(verb without an object) combine = to come together and form a new compound
(verb with an object) combine = to cause to come together and form a new compound

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- = prefix, together) + (uno = combine, unite)

:_______________________________.

cyfunol
<kə-VII-nol> [kəˡviˑnɔl] adjective
1
collective
fferm gyfunol collective farm (farm organised on the the principle of collectivism the political theory that the means of production belong to every individual; or the practical application of this by placing a workplace under government control, though supposedly it is in the ownership of the workers who work there )

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfun = united) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives); or (cyf- prefix = together) + (unol = united)

:_______________________________.

cyfunrhywiol <kə-vin-HRIU-yol> [ˌkəvɪnˡhriujɔl] adjective
1
homosexual, gay

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfunrhyw = same sex) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfuwch <KƏV-iukh> [ˡkəviux]
NOTE: colloquially cuwch
<KII-ukh> [ˡkiˑux]
1
so high, as high, of equal height

cyfuwch
as high as, the same height as, equal in height to

2
cuwch ysgwydd shoulder high

Y diwetha' welais i ar Jack oedd ei weld e'n cael ei gario cuwch ysgwydd trwy'r stryd (Hen Wlad fy Nhadau / Jack Jones, translated into Welsh by Kitchener Davies (19021952) / 1938 t74)
The last thing I saw of Jack was that he was being carried shoulder high through the street

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix indicating equality) + (uwch = higher, < uchel = high)

:_______________________________.

cyfweld ()
<kəv-WELD> [kəvˡwɛld] (verb)
1
to interview

ETYMOLOGY: cyfwld < cyfweld < cyfweled

see together (cyf- prefix, = together) + soft mutation + (gweled = to see)
:_______________________________.

cyfweliad, cyfweliadau
<kəv-WEL-yad, kəv-wel-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvˡwɛljad, kəvwɛlˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
interview

:_______________________________.

cyfwelydd, cyfwelwyr
<kəv-WEE-lidh, kəv-WEL-wir> [kəvˡweˑlɪ, kəvˡwɛlwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
interviewer

:_______________________________.

cyfwlch
<KƏ-vulkh> [ˡkəvʊlx] adj
1
(obsolete) complete, entire, whole

2 C
yfwlch old Welsh personal name

3 c
yfylchi (qv) (in place names) circular fort

ETYMOLOGY: cyfwlch is (cyf- prefix = together) + (an unknown element wlch, with a possible meaning of circle)

:_______________________________.

cyfylchi
<kə-VƏl-xi> [kəˡvəlxɪ] (feminine noun)
1
round fort, circular fort

There are three places in Wales where the name appears:

..a/ In the south-east, by Pont-rhyd-y-fen in Castell-nedd ac Aberafan county:
Y Gyfylchi (= the fort), Bwlch y Gyfylchi (= the pass of Y Gyfylchi), Craig y Gyfylchi (= the rock of Y Gyfylchi), Capel y Gyfylchi (= the chapel of Y Gyfylchi)

..b/ In the south-east, in the county of Mynwy / Monmouth, between Llaneuddogwy and Tryleg:
Y Gyfylchi

..c/ In the north-west there is Dwygyfylchi [dui gə vəl khi] Village (SH7377) in Conwy, between Penmaen-mawr and Penmaen-bach

Thers is mention of the place in the 1500s as
y ddwy gyfylchi the two forts (y definite article) + soft mutation + (dwy = two) + soft mutation + (cyfylchi = fort)

 

..d/ Gyfylchau, farm near Llanerfyl, Powys

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/314131 map



7012_cymru_oren_cyfylchi_081028

(delwedd 7012)


ETYMOLOGY: cyfylchi < (cyfylch- < cyfwlch = complete, perfect; circle) + (-i noun suffix)

Cyfwlch is (cyf- prefix = together) + (an unknown element wlch, with a possible meaning of circle)

NOTE: Is i a pluralising suffix? Possibly the meaning is (two) concentric circles or (two) circles side by side. In Ar Draws Gwlad Ysgrifau ar Enwau Lleoedd / Gwasg Carreg Gwalch / 1997, Gwynedd O. Pierce - although he gives no explanation of the name cyfylchi - suggests that the soft mutation here is one that occurred in older Welsh after the definite article to denote a dual form.

