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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English



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7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









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7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z





cr- -
cr- < cr- contraction of (k + vowel + r)

...1. Carannog (saints name) > Crannog (in the place name Llangrannog)

...2. Caradog (mans name) > Cradog (as such in the surname Cradog (descendant of ap Caradog), Englished as Craddock)

...3. careiau > creiau > criau > crie / cria (= shoelaces) (colloquial forms)

...4. cerydd (older Welsh) > crydd (modern Welsh form) (cobbler, shoemaker)
Cf Bret kere (= cobbler, shoemaker)
. coranau > cranau > crane, crana plural form of coran. This is a colloquial form of coron (= crown)


kraa masculine noun
(North Wales) = craf (qv) ramsons (broad-leaved wild garlic) (Allium ursinum)
In monosyllables the final
v is lost in the north cf gof / go (= smith), haf / ha (= summer), etc

Coed-y-cra SJ2270 (farm in Sir y Fflint) ((the) wood (of) the ramsons).
Pant-y-cra street name, Tabor, Dolgellau (Pant y Cra) ((the) hollow (of) the wild garlic)


crac, craciau KRAK, KRAK ye (masculine noun)
crack, split


crachach KRA khakh (plural noun)
(literally little scabs) name for Welsh people who admire and adopt the language and customs of the English, and look down with arrogance on their fellow Welsh people; affected anglicised or semi-anglicised middle-class Welsh people


(stunted oak) Another name for derwen digoes (Quercus petraea) sessile oak

ETYMOLOGY: (crach = small, stunted) + soft mutation + ( derwen = oak)


Y Crachdir
ə KRAKH-dir
name of a farm in Brymbo (Wrecsam)


crachen, crachennau KRA khen, kra KHE ne (feminine noun)
scab (on a wound)
y grachen = the scab


cradur (cradur)
1 = creadur


kraav masculine noun
1 ramsons (broad-leaved wild garlic) (Allium ursinum). A wild relative of chives.
The standard Welsh name for Allium ursinum is craf y geifr

Alternative English names for Allium ursinum are buckrams, wild garlic, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic or bear's garlic

(delwedd 7009)

(Allium sativum) English name: garlic
Standard Welsh name: garlleg
Alternative name:
craf y gerddi ((the) garlic (of) the gardens)

(Allium scorodoprasum) English name: Sand leek.
Welsh names:
craf y nadroedd ((the) garlic (of) the snakes)
craf y natred (south-west) ((the) garlic (of) the snakes)

(Allium ursinum) English name: ramsons
Welsh name:
craf y geifr ((the) garlic (of) the goats)

(Allium vineale) English names: wild garlic, buckrams, wild garlic, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic or bear's garlic
The standard Welsh name of Allium vineale is garlleg gwyllt (wild garlic), but it is also known as:
craf y borfa ((the) garlic (of) the pasture).
craf y meysydd ((the) garlic (of) the fields).

2 (North Wales) cra

In monosyllables the final
v is lost in the north cf gof / go (= smith), haf / ha (= summer), etc

Coed y Cra (wood in Sir y Fflint) ((the) wood (of) the ramsons).
Pant-y-cra street name, Tabor, Dolgellau (Pant y Cra) ((the) hollow (of) the wild garlic)

SH7662 Afon Crafnant river in the county of Conwy, flowing north-east from the reservoir Llyn Crafnant, and joining the river Conwy north of Trfriw the valley / stream of the ramsons / wild garlic
(craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + (nant = stream)

wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic
(craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)

craflwyn wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic
(craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (llwyn = wood)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Irish creamh (= wild garlic, ramsons)
From the same Indoeuropean root: Greek kremnon


crafanc, crafangau KRAA vangk, kra VA nge (feminine noun)
y grafanc = the claw
morthwyl crafanc
clawhammer (hammer (of) claw)

2 talon

crafanc y frn buttercup

NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.

crow-foot : a buttercup ]

3 (crab) pincer


crafangog kra- va -ngog adj
1 clawed

ETYMOLOGY: (crafang- < crafanc = claw) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

crafangu kra VA ngi (verb)
to claw

2 crafangu am wellt
kra-va-ngi am welht
(claw for straws) clutch at straws; seek a solution to a problem out of desperation, although the proposed solution is unlikely to be successful
(crafangu = to claw) + (am = around; for) + soft mutation + (gwellt = straw)


crafangus cra-va-ngis adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (crafang-, stem of crafangu = to claw, to grab with the claws) + (-us adjectival suffix)


craffu KRAA fi (verb)
craffu ar (rywbeth) = observe (something) closely


krav -goid masculine noun
wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic

ETYMOLOGY: (craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)


crafiad, crafiadau KRAV yad, jrav Y de (masculine noun)
cael crafiad ar eich llaw scratch your hand (= get a scratch, be scratched on the hand)


krav -luin masculine noun
wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic

ETYMOLOGY: (craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (llwyn = wood)


krav -nant
SH7662 Afon Crafnant river in the county of Conwy, flowing north-east from the reservoir Llyn Crafnant, and joining the river Conwy north of Trfriw

Llyn Crafnant a lake / reservoir from which the Crafnant river flows

In the village of Rhos (county of Conwy) there is a road called Crafnant Road (which would be Ffordd Crafnant in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: the valley (or stream) of the ramsons / wild garlic (craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + (nant = stream)


cragen, cregyn / cragennau KRAA gen, KREE gin / kra GE ne (feminine noun)
y gragen = the shell

2 mynd ich cragen withdraw into yourself, go into your shell (go to your shell)
dod och cragen come out of ones shell

pysgodyn cragen PLURAL pysgod cregyn shellfish


cragenbysgodyn kra-gen-bə- sk -din masculine noun
PLURAL cragenbysgod kra-gen-bə--skod

ETYMOLOGY: (cragen = shell) + soft mutation + (pysgodyn = fish)


craig, creigiau KRAIG, KREIG ye (feminine noun)
cliff, crag, rock
y graig = the rock, the cliff, the crag

bod mor sefydlog r graig be as steady as a rock

rock = someone who is dependable, unchanging, reliable

Salmau 62:5 O fy enaid, disgwyl wrth DDUW yn unig: canys ynddo ef y mae fy ngobaith. (62:6) Efe yn unig yw fy nghraig, a'm hiachawdwriaeth: efe yw fy amddiffynfa: ni'm hysgogir.
Psalms 62:5 My soul, wait thou only upon God; for my expectation is from him.(62:6) He only is my rock and my salvation: he is my defence; I shall not be moved.

bod yn graig o arian have spadefuls of money, have loads of money, be as rich as Croesus
(be a rock of money)

Craig Berth-lwyd kraig berth-LUID
hill in Merthyrtudful county, south of Treharris (ST 0996)

Craig-berth-lwyd a district here

ETYMOLOGY: craig y Berth-lwyd - the rock of Berth-lwyd house (craig = rock); y Berth-lwyd = (y definite article) + soft mutation + (perth = hedge) + soft mutation + (llwyd = gray / grey)

NOTE: written Graig Berthlwyd in the 1800s, with the soft-mutated form graig used as a radical form


Craig Ddu kraig -DHII
SH 7010 crag in the district of Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd)

2 SH 6152 crag in the district of Dwyfor (county of Gwynedd)

3 crag at Castell ar Alun (county of Bro Morgannwg)

4 crag at Aberogwr (county of Bro Morgannwg)

ETYMOLOGY: black rock; (craig = rock) + soft mutation + (du = black)
NOTE: See also the form with the definite article (Y) Graig Ddu


Craigwilym pont- WI -lim
place name in Pen-tyrch (county of Caer-dydd) - name of a tenement in the year 1666

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) rock (of) William) (craig = rock) + soft mutation + (Gwilym = William)


Craig-y-don kraig ə DON


Dwelling in Llan-rug (1851 Census)
Address: Craig y Don
Surname: Hughes
Forenames: John
Relationship: Head
Condition: M
Age: 35
Occupation: Carpenter
Place of Birth: CAE(narvonshire)

2 Craig-y-don House name, Rhosneigr (Craig y Don)

3 Ffordd Craig-y-don (Craig y Don Road), Bangor

4 Craig-y-don SH7891 District of Llandudno (Craig y Don)

Thomas Peers Williams came into possession of the land in this district under the 1848 Enclosure Act. He named it after his estate in Biwmaris called Craig-y-don. In June 1884 he divided the Llandudno land and other landholdings in Marl, Llan-rhos and Baecolwyn into small lots and sold them all freehold in the space of three days. Craig-y-don, Llandudno

5 Craig-y-don SH5673, north-east of Porthaethwy

6 Biwmaris / Beaumaris

CRAIG-Y-DON. We leave the Town [Biwmaris] proceed on the new terrace, and soon reach Craig-y-don, the recent creation of that true friend to his country, the late Owen Williams, Esq. M. P. for Marlow; a delightful situation, adapted to his wishes, where the Menai wafted his cutters to his doors, and laid her piscatory tributes almost on his hospitable tables, while his thriving plantations in return adorn her shores and islands.

Beaumaris Bay: The Shores of the Menai, and the Interior of Snowdonia; Scenery Unrivalled in its Comprehensive Variety, The Interesting Objects which it includes, and the Sublime Prominence of its Features. Richard Llwyd. 1832 Ffordd y Castell

ETYMOLOGY: (the) rock (overlooking) the sea

(craig = rock, cliff) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (ton = sea; wave)


Craig y Pistyll kraig ə pi -stilh
(SN7185) rocks 3km east of Bont-goch (county of Ceredigion)
Llyn Craig y Pistyll (SN7185) a lake to the east of the rocks

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) rock (of) the waterfall) (craig = rock, cliff) + (y definite article) + (pistyll = waterfall)


Craig yr Oesoedd kraig ər oi -soidh
the Rock of Ages = Christ

2 cysgu fel craig yr oesoedd sleep like a log (sleep like the rock of ages)

ETYMOLOGY: (craig = rock) + (yr = the) + (oesoedd ages, plural of oes = age)


crair, creiriau KRAIR, KREIR yai, -ye (masculine noun)


craith kraith feminine noun
PLURAL creithiau kreith -yai, -ye
Also: creithen krei-then (craith) + (-en, diminutive suffix)

scar = mark left by a wound, burn
y graith the scar

Roedd ganddo graith fawr or glust dde at ei n
He had a big scar from his right ear to his chin

scar = memory of a painful experience, emotional hurt

Fe dorrodd fy nghalon ac maer graith yn aros o hyd
She broke my heart and the scar is still there

Darllennais yr hen lythyrau y bore ma ac maer hen graith wedii hagor eto
This morning I read the old letters and the old scar has opened again

craith brech or craith y frech = pockmark, scar in the form of an indentation in the skin from the healing of a smallpox pustule

darn in a woolen garment (Englandic: woollen garment)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton kleizenn (= scar)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cracht (= wound)


cranc, crancod KRANGK, KRANG kod (masculine noun)


cranclyd krangk -lid adjective
cranky, wayward, eccentric

ETYMOLOGY: (cranc = eccentric person) + (-lyd, adjectival suffix)


crancsiafft krangk -shaft feminine noun
PLURAL crancsiafftiau krang-shaft-yai, -ye
1 crankshaft = main shaft in an engine
y grancsiafft = the crankshaft

ETYMOLOGY: English crankshaft (= crank + shaft)

crank (formerly = reel for yarn) < Old English
shaft < Old English sceaft (= arrowshaft, etc);

Cf German der Schaft (= axe handle)

Besides its cognates in the Germanic languages, shaft is related to
,,1/ Latin scpus (= shaft),
..2/ Greek skeptron (= staff); (skeptron has given English scepter, sceptre)


crand krand adjective
grand = imposing, majestic

Yng nghanol tref Livorno yn yr Eidal saif ty crand lle bu teulu Thomas Lloyd yn byw, a hwnnw bellach yw canolfan clwb tenis Livorno
In the middle of the town of Livorno in Italy there is an imposing house where the family of Thomas Lloyd lived which nowadays is the Livorno Tennis Club,

(hotel, car, etc) grand, ritzy, luxurious, impressive, ornate
aros mewn gwestyau crand to stay in luxury hotels

(clothes) smart, elegant, showy, elaborate, impressive, ornate

dillad crand finery, elaborate and showy clothes

actorau ac actoresau wedi ymgasglu yn eu dillad crand i ganmol eu gilydd
Actors and actresses gathered together in their finery to compliment each other

gwisgon grand dress up in smart clothes, dress elegantly

merched yn gwisgo hetiau crand women wearing elaborate hats

(appearance) smart

imposing, unnecessarily ornate

pam y maer Sais mor awyddus i gael geiriau crand am bethau bob dydd?
why are the English so keen to have (such) grand words for everyday things?

splendid, excellent = giving great opportunity for

Blynyddau yn l yr oedd Abertawen lle crand am ddrama
years ago Abertawe was a great place for drama

(English accent), grand = belonging to the upper levels of a society

Mae elfen gref o snobeiddiwch ym Mrs Jones Pant-mawr ac mae hi wastad yn siarad Saesneg gydag acen grandiach nar Saeson eu hunain
Theres a strong element of snobbishness in Mrs Jones Pant-mawr and she always speaks English with an accent grander than that of the English themselves

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh crand < grand < English grand < Old French grand (= big) < Latin grandis (= great)


crasu KRA si (verb)
to bake, to toast


craswellt kras -welht masculine noun
dry grass
mor sych chraswellt odyn as dry as dry grass (for heating) an oven / a kiln

ETYMOLOGY: (cras = dry) + soft mutation + (gwellt = grass)


KRACH masculine noun
PLURAL cratshys
South-west Wales: cretsh

1 manger
drewi fel crash lloi stink like a calves manger

2 tailboard of a cart

3 (North-west Wales) stomach

4 crtsh = cage (confusion of ctsh (= cage) and cratsh (= manger) ?

mor apus a dou ganeri bach miwn crj

Nin Doi 1918 Glynfab t 39

ETYMOLOGY: English crach < Old French cresche (= manger) < Germanic. Cf English crib

Modern English (1854) has borrowed the modern French word crche = nursery


krai masculine noun
( obsolete) blood, gore

creulys groundsel, bloodwort. (Senecio vulgaris)
blood plant (creu-, penult form of crau = blood) + soft mutation + (llys = plant)
creulys cyffredin groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)

creulon cruel
( creu = penultimate-syllable form of crau) + soft mutation + (-llon suffix = full; llawn
adjective = full)

creulan (obsolete) battlefield (blood-field)
( creu = penultimate-syllable form of crau) + soft mutation + (llan = land)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic.
From the same British root: Cornish krow (= gore, bloodshed, death)

In Hibernian Celtic: Irish cr (= blood, gore)

Cf the English word cruel < Old French cruel < Latin crudlis < crdus (= bleeding)

Related words in other languages:

Greek krea, krewa (= flesh; as in the modern formation creosote),
Sanskrit kravs (= flesh)
English raw
Latin crdus (= bleeding) > English
Also Latin crdus (= bleeding) > (bloody meat, uncooked meat, raw meat) > (raw or uncooked food in general) > Catalan cru (= raw)


krai masculine noun
PLURAL creuau, creuon
krei e, krei-on
(obsolete) hovel

2 (obsolete) pigsty

3 (obsolete) stockade, place of defence

4 creuddyn (qv) fort

(creu = crau) + soft mutation + (din = fort)

5 Creuwyrion

(modern form: Cororion, Llandygi SH5970, county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *krw-o
From the same British root: Cornish krow (= hut, shed, sty), Cornish place name Ros-krow Roscrow, ((the) hill (of) (the) shed); Breton kraou (= cowshed)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cr (= enclosure, hovel, pigsty, sheepfold)


purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea)

(delwedd 7218)


Afon Crawcwellt SH6929 river in Meirionnydd, Gwynedd map, ffoto


creadur, creaduriaid kre A dir, kre a DIR yed (masculine noun)
creature, animal
y cradur! the poor thing!


Creaton KRII-tn
village in Northamptonshire, England. Here the clergyman Thomas Jones wrote a number of religious texts in Welsh, or translated texts into Welsh from English.

He was born in Cefnyresgair, Hafod, Ceredigion on 2 April 1752. He was curate of Creaton in Northamptionshire, England, for forty-three years, and rector for five years until the age of 80/81 in 1833. He died in 1845, and is buried at nearby Spratton

(delwedd 7610)


creawdwr, creawdwyr kre AU dur, kre AUD wir (masculine noun)


crebachiad kre- bakh -yad masculine noun
PLURAL crebachiadau kre-bakh- YAA -de
atrophy, withering, fading

ETYMOLOGY: (crebach- stem of crebachu = to shrink, to atrophy) +(-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)


crech KREEKH [kreːx] adjective
feminine form of crych (= curly; rippling; rough)

(1) As a first element in compound words with a feminine main element
crechwen (= scornful smile), < gwn (= smile)

(2) Adjective after a feminine noun grech.

ffrwd grech fruud GREEKH [fruːd ˡgreːx] stream with churning water

Ffrwd-grech SO0227 farm south-west of Aberhonddu / Brecon (county of Powys) map

There is a road called Ffrwdgrech Road SO0328 (which in Welsh would be Heol Ffrwd-grech) in Aberhonddu, by Ffrwd-grech farm Heol Ffrwd-grech


crechwen KREKH-wen [ˡkrɛxwɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL crechwenau krech-WEE-nai, -e [krɛʧˡweˑnaɪ, -ɛ]
laughter, guffaw, scornful laugh, loud laugh, horselaugh (loud unrestrained laugh)
y grechwen = the loud laugh

2 nasty grin, scornful smile

ETYMOLOGY: (crech, feminine form of crych = curly, agitated) + soft mutation + (gwn = smile)


Credig KREE-dig [ˡkreˑdɪg] (masculine noun)
a colloquial pronunciation of the mans name Ceredig

The elimination of an intervening vowel in the sequence C-vowel-R occurs in:

Cradog (Caradog), hence the Englished surname Craddock
Llangrannog, i.e. Llangrannog a village in Ceredigion, historically Llangarannog


cred, credau KREED, KREE-dai, -e [kreːd, ˡkreˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (f)

Cred = the Christian faith;
gwledydd Cred Christendom = the Christian countries
o fewn terfynau Cred in Christendom, within the bounds of Christendom


credu KREE-di [ˡkreˑdɪ] (verb)
to believe

2 Fe fydd yn anodd gennych ei gredu You wont believe it, youll hardly believe it (it will be difficult with you its believing)


credyd, credydau KREE-did, kre-DIID-ai, -e [ˡkreˑdɪd, krɛˡdiˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)


crefft, crefftau KREFT, KREFT-ai, -e [krɛft, ˡkrɛftaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
y grefft = the craft


crefftwr, crefftwyr KREFT-ur,-KREFT-wir [ˡkrɛftʊr, ˡkrɛftwɪr] (masculine noun)


crefft ymladd kreft ƏM-ladh [krɛft ˡəmla] masculine noun
martial arts
cwrs crefft ymladd a martial arts course, a course to learn martial arts

ETYMOLOGY: "craft (of) fighting" (crefft = craft) + (ymladd = to fight)


crefydd, crefyddau KREE-vidh, kre-VƏƏ-dhai, -e [ˡkreˑvɪ, krɛˡvəˑaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
y grefydd = the religion


crefyddol kre-VƏƏ-dhol [krɛˡvəˑɔl] (adjective)

Creidiol <KREID-yol> [ˡkrɪəɪdjɔl]
1 The bardic name of Jabez Edmund Jenkins 1840-1903, a cleric (beginning as a Congregationalist Minister) and poet from Gelli-groes, Mynyddislwyn.

He lived the last twenty years of his life in Y Faenor, then in the county of Brycheiniog, now in the county of Merthyrtudful, where in 1897 he published an English-language volume about Y Faenor Vaynor, its History and Guide.

In a housing estate in Mayhill, Abertawe / Swansea, which has streets named after various poets, there is a Heol Creidiol / Creidiol Road.

ETYMOLOGY: The meaning of his bardic name is obscure.


KREIG-dhi [ˡkrəɪgɪ] feminine noun
black rock

Y Greigddu place name, Cricieth (county of Gwynedd) (English name: Black Rocks)
Traeth y Greigddu place name, Cricieth (county of Gwynedd) (English name: Black Rock Sands)

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (du = black)
?graig-dd > (accent shift) grig-ddu > (regularisation of the penult diphthong ai > ei) grigddu


creigfa KREIG-va [ˡkrəɪgva] feminine noun
PLURAL creigfaon kreig-VAA-on [krəɪgˡvɑˑɔn]
rocky place
House name in Aber-gwaun (Sir Benfro)

2 rockery (in a garden)

gardd greigfa rockery garden

3 reef = ridge of rocks in the sea, hidden just below the surface or exposed above the surface

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)


creigiau KREIG-yai, -ye [ˡkrəɪgjaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
crags, cliffs, rocks; plural of craig


creigiog KREIG-yog [ˡkrəɪgjɔg] adjective
rocky, craggy, steep
Y Mynyddoedd Creigiog (USA) The Rocky Mountains, the Rockies

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + (-iog suffix for forming nouns)


KREIG-le [ˡkrəɪglɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL creigleoedd
kreig-LEE-oidh, -odh [krəɪgˡleˑɔɪ, - ɔ]
rocky place, crag, stony ground

Sant Marc 4:5 A pheth a syrthiodd ar greigle, lle ni chafodd fawr ddaear, ac yn y fan yr eginodd, am nad oedd iddo ddyfnder daear. 

Daint mark 4:5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (lle = place)


Creigmor KREIG-mor [ˡkrəɪgmɔr] masculine noun
1 house name, Pwllheli

ETYMOLOGY: sea rock? The basis seems to be craig y mr (craig = rock) + (y definite article) + (mr = sea)

> *craig-mr (linking definite article dropped)

> crig-mr
(stress shifts to the first syllable)

> creigmor
where ai becoes ei,

maybe in imitation of the name of the shore at Cricieth, Y Greigddu


creignant KREIG-nant [ˡkrəɪgnant] (mf)
1 rocky stream, stream with a rocky bed

ETYMOLOGY: (creig-, penult syllable form of craig = rock) + (nant = stream)

NOTE: nant is a feminine noun. It was formerly a masculine noun meaning valley; later it came to mean stream, and probably took on the same gender as afon (= river), a feminine noun.

The only example of creignant in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / the University of Wales Dictionary of Welsh is a plural form from the 1300s (kreicneint glwys, or in modern Welsh creignaint glwys = pleasant rocky streams). The gender is given as masculine.