The soft mutation was formerly used in dual plurals that is, to indicate that a plural form was referring to two only; no more than two

There is a vestige of this old dual plural in the plural form gefelliaid (twins) from gefell (= twin)
<GEE-velh, ge-VELH-yaid, -yed> [ˡgeˑvɛɬ, gɛˡvɛɬjaɪd, -jɛd]

Although after the definite article the expected form y gefeilliaid is generally used, yr efelliaid, with soft mutation of the initial g, occurs too,.

:_______________________________.

cyfyng
<KƏ-ving> [ˡkəvɪŋ] masculine noun
1
hardship, distress

2
(obsolete) strait; narrow place
Place names examples:

..1/ Y Cyfyng narrow passage by Yr Wybrnant in the parish of Dolwyddelan; here there is Pontcyfyng (SJ7357) (between Capelcurig and Betws-y-coed, North-west Wales)

< Pont y Cyfyng (bridge of Y Cyfyng)

..2/ Y Cyfyng, Ystalyfera (SN7608); here there is Cyfyng Road (which would be Heol y Cyfyng in Welsh) between Ystalyfera and Pant-teg to the south

ETYMOLOGY: from the adjective cyfyng (= narrow)

:_______________________________.

cyfyngedig
<kə-və-NGEE-dig> [kəvəˡŋeˑdɪg] (adjective)
1
limited, restricted

:_______________________________.

cyfyng-gyngor
<KƏ-ving-GƏ-ngor> [ˡkəvɪŋ ˡgəŋɔr] (masculine noun)
1
tight spot, problem
bod ar gyfyng-gyngor
<bood ar GƏ-ving-GƏ-ngor> [boːd ar ˡgəvɪŋ ˡgəŋɔr] be in a fix, be in a bit of a fix

:_______________________________.

cyfyngiad, cyfyngiadau
<kə-VƏNG-yad, -kə-vəng-YAA-dai, -e> [kəˡvəŋjad, kəvəŋˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
restriction

2 cyfyngiad amser time limit
cyfyngiad amser caeth strict time limit


:_______________________________.

cyfyngol <kə-VƏ-ngol> [kəˡvəŋɔl] (adjective)
1
restrictive

:_______________________________.

cyfyngu <kə-VƏ-ngi> [kəˡvəŋɪ] (verb)
1
to restrict

:_______________________________.

cyfyrder, cyfyrdyr <kə-VƏR-der, kəv-VƏR-dir> [kəˡvərdɛr, kəˡvərdɪr] (masculine noun)
1
second cousin (male)

:_______________________________.

cyfyrderes, cyfyrderesau <kə-vər-DEE-res, -kə-vər-de-RE-sai, -e> [kəvərˡdeˑrɛs, kəvərdɛˡrɛsaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
second cousin (female)

:_______________________________.

cyhoedd <KƏ-hoidh> [ˡkəhɔɪ] (m)
1
public

y cyhoedd the public

nueadd y cyhoedd public hall

:_______________________________.

cyhoeddi
<kə-HOI-dhi> [kəˡhɔɪɪ] (verb)
1
to publish

2
to make public
cyhoeddich gwarth eich hun to cry stinking fish (make public your own shame)

3
c
yhoeddi rhywun yn euog declare somebody guilty

:_______________________________.

cyhoeddiad, cyhoeddiadau
<kə-HOIDH-yad, -kə-hoidh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəˡhɔɪjad, kəhɔɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
publication

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhoedd-, stem of cyhoeddi = to make public, to publish) + (-iad noun suffix)


:_______________________________.

cyhoeddus
<kə-HOI-dhis> [kəˡhɔɪɪs] (adjective)
1
public = not private

2
public = for the benefit of the public, available to the public (for example, provided by a local or central administration)

cerbyd cyhoeddus public service vehicle

y farn gyhoeddus public opinion

llyfrgell gyhoeddus public library
trafnidiaeth g
yhoeddus public transport

 

siarad yn gyhoeddus (n) public speaking; (v) speak in public

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhoedd-, stem of cyhoedd = the public) + (-us adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyhoeddwr
<kə-HOI-dhur> [kəˡhɔɪʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyhoeddwyr <
kə-HOIDH-wir> [kəˡhɔɪwɪr]
1
publisher = a person who produces and distributes periodicals or books

2
publisher = a firm in the publishing business; publishing house, publishing firm, publishing company
Hughes ai Fab, Cyhoeddwyr, Gwrecsam Hughes and Son, Publishers, Wrecsam (imprint in the book Perlau Awen Islwyn, 1909)

3
announcer = person who makes the announcements (about forthcoming
services and visiting preachers, chapel activities, etc) in a Nonconformist chapel