Creignant KREIG-nant [ˡkrəɪgnant]
SJ2535 locality in the county of Shropshire, England, on the Welsh border, near Llangollen / Y Waun / Croesoswallt (misspelt as Craignant)

2 There is a street called Creignant in Nantmel, Powys (misspelt as Craignant)

3 Farm SN9178 in the parish of Llangurig, Powys (misspelt as Craignant) map

ETYMOLOGY: See the preceding entry

(unless Crignant is in fact < Craignnt < Craig-y-nant, crag overlooking the stream, though this seems an unlikely name. Older forms of the name Craignant need to be consulted to be sure of its origin in each case)


creigres KREIG -res [ˡkrəɪgrɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL creigresi kreig- RE -si [krəɪgˡrɛsɪ]
1 reef

creigres gwrel, creigresi cwrel coral reef
creigres lanw, creigresi llanw tidal reef

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (rhes = row)


creigwely kreig WEE-li [krəɪgˡweˑlɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL creigwelyau kreig-we-LII-ai, LII-e [krəɪgwɛˡliˑaɪ, -ˡliˑɛ]
1 bedrock, underlying rock

ETYMOLOGY: rock bed, a bed made of rock (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (gwely = bed)

creiriau KREIR-yai, -ye [ˡkrəɪrjaɪ, -jɛ] (plural noun)
relics; plural of crair


creision KREI-shon [ˡkrəɪʃɔn] (plural noun)
plural of the adjective cras (= baked to a crisp)
2 (noun) crisps; flakes


creisionyn krei-SHOO-nin [krəɪˡʃɔnɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL creision KREI-shon [ˡkrəɪʃɔn]
flake, crisp

creisionyn ŷd, creision ŷd IID [iːd]
corn flake

ETYMOLOGY: (creision = crisp things, < creision, plural form of the adjective cras = baked to a crisp) + (-yn = singulative suffix)


crempogen, crempogau krem-POOG-en, krem-POOG-ai, -POOG-e [krɛmˡpoˑgɛn, krɛmˡpoˑgaɪ, -ˡpoˑgɛ] (feminine noun)
y grempogen = the pancake


creon, creonau KREE-on, kre-OON-ai, -OON-e [ˡkreɔn, krɛˡoˑnaɪ, -oˑnɛ] (masculine noun)


creu KRƏI [krəɪ] (verb)
to create

creu ymwybyddiaeth o KRƏI əm-ui-BƏDH-yaith, -yeth oo [krəɪ əmʊɪˡbəjaɪθ, -jɛθ oː]
make aware of, create an awareness of


KRƏI -dhin [ˡkrəɪɪn] masculine noun
(obsolete) stockade, place of defence, fort
(creu = crau) + soft mutation + (dỳn /
dynn = hill; fort)

Place name:

(delwedd 7057)

..a/ Creuddyn (northern Ceredigion) division (kmmud / 'cwmwd') of the cantref of Penweddig

Llanfihangel y Creuddyn (SN6676) village in the former kmmud of Creuddyn
(The village called) Llanfihangel (which is in the kmmud called) Y Creuddyn
(Llanfihangel = (the) church (of) Michael Archangel)

Llanfihangel y Creuddyn
parish in northern Ceredigion
Llanbadarn y Creuddyn parish in northern Ceredigion

The local pronunciation is crouddyn in south Wales a tonic syllable eu, and au in monosyllables (dau = two, cau = hollow) are pronounced [ou], preserving the older pronunciation of this diphthong

This is seen in nineteenth century (anglicised) spellings for the two parishes

Llanbadarn y Croythin = Llanbadarn y Crouddyn / Llanbadarn y Creuddyn
Llanvihangel y Croythin = Llanfihangel y Crouddyn / Llanfihangel y Creuddyn

Here Llafihangel y Creuddyn is Llanvihangelycroythin

..b/ Creuddyn (southern Ceredigion)

ycreuddyn view of the Creuddyn stream
Street name in Llanbedr Pont Steffan (county of Ceredigion)
(gwl = view) + (
y definite article) + (Creuddyn)

Stream names and river names are not preceded by the definite article in Welsh; the name, if referring to the stream, should be
Gwlcreuddyn gwl Creuddyn

Pont Creuddyn SN5552

Nant Creuddyn
the Creuddyn brook

..c/ Creudd
yn (Llandudno SH7881, county of Conwy)

Penrhyn Creuddyn
PEN-hrin KRƏI -dhin [ˡpɛnhrɪn ˡkrəɪɪn]

Creuddyn Peninsula, Llandudno (Conwy) (the) peninsula (forming part of) (the kmmud of) Creuddyn

Creuddyn was one of the three kmmuds of the kntrev of Rhos, along with Uwch Dulas and Is Dulas

Ysgol y Creuddyn name of a Welsh-language primary school (in Baepenrhyn, Llandudno)

Canol Creudd
yn name of a street in Llandudno (the) centre (of) Creuddyn, (the) middle (of) Creuddyn)

Creuddyn a lost stream name in Aber-gwaun SM9537


creulon KRƏI -lon [ˡkrəɪlɔn] (adjective)


creulondeb krəi -LON-deb [krəɪˡlɔndɛb] (masculine noun)


creulys KRƏI -lis [ˡkrəɪlɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL creulysiau
krəi -LƏ-shai, -she [krəɪˡləʃaɪ, -ʃɛ]
groundsel, bloodwort (Senecio vulgaris)
creulys cyffredin groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)

2 creulys y Wladfa Magellan ragwort (Senecio smiithi) ((the) groundsel (of) the Settlement, that is, Gwladfa Patagonia, the Welsh settlement in Patagonia established in 1865)

ETYMOLOGY: blood plant (creu-, penult form of crau = blood) + soft mutation + (llys = plant)


criafolen kri-a-VOOL-en [krɪaˡvoˑlɛn] f
PLURAL criafol kri-AA-vol [krɪˡɑˑvɔl]
1 (tree) (Sorbus domestica) mountain ash, rowan
Also: pren criafol mountain ash, rowan

2 mountain ash berry
criawal (South Wales) mountain ash berries
Also: crafan, crawel, criafon, criawal, criawol, grafel, cyrafol, crafol

3 There is a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) called Coedcriafol (spelt as Coed Craifol) rowan trees

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
Possibly criafol (through metathesis cri- < cir-) < *cirafol < cyrafol < cyrawol < *cerewol < *cereol < kreol-

From the same Common Celtic root: Irish caor (= berry, rowan berry); caora fnina (= grape),
caorthann (= rowan tree)

QUERY: Bwlch Greolen SJ0923 near Penygarnedd, Powys
Is this a form of bwlch y griafolen? (the) pass (of) the rowan tree

crib, cribau KRIIB, KRII-bai, -be [ˡkriːb, ˡkriˑbaɪ, -bɛ] (masculine or feminine noun)
(North = m, South = f)

Diminutive forms: criban, cribyn

y crib (North) = the comb
y grib (South) = the comb

2 ridge of a hill, mountain

Cefn-crib SN6898 Farm near Y Cwrt, Gwynedd
cefn y crib (the) back (of) the ridge map

Y Grib
SO1931 Hill near Pengenffordd, Powys

3 talgrib (poetry) high ridge
( tal = tall) + soft mutation + ( crib = ridge)

(delwedd 7846)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British > Common Celtic
Cognates are:
krib (= comb, ridge, reef of rocks), kribenn (= cocks comb, honeycomb);
krib (= comb), kribenn (= summit)
cor (f) (= comb), croch (f) = boundary, border


KRIB-yad [ˡkrɪbjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cribiadau krib-YAA-dai, -de [krɪbˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
(action) comb, combing
rhoi cribiad ich gwallt give your hair a comb

ETYMOLOGY: (crib-, root of cribo = to comb) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)


cribin KRIIB-in [ˡkriˑbɪn] feminine noun
PLURAL cribiniau kri-BIN-yai, -ye [krɪˡbɪnjaɪ, -jɛ]
North Wales rake, hay-rake; in the south a different word is used: rhaca
y gribin = the rake

2 North Wales (masculine noun) miser, money-grabber, skinflint, grasper

3 In some place names, misspelling of cribyn (= ridge)

ETYMOLOGY: (crib = comb) + (-in)
VARIANTS: (it can also be a masculine noun)


cribin fach KRIIB-in VAAKH> [ˡkriˑbɪn ˡvɑːx] feminine noun
PLURAL cribiniau bach [krɪˡbɪnjaɪ, -jɛ ˡbɑːx]
North Wales small rake, hand rake


cribiniad kri-BIN-yad [krɪˡbɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cribiniadau krii-bin-YAAD-ai, - YAAD-e [kriˑbɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
North Wales
raking = act of raking; rhoi cribiniad i to rake, to give a raking to
raking = a quantity (of hay) raked with one movement of the rake

ETYMOLOGY: (cribin = rake) + (-iad)


cribinllyd kri-BIN-lhid [krɪˡbɪnɬɪd] (adj)

1 miserly, grasping, money-grabbing

ETYMOLOGY: (cribin = miser) + (-llyd adjectival suffix)


cribo KRII-bo [ˡkriˑbɔ] (verb)
to comb


cribyn KRIIB-in [ˡkriˑbɪn] (m)

1 ridge

Y Gribin SH8417 hill north-west of Abercywarch, Gwynedd
Possibly Y Cribyn (= the ridge) confused with y gribin (= the hayfork), < cribin (f) = hayfork


SH3537 Pontycribyn Farm in Llannor, Gwynedd (Pont-y-Cribyn)

ETYMOLOGY: (crib = ridge) + (-yn diminutive suffix)


Y Cribyn ə KRII-bin ˡkriˑbɪn] (m)

1 SN5251 Village in Ceredigion

Original name: Cribynyclotas (= ridge of the clods)

See also: cribyn, Cribyn Du

Y Cribyn Du ə KRII-bin DII ˡkriˑbɪn ˡdiː] (m)
1 SN7548 hill in Cil-y-cwm (county of Caerfyrddin) map

cric, criciau KRIK, KRIK-yai, -ye [ˡkrɪk,ˡkrɪkjaɪ, -jɛ] (masculine noun)
crick = muscle spasm in the neck or back
cael cric yn eich gwar get a crick in your neck


criced KRI-ked [ˡkrɪkɛd] (masculine noun)
llain griced cricket pitch

cricket (insect)


criciedyn, criciaid krik-YEE-din, KRIK-yaid, -ed [krɪkˡjeːdɪn, ˡkrɪkjaɪd, -jɛd] (masculine noun)
cricket (Acheta domesticus)

criciedyn hirgorn brith
(Meconema punctatissima) speckled bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn brith)


criciedyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr (Metrioptera viridissima) great green bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr)


criciedyn hirgorn llwyd (Platycleis denticulata) grey bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn llwyd)


criciedyn hirgorn Roesel (Meconema roeslii) Roesels bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn Roesel)


criciedyn hirgorn tywyll
(Pholidoptera griseoaptera) dark bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn tywyll)


criciedyn hirgorn y dderwen
(Meconema thalassium) oak bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn y dderwen)


criciedyn hirgorn y gors (Metrioptera brachyptera) bog bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn y gors)


criciedyn y coed (Nemobius sylvestris) wood cricket

(cricsyn y coed)


criciedyn y maes (Gryllis campestris) field cricket

(cricsyn y maes)



cricsyn KRIK-sin [ˡkrɪksɪn] (masculine noun)
PLURAL crics, criciaid KRIKS, KRIK-yaid, -yed [ˡkrɪks, ˡkrɪkjaɪd, -jɛd]
cricket (Acheta domesticus)

cricsyn hirgorn brith (Meconema punctatissima) speckled bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn brith)


cricsyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr (Metrioptera viridissima) great green bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr)


cricsyn hirgorn llwyd (Platycleis denticulata) grey bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn llwyd)


cricsyn hirgorn Roesel (Meconema roeslii) Roesels bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn Roesel)


cricsyn hirgorn tywyll
(Pholidoptera griseoaptera) dark bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn tywyll)


cricsyn hirgorn y dderwen
(Meconema thalassium) oak bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y dderwen)


cricsyn hirgorn y gors (Metrioptera brachyptera) bog bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y gors)


cricsyn y coed (Nemobius sylvestris) wood cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y gors)


cricsyn y maes (Gryllis campestris) field cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y gors)


grillian criciaid the chirping of crickets

2 bod yn iach fel cricsyn be in rude health, be as fit as a fiddle (be healthy like a cricket)
bod fel cricsyn o iach be in rude health, be as fit as a fiddle (be like a cricket of healthy)

NOTE: Alternative singular forms are criciedyn and criced

An alternative name is pryf tn (= fire insect)

crimog KRIM-og [ˡkrɪmɔg] feminine noun
PLURAL crimogau kri-MOO-ge [krɪmˡoˑgaɪ, -gɛ]

1 shin
obsolete shin-guard
obsolete leg; and from this sense, applied to landscape features: ridge, spur

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = fragile) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)


crimogio krim-OG-yo [krɪmˡɔgjɔ] verb
William Owen-Pughe, in his dictionary 1793/1803, remarks -"crimmogiaw" "to kick shins. It is a diversion of the Pembrokeshire men; who have meetings for the purpose, where they attend properly prepared in thick shoes with nails projecting out at the sides."

The southern form would be in fact crimogo krim-OG-o [krɪmˡɔgɔ]

ETYMOLOGY: (crimog = shin) + (-io)


crimp (1) KRIMP [krɪmp] adjective
crisp, hard;
rhostio yn grimp roast until crisp

bara saim wedi ei ffrion grimp fried bread fried until crisp (fried bread = a slice of bread fried in a frying pan with boiling mutton / beef / pork fat)

2 godron grimp milk dry, milk until no more milk is forthcoming; also figuratively, exploit (for money, ideas, etc) until no more remains

3 dry; sych grimp (sych = dry) + soft mutation + (crimp = crisp) bone dry

4 dry (of mouth after drinking too much alcohol)

5 North Wales llosgin grimp burn to a cinder, burn to a crisp

ETYMOLOGY: English crimp (= fragile, brittle, crisp) < Old English "gecrympan" (= to curl up)


crimp (2) KRIMP [krɪmp] masculine noun
PLURAL crimpiau KRIMP-yai, -ye [ˡkrɪmpjaɪ, -ɛ]
sharp edge

2 ridge, spur

Y Crimpia SH7359 ("the ridges"; local form of crimpiau in north-west Wales a final au is pronounced as -a) place by Capelcurig SH7258 (Gwynedd, North-west Wales); Capelcurig Pen y Crimpiau SH7359

Nant y Crimp ("stream of the ridge") stream in Pont-lliw SN6101 (county of Abertawe, South-east Wales) Pont-lliw

3 North Wales stingy person; hen grimp di hwnnw the one youre talking about is an old skinflint

ETYMOLOGY: from the adjective crimp (= fragile, brittle, crisp)


crimpen KRIM-pen [ˡkrɪmpɛn] feminine noun
North Wales miser, skinflint (woman); crimpyn (man)
South-west Wales crisp oatcake, oatcake baked until it is hard

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = brittle; miser) + (-en)


crimpio KRIMP-yo [ˡkrɪmpjɔ] verb
NOTE: South Wales crimpio > crimpo
verb without an object, North Wales to get scorched
verb with an object, South-west Wales crimpo to air (clothes in front of the fire)

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = fragile, brittle, crisp; dry) + (-io)


crimpyn KRIM-pin [ˡkrɪmpɪn] masculine noun
something shrivelled up, dried up, shrunken up (by the heat)

llosgin grimpyn ("burn into a crisp (thing)")
...(a) (intransitive verb) (action of the sun, intense heat): shrivel up, become shrivelled up
...(b) (transitive verb) llosgi (rhywbeth) yn grimpyn (action of the sun, intense heat): shrivel (something) up, cause (something) to shrivel up

2 North Wales miser, skinflint (man); crimpen (woman)

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = (noun) miser, (adjective) crisp, brittle) + (-yn)


crin KRIIN [krn] masculine noun

2 dry

3 parched, scorched

4 (field names) barren, unproductive

There is a Bryn Crin SH3835 ( scorched hill, barren hill if earlier forms do not show a different origin for this name) in Pwllheli, Gwynedd map

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish
krin, Breton krin
From the same Celtic root: Irish cron, Manks creen

NOTE: See Crindai, crinfir, Crindy, cringoch, crino, crinsych, crinwellt


Y Crindai ə KRIN-dai [əˡkrɪndaɪ]
Ordnance Survey Map reference: ST3189
locality in the county of Casnewydd; (in fact now part of the city of Casnewydd, where formerly there was a mansion called Crindai) map, Y Crindai

ETYMOLOGY: probably houses with a roof of withered straw / withered reeds, plural form of crindy


crindir KRIN-dir [ˡkrɪndɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL crindiroedd krin-DIIR-oidh, -odh [krɪnˡdiˑrɔɪ, -diˑrɔ]
parched earth, scorched earth, arid land

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (tir = land)


crindy KRIN-di [ˡkrɪndɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL crindai KRIN-dai [ˡkrɪndaɪ]
obsolete house with thatch of straw or reeds; see the place name Y Crindai

ETYMOLOGY: probably house with a roof of withered straw / withered reeds; (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (ty = house)


Y Crindy KRIN-di [ˡkrɪndɪ]
nickname for the the Bulls Head tavern in Walbrook, London, where a Welsh literary association (the Gwyneddigion = people of Gwynedd) used to meet at the end of the 1700s and beginning of the 1800s

(Walbrook TQ3281 street in the City, north of Cannon Street tube station) Eglwys Sant Steffan, Walbrook

ETYMOLOGY: (crin) + soft mutation + (ty = house). The members of the society referred to the landlord as Y Crin kriin [kriːn], and so the meaning is literally the Crin House or Crins House. The nickname could be either wizened, shrivelled (from his appearance), or it could allude to a lack of generosity since it also means stingy, tightfisted


cringoch KRIN-gokh [ˡkrɪngɔx] adjective
(person) red-haired, having frizzy red hair

cringoch (m) red-haired man

2 (hair) red and frizzy
mwng o wallt cringoch a mane of ginger hair

3 (fox) having a red coat

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = shrivelled, curled up) + soft mutation + (coch = red)


cringoed KRIN-goid [ˡkrɪngɔɪd]

1 withered trees

CRINGOED the white withered trees

p. 262 Collections Historical And Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders Volume XXIII 1889

A History of the Parish of Llanbrynmair / Richard Williams FRHS

Chapter XII A Glossary of Local Names


crinjio KRINJ-yo [ˡkrɪnʤjɔ] verb
1 Englishism to cringe = feel uncomfortable or repulsed from extreme distaste or dislike

Mi fydda in crinjio bob tro y bydda i yn gweld y rhaglen honno
I cringe every time I see that progamme

ETYMOLOGY: English cringe (= feel distaste) < Old English cring(an) (= to yield in battle)
This Englishism is crinjo KRINJ-o [ˡkrɪnʤjɔ] in South Wales

crinllys KRIN-lhis [ˡkrɪnɬɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL crinllys KRIN-lhis [ˡkrɪnɬɪs]
literary word violet, violets

ETYMOLOGY: (crin-, apparently from Greek krinon = lily) + soft mutation + (llys = plant) > *crinlys > crinllys


crino KRII-no [ˡkriˑnɔ] (verb)


crinsych krin -sikh adjective
dry, dessicated, parched

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = dry, withered) + (sych = dry)


crintach KRIN-takh m

(North Wales)
miser, stingy person

ETYMOLOGY: crintach is possibly < Irish crontach (= withered-up old person), nowadays in modern Irish crontachn, with the diminutive suffix n


crintachlyd krin-TAKH-lid adj

1 stingy, mean, tightfisted
Fuodd o erioed yn un crintachlyd efo pres
He was never stingy with money (never a stingy one with money)

Rwyt ti wedi mynd mor ofnadw o grintachlyd
Youve become really stingy

ETYMOLOGY: (crintach = miser) + (-lyd adjectival suffix, often with a pejorative connotation)


crinwydden krin-W-dhen fl
1 withered tree

Llyn y Grinwydden SJ0206, near Llanerfyl. Powys map

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (gweydden = tree)


crinwellt krin -welht pl
1 withered grass, parched grass

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (gwellt = grass)


cro KRI o (verb) (North Wales)
to cry (North)


crisial KRI shal (masculine noun)
clir fel crisial crystal clear


Crist KRIST (masculine noun)


crist croes, tn poeth krist kris taan pith -
colloquially cris croes tn poeth; said to somebody who doubts the truth of what you are saying (as in English cross my heart and hope to die)

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) cross of Jesus, hot fire"; Welsh < Middle English Cris-cross, Crist-cross = Christs cross + (tn = foc) + (poeth = calent)


crist croes y Beibl krist kris ə bei-bil -
colloquially cris croes y Beibl; said to somebody who doubts the truth of what you are saying (as in English cross my heart and hope to die)

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) cross of Jesus (on the cover of) the Bible" Welsh < Middle English Cris-cross, Crist-cross (= Christs cross)


Cristion, Cristnogion KRIST yon, krist NOG yon (masculine noun)


critigol kri- tii -gol adj
1 critical (Chemistry, Physics) point in a measurement of some phenomenon at which an abrupt change occurs (100 Celsius is a critical temperature of water, when it changes from a liquid to a gas)
tymheredd critigol critical temperature

ETYMOLOGY: (critig = critic) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives); imitation of the English word critical


criw, criwiau KRIU, KRIU ye (masculine noun)


crwr kr -ur masculine noun
PLURAL crwyr kr -wir

2 crwr tref = town crier, official who attracts the attention of the public by ringing a bell and makes public announcements
Also: belman (from English bellman, man with a bell)

ETYMOLOGY: (cri- stem of cro = to cry out, to shout) + (-wr agent suffix, = man)


criws krius masculine noun
South Wales
piss up, drinking spree
bod ar y criws be on a drinking spree

ETYMOLOGY: criws < carws ka-rus < English carouse < French < Middle French carouse < German (dialectal) gar s (= gar aus trinken fully + out + drink, drink up completely)


Croateg kro A teg (feminine noun, adjective) (language)


croc krok masculine noun
PLURAL crocs kroks
hen groc (old person) crock
hen groc dioglyd lazy old fool

2 hen groc crock = useless old horse

3 hen groc crock = old car

ETYMOLOGY: English crock (= old and useless person / animal / thing); (originally an old decrepit ewe) < Lowlandic (Scotland), probably Dutch kraak (= decrepit person / animal); related to Norwegian krake (= unhealthy animal)


crocbren, crocbrennau KROK-bren, krok-BRE-ne (masculine noun)
gallows, hanging tree


krok -bris
PLURAL crocbrisiau
krok- bri -she
exhorbitant price

talu crocbris am rywbeth
pay through the nose for something, pay the earth for something

codi crocbris am rywbeth charge the earth for something

ETYMOLOGY: a hanging price (crog-, stem of crogi = to hang) + soft mutation + (pris = price);
(c + p) > g-b > c-b

> crg-bris (qualifying element triggers soft mutation of initial consoant of the qualified element)

> crc-bris
(in such a combination, the final consonant [g] before the soft mutation is devoiced [k])

Meaning: query is this money paid to obtain a pardon and save from execution on the gallows?


crochan, crochanau KROO-khan, kro-KHAA-nai, -e (masculine noun)
cauldron, iron pot, cooking pot

2 y tecil yn galw tinddu ar y crochan the pot calling the kettle black, accusing others of a having some fault which you too have but dont want to acknowledge or admit
(the kettle calling black-arse on the cooking pot, the kettle saying that the cooking pot has got a black bottom)

3 bola crochan (South) pot belly


crochenydd, crochenyddion kro-KHE-nidh, kro-khe-NƏDH-yon (masculine noun)
troell crochenydd potters wheel

ETYMOLOGY: (crochan-, penult form of crochan = pot) + (-ydd = noun suffix denoting an agent), vowel affection a > e throught the influence of the y [i] in the final syllable

crochlef krokh -lev feminine noun
PLURAL crochlefau krokh- LEE-ve
1 strident cry, clamour

2 clamour = noisy demand
anwybyddu crochlef barhus Cymryr fro am dai fforddadwy
ignoring the constant demand of the Welsh people of the area for affordable housing