Cyhoeddwr ym Methania oedd William Jones
William Jones was an announcer in Bethesda chapel

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhoedd-, stem of cyhoeddi = to publish) + (-iad agent suffix, = man)

:_______________________________.

cyhuddiad
<kə-HIDH-yad> [kəˡhɪjad] masculine noun
PLURAL: cyhuddiadau
<kə-hidh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəhɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
accusation = an assertion that someone has done wrong

2
charge = formal accusation that a person is is guilty of an offence or crime
taflu pob cyhuddiad at
throw the book at (throw every accusation at)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhudd-, stem of cyhuddo = to accuse) + (-iad suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyhuddo
<kə-HII-dho> [kəˡhiˑɔ] (verb)
1
to accuse

2 cyhuddo (rhywun) o fod yn (gwneud rhywbeth) accuse (somebody) of (doing something)

:_______________________________.

cyhydedd <kə-HƏ-dedh> [kəˡhədɛ] m
PLURAL: cyhydeddau <kə-hə-DEE-dhai, -e> [kəhəˡdeˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1 equator

2 equinox
Gwyl Fair y Cyhydedd 25 March, Lady Day feast (of) Mary (at) the equinox

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (cyhŷd = of the same length) + (-edd) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

Cf Breton keheder

:_______________________________.

cyhydeddol <kə-hə-DEE-dhol> [kəhəˡdeˑɔl] adj
1 equatorial
Gini Gyhydeddol = Equatorial Guinea

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhydedd = equator) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cylch, cylchoedd
<KILKH, KƏL-khoidh, -khodh> [kɪlx, ˡkəlxɔɪ, -ɔ] (masculine noun)
1
circle = geometric shape

2
circle, group of people who meet for a specific purpose
cylch trafod discussion group

3
trogylch (tro= turn, turning ) + soft mutation + ( cylch = circle )

..1/ (USA: traffic circle, roundabout) (Englandic: roundabout) = central island at a road junction around which traffic circulates in one direction; junction with such an island

..2/ circus = circular area where streets converge

4 theatr gylch theatre in the round

 

5 orbit (but the usual word is trogylch)

 


:_______________________________.

cylched <KƏL-khed> [ˡkəlxɛd] (feminine noun)
PLURAL: cylchedau <kəl-KHEE-dai, -e> [kəlˡxeˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 circuit = path of an electric current
y gylched = the circuit

2 cylched gyfannol (f) plural cylchedau cyfannol integrated circuit

ETYMOLOGY: (cylch- [ə] penultimate-syllable form of cylch [ɪ] = circle) + (suffix -ed

:_______________________________.

cylchfa, cylchfydd <KƏLKH-va, kəlkh-VEIDH> [ˡkəlxva, kəlxˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
1
zone
y gylchfa = the zone
2
cylchfa ragod buffer zone

:_______________________________.

cylchfan <KƏLKH-van> [ˡkəlxvan] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL: cylchfannau <
kəlkh-VA-nai, -e> [kəlxˡvanaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(USA: traffic circle) (Englandic: roundabout) = central island at a road junction around which traffic circulates in one direction; junction with such an island
y cylchfan / y gylchfan = the roundabout

Also: trogylch

ETYMOLOGY: (cylch-
[ə], penult form of cylch [ɪ] = circle ) + soft mutation + ( man = place)

:_______________________________.

cylchffordd
<KƏLKH-fordh> [ˡkəlxfɔr] feminine noun
PLURAL: cylchffyrdd <
KƏLKH-firdh> [ˡkəlxfɪr]

1 (American: beltway) (Englandic: ring road) road around the periphery of a town or city
y gylchffordd = the beltway

ETYMOLOGY: ("circle-road", circular road)
(cylch-
[ə], penult form of cylch [ɪ] = circle ) + ( ffordd = road)

:_______________________________.

cylchgrawn, cylchgronau
<KƏLKH-graun, kəlkh-GROO-nai, -e> [ˡkəlxgraʊn, kəlxˡgroˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
magazine, journal, periodical

 

ETYMOLOGY: ("circle-hoard / treasure") (cylch- [ə], penult form of cylch [ɪ] = circle ) + soft mutation + (crawn = hoard / store / accumulation / treasure). i.e. circulating collection of articles

 

:_______________________________.

cylionen, cylion
[kəlˡjoˑnɛn, ˡkəljɔn] (feminine noun)
1
fly
y gylionen the fly

wedi ei chwythu gan gylion fly-blown = full of eggs or larvae of flies, full of maggots

chwyth cylion arno fly-blown

:_______________________________.