ETYMOLOGY: (croch = loud) + soft mutation + ( llef = cry )


croen, crwyn crg-bris (masculine noun)

Does dim gwaith yn eich croen chi Youre workshy (theres no work in your skin)

croen neidr PLURAL crwyn nadroedd snakeskin

mynd och croen lose your temper, fly into a rage (go (out) of your skin)

yn gyrn, croen a charnau hook, line and sinker (horns, skin / hide and hooves)

llyncu storin gyrn, croen a charnau swallow a story hook, line and sinker, accept something improbable without questioning it

6 blaengroen foreskin
( blaen = front; fore) + soft mutation + (croen = skin)

Samuel-1 18:25 A dywedodd Saul, Fel hyn y dywedwch wrth Dafydd; Nid yw y brenin yn ewyllysio cynnysgaeth, ond cael cant o flaengrwyn y Philistiaid, i ddial ar elynion y brenin. Ond Saul oedd yn meddwl peri lladd Dafydd trwy law y Philistiaid.
Samuel-1 18:25 And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.

cael cyfrinach o groen rhywun
prise / wheedle a secret out of somebody (get a secret from the skin of someone)

argroen epicarp
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (croen = skin)

9 noethlymun groen stark naked

10 blaidd mewn croen dafad sheep in wolf's clothing
bod yn flaidd mewn croen dafad be a sheep in wolf's clothing

11 cael gwlychfa at eich croen get soaked to the skin

NOTE: In South Wales croen kroin > cron kroon


croenwyn kroin win adj
1 white-skinned
pobl groenwyn white people

Mae en groenwyn, yn bum droedfedd deg modfedd o daldra, gyda gwallt tywyll byr a llygaid brown
He is white, five foot ten inches tall with short dark hair and brown eyes

ETYMOLOGY: (croen = skin) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white)

..1 croes, croesau / crwys KROIS, KROI se / KRUIS (feminine noun)

Y Groes Sanctaidd the Holy Cross, the Holy Rood
Eglwys y Groes Sanctaidd Holy Cross Church (Name of a church in Llanor, Gwynedd)

croes Geltaidd, croesau Celtaidd
krois GEL tedh, kroi se KEL tedh (feminine noun)
Celtic cross

y Groes Goch
ə grois GOOKH (feminine noun)
the Red Cross (in Moslem countries Y Cilgant Coch, the Red Crescent)

gorsafoedd y groes (Catholic Church) stations of the cross - a sequence of 14 crosses or images in a church or along on a roadside representing the suffering and crucifixion of Jesus

6 yn groes ir cloc anticlockwise

7 ynghroes (arms) folded
i freichiau ynghroes with his arms folded

yn grwn ac ar groes completely (roundly and on a cross)
gwadu rhywbeth yn grwn ac ar groes completely deny something


..2 croes KROIS (adjective)

y peth hollol groes i the complete opposite of

Mae hynnyn groes iw gymeriad Its out of character for him (that is contrary to his character)

NOTE: In South Wales croes krois > cros kroos


croesair, croeseiriau KROI sair, kroi SEIR ye (masculine noun)


Croesawdy kroi- sau -di
(house name) house of welcome
Cwrt Croesawdy street name. Y Drenewydd (county of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: (croesaw-, stem of creosawu = to welcome) + soft mutation + ( = house)


croesawferch kroi- sau -verkh feminine noun
PLURAL croesawferched kroi-sau- ver -khed
receptionist (woman)

ETYMOLOGY: (croesaw-, stem of creosawu = to welcome) + soft mutation + (merch = girl, woman)


croesawu kroi SAU i (verb)
to welcome


Croescwrlwys kroi SKUR luis (feminine noun)
ST1174 A suburban district of Caer-dydd. The Welsh name is an adaptation of the English name, Culverhouse Cross, the crossroads by the Culverhouse. A culverhouse is a dovecote.

croes y Cwrlwys (the) crossroads (at the place called) Y Cwrlwys < croes Cwrlwys. Strictly speaking, Croes Cwrlwys would be the name of the crossroads or the junction, and the habitative name, i.e. the name for the village, would be Croescwrlwys.

The linking definite article is often absent in place names.

Culverhouse is (culver = dove) + (house)

English culver is from Old English culfer or culfre, from Vuglar Latin *columbra (with an intrusive r) < Latin columbula (= dove; literally little dove) < (columb- < columba = dove) + (-ula diminutive suffix)

The Welsh form is
cwrlwys is properly cwrlws.

We may suppose the first element was
cwlfr, and the f [v] in the consonant cluster was eliminated (medial [v] is lost in many environments in certain words in Welsh). This left cwlr, which through metathesis became cwrl.

The second element is ws, common in many Welsh words borrowed from English where house is the second element. It would have been pronounced in English as [us] and this has been preserved in Welsh, whereas in English such words have been reformed to give house the pronunciation it has as a simple noun. For example, Welsh bacws (= bakehouse), wyrcws (= workhouse).

In cwrlwys it seems that the final syllable was understood of a local pronunciation of wys (in South Wales wy [ui] in a final syllable is regularly reduced to the vowel w [u]), probably because the word cwrlws had no apparent sense in Welsh, whereas in bacws and wyrcws the final element was still recognisably a form of English house.

E.g. ofnadwy (= awful) > ofnadw, annwyd (= a cold) > annwd.

The correct pronunciation was restored, but this is an example of hypercorrection. This process has occurred to in the name Maelgwn (qv), sometimes appearing as Maelgwyn.

Cf Welsh cwrlid (= coverlet, counterpane) < Middle English
coverlite, from Norman French < Old French covre-lit (it) covers (a) bed (covre = it covers, < covrir = to cover) + (lit = bed)

The Welsh form is either from a variant in English, or is a reworking of the English form:

If it is occurred in Welsh, it would be coverlite > Welsh cwfrlid > cwrlid (medial [v] is lost in many environments in certain words in Welsh)


croesewl kroi -seul feminine noun
(South-east Wales) crossroad. See croesheol krois-heul
y groesewl = the crossroad


croesfa, croesfydd KROIS va, krois VEIDH (feminine noun)
pedestrian crossing
y groesfa = the crossing


croesfan, croesfannau KROIS van, krois VA ne (feminine noun)
pedestrian crossing
y groesfan = the crossing

2 (USA: grade crossing) (Englandic: level crossing); crossing = place where a railway is crossed.
Also croesfan wastad, croesfannau gwastad (level / flat crossing)
Also croesfan reilffordd, croesfannau rheilffordd (railroad / railway crossing)

croesfan heb ei goruchwylio unmanned level crossing (level crossing without its supervising)
Cadwch yn groesfan yn glir (on railway warning signs in Wales) < Keep crossing clear>, i.e. do not obstruct the railway line on the crossing

croesfan reilffordd, croesfannau rheilffordd KROIS van REIL fordh, krois VA ne RHEIL fordh (feminine noun)
(USA: grade crossing) (Englandic: level crossing)


croesfan zebra KROIS van ZE bra (feminine noun)
zebra crossing


croesffordd, croesffyrdd KROIS fordh, KROIS firdh (feminine noun)

1 crossroad
y groesffordd = the crossroad

2 Y Groesffordd (the crossroad)
..a/ (SH7675) locality in the county of Conwy

..b/ street name in Bryncrug, Tywyn (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (croes = cross, shape like a plus sign + or letter x) + (ffordd = road)


croesfwa krois- v -a feminine noun
PLURAL croesfwu krois-vu-ai
y groesfwa the crossbow

ETYMOLOGY: literal translation of English crossbow (croes = cross) + soft mutation + (bwa = bow)


croesfwwr krois-vu-AA-ur masculine noun
PLURAL croesfwwyr krois-vu-AA-wir

ETYMOLOGY: (croesfwa = crossbow) + (-wr suffix = man)


croesheol krois-heul / krois-eul feminine noun
PLURAL croesheolydd krois- heu lidh / krois-eu-lidh
South Wales

NOTE: Colloquially in the south-east as
(1) croesol / y groesol krois ol / ə grois -ol or
(2) croesewl / y groesewl krois eul / ə grois -eul.
(3) Also without soft mutation y croesewl ə krois -eul

crossroad the intersection of two roads

y groesheol = the crossroad

Lle ofnadwy am ysbrydion oedd Croesol Rhiw Felan yn Nhonyrefail
The Rhiw Felan crossroad in Tonyrefail was a terrible place for (coming across) ghosts

...(1) Penygroesheol ((the) top (of) the crossroad) Street name in Trelewis (Treharris, county of Merthyrtudful) (misspelt as Pen-y-Groes Heol)

...(2) Croesheol y Sblot place in the county of Bro Morgannwg where Heol y Wig (the Wig road) crosses the road from Sain Dunwyd to Llanfihangel y Bont-faen ((the) crossroad (of) the Sblot) (Y Sblot = name of a nearby farm on the Sain Dunwyd road)

...(3) Croesol Tyn-y-bryn the crossroads a Tyn-y-bryn; place in Tonyrefail

Dyna Dic yn tynu ein sylw at ganwyll gorff yn dod oddiwrth Groesol Tyn-y-bryn tuar Waun-rhydd (Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl. Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 60)
Dic drew our attention to (There is Dic drawing our attention to) a death candle (candle of body) coming from Croesol Tyn-y-bryn (the crossroads by Tyn-y-bryn farm) towards Y Waun-rhydd.

crossroad one of the four branches of a crossroad
Dim ond un ty oedd ar Donyrefail y pryd hynny. Roedd yn sefyll yn nghanol y Pentre, lle y mae pedair o groesheolydd - un yn arwain ir Cymer, un arall i Lantrisant, un arall i Glynogwr, ar llall i Gwm Eli, ac yn arwain ir Bont-faen.
(Addasiad o ddarn yn Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl, Thomas Morgan, 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 46)
There was only one house in Tonyrefail at that time. It stood in the middle of the village, where there are four crossroads one leading off to Cymer, another to Llantrisant, another to Glynogwr, and the last to Cwm Eli, and going on to Y Bont-faen.

four crosses, four roads four branches of a crossroad emanating from the crossroad centre

Croesheolydd farm south of Rhiwderyn, by the road south-west to Pen-y-lan
(query: the name on the map is in standard Welsh; ?the local form is surely Cros-ewlydd)

ETYMOLOGY: (croes = cross, shape like a plus sign + or letter x) + (heol = road)


Croesheol krois-heul / krois-eul

1 place name in Malpas (Casnewydd / Newport)

Thos (Thomas) Howell, near Croesheol in Malpas (died) 11 Nov 1814 (aged) 81
(Mentioned in Llantarnam Burials 1813-74)

ETYMOLOGY: cross road, though Y Groesheol (with the definite article and the soft mutation it causes) might have been expected


croesi KROI si (verb)
to cross


croesir bont kroi-sir bont phrase
cross the bridge, go over the bridge

cross the bridge - said of learners of Welsh who begin to acquire fluency, be fluent enough to use Welsh with confidence

Croesir Bont name of such a book for Welsh learners at this stage of learning

Fe groeswn nir bont honno pan ddown ni ati
Well cross that bridge when we come to it, i.e. well consider that problem at the due time


croeslin krois -lon feminine noun
PLURAL croesliniau krois-lin-ye
diagonal, diagonal line

y groeslin the diagonal

ETYMOLOGY: (croes = root of creosi = to cross) + soft mutation + (llin = line)


croeso kroi -so masculine noun
welcome = a reception
croeso cymysg mixed reception
Croeso cymysg a fu ir datganiad the statement had a mixed reception
croeso tlawd a poor reception
croeso oeraidd a cool reception
croeso oerllyd a cool reception
noswaith dda a chroeso (radio presenter, TV presenter, etc) good evening and welcome

2 croeso! welcome! (word of greeting to a someone who arrives in a place and who is received with pleasure)

croeso i chi! a welcome to you

Croeso is very common on signs in Wales. With place names, there is soft mutation (affecting the nine initial consonants c p t / g b d / m ll rh) after the preposition i (= to)

Cymru: Croeso i Gymru Welcome to Wales KROI so i GM-ri [ˌkrɔɪsɔ ɪ ˡgəmrɪ]

Caernarfon: Croeso i Gaernarfon Welcome to Caernarfon [ˌkrɔɪsɔ ɪ gaɪrˡnarvɔn]
Note: colloquially Caernarfon is Cyrnarfon [kərˡnarvɔn], Cynarfon [kəˡnarvɔn]
(Croeso i Gyrnarfon, Croeso i Gynarfon)

Pwllheli: Croeso i Bwllheli Welcome to Pwllheli

Tregaron: Croeso i Dregaron Welcome to Tregaron

Gartholwg: Croeso i Artholwg Welcome to Gartholwg (Church Village)

Bangor: Croeso i Fangor Welcome to Bangor

Dinbych: Croeso i Ddinbych Welcome to Dinbych (Denbigh)

Merthyrtudful: Croeso i Ferthyrtudful Welcome to Merthyrtudful

Llandudno: Croeso i Landudno Welcome to Llandudno

Rhuthin Croeso i Ruthin Welcome to Rhuthin

Y Drenewydd: Croeso ir Drenewydd Welcome to Y Drenewydd (Newtown)

Y Trallwng: Croeso ir Trallwng Welcome to Y Trallwng (Welshpool)

croeso i bawb all welcome, everyone is welcome

croeso gwanwyn ((the) welcome (of the) spring) o croeso i'r gwanwyn (welcome to the spring) daffodil

welcome = welcoming ceremony

fel rhan o groeso swyddogol y Maoriaid
as part of the Maori welcoming ceremony

Bwrdd Croeso Cymru Welsh Tourist Board (Board of Welcome of Wales)
Y Bwrdd Croeso The Tourist Board

Croeso Chwe-deg Naw (The Welcome of Sixty-nine)
A celebration promoted by the English Government in the Year 1969 preceding the Investiture of the English prince Charles Windsor as Prince of Wales in the castle of Caernarfon

rhoi croeso i (rywun) make someone welcome

9 parod eich croeso welcoming (ready your welcome)
llawn croeso welcoming (full (of) welcome)

parti croeson l homecoming party (party of welcoming back)

Does dim croeso i chi yma Youre not wanted here
(there is no welcome for you here)

Mae croeso i chi bob amser You're welcome any time, You're always welcome
(there is a welcome for you always)

Can croeso iddo ei wneud He's quite welcome to do it
("a hundred welcomes for him to do it")

mynd yn hyfach na'ch croeso outstay your welcome
("become bolder than your welcome")

aros yn hwy na'ch croeso outstay your welcome
("stay longer than your welcome")

Mae croeso ichi alw You're welcome to call
(there is a welcome to you calling)

chroeso you're welcome
phob croeso you're welcome

-Diolch yn fawr. Mae i chi bob croeso. -Thank you very much. Youre welcome (there is to you every welcome)

chroeso with pleasure! youre welcome! youre more than welcome to! (in affirming a request for a favour)

mawr eich croeso warmly welcomed, greatly welcomed, receiving acclaim
llyfr fydd yn fawr ei groeso a book that will be warmly welcomed

also as a house name, hotel name, etc: Croeso
See also Croesawdy

croeso i youre / shes / hes / theyre welcome to...
Croeso iddo ddod i ngweld i unrhyw dro Hes welcome to visit me at any time

Bydd Croeso yn Aros yn y Bryniau The translation of the title of a twentieth-century song written in English We'll Keep a Welcome in the Hillsides, with schmaltzy mawkish lyrics and a mournful melody, which is considered in England to be an emblematic song of Wales.
Apparently addressed to Welsh exiles returning to the old country on a visit.

Some Welsh choirs (I would say to their shame) include this in their repertoire, though as far as I am aware the ultimate act of degradation - the song being translated and performed in Welsh has not yet taken place!

ETYMOLOGY: croeso < croesaw. Etymology unknown. Possibly a derivative of croes (= cross)


croesol kroi -sol feminine noun
(South-east Wales) crossroad. See croesheol krois-heul
y groesol = the crossroad


crofft kroft feminine noun
PLURAL crofftiau
kroft-yai -ye

1 croft, small field by a house

y grofft the crofft

2 Grofft SH8104 house in Glantwymyn (Powys)

y grofft the croft (y definite article) + soft mutation + (crofft = croft) map

3 Cefn-rofft
SJ0049 farm east of Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr map

cefn y grofft (the) ridge (of) the croft (cefn = back; hill, ridge) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (crofft = croft)

4 Crofftyperthi SO0969 Farm near Llanddewi Ystradenni, Powys (Croftyperthi on the O.S. map) map

crofft y perthi (the) croft (of) the bushes (crofft = croft) + (y definite article) + (perthi bushes, plural of
perth = bush)

ETYMOLOGY: English croft

NOTE: There is also a form where grofft was taken to be the base word, and the definite article before it has resulted in the form y rofft

Mynwent Rofft-wen SH4165 mynwent y Rofft-wen the cemetery (by) Y Rofft-wen name of a cemetery in Niwbwrch (Ynys Mn)

Y Rofft-wen is the white croft

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (grofft = croft) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white) Mynwent Rofft-wen

See also crofft


..1 crog kroog feminine noun
PLURAL crogau
KROO-gai, -e
(obsolete) cross
y grog = the cross

(obsolete) crucifix
Betws y Grog old name of Ceirchiog (Llechylched SH3476) in Mn. According to Melville Richards (Enwau Tir a Gwlad, 1998),
mae crog yn cyfeirio at sgrin yn yr eglwys. Yr enw Saesneg oedd Holy Rood Church. (= crog refers to a screen in the church. The English name was Holy Rood Church)

Gwener y Grog (literary) (Friday (of) the crucifixion) Good Friday.
Usually Dydd Gwener y Groglith

Gwyl y Grog Exaltation of the Cross, Holy Cross Day (September 14). Until the abolition of the practice in 1840 by Pope Gregory 14, Jews in Rome were obliged to attend a Catholic church on this day to listen to a sermon

Gwyl Caffael y Groes (festival (of) (the) finding (of) the cross) Invention of the Cross (May 3)

bynsen y Grog hot cross bun (bun (of) the cross)

lilir Grog Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum)

(obsolete) gallows

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *krok- < Latin *cruc-a < cruc-em < crux
From the same British root: Cornish krog (= suspension), Breton kroug (= gallows)
Irish has croch (= cross, gallows) from the Latin crux


..2 crog KROOG (adjective)
hanging, suspended


crogfa KROG-va feminine noun
PLURAL crogfydd

1 (obsolete) hanging, execution

2 (obsolete) place of execution

ETYMOLOGY: (crog- stem of crogi = to hang, crucify) + (-fa suffix indicating an action or a place)


crogi kr -gi
verb with an object
hang = kill a person by suspending by the neck

Crogai ei fam ta hynny'n elw iddo
(he'd hang his mother if it would bring him any profit)
Hed sell his grandmother (= hes so unscrupulous and greedy for money that he'd sell his grandmother)

hang = (punishment) execute a person by suspending from a tree, gallows, etc

Esther 2:23 A phan chwilwyd y peth, fe a gafwyd felly: am hynny y crogwyd hwynt ill dau ar bren. Ac ysgrifennwyd hynny mewn llyfr cronicl gerbron y brenin.

Esther 2:23 And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king.

crogi delw o rywun hang somebody in effigy

Eled iw grogi! Hang the fellow!

(archaic) hang = crucify (See: croglith)

cael eich crogi = be hanged ("get your hanging")

crogi eich hun, hang yourself ("hanging + your + self");
more correctly eich crogi eich hun ("your + hanging + (of) your + self")

hang = be suspended
Wedir ddamwain ar y bont, roedd y lori yn crogi uwchlw y ffordd brysur o dan y bont
After the accident on the bridge, the lorry was hanging over a busy road under the bridge

hang = (gate) be suspended from a post
Crogir y llidiart wrth fachau haearn yn awr, ond gynt troai ar ei gorddyn wrth wden
The gate now hangs with iron hinges but formerly it swung on its pivots by means of withy loops

crocbren gallows, gallows tree
(crog-, stem of crogi = to hang) + soft mutation + (pren = tree)

North Wales
Dos ith grogi! Go hang yourself!

Cyngor y Dre! Aed iw crogi!
The town council! Hang the lot of them! ("let it be gone to hang them")

South Wales cer i grogi! go hang yourself! ("go to hang / to be hanged")

Mae llawer ffordd i ladd ci heblaw ei grogi
There are many ways to achieve ones aims if one examines the problem properly
("there are many ways to hang a dog besides hanging it")

ar eich crogi on your life (on your hanging), even if someone threatens to hang you

Rwin addo ar y nhrogi na weda i air wrth neb
I swear on my life I wont tell another soul ("I promise in spite of my hanging I wont tell anybody")

tros eich crogi, dros eich crogi on your life (over your hanging), even if someone threatens to hang you

A i ddim iw weld o dros y nghrogi!
I wont go and see him even if they hang me

mynd ich crogi ride for a fall, do something which will inevitably bring about punishment, retribution ("go to your hanging")

crogi, diberfeddu a chwarteru hang, draw and quarter kill by hanging, pulling out the entrails, and cutting off the limbs

crogi a darnu hang and quarter, hang and cut off the limbs and the head

Rhoddodd y gwarchodlu yno yr hen Spenser ir frenhines. Crogwyd a darnwyd ef, a rhoddwyd ei gnawd i gŵn.
The retinue gave Spenser to the Queen. He was hanged and cut up, and his flesh was given to dogs.

ETYMOLOGY: (crog = hanging tree, gallows) + (-i, suffix for forming verbs); crog < British < Latin *croc-em (= cross)
From the same British root: Cornish krog (= hanging, suspension); Breton krouga (= to hang)

croglith KROG lith (feminine noun)
crucifixion verses, crucifixion text. , text about the crucifixion; chapters 18 and 19 in Efengyl Sant Joan / Saint Johns Gospel; later on, chapter 18 was excluded.

Wedi ir Iesu ddywedyd y geiriau hyn, efe a aeth allan, efe ai ddisgyblion, dros afon Cedron, lle yr oedd gardd, ir hon yr aeth efe ai ddisgyblion.
18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

A Jwdas hefyd, yr hwn ai bradychodd ef, a adwaenair lle: oblegid mynych y cyrchasair Iesu ai ddisgyblion yno.
18:2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.

Jwdas gan hynny, wedi iddo gael byddin a swyddogion gan yr archoffeiriaid ar Phariseaid, a ddaeth yno lanternau, a lampau, ac arfau.
18:3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

Yr Iesu gan hynny, yn gwybod pob peth a oedd ar ddyfod arno, a aeth allan, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Pwy yr ydych yn ei geisio?
18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

Hwy a atebasant iddo, Iesu o Nasareth. Yr Iesu a ddywedodd wrthynt, Myfi yw. A Jwdas, yr hwn ai bradychodd ef, oedd hefyd yn sefyll gyda hwynt.
18:5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.

Cyn gynted gan hynny. ag y dywedodd efe wrthynt, myfi yw, hwy a aethant yn wysg eu cefnau, ac a syrthiasant i lawr.
 18:6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

Am hynny efe a ofynnodd iddynt drachefn, Pwy yr ydych yn ei geisio? A hwy a ddywedasant, Iesu o Nasareth.
18:7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

Yr Iesu a atebodd, Mi a ddywedais i chwi mai myfi yw: am hynny os myfi yr ydych yn ei geisio, gadewch ir rhai hyn fyned ymaith:
18:8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:

Fel y cyflawnid y gair a ddywedasai efe, Or rhai a roddaist i mi, ni chollais ir un.
18:9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

Simon Pedr gan hynny a chanddo gleddyf, ei tynnodd ef, ac a drawodd was yr archoffeiriad, ac a dorrodd ymaith ei glust ddeau ef: ac enwr gwas oedd Malchus.
18:10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priests servant, and cut off his right ear. The servants name was Malchus.

Am hynny yr Iesu, a ddywedodd wrth Pedr, Dod dy gleddyf yn y wain: y cwpan a roddes y Tad i mi, onid yfaf ef?
18:11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

Ynar fyddin, ar milwriad, a swyddogion yr Iddewon, a ddaliasant yr Iesu, ac ai rhwymasant ef,
18:12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,

Ac ai dygasant ef at Annas yn gyntaf: canys chwegrwn Caiaffas, yr hwn oedd archoffeiriad y flwyddyn honno, ydoedd efe.
18:13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

A Chaiaffas oedd yr hwn a gyngorasai ir Iddewon, mai buddiol oedd farw un dyn dros y bobl.
18:14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

Ac yr oedd yn canlyn yr Iesu, Simon Pedr, a disgybl arall: ar disgybl hwnnw oedd adnabyddus gan yr archoffeiriad, ac efe a aeth i mewn gydar Iesu i lys yr archoffeiriad.
18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest.

A Phedr a safodd wrth y drws allan. Yna y disgybl arall yr hwn oedd adnabyddus gan yr archoffeiriad, a aeth allan, ac a ddywedodd wrth y ddrysores, ac a ddug Pedr i mewn.
18:16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

Yna y dywedodd y llances oedd ddrysores wrth Pedr, Onid wyt tithau o ddisgyblion y dyn hwn? Dywedodd yntau, Nac wyf.
18:17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this mans disciples? He saith, I am not.

Ar gweision ar swyddogion, gwedi gwneuthur tn glo, oherwydd ei bod hin oer, oeddynt yn sefyll, ac yn ymdwymo: ac yr oedd Pedr gyda hwynt yn sefyll, ac yn ymdwymo.
18:18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

Ar archoffeiriad a ofynnodd ir Iesu am ei ddisgyblion, ac am ei athrawiaeth.
18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

Yr Iesu a atebodd iddo, Myfi a leferais yn eglur wrth y byd: yr oeddwn bob amser yn athrawiaethu yn y synagog, ac yn y deml, lle maer Iddewon yn ymgynnull bob amser; ac yn ddirgel ni ddywedais i ddim.
18:20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.

Paham yr wyt ti yn gofyn i mi? gofyn ir rhai am clywsant, beth a ddywedais wtthynt: wele, y rhai hynny a wyddant pa bethau a ddywedais i.
18:21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

Wedi iddo ddywedyd y pethau hyn, un or swyddogion ar oedd yn sefyll gerllaw, a roddes gernod ir Iesu, gan ddywedyd, Ai felly yr wyt tin ateb yr archoffeiriad?
18:22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so?

Yr Iesu a atebodd iddo, Os drwg y dywedais, tystiolaetha or drwg; ac os da, paham yr wyt yn fy nharo i?
18:23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

Ac Annas ai hanfonasai ef yn rhwym at Caiaffas yr archoffeiriad.
18:24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.

A Simon Pedr oedd yn sefyll ac yn ymdwymo. Hwythau a ddywedasant wrtho, Onid wyt tithau hefyd oi ddisgyblion ef? Yntau a wadodd, ac a ddywedodd, Nac wyf.
18:25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

Dywedodd un o weision yr archoffeiriad, (cr ir hwn y torasai Pedr ei glust,) Oni welais i di gydag ef yn yr ardd?
18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?

Yna Pedr a wadodd drachefn; ac yn y man y canodd y ceiliog.
18:27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.

Yna y dygasant yr Iesu oddi wrth Caiaffas ir dadleudy: ar bore ydoedd hi, ac nid aethant hwy i mewn ir dadleudy, rhag eu halogi; eithr fel y gallent fwytar pasg.
18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

Yna Peilat a aeth allan atynt, ac a ddywedodd, Pa achwyn yr ydych chwi yn ei ddwyn yn erbyn y dyn hwn?
18:29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?

Hwy a atebasant ac a ddywedasant wrtho, Oni bai fod hwn yn ddrwgweithredwr, ni thraddodasem ef.atat.
18:30 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

Am hynny y dywedodd Peilat wrthynt, Cymerwch chwi ef, a bernwch ef yn l eich cyfraith chwi. Yna yr Iddewon a ddywedasant wrtho, Nid cyfreithlon i ni ladd neb:
18:31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

Fel y cyflawnid gair yr Iesu, yr hwn a ddywedasai efe, gan arwyddocu o ba angau y byddai farw.
18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

Yna Peilat a aeth drachefn ir dadleudy, ac a alwodd yr Iesu, ac a ddywedodd wrtho, Ai ti yw Brenin yr Iddewon?
18:33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

Yr Iesu a atebodd iddo, Ai ohonot dy hun yr wyt ti yn dywedyd hyn, ai eraill ai dywedasant i ti amdanaf fi?
18:34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?

Peilat a atebodd, Ai Iddew ydwyf fi? Dy genedl dy hun ar archoffeiriaid ath draddodasant i mi. Beth a wnaethost ti?
18:35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

Yr Iesu a atebodd, Fy mrenhiniaeth i nid yw or byd hwn. Pe or byd hwn y byddai fy mrenhiniaeth, fy ngweision i a ymdrechent, fel nam rhoddid ir Iddewon: ond yr awron nid yw fy mrenhiniaeth i oddi yma.
18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

Yna y dywedodd Peilat wrtho, Wrth hynny ai Brenin. wyt ti? Yr Iesu a atebodd, Yr ydwyt ti yn dywedyd mai Brenin wyf fi. Er rnwyn hyn ym ganed, ac er mwyn hyn y deuthum ir byd, fel y tystiolaethwn ir gwirionedd. Pob un ar sydd or gwirionedd, sydd yn gwrando fy lleferydd i.
18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

Peilat a ddywedodd wrtho, Beth yw gwirionedd? Ac wedi iddo ddywedyd hyn, efe a aeth drachefn at yr Iddewon, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Nid wyf fi yn cael dim achos ynddo ef.
18:38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.

Eithr y mae gennych chwi ddefod, i mi ollwng i chwi un yn rhydd ar y pasg: a fynnwch chwi gan hynny i mi ollwng yn rhydd i chwi Frenin yr Iddewon?
18:39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

Yna y lefasant oll drachefn, gan ddywedyd, Nid hwnnw, ond Barabbas. Ar Barabbas hwnnw oedd leidr.
18:40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber

Yna gan hynny y cymerodd Peilat yr Iesu, ac ai fflangellodd ef.
19:1 ::Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.

Ar milwyr a blethasant goron o ddrain, ac ai gosodasant ar ei ben ef, ac a roesant wisg o borffor amdano;
19:2 And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,

Ac a ddywedasant, Henffych well, Brenin yr Iddewon; ac a roesant iddo gernodiau.
19:3 And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.

Peilat gan hynny a aeth allan drachefn, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Wele yr wyf fi yn ei ddwyn ef allan i chwi, fel y gwypoch nad wyf fi yn cael ynddo ef un bai.
19:4 Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.

Yna y daeth yr Iesu allan, yn arwain y goron ddrain, ar wisg borffor. A Pheilat a ddywedodd wrthynt, Weler dyn.
19:5 Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man!

Yna yr archoffeiriaid ar swyddogion, pan welsant ef, a lefasant, gan ddywedyd, Croeshoelia, croeshoelia ef. Peilat a ddywedodd wrthynt, Cymerwch chwi ef, a chroeshoeliwch: canys nid wyf fi yn cael dim bai ynddo.
19:6 When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him.

Yr Iddewon a atebasant iddo, Y mae gennym ni gyfraith, ac wrth ein cyfraith ni efe a ddylai farw, am iddo ei wneuthur ei hun yn Fab Duw.
19:7 The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.

A phan glybu Peilat yr ymadrodd hwnnw, efe a ofnodd yn fwy;
19:8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;

Ac a aeth drachefn ir dadleudy, ac a ddywedodd wrth yr Iesu, O ba le yr wyt ti? Ond ni roes yr Iesu ateb iddo.
19:9 And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.

Yna Peilat a ddywedodd wrtho, Oni ddywedi di wrthyf fi? oni wyddost ti fod gennyf awdurdod ith groeshoelio di, a bod gennyf awdurdod ith ollwng yn rhydd?
19:10 Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?

Yr Iesu a atebodd, Ni byddai i ti ddim awdurdod arnaf fi, oni bai ei fod wedi ei roddi i ti oddi uchod: am hynny yr hwn am traddodes i ti, sydd fwy ei bechod.
19:11 Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.

O hynny allan y ceisiodd Peilat ei ollwng ef yn rhydd: ond yr Iddewon a lefasant, gan ddywedyd, Os gollyngi di hwn yn rhydd, nid wyt ti yn garedig i Gesar. Pwy bynnag ai gwnelo ei hun y frenin, y mae yn dywedyd yn erbyn Cesar.
19:12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesars friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

Yna Peilat, pan glybur ymadrodd hwn, a ddug allan yr Iesu; ac a eisteddodd ar yr orseddfainc, yn y lle a elwir y Palmant, ac yn Hebraeg, Gabbatha.
19:13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.

A darpar-ŵyl y pasg oedd hi, ac ynghylch y chweched awr: ac efe a ddywedodd wrth yr Iddewon, Wele eich Brenin.
19:14 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!

Eithr hwy a lefasant, Ymaith ag ef, ymaith ag ef, croeshoelia ef. Peilat a ddywedodd wrthynt, A groeshoeliaf fi eich Brenin chwi? Ar archoffeiriaid a atebasant, Nid oes i ni frenin ond Cesar.
19:15 But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

Yna gan hynny efe ai traddodes ef iddynt iw groeshoelio. A hwy a gymerasant yr Iesu, ac ai dygasant ymaith.
19:16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.

Ac efe gan ddwyn ei groes, a ddaeth i le a elwid Ller benglog, ac a elwir yn Hebraeg, Golgotha:
19:17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

Lle y croeshoeliasant ef, a dau eraill gydag ef, un o bob tu, ar Iesu yn y canol.
 19:18 Where they crucified him, and two others with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

A Pheilat a ysgrifennodd deitl, ac ai dododd ar y groes. Ar ysgrifen oedd, IESU O NASARETH, BRENIN YR IDDEWON.
19:19 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.

Y teitl hwn gan hynny a ddarllenodd llawer or Iddewon; oblegid agos ir ddinas oedd y fan lle y croeshoeliwyd yr Iesu: ac yr oedd wedi ei ysgrifennu yn Hebraeg, Groeg, a Lladin.
19:20 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.

Yna archoffeiriaid yr Iddewon a ddywedasant wrth Peilat, Nac ysgrifenna Brenin yr Iddewon; eithr dywedyd ohono ef, Brenin yr Iddewon ydwyf fi.
19:21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

Peilat a atebodd, Yr hyn a ysgrifennais, a ysgrifennais.
19:22 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.

Yna y milwyr, wedi iddynt groeshoelior Iesu, a gymerasant ei ddillad ef, ac a wnaethant bedair rhan, i bob milwr ran; ai bais ef: ai bais ef oedd ddiwnad, wedi ei gwau or cwr uchaf trwyddi oll.
19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

Hwythau a ddywedasant wrth ei gilydd, Na thorrwn hi, ond bwriwn goelbrennau amdani, eiddo pwy fydd hi: fel y cyflawnid yr ysgrythur sydd yn dywedyd, Rhanasant fy nillad yn eu mysg, ac am fy mhais y bwriasant goelbrennau. Ar milwyr a wnaethant y pethau hyn.
19:24 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.

Ac yr oedd yn sefyll wrth groes yr Iesu, ei fam ef, a chwaer ei fam ef, Mair gwraig Cleoffas, a Mair Magdalen.
19:25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mothers sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

Yr Iesu gan hynny, pan welodd ei fam, ar disgybl yr hwn a garai efe yn sefyll gerllaw, a ddywedodd wrth ei fam, O wraig, wele dy fab.
19:26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!

Gwedi hynny y dywedodd wrth y disgybl, Wele dy fam. Ac or awr honno allan y cymerodd y disgybl hi iw gartref.
19:27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.

Wedi hynny yr Iesu, yn gwybod fod pob peth wedi ei orffen weithian, fel y cyflawnid yr ysgrythur, a ddywedodd, Y mae syched arnaf.
19:28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

Yr oedd gan hynny lestr wedi ei osod yn llawn o finegr; a hwy a lanwasant ysbwng o finegr, ac ai rhoddasant ynghylch isop, ac ai dodasant wrth ei enau ef.
19:29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.

Yna pan gymerodd yr Iesur finegr, efe a ddywedodd, Gorffennwyd: a chan ogwyddo ei ben, efe a roddes i fyny yr ysbryd.
19:30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

Yr Iddewon gan hynny, fel nad arhoair cyrff ar y groes ar y Saboth, oherwydd ei bod yn ddarpar-ŵyl, (canys mawr oedd y dydd Saboth hwnnw,) a ddeisyfasant ar Peilat gael torri eu hesgeiriau hwynt, au tynnu i lawr.
19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Yna y milwyr a ddaethant, ac a dorasant esgeiriaur cyntaf, ar llall yr hwn a groeshoeliasid gydag ef.
19:32 Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.

Eithr wedi iddynt ddyfod at yr Iesu, pan welsant ef wedi marw eisoes, ni thorasant ei esgeiriau ef.
19:33 But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs:

Ond un or milwyr a wanodd ei ystlys ef gwaywffon: ac yn y fan daeth allan waed a dwfr.
19:34 But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.

Ar hwn ai gwelodd, a dystiolaethodd; a gwir yw ei dystiolaeth; ac efe a ŵyr ei fod yn dywedyd gwir, fel y credoch chwi.
19:35 And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.

Canys y pethau hyn a wnaethpwyd, fel y cyflawnid yr ysgrythur, Ni thorrir asgwrn ohono.
19:36 For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

A thrachefn, ysgrythur arall sydd yn dywedyd, Hwy a edrychant ar yr hwn a wanasant.
19:37 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

Ac ar l hyn, Joseff o Arimathea (yr hwn oedd ddisgybl ir Iesu, eithr yn guddiedig, rhag ofn yr Iddewon) a ddeisyfodd ar Peilat, gael tynnu i lawr gorff yr Iesu: a Pheilat a ganiataodd iddo. Yna y daeth efe ac a ddug ymaith gorff yr Iesu.
19:38 And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.

A daeth Nicodemus hefyd, (yr hwn ar y cyntaf a ddaethai at yr Iesu o hyd nos,) ac a ddug fyrr ac aloes yng nghymysg, tua chan pwys.
19:39 And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.

Yna y cymerasant gorff yr Iesu, ac ai rhwymasant mewn llieiniau, gydag aroglau, fel y mae arfer yr Iddewon ar gladdu.
19:40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.

Ac yn y fangre lle y croeshoeliasid ef, yr oedd gardd; a bedd newydd yn yr ardd, yn yr hwn ni ddodasid dyn erioed.
19:41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.

Ac yno, rhag nesed oedd darpar-ŵyl yr Iddewon, am fod y bedd hwnnw yn agos, y rhoddasant yr Iesu.
19:42 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

y groglith the crucifixion verses

2 Dydd Gwener y Groglith
Good Friday ("Friday of the reading about the crucifixion")

ETYMOLOGY: crucifixion reading (crog- stem of crogi = to hang, crucify) + soft mutation + (llith = reading)


crogwr kr -gur masculine noun
PLURAL crogwyr krog -wir
(South Wales) (in children's rhymes) bys y crogwr = ring finger

ETYMOLOGY: (crog- stem of crogi = to hang) + (-wr suffix = man)


crombil krom-bil masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL crombiliau krom-bil-ye
crop or gizzard of a bird
y crombil / y grombil = the gizzard

Fe aeth e i lawr ir dafarn i gael rhyw ychydig o gwrw yn ei grombil
He went down to the pub to get some beer into his belly
hel yn eich crombil stuff yourself with food (gather into your belly)

core = innermost part of something; the depths / bowels / heart / far interior / recesses (of a place); deep inside (a place)

Daeth hen ŵr o grombil y siop
An old man came out of the recesses of the shop

yng nghrombil y ddaear
in the depths of the earth, in the bowels of the earth, in the core of the earth

Bachodd bump o fygiau o grombil y cwpwrdd
He got five mugs from deep inside the cupboard

Fflat newydd sy tua deng munud o waith cerdded o grombil y ddinas
A new flat which is about ten minutes walk from the centre of the city

yng nghrombil y coed deep inside the woods

mynd i mewn i grombil y llong go into the bowels of the ship

ETYMOLOGY: curved skin (crom, feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (pil = skin, loose skin, birds crop)


cromlech PLURAL cromlechi, cromlechau KROM lekh, krom L khi, krom L khe (feminine noun)
cromlech = stone table, a tomb in the form of a room made of a stone slab resting horizontally on three or four stone columns; a standing stone

y gromlech the cromlech

2 Cae'r Gromlech street name in Y Ffr SH3938 (county of Gwynedd)
((the) field (of) the cromlech) Y Ffr


cromlin crom -lin feminine noun
PLURAL cromliniau krom-lin-ye
curve on a graph
y gromlin the curve

amgrwm convex
cromlin amgrwm convex line
ceugrwm concave
cromlin geugrwm concave line

ETYMOLOGY: (crom = feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (llin = line)

cron kron
1 adjective feminine form of crwn (qv) (= round)
Y Waun-gron (round moorland) district of Caer-dydd

2 verb cron- root of cronni (= to gather, to collect)
cronfa fund; reservoir
cronfa ddŵr
cronlyn reservoir

3 adjective The word cronglwyd (= roof) was formerly cromglwyd, and so the first element is in fact crom, the feminine form of crwm (= curved)


cronglwyd krong-luid feminine noun
PLURAL cronglwydi krong-lui-di
obsolete roof hurdle
y gronglwyd = the roof hurdle

obsolete roof
Genesis 19:8 Wele, yn awr, y mae dwy ferch gennyf fi, y rhai nid adnabuant wr; dygaf hwynt allan atoch chwi yn awr, a gwnewch iddynt fel y gweloch yn dda; yn unig na wnewch ddim ir gwyr hyn; oherwydd er mwyn hynny y daethant dan gysgod fy nghronglwyd i
Genesis 19:8 Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes: only unto these men do nothing; for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof.

Mathew 8:8 Ar canwriad a atebodd ac a ddywedodd, Arglwydd, nid ydwyf deilwng i ddyfod ohonot dan fy nghronglwyd: eithr yn unig dywed y gair, am gwas a iacheir
Matthew 8:8 The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed.

ETYMOLOGY: curved hurdle - cronglwyd kro-ngluid < crng-glwyd krong-gluid < crn-glwyd kron-gluid < cromglwyd krom-gluid (crom, feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (clwyd = hurdle).

(1) There was confusion between crwm / crom (= curved) and crwn / cron (= round);

(2) and the combination n-g, as in Bangor became ng, as in llong; another example of this change is dan|gos (= to show) (ng-g) which is pronounced dangos (ng) in the North


cronlyn kron -lin masculine noun
PLURAL cronlynnau kron- lə -ne
Cronlyn Pontsticyll Pontsticyll reservoir

Ffordd y Cronlyn street name, Caerfyrddin

(delw 6994) Ffordd y Cronlyn
(delwedd 6994) Ffordd y Cronlyn, Y Tanerdy, Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen in August 2003 (during a Cymdeithas yr Iaith march from North-west Wales to the Welsh capital in the south-east to demand affordable housing for the low-waged in Welsh communties; in the Welsh-speaking districts there is acute housing crisis for local people as a result of the massive immigration of rich incomers (mainly from England) over the past couple of decades) Y Tanerdy, map

ETYMOLOGY: The first noted occurrence of cronlyn is in the year 1851
(cronn- root of cronni = to gather) + soft mutation + (llyn = lake)

More usually reservoir is cronfa ddŵr or cronfa


cropian KROP yan (verb)
(North) to drag,
(South) to crawl


crosewl kro -seul feminine noun
PLURAL crosewlydd kro-seu-lidh
(South-east Wales)
crossroad; see croesheol
y grosewl the crossroad

Croesheolydd farm south of Rhiwderin, by the road south-west to Pen-y-lan
(?the local form is surely Crosewlydd)


crosol kro -sol feminine noun
(South-east Wales)
crossroad; see croesheol
y grosol = the crossroad


croten, crots KRO ten, KROTS (feminine noun)
lass, girl (South Wales)
y groten = the lass


crotes, crotesi KRO tes, kro TE si (feminine noun)
lass, girl (South Wales)
y grotes = the lass


Crouddyn KROI dhin
a local form of the name Creuddyn (qv) in Ceredigion

Llanbadarn y Creuddyn (parish name) > Llanbadarn y Crouddyn

Llanfihangel y Creuddyn (parish name) > Llanfihangel y Crouddyn


croth, crothau 1 KROOTH, KRO the (feminine noun)
y groth = the womb
croth or croth y goes calf (of the leg)


croyw KROI u (adjective)
(water) fresh, sweet, pure = not salt
dŵr croyw fresh water
pysgodyn dŵr croyw freshwater fish
llyfrothen dŵr croyw (f), llyfrothod dŵr croyw
(Gobio gobio) gudgeon


Crucadarn KRI KAA darn (masculine noun)
A village SO0842 in Powys. The English spell it Crickadarn.

Crucadarn < crug cadarn (strong hill, fortified hill) (crug = hill) + (cadarn = strong, firm)


crud, crudau KRIID, KRI de (feminine noun)
y grud = the cradle


Crudycastell kriid-ə-ka-stelh
1 Street name in the town of Dinbych (county of Dinbych) (Crud Y Castell)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the wind) (crud = cradle) + (y = the) + ( castell = castle)


Crud-y-gwynt kriid-ə-gwint
1 house name

2 Street name in
..a/ the town of Dinbych (county of Dinbych) (Crud Y Gwynt)
..b/ Mynyddisa (county of Y Fflint) (Crud Y Gwynt)

NOTE: Although Crud-y-gwynt is a more correct spelling, it is normally spelt with the elements separated Crud y Gwynt

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the wind) (crud = cradle) + (y = the) + (gwynt = wind)


Crudyrawel kriid-ə-rau-el
1 house name
..g/ Pen-y-fai (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Crud Yr Awel)

2 Street name in
..a/ the town of Castell-nedd (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (Crud Yr Awel)
..b/ Clawddnewydd, Rhuthun (county of Dinbych) (Crud Yr Awel)
..c/ the town of Dinbych (county of Dinbych) (Crud Yr Awel)
..d/ Efail-wen, Clynderwen (county of Caerfyrddin) (Crud Yr Awel)
..e/ Gorseinion (county of Abertawe) (Crud-Yr-Awel)
..f/ Niwbwrch (county of Ynys Mn) (Crud Yr Awel)
..g/ Pen-y-fai (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Crud Yr Awel)

NOTE: Although Crudyrawel would be a more correct spelling, it is normally spelt with the elements separated Crud yr Awel

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the wind / breeze) (crud = cradle) + (yr = the) + (awel = wind / breeze)

Crud-yr-haul kriid-ər-HAIL
1 house name in Tal-y-bont, Conwy

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the sun) (crud = cradle) + (yr = the) + (haul = sun)

crug, crugiau KRIIG, KRIG ye (masculine noun)
mound, heap


2 castle mound


3 burial mound, tumulus


..a/ Cefnwyrgrug SN8196 by Aberhosan (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys) < cefn yr wyddgrug (the) hill (of) the tumulus map, Cefnwyrgrug

..b/ Gwyddgrug (SN4635) at Llanfihangel ar Arth (county of Caerfyrddin) Gwyddgrug

..c/ Y Wyddgrug (=Y yddgrug) at Madrun SH6673, near Abergwyngregyn (county of Gwynedd) Madrun, map

..d/ Y Wyddgrug (=Y yddgrug) at Ffordun SJ2200 (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys) Ffordun. Map.