cyll
<KILH> [kɪɬ] plural
1
hazel trees; plural of collen
llwyn cyll hazel grove

coed cyll hazel wood

:_______________________________.

cyll
<KILH> [kɪɬ] verb
1 (he / she) will lose < colli to lose
Third person singular indicative present-future (literary form the colloquial form would be colliff / collith)


Rhy lawn, a gyll Grasp all, lose all (too full, he will-lose)


:_______________________________.

cyllell, cyllyll <KƏ-lhelh, KƏ-lhilh> [ˡkəɬɛɬ, ˡkəɬɪɬ] (feminine noun)
1
knife (colloquially: cylleth, cyllyth)
y gyllell = the knife

blaen y gyllell the thin end of the wedge, a small beginning of a process which will lead to worse things (the tip of the knife)
cyllell lem a sharp knife

2
cyllell boced, cyllyll poced
<KƏ-lhelh-BO-ked, KƏ-lhilh PO-ked> [ˡkəɬɛɬ ˡbɔkɛd, ˡkəɬɪɬ ˡpɔkɛd] (feminine noun)
pocket knife

3
bod ch c
yllell yn (rhywun) have your knife in somebody, be constantly hostile or unfair towards somebody


Mae e i g
yllell ynof o hyd Hes always getting at me (He has his knife in me constantly)

4 Cystal bys a bawd chyllell a fforc Fingers were made before forks (in excusing oneself for not eating with a knife and fork) ((it-is) as-good (a ) finger and thumb as (a) knife and fork)

:_______________________________.

cyllid, cyllidau
<KƏ-lhid, kə-LHII-dai, -e> [ˡkəɬɪd, kəˡɬiˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
budget

:_______________________________.

cyllido
<kə-LHII-do> [kəˡɬiˑdɔ] (verb)
1
to finance
2
cwmni cyllido finance company, one which finances HP (higher-purchase) sales

:_______________________________.

cylltyrau
<kəlh-TƏ-rai, -e> [kəɬˡtəraɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
coulters; see cwlltwr

:_______________________________.

cyllyll
<KƏ-lhilh> [ˡkəɬɪɬ] (plural noun)
1
knives; see cyllell

:_______________________________.

cymain
<KƏ-main> [ˡkəmaɪn] masculine noun
1
a form of cymaint = so much, as many
cymain un everyone, all without exception

Ephesiaid 5:33 Ond chwithau hefyd cymain un, felly cared pob un ohonoch ei wraig, fel ef ei hunan; a'r wraig edryched ar iddi berchi ei gŵr
Ephesians 5:33
Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.

:_______________________________.

cymaint
<KƏ-maint, KƏ-mint> [ˡkəmaɪnt, ˡkəmɪnt] (masculine noun)
1
as much, so much
c
ymaint as big / much / many as
cymaint arall
<KƏ-mint AA-ralh> [ˡkəmɪnt ˡɑˑraɬ] as much again
cymaint arall (o rywbeth) the same amount again (of something)

2 hanner c
ymaint half as big / much / many
Rhowch hanner cymaint imi eto Give me half as much again
hanner c
ymaint half as big / much / many as
hanner c
ymaint eto half as big / much / many again

3 dwywaith cymaint twice as big
bod ddwywaith cymaint be twice as big as

teirgwaith cymaint three times as big as
teirgwaith cymaint o (bobl) three times as many (people)
bod deirgwaith cymaint o (bobl) three times as many (people)

pedair gwaith cymaint four times as big as
bod bedair gwaith cymaint four times as big as

pum gwaith cymaint five times as big as
bod bum gwaith cymaint be five times the size of

bod bum gwaith cymaint o (bobl) be five times as many (people)
bod bum gwaith cymaint o (hylif) be five times as much (liquid)

chwe gwaith cymaint six times as big as
bod chwe gwaith cymaint o (bobl) six times as many (people)

 

4 y tri chymaint a quantity three times as much

mae ef yn mynnu cael mwy na'r tri chymaint ag a roes i mi

he wants to have more than three times what he gave me

5 cymaint ddwywaith twice as big

bod cymaint ddwywaith be twice as big as
bod cymaint ddwywaith arafach be twice as slow as

cymaint deirgwaith three times as big as
cymaint deirgwaith o (bobl) three times as many (people)

cymaint bedair gwaith four times as big as
cymaint bedair gwaith o (bobl) four times as many (people)

cymaint bum gwaith five times as big as
cymaint bum gwaith o (bobl) five times as many (people)

 

cymaint chwe gwaith six times as big as
cymaint chwe gwaith o (bobl) six times as many (people)

6
yn gymaint insomuch as, but rather
Nid tref yw Wrecsam,
yn gymaint phentre mawr
Wrecsam isnt a town insomuch as a large village

7 cymaint fyth a fynnoch chi as much / many as you like
Cymaint ag y gall e wneud fydd (gwneud rhywbeth)

Hell find it hard to, hell find it an effort to, hell find it a job to, hell have his work cut out to..., itll be one helluva job for him to... (itll be as much as he can do to...)