..e/ Yr Wyddgrug SJ2363 town in the county of Y Fflint (English name: Mold) Yr Wyddgrug. Map.


(delwedd 7429)

3 Crucadarn (qv) (Crug Cadarn). Village in Powys.

(delwedd 6995) Crugiau. Enw tŷ yng Nghorris, Awst 2003. House name, Corris, 2003


Crugcadarn KRI KAA darn (masculine noun)
See Crucadarn


crugan kr-gan masculine noun
1 mound

There is a Crugan Avenue (which would be Coedlan y Crugan / Coedlan Crugan or Rhodfar Crugan / Rhodfa Crugan in Welsh) in Baecinmel (SH9880) (county of Conwy)

ETYMOLOGY: little mound (crug = tumulus) + (-an diminutive suffix added to nouns)


Crug Mawr kriig MAUR

1 former name of the hill SN2047 in Llangoedmor (Ceredigion) known as Banc y Warren (qv)
Below the hill there is a farm called Crugmor
Also in stress shift, especially noticeble in place names with an original mawr / fawr (= big)
crug-mwr (great heap / mound) > crg-mawr > crgmor


crugyn KRIIG-in
1 little mound

Y Crugyn SN9872 Name of an earthwork west of Sant Harmon, Powys

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) mound (of) the bronze) (crug = mound) + (yr = the) + (efydd = bronze)


Crugyrefydd kriig ər EE-vidh
1 Street name in Crymych (county of Penfro) (Crug Yr Efydd)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) mound (of) the bronze) (crug = mound) + (yr = the) + (efydd = bronze)


crwban, crwbanod KRU ban, kru BA nod (masculine noun)

crwban mr, crwbanod mr
kru ban MOOR, kru BA nod MOOR
sea turtle


crwca kru -ka adjective

NOTE: there is feminine form croca > groca used after feminine nouns; thought the masculine form crwca > grwca is also used, as in some examples below.

1 hunchbacked, humpbacked
hen wraig grwca a hunchbacked old woman

crooked, bent

trwyn crwca hooked nose, curved down like an eagle's beak

pont grwca humpbacked bridge

pompren grwca humpbacked footbridge

Rhyd y bompran grwca
Pw welas-ti'n mynd drwa?
(= pwy a welaist ti yn mynd drwodd?)
Dy gariad di, lliw blota'r drain,
(= lliw blodaur drain)
Fel cambric main o'r India

Verse in the triban style, south-east Wales, 1800s
In standardised Welsh:

Rhyd y bompren groca
Pwy a welaist ti yn mynd drwodd?
Dy gariad di, lliw blodaur drain
Fel cambric main or India

The ford of the humpbacked footbridge
Who did you see going through?
Your sweetheart, as fair as hawthorn blossom, (your love of-you, (the) colour (of) flowers (of) the hawthorn-bushes)
Like fine cambric cloth from India

ffon groca, plural ffyn crwca curved stick (for games such as bando or hockey)

Cae Crwca field name in Llangrallo (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) . Field with a mound

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English croke (= Modern English crook) < Norse krokr = hook


crwm KRUM [krʊm] adjective
crooked, curved

(nose) aquiline, hooked

stooping, hunched

in masculine compound words or derivative forms as a first element as crym-
..... (1) cryman = sickle, reaping hook (-an = suffix)
..... (2) crymedd = curvature (-edd = suffix)
..... (3) crymffast = lad (ffast = unknown element)
..... (4) crymgledd = sabre (curved sword) (cledd = sword)
..... (5) crymlyn = curved valley (glyn = valley)
Also the verb crymu = to bend

in feminine compound words as a first element as crom-
..... (1) crombil crop or gizzard of a bird
(crom = feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (pil = skin, loose skin, birds crop)
..... (2) cromfach (punctuation) bracket (bach = hook)
..... (3) cromgell vault, underground chamber (cell = cell)
..... (4) cromlech burial chamber (llech = stone slab)
..... (5) cromlin curved line (eg on a graph) (llin = line)

amgrwm convex
cromlin amgrwm convex line

ceugrwm concave
cromlin geugrwm concave line

cefngrwm crook-backed

9 gwargrwm round-shouldered, hunched
Eisteddai yn wargrwm wrth y tn He was sitting hunched by the fire
(gwar = nape of the neck, back of the neck ) + soft mutation + (crwm = bent )

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic

From the same British root: Cornish kromm (= curved), Breton kromm (= curved),
From the same Celtic root: Irish crom (= curved).

Greek kramb-, as in krambe (= plant with wrinkled leaves, i.e. cabbage)
cf Lowlandic crummock (= stick with curved end) < Scottish (Gaelic) cromag (= hook)

NOTE: feminine form: crom, plural crymion


crwn, crynion KRUN, KRƏN-yon [krʊn,ˡkrənjɔn] (adjective)
Feminine form: cron / gron


yn grwn ac ar groes completely (roundly and contrarily)
gwadu rhywbeth yn grwn ac ar groes completely deny something

Cae Crwn y cae crwn = the round field
Cae-crwn street name
..a/ Dynfant (county of Abertawe) (Cae Crwn)
..b/ Machynlleth (county of Powys) (Cae Crwn)

4 (y) Waun-gron (round moor) district in Caer-dydd

5 bwa hanner-crwn semi-circular arch


crwner KRUU-ner [ˡkruˑnɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL crwneriaid kru-NER-yaid, -yed [krʊˡnɛrjaɪd, -ɛd]
coroner = law officer who holds an inquest to investigate deaths which are suspicious or the result of an accident. Historically he was an officer of a county or municipality whose function was to keep records of court cases and to protect royal property. A surviving duty relating to this is deciding whether or not treasure trove (eg. buried hoards of old coins, grave artefacts) belongs to the Crown, or to the finder

NOTE: Also colloquially crowner KROU-ner [ˡkrɔʊnɛr]

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English crowner < French of England corouner (= official of the Crown) < (coroune = crown) + (-er agent suffix); < Latin corona (= crown).

Modern French couronne (= crown)


crwst, crystiau KRUST, KRƏST-yai, -ye [krʊst, ˡkrəstjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
crust (bread)


crwt / crwtyn, crwts KRUT, KRU-tin, KRUTS [krʊtˡ, ˡkrʊtɪn, krʊts] (masculine noun)
lad (South Wales)


crwth, crythau KRUUTH, KRƏ-thai, -the [kruːθ, ˡkrəθaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

2 chwaraer crwth a Rhufain yn llosgi; also canu crwth tra llosgo Rhufain
fiddle while Rome burns, attend to unimportant matters during an emergency or a crisis

double bass
(bas = bass) + soft mutation + (crwth = violin)
Also: dwbl bas

A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, (in three parts) by a Lady: to which is added a Glossary. James Frederick Palmer, Mary Palmer. 1837: CROWD or CROWDY-KIT, s[ubstantive]. a fiddle : from Crwth, Welsh.


crwydr KRUIDR, KRUI-dir [ˡkrʊɪdr, krʊɪdɪr]
PLURAL crwydrau KRUI-drai, -dre [ˡkrʊɪdraɪ, -ɛ]
1 (obsolete) sieve

2 wandering

3 (adj) (animal) stray
ci crwydr, pl. cŵn crwydr stray dog
cath grwydr, cathod crwydr stray cat

4 ar grwydr wandering around
ar grwydr yng Nghasnewydd wandering around in Casnewydd

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kreitr-
From the same British root: Cornish kroedr (= sieve), Breton krouer (= sieve) < kroezr

From the same Indoeuropean root: Latin cribrum (= sieve), English riddle < Old English hriddel < hridder


crwydro KRUI-dro [ˡkrʊɪdrɔ] (verb)
to wander


crwyn KRUIN [krʊɪn]

skins; plural form of croen


crwynwr KRUI-nur [ˡkrʊɪnʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL crwynwyr KRUIN-wir [ˡkrʊɪnwɪr]
dealer in furs

ETYMOLOGY: (crwyn = fur) + (-wr agent suffix)


crwys KRUIS [krʊɪs]
feminine noun
South Wales
obsolete (as either a feminine or a masculine noun) y grwys / y crwys = the cross, the crucifix

obsolete y crwys = the crosses, the crucifixes.
The singular noun (crwys = cross) was later understood as a plural noun (crwys = crosses), and a new singular form croes came about, on the analogy of the native words (Welsh < British < Celtic)
.....(1) oen = lamb (plural wyn = lambs), and
.....(2) croen = skin (crwyn = skins).

There are some place names in South Wales with crwys (though whether it is used as a singular or a plural form is unclear in some cases)

(1) Y Crwys (county of Abertawe) (the crosses) (English name: Three Crosses)

(2) Pant-y-crwys (Craig-cefn-parc, county of Abertawe) ((the) hollow (of) the crosses / the cross) (The poet Crwys (William Crwys Williams 1875-1968) was from Craig-cefn-parc),

(3) Bwlch-crwys (by Aber-porth, county of Ceredigion) (= bwlch y crwys, (the) gap (of) the crosses / the cross)

(4) Heol y Crwys ((the) road (of) Crwys farm) (qv). A street in Caer-dydd, from the name of a farm now demolished probably at the site of a cross marking a parish boundary

Also the saying tan eich crwys (again it is unclear whether it is used as a singular or a plural form) = laid out before burial (literally under your cross; that is, with a crucifix placed on the corpse; or possibly under your crossed arms)

In "Hanes y B
yd ar Amseroedd" (History of the World and the Ages) (1718, 1721), the author Simon Thomas states:
Fe ddywedir pan fo farw un, fod y cyfryw un "dan ei grwys" Canys felly yr oedd y Ddefod gynt, sef, wneuthur Crwys (hynny yw Croes)... ai gosod ar {sic} y Corph h
yd oni osodid mewn daiar :
It is said, when one dies, that such a person is "dan ei grw
ys" (under his cross). For thus was the practice formerly, that is, to make a "crwys" (that is, a cross)... and put it on the body until it might be placed in the ground
Studies in Welsh Grammar and Philology / Samuel J. Evans / Caerdydd / no date (1925?) (Tudalen / Page 222)

Dan ei grw
ys, literally under his cross is a familiar expression in South-west Wales for a body between death and burial. The phrase is to be explained by reference to the habit of placing a cross over the corpse to prevent the approach of the Evil One, who might otherwise spirit it away, (Tudalen / Page 63) "Y mae dan ei grwys" is a familiar expression in South-west Wales for a body between death and burial. The expression recalls a Roman Catholic custom.
Also: tan y crwys = under the crosses (or the cross), tan grwys = under crosses (or a cross)

ETYMOLOGY: Latin crux (= cross) > British *kruks > Welsh

The usual modern Welsh word for cross, croes, is a reworking of crwys, since this resembles a plural form in words of Celtic origin

oen - wyn (lamb - lambs),
croen - crwyn (skin - skins),

and so a singular form with oe came about, and crwys in the main then had a plural sense.

From the same British root *kruks:

Breton kroas (= cross),

Cornish krows (= cross, from Old Cornish krois, which should have given kros - the form krows is unexpected and unusual)


Y Crwys ə KRUIS [əˡkrʊɪs]
SS5794 locality in the county of Abertawe, literally the crosses. The English call it Three Crosses.


yll KRƏ-builh [ˡkrƏbʊɪɬ] v
1 mention
Er mw
yn popeth, peidiwch a chrybwyll y peth wrth Owain y Bont
For Gods sake dont mention it to Owain y Bont

2 mention = refer to, talk briefly about
Er fy mod wedi crybw
yll rahi fel y beirdd au noddwyr ynghynt
Although I mentioned people like the poets and their sponsors before

3 bondigrybwyll = scarcely mentionable, best not mentioned, dare I say it, that everybody talks about; (as if an adjective) much talked-about, well-known, notorious
(na bo ond i grybw
= which might not be except for its mentioning (na = which-not) + (bo = it might be) + (ond = but, except) + (i / ei = its) + soft mutation + (crybwyll = mention, mentioning)

ETYMOLOGY: (prefix cy-) + soft mutation + (infix rh
y) + soft mutation + (pwyll-, = root of pwyllo = consider, contemplate)


crych KRIIKH [kriːx] masculine noun
PLURAL crychiau KRƏKH-yai, -ye [ˡkrəxjaɪ, -ɛ]
ripple, ripplet
(South Wales) berwi yn grychiau > berwin griche boil furiously

rough water in a river, a shallow

ripple = fault in a slate

curly-top = somebody with curly hair
Crych Elen (curly-hair (from Dolydd) Elen) was the pseudonym of poet Thomas Lloyd (1841-1909). Born in Liverpool, his father was English and his mother was from Dolwyddelan, and on the death of his father he went to live with his grandmother at Tyn-y-fron, Dolwyddelan.

(Dolwyddelan is dl Wyddelan = the meadow of Gwyddelan, but a popular interpretation was dolydd Elen = the meadows of Elen, wife of Macsen Wledig).

He was the author of a song popular in the late 1800s, Y Bwthyn Bach To Gwellt (the little thatched cottage). He later emigrated to the USA, and is buried in Fair View Cemetery, Slatington, Pennsylvania. See the article in Welsh Cerddor o Gymro yn cael ei gofio ar y We (Welsh musician commemorated on the Web) / Iwan Hughes / Y Faner Newydd 15 / Blwyddyn 2000 / tt32-33

ETYMOLOGY: from the adjective crych (= wrinkled, curly)

NOTE: The base form of the Southern Welsh plural is crychau, with -au instead of -iau;
..a/ Colloquially a penult y i [ɪ]
, instead of becoming y ə [ə] remains, hence crichau;
..b/ Final -au is e [ɛ] in the south-west, a [a] in the south-east.

Hence criche / cricha


crych KRIIKH [kriːx] adjective
rippling, swirling, agitated, rough, violent

ffrwd grech stream with churning water

There is a road called Ffrwdgrech Road (which in Welsh would be Heol Ffrwd-grech) in Aberhonddu (county of Powys)



1 stream name

gwallt crychddu ri

ETYMOLOGY: Probably (crych = rippling, swirling) + soft mutation + (du = black)


KRƏKH-don [ˡkrəxdɔn] feminine noun
crychdonnau KRƏKH-do-nai, -ne [krəxˡdɔnaɪ, -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: (crych- Ə [ə] penult syllable form of crych II [iː] = ripple) + soft mutation + (ton = wave)


KRƏKH-do-ni [krəxˡdɔnɪ] verb
to ripple
tanc crychdonni (Physics) ripple tank

ETYMOLOGY: (crychdonn- penult syllable form of crychdon = ripple) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)


cryd KRIID [kriːd] (masculine noun)

PLURAL crydiau KRƏD-yai, -ye [ ˡkrəjaɪ, -ɛ]
trembling, shivering, shuddering
hala cryd ar make somebodys spine shiver (send a shuddering on)

hala tipyn o gryd ar send a shiver down somebodys spine, make somebodys spine shiver (send a bit of a shuddering on)

Mae gweld nadredd yn hala tamed o gryd arna i

Seeing snakes sends a shiver down my spine

2 fever, ague
cryd cymalau / cricymylau rheumatism < cryd y cymylau fever of the joints

cryd poeth burning fever
Deuteronium 28:22
Yr ARGLWYDD a'th dery darfodedigaeth, ac chryd poeth, ac llosgfa, ac gwres, ac chleddyf, ac diflaniad, ac mallter; hwy a'th ddilynant nes dy ddifetha
Deuteronomy 28:22 The LORD shall smite thee with a consumption, and with a fever, and with an inflammation, and with an extreme burning, and with the sword, and with blasting, and with mildew; and they shall pursue thee until thou perish.

crynfa or cryd (obsolete) an attack of the shakes (from a fever) (a shivering from the fever)
crynfar cryd (obsolete) an attack of the shakes (from a fever) ((the) shivering (of) the fever)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *krit-
From the same British root: Cornish krys (= trembling, shivering), Breton kridienn (= shudder, shiver)
From the same Celtic root: Irish crith (= shudder, shiver)


crydd, cryddion KRIIDH, KRƏDH-yon [kriː, ˡkrəjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
shoemaker, cobbler


cryf, cryfion KRIIV,KRƏV-yon [kriːv, ˡkrəvjɔn] (adjective)

esgidiau cryfion = stout shoes

cystadleuaeth am y cryfaf a competiton to see whos the strongest, a trial of strength

y rhyw gref (= men) the stronger sex (the strong sex)


cryfion KRƏV-yon [ˡkrəvjɔn] adj
plural form of cryf = strong
esgidiau cryfion = stout shoes

ETYMOLOGY: (cryf = strong ) + (-ion suffix for forming plurals of adjectives)


crygu KRƏ-gi [ˡkrəgɪ] (verb)
grow hoarse; have a frog in your throat


cryman KRƏ-man [ˡkrəman] masculine noun
PLURAL crymanau krə-MA-nai, -ne [krəˡmanaɪ, -ɛ]
sickle, reaping hook; implement with a curved blade for cutting grass or corn

bill, hook; implement with a long blade and a hooked point for cutting thorn hedges

sickle = symbol of agricultural labour on Communist insignia; y morthwl ar cryman the hammer and the sickle

comparison: mor gam chryman said of something bent, such as a persons back ("as crooked as a sickle")

comparison: ar ffurf cryman in the shape of a sickle
heol ar ffurf cryman a sickle-shaped street, a crescent-shaped street

South-west Wales dalen gryman (indefinite form), dalen y cryman (definite form) plantago lanceolata ribwort plantain
Welsh cryman (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + (-an)

From the same British root: Cornish krommenn (= sickle), Breton krommenn (= curve)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cromn = (anatomy) hip, (mechanics) crank)


crymanbig ddu krə-MAN-big DHII [krəˡmanbɪg ˡiː] feminine noun
PLURAL crymanbigau du / duon krə-man-BII-gai, -ge, DII, krə-man-BII-gai, -ge, DII-on [krəmanˡbiˑgaɪ, -ɛ, ˡdː, krəmanˡbiˑgaɪ, -ɛ, ˡdiˑɔn]
Ornithology; plegadis falcinellus = glossy ibis
y grymanbig = the ibis

ETYMOLOGY: "black sickle-beak" (cryman = sickle) + soft mutation + (pig = beak)


cryman cau KRƏ-man KAI [ˡkrəman ˡkaɪ] masculine noun
hedging bill, hedging hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (for) making-a-hedge" (cryman = sickle) + (cau = to close, to enclose, to make a hedge)


cryman medi KRƏ-man MEE-di [ˡkrəman ˡmeˑdɪ] masculine noun
reaping hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (of) reaping" (cryman = sickle) + (medi = to reap)


cryman perthi KRƏ-man PER-thi [ˡkrəman ˡpɛrθɪ] masculine noun
South Wales
hedging bill, hedging hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (of) hedges" (cryman = sickle) + (perthi = hedges)


cryman taro KRƏ-man TAA-ro [ˡkrəman ˡtɑˑrɔ] masculine noun
North Wales
reaping hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (of) knocking / hitting" (cryman = sickle) + (taro = to knock, to hit)


crymedd KRƏ-medh [ˡkrəmɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL crymeddau krə-MEE-dhai, -dhe [krəˡmeˑaɪ, -ɛ]
curvature = the curved part of something
crymedd y ddaear = the curvature of the earth

ETYMOLOGY: (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + (-edd)


crymffast KRƏM-fast [ˡkrəmfast] masculine noun
PLURAL crymffastiau krəm-FAST-yai, -ye [krəmˡfastjaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales
boy; pan oeddan nin grwmffastiau when we were boys

crymffastiau boys; boys and girls

crymffast o hogyn big strapping lad, big strong lad


y crymffast digywilydd! the cheeky lout! you cheeky lout!

large young sheep

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh crymffast < crynffast (cryn-, penult form of crwn = round) + (ffast, unknown element)
VARIANTS: crwmffast, crynffast, crwmffost


crymffastes krəm-FAS-tes [krəmˡfastɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL crymffastesau krəm-fas-TE-sai, -se [krəmfasˡtɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales
girl, lass; strapping lass
y grymffastes the lass

ETYMOLOGY: (crymffast = boy) + (es, suffix to denote a female)


crymgledd KRƏM-gledh [ˡkrəmglɛ]
masculine noun
PLURAL crymgleddyfau krəm-gle-DHƏ-vai, -ve [krəmglɛˡəvaɪ, -ɛ]
(USA: saber) (Englandic: sabre) = sword with a curved blade

ETYMOLOGY: (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (cledd = sword)


Y Crymlyn ə KRƏM-lin [ə ˡkrəmlɪn]
(ST2198) locality in the county of Caerffili (Anglicised as "Crumlin");
Population 1961: 4,967 (3% Welsh speakers)

also north-west of Heol-y-cyw (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) there is Nant Crymlyn SS9583, Blaen Crymlyn, and a farm called Blaencrymlyn Nant Crymlyn
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

Crymlyn farm west of Y Sgiwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
By here, according to English-language maps, are

Crymlyn Brook (?Nant Crymlyn)
Crymlyn Bog (Cors Crymlyn)
Crymlyn Road between Y Sgiwen and Winsh-wen (?Heol Crymlyn)
Crymlyn Parc, in Y Sgiwen (?Parc Crymlyn)

4 Crymlyn farm name, Abergwyngregyn SH6572 (county of Conwy), mentioned in the 1851 Census Abergwyngregyn

ETYMOLOGY: (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (glyn = valley)


cryn KRIN [ˡkrɪn] (adverb)
Mae cryn daith on blaenau We have a long way to go (there is a considerable journey before us)

Mae cryn bellter on blaenau We have a long way to go (there is a considerable distance before us)

Mae cryn siwrnai on blaenau We have a long way to go (there is a considerable journey before us)

gyda chryn drafferth with great difficulty

bod cryn le i wella ar (rywbeth) leave a lot to be desired (to be a considerable place to improve on something)

cryn dipyn quite a bit

darllen cryn dipyn am read quite a bit about

cryn dipyn o quite a bit of

clywed cryn dipyn o Gymraeg hear quite a bit of Welsh

bod yn gryn dipyn o gybydd be a real miser, be a real skinflint

5 gryn dipyn
(adverbial) considerably, much, very much, quite a bit

There is soft mutation
cryn dipyn > gryn dipyn because of its adverbial function

Lleihaodd nifer yr aelodau gryn dipyn The membership dropped quite a bit

Adjectives are introduced by the linking

Mae hi gryn dipyn yn dwymach heddiw Its a lot warmer today

bod gryn dipyn yn oerach be much colder, quite a bit colder

bod gryn dipyn yn well be a lot better

bod gryn dipyn yn uwch be a lot higher

bod gryn dipyn yn llai be a lot less

bod gryn dipyn yn fwy
be a lot more

6 o gryn dipyn by quite a bit

bod yn well eu byd o gryn dipyn be considerably wealthier / better off


crynfryn KRƏN-vrin [ˡkrənvrɪn] masculine noun
round hill
(1) Rhes Crynfryn street name, Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion) (rhes = row of houses)

(2) Crynfryn SN3625 farm 2km south-south-west of Cynwyl Elfed (county of Caerfyrddin)

ETYMOLOGY: (cryn-, penult form of crwn = round) + soft mutation + (bryn = hill)


crynhi krə-NHOI [krəˡnhɔɪ] (verb)


crynoder krə-NOO-der [krəˡnoˑdɛr] masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (cryno = concise) + (-der suffix for forming abstract nouns)


crynu KRƏ-ni [krənɪ] (vi)
(vi) shake, shudder (from fear, cold)

Rw in crynu i gyd (Im shaking all) Im shaking all over

Also in the South cyrnu KƏR-ni [kərnɪ], a form showing metathesis;

cf in the South pyrnu PƏR-ni [pərnɪ] < prynu (= to buy)


crys, crysau KRIIS, KRƏ-sai, -se [ˡkriːs, ˡkrəsaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

2 gwregys belt

crys (= shirt) >

*gwogrys (= under-shirt) (prefix gwo-, from the Old Welsh preposition gwo = under) >

*gwagrys (a takes the place of o; in certain other words with an original gwo- this gwa- survives in modern Welsh e.g. gwaredu = to get rid of) >

*gwegrys (vowel affection; a > e because of the i in the final syllable) >

*gwregys metathesis, GR > R-vowel-G


crys dur kriis DIIR [kriˑs ˡdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL crysau dur KRƏ-sai, -se, DIIR [ˡkrəsaɪ, -ɛ, ˡdiːr]
hauberk = tunic of chain mail

ETYMOLOGY: shirt (of) steel (crys = shirt) + (dur = steel)


crys nos kriis NOOS [kriːs ˡnoːs]
(masculine noun)
nightshirt (men)


crysbais, crysbeisiau KRƏS-bais, -bes, krə-SPEIS-yai, -ye [ˡkrəsbaɪs, -ɛs, krəˡsbəɪsjaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)


crysbais weu, crysbeisiau gweu KRƏS-bais, -bes, WEI, krə-SPEIS-yai, -ye, GWEI [ˡkrəsbaɪs, -ɛs, ˡwəɪ, krəˡsbəɪsjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡgwəɪ] ( (feminine noun)
(Englandic: woollen vest)


crystyn, crystiau KRƏ-stin, KRƏST-yai, -ye [ˡkrəstɪn, ˡkrəstjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)


crythwr KRƏ-thur [ˡkrəθʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL crythwyr KRƏTH-wir [ˡkrəθwɪr]
crwth player, someone who plays a crwth, fiddler

ETYMOLOGY: (cryth-, penult form of crwth = fiddle) + (-wr agent suffix)


Y Cryw ə KRIU [ə ˡkrɪʊ]

1 SJ3215 village in Powys. English name: Crewgreen


c-t < g-d
(dig [diig] = angry) + soft mutation + (-ter suffix for forming abstract nouns) > *digder > dicter (g-d > c-t)

gwacter emptiness
(gwag [gwaag] = empty) + soft mutation + (-ter suffix for forming abstract nouns) > *gwagder > gwacter (g-d > c-t)


CTCC ek-tii-ek-EK [ ɛk ti: ɛk ˡɛk]
cmera teledu cylch cyfyng

CCTV, closed circuit TV camera

(delwedd 7360) (Gorsaf Abertawe / Swansea Station, Awst 2006)


abbreviation of cytundeb (= agteement)

KII [kiː] adj
1 dear, beloved
ein Ceidwad cu our dear Saviour
Iesu cu dear Jesus
cyfaill cu bosom friend

As a noun
y cu (m) the beloved one
y gu (f) the beloved one

Deuteronomium 21:15-16
15 Pan fyddo i ŵr ddwy wraig, un yn gu, ac un yn gas; a phlanta or gu ar gas feibion iddo ef, a bod y mab cyntaf-anedig or un gas:
16 Yna bydded, yn y dydd y rhanno efe ei etifeddiaeth rhwng ei feibion y rhai fyddant iddo, na ddichon efe wneuthur yn gyntaf-anedig fab y gu o flaen mab y gas, yr hwn sydd gyntaf-anedig;
Deuteronomy 21:15-16
15: If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated, and they have born him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the firstborn son be hers that was hated:
16: Then it shall be, when he maketh his sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may not make the son of the beloved firstborn before the son of the hated, which is indeed the firstborn:

2 cu gan beloved by
Roedd ei wyres fach yn gu iawn ganddo He was very fond of his little granddaughter (very loved by him)

Samuel-2 1:26 Gofid sydd arnaf amdanat ti, fy mrawd Jonathan: cu iawn fuost gennyf fi: rhyfeddol oedd dy gariad tuag ataf fi, tu hwnt i gariad gwragedd.
Samuel-2 1:26 I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan: very pleasant hast thou been unto me: thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women

3 cuedd love, affection
amguedd dear things; property, wealth, treasure (am- = around)
amgueddfa museum (-fa = place)

4 (South Wales)
mam-gu grandmother (beloved mother)
tad-gu grandfather (beloved father)

5 Final element in the given names Dyddcu / Dyddgu (f), Lleucu (f)

ETYMOLOGY: cu < cuf < British < Celtic *koim-
From the same British root: Cornish kuv, Breton kuv


KIIDH [kiː] masculine noun
concealment; hiding place

cadw yn y cudd stay in hiding,
keep a low profile, keep your head down, try not to draw attention (keep in the hiding)

bod ynghdd be hidden

2 (adjective) hidden, secret = ndeclared, not told to anybody

Bu'n uchelgais gudd gennyf ymuno r llynges fasnachol
It was a secret ambition of mine to join the merchant navy

secret = undercover, clandestine; used hidden methods

cudd-weithredwr secret agent
heddlu cudd secret police
gwasanaeth cudd secret service

4 neidr gudd snake in the grass, treacherous person (hidden snake)

5 cudd y coed (Clematis vitalba) old mans beard, travellers joy

(the) hidden [plant] (of) the wood

cudd = hidden (adj); a hidden thing (noun)) + (y = the) + (coed = wood)

Cudd-y-coed Name of a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) (spelt as Cudd y Coed)

(delwedd 7915)

ETYMOLOGY: British; also in Breton kuzh (= hidden; hiding place) (e-kuzh = in secret)


cudd-deithio kiidh-DEITH-io [kiːˡdəɪθɪɔ] verb
stow away = hide in a ship or a plane in order to travel without paying

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = secret, hidden ) + soft mutation + ( teitho = to travel)


cudd-deithiwr kiidh-DEITH-yur [kiːˡdəɪθjʊr]
masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-deithwyr kiidh-DEITH-wir [kiːˡdəɪθwɪr]
stowaway = a person who hides in a ship or a plane in order to travel without paying the fare

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = secret, hidden ) + soft mutation + ( teithiwr = traveller)


cuddio KIDH-yo [ˡkɪjɔ] (verb)
to hide

Ofer cuddioch pen yn y tywod Its no use hiding your head in the sand (from the erroneous belief that when danger threatens an ostrich buries its head in the sand in order to ignore the danger)

ymguddio hide oneself


cuddliw KIDH-liu [ˡkɪlɪʊ] masculine noun
PLURAL cuddliwiau kidh-LIU-yai, -ye [kɪˡlɪʊjaɪ, -ɛ]
camouflage = a form of disguise in which a creature adopts the colour and texture of its surroundings and appears to be part of them

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd-, stem of cuddio = to hide) + soft mutation + (lliw = color)


cuddliwio kidh-LIU-yo [kɪˡlɪʊjɔ] verb
to camouflage = disguise by adopting the colour and texture of the surroundings and appearing to be part of them

ETYMOLOGY: (cuddliw = camouflage) + (-io, suffix for forming a verb)


cuddliwiol kidh-LIU-yol [kɪˡlɪʊjɔl] adjective
apatetic = relating to colouring which hides an animal and protects it from predators

ETYMOLOGY: (cuddliw = camouflage ) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)


cudd-weithredwr kiidh-weith-REE-dur [kiːwəɪθˡreˑdʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-weithredwyr kiidh-weith-RED-wir [kiːˡwəɪθˡrɛdwɪr]
secret agent

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = secret, hidden ) + soft mutation + (gweithredwr = operator)


cuddwisg KIDH-wisk [ˡkɪˡwɪsk] feminine noun
PLURAL cuddwisgoedd kidh-WIS-koidh, -godh [kɪˡwɪskɔɪ, -ɔ]
disguise = clothing or make-up to hide the true identity of a person
y guddwisg the disguise
bod mewn cuddwisg be in disguise

ETYMOLOGY: hide-clothing (cudd-, root of cuddio = to hide) + soft mutation + (gwisg = dress)


cudd-ymchwil kiidh-ƏM-khwil [kiːˡəmxwɪl] masculine noun
intelligence = secret information about an enemy

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = hidden) + (ymchwil = research)


cudd-ymchwiliwr kiidh-əm-KHWIL-yur [kiːəmˡxwɪljʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-ymchwilwyr kiidh-əm-KHWIL-wir [kiːəmˡxwɪlwɪr]
intelligence agent = person who gathers secret information about an enemy

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd-ymchwil = intelligence) + (-i-wr suffix = man)


cudd-ymosodiad kiidh-ə-mo-SOD-yad [kiːəmɔˡsɔdjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-ymosodiadau kiidh-ə-mo-sod-YAA-dai, -de [kiːəmɔsɔdˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = hidden) + (ymosodiad = attack)


cudyll KII-dilh [ˡkiˑdɪɬ] masculine noun
PLURAL cudyllod ki-DI-lhod [kɪˡdɪɬɔd]
(North Wales)
ffraeo fel dau gudyll have a violent row (dispute like two hawks)

ETYMOLOGY: (cud = kite) + (-yll). Cud is from English kite


cufydd KII-vidh [ˡkiˑvɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cufyddau ki-VƏ-dhai, -dhe [kɪˡvəaɪ, -ɛ]
cubit = ancient measure of length, the length of the forearm, half a yard

Daniel 3:1 Nebuchodonosor y brenin a wnaeth ddelw aur, ei huchder oedd yn drigain cufydd, ei lled yn chwe chufydd; ac efe ai gosododd hi i fyny yng ngwastadedd Dura, o fewn talaith Babilon.
Daniel 3:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon.

Genesis 6:14 Gwna i ti arch o goed Goffer; yn gellau y gwnei yr arch, a phyga hi oddi wrth mewn ac oddi allan phyg.
(6:15) Ac fel hyn y gwnei di hi: tri chan cufydd fydd hyd yr arch, a deg cufydd a degain ei lled, a deg cufydd ar hugain ei huchder.
Genesis 6:14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. (6:15) And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cufydd < *cufyd < British < Latin cubitum (= elbow, a measure of length using the forearm, from the fingertips to the elbow)


Cuhelyn ki-HEE-lin [kɪˡheˑlɪn] masculine noun
mans name
Cuhelyn Fardd poet of the early 1100s

(legend) Cuhelyn son of Afarwy, who was son of Lludd, King of Britain, during Roman times

street name Maescuhelyn Llannerch-y-medd (county of Mn) (Maes Cuhelyn) ((the) field (of) Cuhelyn)


cul, PLURAL culion KIIL, KIL-yon [kiːl,ˡkɪljɔn]


culfan KIL-van [ˡkɪlvan] masculine noun
PLURAL culfannau kil-VA-nai, -ne [kɪlˡvanaɪ, -ɛ]
narrow place
Culfan name of a street in Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam)

(Medicine) stricture = abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage in the body

ETYMOLOGY: (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + (man = place)


culfarn KIL-varn [ˡkɪlvarn] feminine noun
PLURAL culfarnau kil-VAR-nai, -ne [kɪlˡvarnaɪ, -ɛ]
bigotry, narrow-mindedness

2 (adjective) bigotted, narrow-minded

ETYMOLOGY: (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + (barn = opinion)


culfedd KIL-vedh [ˡkɪlvɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL culfeddau kil-VEE-dhai, -dhe [kɪlˡveˑaɪ, -ɛ]
(literary word) narrow grave

Fe ddaw hon oi chulfedd unig - yn gorph,
Mewn gwisg anllygredig;
Er marw, draw Mary drig,
Yn flodyn dwyfoledig

(from a collection of verses on gravestones in the Ogwen valley - Englynion Beddau Dyffryn Ogwen - by J Elwyn Hughes, 1979)
She will come from her narrow grave - a body
in spotless dress
In spite of death, Mary will live yonder
A sanctified flower

ETYMOLOGY: (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + (bedd = grave)


culfor KIL-vor [ˡkɪlvɔr] masculine noun
PLURAL culforoedd kil-VOO-roidh, -rodh [kɪlˡvoˑrɔɪ, -ɔ]
strait = narrow stretch of water joining two areas of sea
Abbreviation on maps: Cf

In geographical names

..1/ Culfor Bab el Manddeb between Djibouti and Yemen, leading into the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden

..2/ Culfor Dofr the Straits of Dover, between Dover in England and Calais in the French state

..3/ Culfor Melaka Malacca Strait between Malaysia and Sumatra

..4/ Gwladfydd y Culfor Straits Settlements = a former English colony made up of Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan and other islands

In Casllwchwr in the county of Abertawe there is a road called Culfor Road (which would be Heol y Culfor in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: narrow sea (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + ( mr = sea)


Culhwch ac Olwen KIL-hukh ag OL-wen [ˡkɪlhʊx ag ˡɔlwɛn]
(masculine noun)
See: Mabinogion ma-bi-NOG-yon [mabɪˡnɔgjɔn]


Name of a township in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Pronounced in English as KUUM-ruu [ˡkuːmruː]. The adjacent townships are Lower Alsace Township and Exeter Township to the north-east, Robeson Township to the east, Brecknock Township to the south and Spring Township to the east.

The first landowner was Hugh Jones, who bought 1,000 acres of land in this part of Lancaster County in the year 1732. (Berks County was formed out of Lancaster County in 1752)

It seems that the name is a form of the Welsh word Cymru KƏM-ri [ˡkəmrɪ] (= Wales), with the spelling of the vowel of the first syllable changed to u.

..a/ Although y is the obscure vowel (mid central unrounded vowel) , which also exists in English of course, there is no special symbol for it in English. Since the letter u in English can represent the half-open unrounded vowel between back and front (phonetic symbol - an inverted v) (as in run, sun, hunt, etc) has almost the same sound, in Anglicising spellings of Welsh place names it is often seen. Examples from Wales are Crymlyn > Crumlyn (curved valley), Dyffryn > Duffryn (= valley).

..b/ Another consideration is that the obscure vowel does not occur in a tonic syllable in English, and is considered an unnatural pronunciation.

..c/ The final u of Cymru / Cumru, pronounced as i [ɪ] in South Wales (and a variant i [ɪ] sound in the north) has been reinterpreted as English u. If the place name had been spelt Cumri in English it would have retained more of the original Welsh pronunciation.

(There is the (unlikely) possibility that the name is Cwm (valley) and some unknown element, but (1) this valley is not a cwm, (2) the second element ru does not resemble any likely Welsh word, (3) in such a case the stress would be on the last syllable, but Cumru is stressed on the first syllable.)

Following is additional information from the Township of Cumru, Berks County, Pennsylvania Website :

The name Cumru is Welsh in origin and its name comes from the early settlers who were Welsh.

Hugh Jones was the first landowner. He bought one thousand acres along the Wyomissing Creek in 1732.

Cumru Township was founded in 1737.

It originally included what is now Spring Township, the boroughs of Kenshorst, Mohnton and Shillington, and areas that have since been incorporated into Reading borough.

According to tax lists prepared by David Evans Jr. in 1759 there were 142 married men and 20 single men in the township.

In 1842 some residents attempted to split Cumru Township into two new townships, but there was opposition to this. They tried again in 1845 and were again unsuccessful.

Finally a third attempt in 1850 was successful and Cumru Township was divided into two areas of the same size, and Spring Township was formed from one half of Cumru Township.

The reason was that Cumru Township was too big for holding elections and having township meetings, and for the repair of the roads.

The oldest church was at Ruths Mill, a Welsh-language Baptist Church whose minister was the Rev. Thomas Jones.

Shillington, Mohnton and Kenshorst became boroughs and this decreased the size of Cumru Township yet further.

Land has also been annexed by adjoining boroughs (West Hills, Shillington, Reading) .

Agriculture is now virtually non-existent and housing and industry has been built on the old farmland.

The address of the Township of Cumru is 1775 Welsh Road, Mohnton, Pennsylvania 19540.

(delwedd 7920)

History of Berks County, Pennsylvania. Morton L. Montgomery. 1886:
Among the first settlers in the counties of Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester were large colonies of Welshmen, who purchased immense tracts of land, and when townships were formed they gave to many the names of the places from which they had emigrated. Among them may be named Radnor, Haverford, Merion, Gwynedd, Uwchlan, Tredyffrin, Caernarvon, Cumru and Breknock, these last three now being included in Berks County, although they were formerly in Lancaster County.

See Cymru


cun KIIN [kiːn]
(literary word) fine, pleasant; dear, beloved

ETYMOLOGY: From Celtic. In Gaulish there was a personal name (Latinised as Counus) which contains this element

A related word is German schn (= beautiful)


KIN-lho [ˡkɪnɬɔ]
masculine noun
See Cynllo


cunnog KI-nog [ˡkɪnɔg] feminine noun
PLURAL cunogau ki-NOO-gai, -e [kɪˡnoˑgaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales
milking pail
y gunnog = the pail

ETYMOLOGY: probably from Irish; in modern Irish cuinneg KIN-yoog [kɪnɔːg] (= churn)
VARIANTS: there is also a diminutive form: cunogyn masculine noun ki-NOO-gin [kɪˡnoˑgɪn]


cunnog laeth KI-nog LAITH [ˡkɪnɔg ˡlaɪθ] feminine noun
PLURAL cunogau llaeth ki-NOO-gai, -ge, LHAITH [kɪˡnoˑgai, -ɛ ˡɬaɪθ]
North Wales
milking pail

ETYMOLOGY: (cunnog = pail) + soft mutation + (llaeth = milk)


cunnog odro KI-nog O-dro [ˡkɪnɔg ˡɔdrɔ] feminine noun
PLURAL cunogiaid godro ki-NOO-gai, -ge, GO-dro [kɪˡnoˑgai, -ɛ ˡgɔdrɔ]
North Wales
milking pail

ETYMOLOGY: (cunnog = pail) + soft mutation + (godro = to milk)


cunogyn ki-NOO-gin [kɪˡnoˑgɪn] masculine noun
See: cunnog


cupreswydden ki-pres-WƏ-dhen [kɪprɛsˡwəɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL cupreswydd ki-PRES-widh [kɪˡprɛswɪ]
y gupreswydden = the cypress

ETYMOLOGY: (cupres- cypress tree) + soft mutation + (gwydden = tree); < Latin cyparrisus < Greek kuparissos


Cupros KI-pros [ˡkɪprɔs] feminine noun

ETYMOLOGY: Greek Kŷpros


cur KIIR [kiːr] masculine noun
PLURAL curiau KIR-yai, -ye [ˡkɪrjaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales pain

North Wales cur yn y pen headache;
Mae gen i gur yn y pen Ive got a headache ("Ive got a pain in the head")


obsolete battle

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cur < British < Latin cra (= care, attention, treatment);
From the same British root: Breton kur = beating, hitting


curad KII-rad [ˡkiˑrad] masculine noun
PLURAL curadiaid ki-RAD-yaid, -yed [kɪˡradjaɪd, -ɛd]

1 in the Anglican church, curate = deputy to a parish priest (a vicar or a rector)

Anglican clergyman who has charge of a parish; also curad mewn gofal (curate-in-charge)

Drws Yr Eglwys Weledig Wedi Ei Agor Yn Lled y Pen, Fel y Gallo Credinwyr a Phlant Bychain Ddyfod I Mewn (1799) Gan Thomas Jones, Curad Creaton yn Sir Northampton The door of the visible church opened wide so that believers and little children can come in, by Thomas Jones, Curate of Creaton in the county of Noerthampton

Thomas Jones (Yr Hafod, Ceredigion 1752-1845)

(delwedd 7610)

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of Middle English curat (modern English curate) < Latin crtus < cra (= spiritual care)

VARIANTS: Also ciwrad


curadiaeth ki-RAD-yaith, -yeth [kɪˡradjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
PLURAL curadiaethau ki-rad-YEI-thai, -e [kɪradˡjəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]
curacy, the position of a curate
y guradiaeth = the curacy
Daliodd guradiaeth Llanegryn am chwarter canrif
He had the curacy of Llanegryn for a quarter of a century

ETYMOLOGY: (curad = curate) + (-iaeth)


curadur ki-RAA-dir [kɪˡrɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL curaduron, curaduriaid ki-ra-DII-ron,-ki-ra-DIR-yaid, -yed [kɪraˡdiˑrɔn,kɪraˡdɪrjaɪd, -ɛd]
curator = person in charge of the exhibits in a museum or in an art gallery; can be, but is not necessarily, the museum director

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of the Latin word curator (used in English in the sense of museum director / museum administrator), according to changes which loans from Latin via British into Welsh underwent; crtor = person who takes charge < crre = take charge < cra = charge, care


curfa KIR-va [ˡkɪrva] feminine noun
PLURAL curfydd, curfaoedd kir-VEIDH, kir-VAA-oidh, -odh [kɪrˡvəɪ, kɪrˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ]
North Wales
thrashing, beating
y gurfa = the thrashing

beating = act of beating

punishment, a beating as a punishment
cael curfa = be beaten as a punishment

thrashing = defeat;
cael curfa iawn get a sound thrashing, be soundly defeated (e.g. team in a rugby game)

ETYMOLOGY: (cur-, stem of curo = hit, beat) + (-fa suffix = action)


Curig KII-rig [ˡkiˑrɪg] (masculine noun)
mans name; Llangurig - village in Powys


curn KIRN [kɪrn] feminine noun
PLURAL curnau, cyrnau KIR-nai, -e, KƏR-nai, -e [ˡkɪrnaɪ, -nɛ, ˡkərnaɪ, -ɛ]
heap, mound, stack (such as a heap of stones, potatoes, straw, pyramidical in shape)

(obsolete) cyrnennu ŷd to stack corn

(obsolete) church spire

(place names) cone-shaped hill
There are three cone-shaped hills in the county of Gwynedd with curn
Y Gurn Goch the red peak
Y Gurn Ddu the black peak
Y Gurn Las the green peak

Y Cyrnau Place north-west of Pen-y-wal farm on the road from Y Graig-wen (ST0690), Pont-y-pridd, to Llanwynno (ST0295) (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

..a/ alternative spelling (less correct) curn > cyrn

..b/ diminutive forms:
.1 with suffix -en : cyrnen (f), PLURAL cyrnennau

.2 with suffix yn : cyrnyn (m), PLURAL cyrnynnau

.3 with plural suffix -os (diminutives formed by adding -os to a feminine noun behave as feminine singular nouns after the definite article there is soft mutation)

(see the entry curnos below)

Cf. Breton kern (= peak; point; top of the head; tonsure; hopper in a mill, crown of a hat)


curnos KIR-nos [ˡkɪrnɔs] plural
small heaps, small mounds, little mounds

With plural suffix -os (diminutives formed by adding -os to a feminine noun behave as feminine singular nouns after the definite article there is soft mutation)

curnos - found in place names in south Wales
........................................curnos > Y Gurnos
........................................cyrnos > Y Gyrnos
........................................ceirnos > Y Geirnos

The Blackcock Inn on Mynydd Caerffili bewteen Caer-dydd (Cardiff) and Caerffili

was known as Clwyd y Gurnos (it became the Blackcock Inn apparently in the 1850s)

ETYMOLOGY: (curn = pile, heap) + (-os suffix for forming diminutives of collective nouns; it is found especially with names of certain plants)


curo KII-ro [ˡkiˑrɔ] (verb)
to beat = strike, hit repeatedly

curo dwylo
KII-ro DUI-lo [kiˑrɔ ˡdʊɪlɔ]
to clap hands

2 curo drwm
to beat a drum, play a drum
curoch drwm dros
drum up support for
ffon guro drwm drumstick (stick (of) beating drum)

to beat = to defeat
curo rhywun ar ei dir ei hun
beat someone at his / her own game (beat someone on his own land / ground)


cusan, cusanau KI-san, ki-SAA-nai, -e [ˡkɪsan, kɪˡsɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)


cusanu ki-SAA-ni [kɪˡsɑˑnɪ]
to kiss
cusanu (rhywun) o dan yr uchelwydd ki-SAA-ni o dan ər i-KHEL-widh [kɪˡsɑˑnɪ ɔ dan ər ɪˡxɛlwɪ] kiss (somebody) under the mistletoe


cw KU [kʊ] (adverb)
over there (clipped form of acw)


cwar KWAR [kwar] masculine noun
PLURAL cwarrau, cwerrydd KWA-rai, -e, KWE-ridh [ˡkwaraɪ,- ɛ, ˡkwɛrɪ]
South-east Wales stone quarry

(1) Clos y Cwarra
Street name in Llanbedr y Fro ((the) close (of) the quarries) < cwarrau = quarries

(2) Cwarclydach
Short name: Y Cwar

District in Clydach, county of Abertawe / Swansea ((the) quarry (of) Clydach) Clydach

In the West Wales Baptist schism in 1799, members of Salem chapel in Llangyfelach who ambraced Arminianism took over a small chapel, built bu members of Salem four years previously in 1795. This building was known as Capel y Cwar (the) chapel / meeting house (in) Y Cwar

Heol y Cwar (Englished as Quarr Road). Name of a street in Clydach

(3) Cwar Du ((the) black quarry)
Quarry above Blaenrhondda (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

(4) Cwar Llwyn-on SN9508 Name of a quarry in Penderyn (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

Llwyn-on is probably a farm name or house name, so this would be ((the) quarry (by) Llwyn-on). (llwyn on, or llwyn onn, = ash grove, ash wood) Penderyn

(5) Cwar Melyn ((the) yellow quarry)
Quarry above Blaenrhondda (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

(6) Cwar yr Offeirad ((the) quarry (of) the clergyman)
Quarry above Blaen-cwm (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

The southern form of offeiriad o-FEIR-yad [ɔˡfəɪrjad] is offeirad / offeirad o-FEI-rad [ɔˡfəɪrad]- in fact pronounced usually as ffirad FII-rad [ˡfiˑrad]

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cwar < dialect English quarr (= stone pit, quarry) < Old French *quarre < Latin quadrre (= to make (something) square).