8 lawn cymaint just as much, to the same extent

Rw in hoffir darlun bach ma ond rw in hoffir darlun arall lawn cymaint
I like this small picture but I like the other picture just as much
(lawn fully < llawn = full) + (cymaint so much, the same quantity). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence dydd > ddydd (d > dd)

9 so much
There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence cymaint > gymaint (c > g)
(= so often) Pam mae e gymaint ar ei ben ei hunan? Why is he alone so much?
y naill gymaint r llall one as much as the other, equally
Rwy in hoffir naill gymaint r llall I like them both equally, I like one as much as the other

:_______________________________.

c
ymal <KƏ-MAL> [ˡkəmal] masculine noun
PLURAL: cymalau <kə-MAA-lai, -le> [kəˡmɑˑlaɪ, -lɛ]
1
(anatomy) joint = place where two bones meet
cymal y glun hip joint

2 knuckle

3 c
ymal cyflafareddu arbitration clause

4 (plant stem) joint = part of stem from which a branch or leaf grows

5 (mechanical device) joint = articulation, place where two parts are joined, either rigidly or allowing movement

6 (meat) joint = portion of a carcass of a size suitable for cooking

7 (grammar) clause
c
ymal addef concessive clause
c
ymal amod conditional clause
c
ymal canlyniad consecutive clause
c
ymal cydradd co-ordinating clause
c
ymal isradd subordinating clause
c
ymal perthynol relative clause

8
(legal document) clause

9 (car) part

10 cryd c
ymalau rheumatism (fever (of) joints)

11 (South Wales) dod ich c
ymal get into ones stride (in some task)
cael eich c
ymal get into ones stride (in some task)

12 (North Wales) hel eich ch
ymalau walk, get moving

13 limb, branch

torrin gymalau dismember

14 (county of Penfro)
ymladd cymalau fight with the bare fists

15
ystwytho cymalau bestir oneself (flex joints)

16
trwy bob cymal cynhaliaeth by that which every joint supplieth, (the nerves and ligaments in ancient medical science were considered to give life)

Epistolau Sant Paul at y Effesiaid
4:16 O'r hwn y mae'r holl gorff wedi ei gydymgynnull a'i gydgysylltu, trwy bob cymal cynhaliaeth, yn l y nerthol weithrediad ym mesur pob rhan, yn gwneuthur cynnydd y corn, i'w adeiladu ei hun mewn cariad
Ephesians 4:16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love

ETYMOLOGY: (c
ym- < cyn = together) + (*mal = member);
*mal < British < Celtic *
mel-so < mel- (member; to join)


Cornish mell (=articulation; link of a chain; vertebra), Breton mell (= articulation; vertebra),

cf Greek mlos (= song)

:_______________________________.

c
ymalwst <kə -MAA-lust> [ˡkəˡmɑˑlʊst] masculine noun
1 gout = inflamation of the big toe from uric acid deposited in the joint

ETYMOLOGY: (c
ymal = joint, articulation ) + soft mutation + (gwst = pain)



:_______________________________.

cymanfa
<kə-MAN-va > [kəˡmanva] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh> [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ]
1
assembly, convention, meeting, congress
y gymanfa the assembly

Cymanfa'r Cenhedloedd Unedig (qv) United Nations Assembly

 

Deuteronomium 9:10 A rhoddes yr Arglwydd ataf y ddwy lech faen, wedi eu hysgrifennu bys Duw; ac arnynt yr oedd yn l yr holl eiriau a lefarodd yr Arglwydd wrthych yn y mynydd, o ganol y tn, ar ddydd y gymanfa

Deuteronomy 9:10 And the LORD delivered unto me two tables of stone written with the finger of God; and on them [was written] according to all the words, which the LORD spake with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly.