The standard form chwarel < cwarel < English quarrel < Old French quarriere < Old French *quarre. There was dissimulation in English r-r > r-l (quarriere > quarrel)

NOTE: In South Wales there are various forms with cw- (1) cwarel, (2) cwar, (3) cware
see chwarel

NOTE: cf
cwarre (South-west Wales),
chwarel (North Wales, Central Wales);
cwarel (district of Preseli, in the county of Penfro)

QUAR [kwairr], sb. i. A quarry.

I do work in the quar vor Mr. Russell to Whipcott.

The West Somerset Word-Book.

of Dialectal and Archaic Words and Phrases

Used in the West of Somerset and East Devon.

/ Frederick Thomas Elworthy / 1886


Y Cwar ə kwar [ə ˡkwar]
locality in Merthyrtudful (town and county in south-east Wales) (English name: "The Quar")

ETYMOLOGY: "the quarry"


cwarel KWAA -rel [ˡkwaˑrɛl] masculine noun
PLURAL cwareli kwa-REE-li [kwaˡreˑlɪ]
South Wales
quarry, stone-pit

Examples in place names in the south:

..a/ Coed y Cwarel
John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911), notes a place called Coed y Cwarel (1840) in the parish of Tredelerch (Caer-dydd)

b/ Penycwarel ST1793 ((the) edge / top (of) the quarry) A farm north-west of Ynys-ddu and south-east of Maesycwmwr (county of Caerffili). The farm name occurs in the name of a nearby road - Pen-y-Cwarel Road - in Wyllie (ST1794), part of Y Coed-duon (ST1797) (county of Caerffili) This would be Heol Penycwarel in Welsh

..c/ Tanycwarel, a house in Cwmystwyth, Ceredigion, the birthplace of Calvinistic Methodist minister Joseph Jenkins (1859-1929)

..d/ Penycwarel, a farm in Capelseion, Ceredigion

..e/ Pantycwarel, place in Llanbadarn Fawr

..f/ Cwarel Blaen-ddl, Llandre

MARGARET/ gwraig Lewis Morgan / Cwarel Blaenddol/ yr hon a fu farw/

Ionawr 7fed 1881/ yn 21 mlwydd oed. / Canys byw imi yw Crist a marw sydd elw

..g/ Cwarel Uchaf, farm in Cilerwisg SN5654, Y Felin-fach, Ceredigion

(delwedd 7405)

ETYMOLOGY: cwarel < English quarrel (showing dissimulation r-r > r-l) < Old French quarriere from *quarre < Latin quadrre (= to square, to make square).
(1) Dissimulation in English: the sequence r-r became r-l
(2) modern French has carrire (= quarry)

NOTE: in the North cwarel KWAA-rel [ˡkwrɛl] > chwarel KHWAA-rel [ˡxwrɛl]. This northern form is considered to be the standard form in modern Welsh. It is a feminine noun

The expected spoken form in the south-east would be cwaral with final a [a] instead of e [ɛ]

(delwedd 7423)

Cwarela kwa-REE-la [kwaˡreˑla]
locality in Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr
English form: Quarella

There is a street here called Gerddi Quarella. In correct Welsh this would be Gerddir Cwarela / Gerddi Cwarela (= Cwarela Gardens)

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (without having looked at the history of the name) this is cwarelau (= quarries). In south-east Wales final -au is pronounced as -a


KWAT [kwat] masculine noun
(South Wales) hiding place, hideaway

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cwat is formed from the verb cwato (= to hide, to hide oneself)
NOTE: Cambrian English (southern) cwat (= hiding place)


cwato KWA-to [ˡkwatɔ] verb
South Wales
verb with an object hide
Yr oedd hin cwatoi harian mewn hen focs te ar y seld
She hid her money in an old tea box on the sideboard

verb without an object hide; keep out of sight (Englandic: also: lie doggo)

chwarae cwato (American: play hide-and-go-seek) (Englandic: play hide-and-seek)

(In North Wales: chwarae cuddio)

Aeth i gwato rhag y glaw He went to shelter from the rain

ETYMOLOGY: cwato < (cwat- < dialect English quat = to hide) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)


..1 cwbl (cwbwl) KUU-bul [ˡkuˑbʊl adverb
completely (before an adjective)
Rych chin gwbl anghywir Youre quite wrong, Youre entirely wrong, Youre very much mistaken

mynd yn gwbl groes i run directly counter to (go opposed / contrary to)

2 bod wedi ei gwbl orffen be completely finished

Mae gennyf gof amdano ym Mhontsaeson, pan nad oedd y capel wedi ei gwbl orffen, yn 1842 neu dechrau 1843
I remember seeing him in Pontsaeson, when the chapel hadnt been completely finished, in 1842, or the beginning of 1843

..2 y cwbl ə KUU-bul [ ə ˡkuˑbʊl pronoun
everything, everybody, the lot, all
anghofior cwbl am completely forget about
bron y cwbl ohonynt almost all of them
dim o gwbl not at all
Dynar cwbl Thats all
o gwbl at all
Ond nid dynar cwbl o bell ffordd But thats not all by a long way
wedir cwbl after all
y cwbl neu ddim all or nothing

Nid hyn ywr cwbl. And thats not all (in listing for example, advantages of some course of action; and even though these are convincing enough for there quality or quantity, a speaker using such a phrase announces that in fact there are more to be added to the list)

2 mae y cwbl yno sydd eisiau ei wybod everything you need to know is there

ETYMOLOGY: y cwbl (noun) < cwbl (adjective)


cwblhau / cwpla ku-bul-HAI, KU-pla [kʊbʊlˡhaɪ, ˡkʊpla] (verb)
to finish

ETYMOLOGY: (cwbl = total, entirety) + (-hau verbal suffix)

The south-eastern form cwpla seems to be the result of a shift of accent in cwblhau (last syllable stressed). If cwblhau is stressed on the first syllable, we can expect the final au to become a, a characeristic feature of the dialect of the south-east. Also B is devoiced and becomes p at the beginning of a final syllable in this dialect (in the same way that d > t, and g > c in the same circumstances).

cwcan ku kan v
(South Wales)
1 to cook
Standard Welsh: coginio

ETYMOLOGY: (cwc- < English to cook ) + (-an suffix for forming verbs)

NOTE: See: cwcio


cwch KUUKH, KƏ khod (masculine noun) (North Wales)
cwch pysgota fishing boat
fflyd o gychod pysgota fishing fleet

(= cwch gwenyn) beehive
hel ml ir cwch feather ones nest = make oneself comfortable financially (ignoring the well-being of others) (gather honey to the hive); be on the fiddle


cwch pysgota kuukh pə SKO ta (masculine noun)
fishing boat


cwcw ku -ku feminine noun
PLURAL cwcwod ku- k -od
South Wales
Cuculus canorus cuckoo
y gwcw = the cuckoo

Cwmygwcw farm name, Llanhenwg, county of Mynwy ((the) valley (of) the cuckoo)
(cwm = valley) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (cwcw = cuckoo)

ETYMOLOGY: imitation of the birds call cf. Irish cu-c, Breton koukoug, French coucou, Catalan cucut (all meaning cuckoo)
NOTE: Although cog (f) is the standard word for Welsh, cwcw is common in the south


cwcwallt KU kwalht (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: From English


cwd, cydau KUUD, KƏ dai, -e (masculine noun)
pouch, bag
(South) arllwys eich cwd o flaen unbosom / unburden yourself to (pour out your bag in front of...)


cwdyn, KUU-din (masculine noun)
cwdyn lwcus lucky dip (in a bag)


cweryla KWE ril (verb)
to quarrel, squabble


cweryl, cwerylon KWEE-ril, kwe-RƏ-lon (masculine noun)
quarrel, argument, dispute, squabble

Bu cweryl rhyngddo ai fab hynaf

There was a quarrel too between him and his eldest son / He quarrelled with his eldest son too

achos y cweryl the cause of the quarrel

gwir achos y cweryl the real cause of the quarrel, the true cause of the quarrel

dygwyd y cweryl ger bron cyfarfod o weinidogion

the dispute was brought to a meeting of ministers


cwestiwn, cwestiynau KWE stiun, kwe STIƏ ne (masculine noun)

cwestiwn syml a simple question
cwestiwn cymhleth a complicated question
cwestiwn heb ateb iddo a question with no answer

cwestiwn heb ei ateb an unanswered question

ateb cwestiwn to answer a question

gofyn cwestiwn i (rywun) ask somebody a question

Y cwestiwn mawr yw a fydd digon o arian i dalu amdano?
The big question is will there be enough money to pay for it?

2 holi mil a mwy o gwestiynau ynghylch rhywbeth ask thousands of questions about (something) (a thousand and more of questions)


cwetgie <KWET-gye> kwɛtgjɛ] (masculine noun)
north-eastern form of coetgae (= field)

coetgae > coetg(i)e > cwetgie (sometimes written as kwetkie in English-language documents)

Alfred Neobard Palmer and Edward Owen, 1910, A History of Ancient Tenures of Land in North Wales and the Marches Containing Notes on the Common and Demesne Lands of the Lordship of Bromfield, and of the parts of Denbighshire and Flintshire adjoining; and Suggestions for the Identification of such Lands elsewhere: together with an Account of the rise of the Manorial System in the same Districts

In the lordships of Hope and Mold one of the commonest generic names for fields is "coetie" or "coetia," evidently the same word that in old deeds and surveys is sometimes written "kwitie," and the name is not unknown in Bromfield. " Kwetkie " (a commoner term in Bromfield) points to "coed-gae" (wood-field), and indicates that a very large portion of the land now under the plough was once wooded. As a matter of fact, it occurs frequently in those areas known to have once contained large tracts of woodland.


cwfaint KUU-vaint, -ent masculine noun
PLURAL cwfennoedd, cwfeiniau ku-VE-noidh, -odh, ku-VEIN-yai, -e
convent = a house in which nuns live

ysgol gwfaint PLURAL ysgolion cwfaint convent school, a school run by nuns ("school (of) convent")

3 Llwybr Cwfaint street in Bangor (Gwynedd). English: Convent Lane

llwybr y cwfaint (the) path (of) the convent (llwybr = valley) + (y = definite article, the) + (cwfaint = convent).

In place names the linking definite article y / yr is often omitted.

ETYMOLOGY: From English couvent, covent (cf the London street name Covent Garden) < French (in modern French this is couvent) < Latin convent- (= a coming together) < convenre (= to come together)

The English word covent has been remodelled to resemble its Latin source word with an n, convent-

English covent > Welsh cwfent < cwfeint < cwfaint
The change e > ei / ai is usual; it may be an example of supposing that the e was a colloquial reduction of ei / ai. Such a feature is typical in the final syllable where the standard language has ai (formerly ei)


cwis, cwisiau KWIS, KWIS ye (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: From English quiz

cwitie KWIT-yai, -ye kwɪtjɛ] (masculine noun)
north-eastern form of coetgae (= field)

coetgae > coetg(i)e > cwitie (sometimes written as kwitie in English-language documents)


cwlltwr, cylltyrau KULH tur, kəlh TƏ re (masculine noun)
coulter, vertical cutter in a plough

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin cultrum

cwlwm, cylymau KUU-lum, kə-LƏ-mai, -e (masculine noun)


cwlwm cariad KUUlum KAR-yad
love knot, lovers knot = a bow of ribbon symbolizing the link between two lovers

Cwlwm Cariad name of a street in Y Barri (county of Bro Morgannwg)

ETYMOLOGY: knot (of) love (cwlwm = knot) + (cariad = love)


cwm, cymoedd KUM, KƏ modh (masculine noun)
codi argae ar draws cwm to dam a valley

ETYMOLOGY: British *kumba (= valley)

Cf Gaulish *kumba > Gallo-Latin > Occitan comba [ˡkumbo] (= valley), French combe (= valley), Catalan coma (= hollow; cirque; mountain pasture)


Cwmalarch kum-AA-larkh
name of a street in Aberpennar (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (Cwm Alarch on maps)

ETYMOLOGY: cwm yr alarch (the) valley (of) the swan

(cwm = valley) + (yr = definite article, the) + (alarch = swan).

In place names the linking definite article y / yr is often omitted cwm yr alarch > cwm alarch


Cwm-brn kum BRAAN (feminine noun)
1 town in the south-east


Cwmbreg KUM breg (feminine noun)
Cumbrian, language related to Welsh which was spoken in Cumbria (now an English county Cumbria, and adjoining Lancashire - the English Lake District) until its extinction in around 1100
y Gwmbreg = the Cumbrian language


Cwmbychan kum-BƏ-khan
street name in Porthtywyn /
Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen) (spelt as Cwm Bychan)

ETYMOLOGY: y cwm bychan the little valley (y definite article) + (cwm = valley) + (bychan = small)


Cwm Clydach kum KLƏ-dakh
SN0738 valley by Nyfer (English: Nevern) in the county of Penfro Cwm Clydach

2 SN6804 valley by Cwm-cefn-parc (county of Abertawe) map

ETYMOLOGY: valley of the Clydach stream cwm Clydach (cwm = valley) + (Clydach)


Cwmclydach kum-KLƏ-dakh
SS9793 Village in Cwm Rhondda / the Rhondda Valley, adjoining Tonypandy
English name: Clydach Vale


cwningar ku-NI-ngar feminine noun
PLURAL cwningaroedd ku-ni-GAA-roidh, -odh
1 rabbit warren
y gwninger the rabbit warren

2 Y Gwninger SH8156 a farm by Capelgarmon (county of Conwy, north-west Wales)

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English conynger (modern English place names as coneygar) < Old French coniniere / coniliere < Latin cunicularium < cunculus (= rabbit)


cwmni, cwmnau KUM ni, kum NI e (masculine noun)
company = group of people

mynd i gwmni drwg
fall in with a bad lot (go into bad company)
(mynd = to go) + (i = to) + soft mutation + (cwmni = company) + (drwg = bad)

dilyn cwmni drwg follow bad company, hang around with the wrong crowd

company = companionship, presence, condition of being with another person or other people

Dymunwn gael pleser eich cwmni We request the pleasure of your company
(we desire (the) getting (the) pleasure (of) your company)

company = business organisation

..1/ cwmni adeiladu KUM ni a dei LA di building company, construction company

..2/ cwmni buddsoddi ymddiriedaethol KUM ni bidh SO dhi əm dhi ri e DEI thol
investment trust

..3/ cwmni cyllido finance compnay, one which finances HP (higher-purchase) sales

..4/ cwmni datblygu kum ni dat BLƏ gi (USA: construction company) (Englandic: developers)

..5/ cwmni hedfan kum ni HED van airline

..6/ cwmni yswiriant kum ni ə SWIR yant insurance company

cwmni gwneud peiriannau engineering company (company of making machines)

cwmni gwneud melysion confectionery company (company of making sweets)

cwmni gwneud dodrefn furniture company

cwmni gwneud dillad clothes company

4 theatr cwmni repertory theatre


Cwm Rhondda kum hron-dha
valley in south-east Wales in the form of a letter Y.

The main branch is on the left (Rhondda Fawr river; and the villages / towns of Tynewydd, Treherbert, Treorci, Pentre, Ystrad-dyfodwg, Tonypandy, Trealaw)
Sometimes called in English the western Rhondda valley, and formerly it was one of the valleys two parliamentary constituencies Rhondda West / Gorllewin Rhondda

The lesser branch on the right (Rhondda Fach river; Y Maerdy, Glynrhedynnog, and Ynys-hir).
Sometimes called in English the eastern Rhondda valley, and formerly it was one of the valleys two parliamentary constituencies Rhondda East / Dwyrain Rhondda

The branches come together at Y Porth (or more exactly at Y Cymer, or Cymer Rhondda), now part of Y Porth).

Below is the village of Trehafod.

The river Rhondda flows into the Taf at the town of Pont-ty-pridd

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) valley (of the river) Rhondda" (cwm = valley) + (Rhondda = the Rhondda river).

See the entry Rhondda for the explanation of the river name.

NOTE: also: Y Rhondda (= the Rhondda valley); yn y Rhondda (= in the Rhondda valley)


Cwm Rhondda Fach kum hron-dha vaakh
the eastern Rhondda valley in which are situated Y Maerdy, Glynrhedynnog, and Ynys-hir

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) valley (of the river) Rhondda Fach" (cwm = valley) + (Rhondda Fach = the little Rhondda river)


Cwm Rhondda Fawr kum hron-dha vaur
the western Rhondda valley in which are situated Tynewydd, Treherbert, Treorci, Pentre, Ystrad-dyfodwg, Tonypandy, and Trealaw

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) valley (of the river) Rhondda Fawr" (cwm = valley) + (Rhondda Fawr = the great Rhondda river)


cwmpas, cwmpasoedd KUM pas, kum PA sodh (masculine noun)
2 o fewn cwmpas deng milltir within a radius of ten miles

Cwm-sgou kum-SKOI masculine noun
Local form of Cwm-yn
ɥs-gou / Cwm-ynɥs-gau ST2899, south-east of Pont-y-pŵl, in the county of Torfaen map

(cwm = valley), (ynys = river meadow, water meadow, island) + soft mutation + (cou / cau = enclosed)

"valley of the enclosed meadow", probably referring to a meadow enclosed to keep out cattle.

The name shows the reduction of the element yn
ɥs > ys > s before the accented syllable

..a/ Cwm-ynys-gau > Cwm-ys-gau (loss of the first syllable of ynys, which occued in many place-names in the south-east. See ynys)

..b/ Cwm-ys-gau > Cwm-y-sgau The name reinterpreted as if with a linking definite article. There are many examples in place-names of false definite articles resulting from the attrition of a pretonic or pre-pretonic initial syllable.

..c/ Cwm-y-sgau > Cwm-sgau Loss of this supposed linking definite article. The dropping of a linking definite article is a common feature in Welsh place names


Cwm-sgwt kum- sgut feminine noun
ST0591 locality by Trehafod (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf), south-east Wales
Alternative name: Pwllhywel

2 name for any uninteresting or remote village in Wales whose affairs are of no interest to anybody else (American: cf Podunk, imaginary dull old-fashioned place)

Cwmsgwt a'r Bondo another name for an uninteresting or unimportant village) (bondo = eaves of a house)

(Maent) yn gorfodi cynulleidfa eang Radio Cymru i wrando ar eu 'chats' bach cyfforddus ar bolisiau addysg cyngor Cwmsgwt a'r Bondo (Cymro 05 07 95)
They oblige the wide audience of Radio Cymru to listen to their comfortable little chats on the education policies of the Cwm-sgwt and Y Bondo local authorities

placeholder name, the name used to represent any village or town or city name in specimen forms where an actual name is required; in England, often Anytown is used with this sense

Man cyfarfod: (e.e Festri Capel Tabernacl, Cwm-sgwt)
Meeting place: (e.g., vestry of the Tabernacl chapel, Cwm-sgwt)

Fe raddiais yn ddiweddar o Brifysgol Cwm-sgwt gyda gradd mewn Gweinyddiaeth Fusnes".
I graduated recently from the University of Cwm-sgwt with a degree in Business Studies

4 Aber-cwm-sgwt <a-ber-kum-SKUT> [abɛrkʊmˡskʊt] name of a non-existent village used in reply to questions such as Where have you been (Ble rwyt ti wedi bod?) or Where are you going (Ble rwyt tin mynd?) in order to reply without giving the true answer.