 

2 district assembly of representatives of the Baptist Church

 

3 district assembly of representatives of the Congregational Church


4 cymanfa ganu, cymanfaoedd canu (qv)
<kə-MAN-va GAA-ni, kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, KAA-ni> [kəˡmanva ˡgɑˑnɪ, kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, ˡkɑˑnɪ] hymn-singing festival. See the separate entry below

 

5 cymanfa garolau (qv) <kə-MAN-va ga-ROO-lai, -e> [kəˡmanva gaˡroˑlaɪ, -ɛ] carol service

6 cymanfa ysgolion (qv)
<kə-MAN-va ə-SKOL-yon> [kəˡmanva əˡskɔljɔn] school-choir festival

5 profusion
Dawr ffiwsia yn wreiddiol o Dde America ac y mae iddi gymanfa o flodau piwsgoch The fuchsia comes originally from South America and it has a profusion of purplish-red flowers


ETYMOLOGY: (cyman = society) + (-fa suffix = place)


NOTE: Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton,
T.H. Parry-Williams, 1913
In W[elsh], however, the interchange of f and dd is quite common, especially in the dial[ect]s
One example given of the change f > dd is cymanfa (a congregation, convention) > cymandda


:_______________________________.

 

cymanfa bwnc <kə-MAN-va BUNGK> [kəˡmanva ˡbʊŋk] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd pwnc <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, PUNGK> [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, ˡpʊŋk]


1 a gathering of Sunday schools for discussing parts of Scripture previously studied
See also: cymanfa holi, cymanfa ysgolion

 

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + soft mutation + (pwnc = subject, theme, matter)



:_______________________________.

 

cymanfa ddirwest <kə-MAN-va DHIR-west> [kəˡmanva ˡɪrwɛst] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd dirwest <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, DIR-west> [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, ˡdɪrwɛst]

1 temperance meeting = gathering with speeches and hymn-singing in order to support the cause of abstinence from alcoholic drink

 

Also as cymanfa ddirwestol <kə-MAN-va dhir-WEST-ol> [kəˡmanva ɪrˡwɛstɔl]

Cymanfa d[d]irwest yn Nefyn a Sais yn gofyn i hen gymeriad beth oedd ar fynd yn y capel, ac yntau'n ateb: 'O it is a sing-song against the beer.' Llafar Gwlad, 1986, Rhif 10

A temperance meeting in Nefyn and an Englishman asks an old character what was going on in the chapel, and the latter answers, 'Oh, it is a sing-song against the beer.


ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + soft mutation + (dirwest = teetotalism, abstinence from alcoholic drink)


:_______________________________.


cymanfa ganu <kə-MAN-va GAA-ni> [kəˡmanva ˡgɑˑnɪ] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd canu <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, KAA-ni> [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, ˡkɑˑnɪ]

1 hymn-singing festival, community singing (= gathering to sing hymns)

In the United States a cymanfa ganu is referred to in English by non-Welsh-speaking Welsh descendants in the soft-mutated form, gymanfa ganu, resulting in the unfortunately incorrect title of the organisation promoting this kind of event as the WNGGA, the Welsh National Gymanfa Ganu Association, when it should be the WNCGA, the Welsh National Cymanfa Ganu Association.

 

http://www.wngga.org/ (2008-12-06)

The Welsh National Gymanfa Ganu Association, North American Welsh cultural organization. Promotion of everything Welsh, particularly the Gymanfa Ganu (Guhmonva Gonee) or Welsh Singing Festival.

ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + soft mutation + (canu = singing)


:_______________________________.

cymanfa garolau <kə-MAN-va ga-ROO-lai, -e > [kəˡmanva gaˡroˑlaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd carolau <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, ka-ROO-lai, -e > [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, kaˡroˑlaɪ, -ɛ]

 

1 carol service

Ar nos Sul, Rhagfyr 5ed 1993, cynhaliwyd Cymanfa Garolau yng Nghapel Gwynfil, Llangeitho

On Sunday night, 5 December 1993, a carol service was held in Gwynfil Chapel, Llangeitho


ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + soft mutation + (carolau = carols, plural of carol = carol)



:_______________________________.

cymanfa gyffredinol <kə-MAN-va gə-fre-DII-nol > [kəˡmanva gəfrɛˡdiˑnɔl] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd gyffredinol <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, gə-fre-DII-nol > [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, kəfrɛˡdiˑnɔl]


1 general assembly = supreme governing body (of the Presbyterian Church in Wales, formerly the Calvanistic Methodists)
Cymanfa Gyffredinol yr Eglwys Bresbyteraidd the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church


ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + soft mutation + (cyffredin = general)



:_______________________________.


cymanfa holi <kə-MAN-va HOO-li > [kəˡmanva ˡhoˑlɪ] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd holi <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, HOO-li> [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, ˡhoˑlɪ]

 

1 gathering of Sunday schools for discussing parts of Scripture previously studied
See also: cymanfa bwnc, cymanfa ysgolion


ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + (holi = to ask; to catechise)



:_______________________________.

 

cymanfar Cenhedloedd Unedig <kə-MAN-var ken-HED-loidh, -odh, i-NEE-dig > [kəˡmanvar kɛnˡhɛdlɔɪ, -ɔ, ɪˡneˑdɪg] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd y Cenhedloedd Unedig <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, ə ken-HED-loidh, -odh, i-NEE-dig > [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, ə kɛnˡhɛdlɔɪ, -ɔ, ɪˡneˑdɪg]


1 United Nations Assembly

ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + (Y Cenhedloedd Unedig = The United Nations)

:_______________________________.

 

cymanfa ysgolion <kə-MAN-va ə-SKOL-yon> [kəˡmanva əˡskɔljɔn] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanfaoedd ysgolion <kə-man-VAA-oidh, -odh, ə-SKOL-yon > [kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ, əˡskɔljɔn]


1 a gathering of Sunday schools for discussing parts of Scripture previously studied
See also: cymanfa bwnc, cymanfa holi

 

 

ETYMOLOGY: (cymanfa = assembly) + (ysgolion = schools, plural of ysgol = school), ysgol being uderstood as meaning Ysgol Sul (= Sunday school)


:_______________________________.

cymantoledd <kə-man-TOO-ledh> [kəmanˡtoˑlɛ] (m)

1 equilibrium
cymantoledd economaidd economic equilibrium


:_______________________________.

 

cymanwlad <kə-MAN- ulad> [kəˡmanwlad] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: cymanwledydd <kə-man-uLEE-didh > [kəmanˡwleˑdɪ]
1 commonwealth = group of countries united for certain common purposes


2 commonwealth = federation of states and territories with certain responsibilities carried out by a central government, and others by the smaller governments


ETYMOLOGY: (cyman = society) + soft mutation + (gwlad = country)

:_______________________________.

Cymanwlad Awstralia <kə-MAN- ulad au-STRAL-ya> [kəˡmanwlad aʊˡstralja] (feminine noun)


1 the Australian Commonwealth, the title of the federation of Australian states
seren y Gymanwlad commonwealth Star = the Australian seven-pointed star, approved 1908

ETYMOLOGY: (cymanwlad = commonwealth) + (Awstralia = Australia)

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Cymanwlad Lloegr <kə-MAN- ulad LHOI-ger> [kəˡmanwlad ˡɬɔɪgɛr] (feminine noun)

1 the English Commonwealth, a loose alliance of the English state (United Kingdom) and its dependencies and ex-colonies

ETYMOLOGY: (cymanwlad = commonwealth) + (Lloegr = England)

:_______________________________.

cymar <KƏ-mar> [ˡkəmar] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL: cymheiriaid <kə-MHEIR-yaid, -yed> [kəˡmhəɪrjaɪd, -ɛd]
1 companion

2 spouse, marriage partner, husband

3 spouse, marriage partner, wife

4 counterpart

5 (animal, bird) mate

6 equal

7 partner in a dance
Roedd yn gymar perffaith iddi yn y ddawns
He was a perfect partner for her in the dance

8 amlgymharus promiscuous
(aml-, prefix = multi ) + soft mutation + (cymharus)
cymharus
: (cymhar- penultimate syllable stem < cymar = pair) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)

9 Mae i bob celwydd ei gymar One lie leads to another (there is to every lie its partner)

ETYMOLOGY: cymar < cymhar < British *compar- < Latin compar-em (< adjective = equal to each other) < (com- together) + (par equal);


cymheriaid < (cymhar- penultimate syllable stem) + (-iaid sufix plural)

:_______________________________.

cymaroldeb
<kə-ma-ROL-deb> [kəmaˡrɔldɛb] masculine noun
1
comparability

ETYMOLOGY: (cymarol- / cymharol = comparative) + (-deb suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cymdeithas, cymdeithasau
<kəm-DEI-thas, kəm-dei-THA-sai, -e> [kəmˡdəɪθas, kəmdəɪˡθasaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
society
y gymdeithas = the society

2 Cymdeithas Dafydd ap Gwilym
<kəm-DEI-thas DAA vidh ap GWII-lim>

[kəmˡdəɪθas ˡdɑˑvɪ ap ˡgwiˑlɪm]
the society of Dafydd ap Gwilym, a Welsh literary society formed in the late 1800s by Welsh students at the University of Oxford, England. Dafydd ap Gwilym was the foremost medieval Welsh poet

3 Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymreg
<kəm-DEI-thas ər yaith gəm-RAIG> [kəmˡdəɪθas ər jaɪθ gəmˡraɪg]
the society for the Welsh language - a pacificist direct-action organisation founded in the 1960s to campaign for the linguistic rights of Welsh-speakers
http://www.cymdeithas.com/cartref.htm

4 cymdeithas rieni ac athrawon PLURAL cymdeithasau rhieni ac athrawon
parent-teacher association

:_______________________________.

cymdeithas tai
<kəm-DEI-thas-TAI> [kəmˡdəɪθasˡtaɪ] feminine noun
PLURAL: cymdeithasau tai <
kəm-dei-THA-se TAI> [kəmdəɪˡθasɛ ˡtaɪ]
1
housing association = non-profit organisation providing rented housing for a community

ETYMOLOGY: association (of) houses (cymdeithas = association) + (tai = houses, plural of ty = house)

:_______________________________.

cymdogaeth, cymdogaethau
<kəm-DOO-geth, -kəm-do-GEI-thai, -e> [kəmˡdoˑgaɪθ, -ɛθ kəmdɔˡgəɪθaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
neighborhood (Englandic: neighbourhood)
y gymdogaeth the neighborhood

 

plismona cymdogaeth to police a neighbourhood

:_______________________________.

cymdogion
<kəm-DOG-yon> [kəmˡdɔgjɔn] (plural noun)
1
neighbors (Englandic: neighbours); see cymydog

:_______________________________.

cymell
<KƏ-melh> [ˡkəmɛɬ] (verb)
1
to urge

:_______________________________.

cymedrol
<kə-ME-drol> [kəˡmɛdrɔl] (adj)
1
moderate

2 unadventurous
Rh
ywbeth cymedrol iawn yw hi, ynte
She's very unadventurous, isn't she?

:_______________________________.

cymen
<KƏ-men> [ˡkəmɛn] (adj)
1 tidy
2 anghymen untidy
(an- = negative prefix) + nasal mutation + (cymen = tidy)

:_______________________________.

cymer
<KƏ-mer> [ˡkəmɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL: cymerau <
kə-MEE-rai, -e> [kəˡmeˑraɪ, -ɛ]
1
confluence

2 a frequent element in place names;
..1/ Pentrellyncymer (village by the lake of the confluence),
..2/ Pontycymer (bridge by the confluence),
..3/ Rhydcymerau (ford of the confluences) etc

ETYMOLOGY: British *kom-ber (kom = together) + (ber = carry, take; flow).

This is also the basis of the Welsh verb cymeryd / cymryd (= to take).

From the same British root: Cornish kemmer (= confluence), Breton kember (= confluence), and the Breton place name Kemper (called by the French Quimper).

Besides cymer and cymeryd, the element ber occurs too in the following words in Welsh:
(a) aber (= confluence, river mouth, estuary),
(b) adfer (= restore),
(c) arfer (= practise),
(d) diabred (= withheld, held back, refused),
(e) diferu (= to drip),
(f) gofer (= run-off, ditch, stream).

It is related to
(a) Irish beir (= carry),
(b) English to bear (= to carry),
(c) Greek pherein (= to carry, to bring, as in the English word of Greek origin paraphernalia miscellaneous items, but originally personal property of a married woman; para = alongside, beyond)

NOTE: in South-west Wales the plural cymerau is colloquially cwmere
ku-m-re

:_______________________________.

Y Cymer
<ə KƏ-mer> [ə ˡkəmɛr]
1
locality in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan (SS 8696)
...1961: population: 4,551; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 17%
...1971: population: 4,470; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 9%


2 (SH 7219) monastery in Llanelltud (district of Meirionnydd in the county of Gwynedd)

3 (ST 0290) locality in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf
<HRON-dha KƏ-non TAAV> [ˡhrɔna ˡkənɔn ˡtɑːv]
Also: Cymer Rhondda

:_______________________________.

cymr
<kə-MEER> [kəˡmeːr] masculine noun
North Wales
1
character, real character = a person with an interesting eccentric personality
Collwyd cymr pan fu farw Stan Bevan (Phylip Hughes) yng Nghwmderi
Cwmderi
(fictional village in a long-running drama series on Welsh-language TV)