ETYMOLOGY: possibly valley of the waterfall apparently cwm y sgwd skuud (cwm = valley) + (y definite article) + (sgwd = (South Wales) waterfall)

NOTE: Also (incorrectly) spelt as Cwmsgwt (hyphen required in a settlement name with accent on a final monosyllabic element a hyphen should precede this final element), and Cwmscwt (the standard spelling for this cluster is sg- rather than sc-)

cwmwd, cymydau KU mud, kə MƏ de (masculine noun)
kmmud (neighbourhood), division of a kantrev (hundred)


Cwmwd Deuddwr ku mud DEI dhur (feminine noun)
commote in the south-east


Cwmwd Isaf ku mud I a (feminine noun)
division of the "kantrev" of Arllechwedd, a kmmud (neighbourhood) in the north-west (lower kmmud)


Cwmwd Uchaf ku mud I kha (feminine noun)
division of the "kantrev" of Arllechwedd, a kmmud (neighbourhood) in the north-west (upper kmmud)


cwmwl, cymylau KU-mul, kə-MƏ-lai, -e [ˡkʊmʊl, kəˡməlaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
cloud = a mass of water vapour in the sky, floating over the earth
cysgod cwmwl the shadow of a cloud

2 Gorsedd y Cwmwl name of a mountain south of Trevelin in the Argentinian Andes (the Welsh name is the official name; it has no Castilian equivalent)
(the) throne (of) the cloud (gorsedd = throne) + (y the, definite article) + (cwmwl = cloud)

(yr haul yn) mynd o dan gwmwl
..1/ the sun disappearing behind a cloud, the sun ceasing to shine
..2/ (figurative) (of unhappiness) (the sun being obscured by clouds)

Cyrhaedodd y newydd ei bod wedi marw y noson gynt. Aeth yr haul o dan gwmwl
The news arrived that she had died the previous night. The sun stopped shining

bod dan gwmwl be under a cloud, under reproach or suspicion, in disgrace

4 types of cloud

cymylau blew geifr = cirrus clouds (clouds (of the) hair (of) goats)
cymylau boliog (South-west) cirrostratus (big-bellied clouds)
cymylau duon rain clouds (black clouds)

5 Mae 'i ben yn y cymylau He lives in a dream world, He has his head in the clouds ("he is with his head in the clouds")

6 cwmwl siwgwr (USA: cotton candy) (Englandic: candy floss) ("cloud (of) sugar")
(Also: blew siwgwr, candi-ffls)

7 a mass of particles in the air steam, smoke, dust, sand

Stopiodd y car mewn cwmwl o lwch a dail o flaen y glwyd
The car stipped in a cloud of dust and leaves in front of the gate

cwmwl o nwy folcanig a cloud of volcanic gas

jerbil yn tyrchu'n orffwyll cyn diflannu mewn cwmwl o dywod
a gerbil frantically digging away before disappearing in a cloud of sand

8 a mass of things moving together, swarm, flock (e.g. insects, birds)
cwmwl o bryfed dros y pwll nofio a cloud of insects above the swimming pool

Cofiaf weld llu o frain yn disgyn yn gwmwl ar y cae un bore
I remember seeing a mass of crows landing in a great flock on the field one morning

9 cloud = something that carries gloom

Dywedodd gweinidog y capel fod cwmwl wedi disgyn ar y pentre ar l ir trigolion glywed am farwolaeth y ddau fachgen
The chapel minister said that a cloud had descended on the village after the villagers heard of the deaths of the two boys

Daeth cwmwl o dristwch dros y gymdogaeth pan fu Miss Williams, Ty^r-nant, farw
A great sadness fell on the neighbourhood (a cloud of sadness came over the neighbourhood) when Miss Williams of Tŷr-nant died

Cwmwl du ar ein cymydogaeth oedd ei symudiad i Ddinbych i fyw.
His removal to live in Dinbych was an unhappy occasion for our neighbourhood (was a black cloud on our neighbourhood)

10 cloud = something that threatens
taflu cwmwl dros (rywbeth) cast a cloud over (something)
Siop siafins fu ymweliad y cr unedig agAmrica. Mae'r ffiasgo o daith wedi taflu cwmwl pellach dros ddyfodol y cr hwnnw

The united choirs visit to America was a disaster. The fiasgo of a journey has cast a further cloud on the future of that choir

yr haul yn mynd o dan gwmwl (1) the sun disappearing behind a cloud (2) (figurative) the sun stopping shining,

Cyrhaedodd y newydd ei bod wedi marw y noson gynt. Aeth yr haul o dan gwmwl
The news arrived that she had died the previous night. The sun stopped shining / A blackness descended upon me

bod dan gwmwl be under a cloud, under reproach or suspicion, in disgrace

canmol (rhywun / rhywbeth) i'r cymylau to praise (someone / something) ot the skies (praise to the clouds)
rhegu (rhywun / rhywbeth) i'r cymylau
to curse (someone / something) to the devil

ETYMOLOGY: cwmwl < Old Welsh *cwml < Latin *cumblus < *cumlus / cumlus < cumulus

This is a learnd borrowing if it had passed from spoken Latin to British and into Welsh the expected form would be *cyfwl.
From the same British root: Breton
koumoul (= cloud)


Cwmystwyth kum-Ə-stuith [kʊmˡəstʊɪθ]
village in north Ceredigion

ETYMOLOGY: (the) valley (of) (the river) Ystwyth

(cwm = valley) + (Ystwyth river name; = sinuous, winding)


Cwm-y-glo kum-ə-GLOO [kʊməˡgloː]
SN5513 farm name, Cefneithin (Caerfyrddin) (spelt Cwm-y-glo) map

2 locality in Merthyrtudful

Parish Register: 24th Oct., 1762 Buried Rees Richard, Bailiff, Cwmyglo

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) valley (of) the coal, coal valley)
(cwm = valley) + (y = definite article) + (glo = coal; charcoal)


Cwmygwcw kum-ə-GU-ku [kʊməˡgʊkʊ]
farm name, Llanhenwg ST3592, county of Mynwy

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) valley (of) the cuckoo, cuckoo valley)
(cwm = valley) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (cwcw = cuckoo)
Although cog (f) is the standard word for Welsh, cwcw is common in the south


Cwm-ynys-gau kum Ə-nis GAI [kʊm ˡənɪs ˡgaɪ]
ST2899 farm in the county of Torfaen, South-east Wales
Local form: Cwm-ynys-gou, Cwm-sgou

name of an electoral ward in this locality, represented by a councillor on Torfaen county council

(delwedd 7402) map

ETYMOLOGY: Either (the) valley (of) Ynys-gau (farm) (if there was such a farm)


"(the) valley (of) the enclosed river meadow",

(cwm = valley), (ynys = river meadow, island) + soft mutation + (cou / cau = enclosed)

NOTE: In the south, in many monosyllables with au in the standard language, the colloquial language maintains an older pronunciation with ou OI [ɔɪ], hence Ynys-gou Ə-nis GOI [ˡənɪs ˡgɔɪ].

In the south there are many place names where the element ynys before an accented syllable is reduced to s, which explains the form Cwm-sgou.

The English form is "Cwmynyscoy", which reflects the local form, but gou after s has been perceived as SKOI [skɔɪ], ignoring the soft mutation with g [g]

NOTE: On English-language maps as Cwmynyscoy


cwn! KUN [kʊn] verb
(South-east Wales) imperative (2 singular) of cwnnu (= lift up; get up)
Cwn ar unwaith! Get up at once!
Cwn dy galon! Cheer up! (Lift-up / raise your heart)


cŵn KUUN [kuːn] (plural noun)
dogs; see ci


cwna KUU-na [ˡkuˑna] verb
(bitch) be in heat. See cyna


cŵn Annwfn kuun A-nuvn [kuːn ˡanʊvn]
NOTE: colloquial form: cŵn Annwn kuun A-nun [kuːn ˡanʊn]
(folk belief) the hounds of hell, hunting dogs which are supposed to cross the sky at night

(said of bad weather)

Dyna noswith! Ma Cŵn Annwn ar led (h)eno
What a night! The Cŵn Annwn are about tonight
(Example from Nantgarw (ST1285, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) in the magazine Llafar Gwlad Mai 1993)


cŵn Ebrill kuun E-brilh [kuːn ˡɛbrɪɬ]
See: ci Ebrill


cwningen ku-NI-ngen [kʊˡnɪŋɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL cwningod ku-NI-ngod [kʊˡnɪŋɔd]
rabbit = animal of the hare family, Oryctolagus cuniculus
y gwningen = the rabbit

rabbit = (USA) Sylvilagus floridanus eastern cottontail rabbit

bwch cwningen plural bychod cwningod buck rabbit, male rabbit
cwningen fennyw plural cwningod benyw doe rabbit, female rabbit
cwt cwningen plural cytiau cwningod rabbit hutch
cwningen fr plural cwningod mr rabbit fish
cyw cwningen plural cywion cwningod young rabbit
twll cwningen plural tyllau cwningod rabbit hole

fel cwningen like a rabbit
Mae hin ei wneud e fel cwningen (siad of a woman with a voracious sexual appetite) Shes like a bunny rabbit, She goes at it like a bunny rabbit (she does it like a rabbit)

magu fel cwningod breed like rabbits

ETYMOLOGY: cwningen < (cwning = rabbit) + (-en diminutive suffix); cwning < obsolete English coning (= rabbit)

There are southern forms with initial g
(1) gwningen gu-NI-ngen [gʊˡnɪŋɛn]
(2) gweningen gwe-NI-ngen [gwɛˡnɪŋɛn]
(3) gwiningen gwi-NI-ngen [gwɪˡnɪŋɛn]
In the south-east gwningan (rabbit), yr wningan (the rabbit)


cwninger ku-NI-nger [kʊˡnɪŋɛr] feminine noun
PLURAL cwningeroedd ku-ni-NGEE-rai, -e [kʊnɪˡŋeˑraɪ, -ɛ]
rabbit warren, coneygar = (1) land enclosed to breed rabbits; (2) rabbit burrows in open land
y gwninger = the warren

Y Gwninger common place name

Tir Cwninger (lost name in Yr Eglwysnewydd, Caer-dydd) According to John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911): "Tireconynger"... Forty-one acres in the demesne land of the lordship of Whitchurch (1492) (Meaning: land (of) warren, warren land)

cwning-gaer ku-NING-gair [kʊˡnɪŋgaɪr] a reformation of the word through supposing that it is rabbit fortress(cwning = rabbit) + soft mutation + (caer = fortress)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cwninger < English conyger (= rabbit warren)


cwningwr ku-NI-ngur [kʊˡnɪŋʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cwningwyr ku-NING-wir [kʊˡnɪŋwɪr]
warrener = person who looks after a warren
rabbit trapper

ETYMOLOGY: (cwning = rabbit) + (-wr agent suffix, man)


cwnnu KU-ni [ˡkʊnɪ]
(South Wales) lift up; get up
imperative (2 singular) l
Cwn ar unwaith! Get up at once!
Cwn dy galon Cheer up! (Lift-up / raise your heart)


cwnsierwr kun-SHEE-rur [kʊnˡʃeˑrʊr]
PLURAL cwnsierwyr, cwnsierwrs kun-SHER-wir, kun-SHEE-rurs [ kʊnˡʃeˑrr, kʊnˡʃeˑrʊrs]
1 (South Wales) village sorceror, conjurer(standard Welsh: dyn hysbys)

The West Somerset Word-Book.
of Dialectal and Archaic Words and Phrases
Used in the West of Somerset and East Devon.
/ Frederick Thomas Elworthy / 1886.

WHITE-WITCH [wee-t-wee-ch], sb. A magician; astrologer;
a male fortune-teller. The word witch is in this sense as often
applied to a man as to a woman. I knew a man for a great many
years, originally as a shoemaker, but who gave up his trade to
practise as a " witch." He was known up to his death as
"Conjuror B . . ." He had regularly printed business cards with
his name and address, and underneath, " Nativities cast, Questions

cwnstabl (cwnstab), cwnstabliaid KUN-stabl, KUN-stab, kun-STABL-yaid, -yed [ˡkʊnstabl, ˡkʊnstab, kʊnˡstabljaɪd, -ɛd] (masculine noun)
constable (lowest police rank)
2 historically, constable = governor of a castle


Cwnsyllt KUN-səlht [ˡkʊnsəɬt] (feminine noun)
cwmwd, north-east Wales. English name: Coleshill


cwota, cwotu KWO-ta, kwo-TAI [ˡkwɔta, kwɔˡtaɪ] (masculine noun)
2 cwota mewnforio import quota

cwpan, cwpanau KU-pan, ku-PAA-nai, -e [ˡkʊpan, kʊˡpɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

cwpan coffi
KU-pan KOO-fi [ˡkʊpan ˡkoˑfɪ] (masculine noun)
coffee cup

cwpan te
KU-pan TEE [ˡkʊpan ˡteː] (masculine noun)

cwpan wy
ku-pan UI [ˡkʊpan ˡʊɪ] (masculine noun)

troi fel cwpan mewn dŵr (said of someone being indecisive) be chopping and changing (turn like a cup in water)

6 cup = trophy

Cwmpan y Byd the World Cup


cwpanaid ku-PA-naid, ed [kʊˡpɑˑnaɪd, -ɛd] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL cwpaneidiau ku-pan-EID-yai, -e [kʊpanˡəɪdjaɪ, -ɛ]

1 cupful = the capacity or contents of a cup

(North Wales) cwpanaid o de cup of tea
Colloquially paned o de, paned (e-zone), panad o de, panad (a-zone),

Tisio panad?
/ Ti isio panad? (Northern) = a wyt ti eisiau cwpanaid (o de) Would you like a cup of tea?

In the south, a cup of tea is usually (in traditional Welsh) a dishful of tea dysglaid > dishgled / dishglad (dysgl = dish, -aid suffix = -ful)

Licat ti gaal dishglad o de? Would you like to have a cup of tea? (a liciet ti gael dysglaid o de)

NOTE 1: (South Wales) masculine noun (y cwpanaid); (North Wales) feminine noun (y gwpanaid)

NOTE 2: sometimes cypanaid with y instead cwpanaid with w

NOTE 3: the colloquial form i paned
..a/ cwpanaid > cwpaned (reduction of the diphthong in the final syllable). This reduction is typical of spoken Welsh (ae, ai, au in the final syllable are reduced to e).

..b/ cwpaned > paned (loss of the first syllable). This is also a very common feature of spoken Welsh as in hosan (= sock), hosannau (socks), generally sanne

In north-west Wales (an a-zone, an area where final e becomes a) paned > panad

ETYMOLOGY: (cwpan = cup) + (-aid suffix which indicates capacity)


cwpaned ku-PA-ned [kʊˡpɑˑnɛd] (feminine noun)
cupful; see cwpanaid


cwpla KU-pla [ˡkʊpla] (verb) (South Wales)
to finish


cwplach KU-plakh [ˡkʊplax] (plural noun) (South Wales)


cwpwl, cyplau KU-pul, KƏ-ple [ˡkʊpʊl, ˡkəplaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

2 (South Wales) cwpwl piwr (amount) appreciable, sizable
cwpwl piwr o quite a number of (things), quite a few (things), a good few (things)


cwpwrdd, cwpyrddau KU-purdh, ku-PƏR-dhai, e [ˡkʊpʊr, kʊˡpəraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)


cwpwrdd cornel KU-purdh KOR-nel [ˡkʊpʊr ˡkɔrnɛl] (masculine noun)
corner cupboard


cwpwrdd dillad KU-purdh -DI-lhad [ˡkʊpʊr ˡdɪɬad] (masculine noun)
clothes cupboard, wardrobe


cwpwrdd rhew KU-purdh RHEU [ˡkʊpʊr ˡrhɛʊ] (masculine noun)


cwpwrdd tridarn KU-purdh TRII-darn [ˡkʊpʊr ˡtriˑdarn] (masculine noun)
three-piece cupboard


..1 cwr, cyrion KUR, KƏR-yon [ˡkʊr,ˡkərjɔn] (masculine noun)
mynd i bob cwr o Gymru a thu hwnt to go to every corner of Wales and beyond

oi gwr from beginnng to end
darllen (rhywbeth) oi gwr read (something) in its entirety, read all of (something)


..2 cwr KUR [kʊr]
. A colloquial form of cwrdd () (= to meet)

mynd i gwr rhywun go to meet someone

Also cŵr KUUR [kuːr] (with a long vowel)

cŵr KUUR [kuːr]
. A colloquial form of cwrdd () (= to meet)

mynd i gŵr rhywun go to meet someone
Also cwr KUR [kʊr] (with a short vowel)

cwrbitsh KUR-bich [ˡkʊrbɪʧ] m
(North Wales)
1 thrashing
rhoi cwrbitsh i (rywun) give sombeody a thrashing, beat somebody up

ETYMOLOGY: Unknown. Seems to be an English word.

NOTE: Equivalent to crasfa KRAS-va [ˡkrasva] etc in South Wales

cwrdd KURDH [kʊr] verb
meet, come together

2 cwrdd KURDH aa [kʊr ɑː] meet

mynd i gwrdd rhywun go to meet (someone)

Maen dda gen i gwrdd chi
Pleased to meet you

cwrdd ( rhywun) hanner ffordd meet (someone) halfway, to compromise

Often in the south as

1/ cwrdda KUR-dha [ˡkʊra]

and also

2/ cwrddyd KUR-dhid aa [ˡkʊrɪd ɑː]

In the south and north also

3/ cwr kur [kʊr]

and also with a long vowel

4/ cŵr kuur [kuːr]

mynd i gwrdda rhywun
go to meet (someone)

mynd i gwrddyd rhywun
go to meet (someone)

mynd i gwr rhywun
go to meet (someone)

Byddair ffermwyr yn mynd r llaeth i gwr y trn ai adael yn yr orsaf
The farmers would take the milk for transporting by train (to meet the train), leaving it in the station

mynd i gŵr rhywun
go to meet (someone)

mynd iw gŵr o
go to meet him

4 cwrdd ch diwedd meet your death

cwrdd ch trech meet more than your match (meet with your stronger (one))

cwrdd gwrthwynebiad run up against opposition

cwrdd r costau meet expenses

cwrdd r draul meet expenses

cwrdd r safon
, cwrdd r gofynion be up to the mark

5 (South Wales) cwrdd KURDH aa [kʊr ɑː], cwrdda KUR-dha [ˡkʊra] touch

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cwrdd < cẃ -wrdd < cẃ -hwrdd < c-hwrdd
(cy- / cyf- prefix = together) + (hwrdd = impulse, thrust, blow)

NOTE: An alternative form in colloquial Welsh is cwrddyd KUR-dhid [ˡkʊrɪd], which is (cwrdd) with the suffix (-yd)


cwrddyd KUR-dhid [ˡkʊrɪd]
(South Wales)
cwrddyd rhywun meet somebody
See cwrdd


Cwrdeg KUR-deg [ˡkʊrdɛg] (feminine noun, adjective)
Kurdish (language)
y Gwrdeg = the Kurdish language


cwrensyn du, cwrens duon ku-REN-sin DII, KUU-rens DII-on [kʊˡrɛnsɪn ˡdiː, ˡkuˑrɛns ˡdiˑɔn] (feminine noun)


cwrs, cyrsiau KURS, KƏRS-yai, -ye [ˡkʊrs, ˡkərsjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
course (= series of lessons)

troi afon oi chwrs divert a river (turn a river from its course)

gadael i natur ddilyn ei chwrs let nature take its course

cwrs carlam
kurs KAR-lam [kʊrs ˡkarlam] crash course, course for rapid learning
Cwrs Cymraeg a Welsh Course

Cwrs Cymraeg Llafar a Course of Colloquial Welsh


cwrt, cyrtiau KURT, KƏRT-yai, -ye [ˡkʊrt,ˡkərtjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

in place names
..1/ Melin-cwrt (SN8101) locality in Castell-nedd ac Aberafan 10km north-east of Castell-nedd at the confluence of the Clydach Isaf stream (Melin Court Brook) and the river Nedd.

Melin-cwrt < Melin-y-cwrt (In place names, the linking definite article frequently is lost)
(the) mill (of) the court) (melin = mill) + (y definite article) + (cwrt = court)

The English name is Melincourt as if the name is the court called Melin

The place is also called Melinclydach ((the) mill (on the stream known as) Clydach (Isaf))

..2/ Cwrtycadno ((the) court (of) the fox)

3 court (in certain sports)
cwrt tenis kurt TEE-nis [kʊrt ˡteˑnɪs] tennis court
cwrt sboncen kurt SPON-ken [kʊrt ˡspɔnkɛn] squash court

4 In street names (a translation of English court which is popular in street names in England and is found also in modern street names in English in Wales)

..a/ Cwrtaethnen street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) (spelt as Cwrt Aethnen)

aspen court, (the) court (of) (the) aspen

cwrt aethnen < cwrt yr aethnen (cwrt = court) + (yr = the) + (aethnen = aspen)

..b/ Cwrteirlys street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) (spelt as Cwrt Eirlys)

snowdrop court, (the) court (of) (the) snowdrop

cwrt eirlys < cwrt yr eirlys (cwrt = court) + (yr = the) + (eirlys = snowdrop)

(It could also be (the) court (of) (a woman called) Eirlys, bur since a neighbouring street is Cwrtaethnen (spelt Cwrt Aethnen) (the) court (of) (the) aspen tree, and other streets refer to various plants, it seems likely that it is not the female name in this case)


cwrw KUU-ru [ˡkuˑrʊ] masculine noun
PLURAL cwrwau, cyrfau ku-RUU-ai, -e, KƏR-vai, -e [kʊˡruˑaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkərvaɪ, -ɛ]

arian cwrw beer money, money set aside for buying beer

bod golwg cwrw ar look beery, look as though one has been drinking a lot of beer
(be a look (of) beer on)

bol cwrw (North), bola cwrw (South) beer belly, large belly from drinking too much beer over the years

casgen gwrw, plural casgenni cwrw beer cask

gardd gwrw, plural gerddi cwrw beer garden

hanner peint o gwrw half a pint of beer

gwydraid o gwrw a glass of beer

gwydryn cwrw beer glass

jwg cwrw beer jug

mat cwrw
beer mat = cardboard table mat placed under a beer mug which serves to absorb small amounts of beer spilled from the glass, and to advertise brewery products

mwg cwrw beer mug (glass with a handle)

neuadd gwrw beer hall

l cwrw beer stain

peint o chwerw
a pint of bitter

peint o gwrw a pint of beer

potelaid o gwrw bottle of beer

pot cwrw beer mug, beer tankard

potel gwrw, plural poteli cwrw beer bottle (cf cwrw potel = bottled beer)

pres cwrw beer money, money set aside for buying beer

staen cwrw beer stain

cwrw Adda ((the) beer (of) Adam) = water
cwrw bach (qv) small beer, beer with a very low alcohol content

cwrw brwd mulled ale (beer heated with added sugar and spices)
cwrw cadarn strong beer, strong ale
cwrw cartref (beer (of) home) home brew, home-brewed beer
cwrw casgen draught beer (beer (of) cask)
cwrw coch brown ale (red beer)
cwrw chwerw bitter beer
cwrw danadl nettle beer (beer (of) nettles)
cwrw du stout = strong dark porter (black beer)
cwrw golau pale ale (light-coloured beer)
cwrw gwan small beer, beer with a very low alcohol content (weak beer)
cwrw melyn bitter beer (amber ale, yellow ale)
cwrw mwyn mild beer
cwrw oen (obsolete) lamb ale, beer drunk at lamb-shearing
cwrw or gasgen draught beer, keg, beer, beer on draught, beer from the keg (beer from the cask)

cwrw poeth warm spiced ale

The custom of serving all who attended the funeral with cwrrw poeth (sic) (warm spiced ale), and if they came from a distance, with a substantial lincheon, is rapidly becoming obsolete, except in the country, where people have to travel several miles to be present. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 289 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)

cwrw potel bottled beer (beer (of) bottle) (cf potel gwrw = beer bottle)
cwrw sinsir ginger beer

Afraid gwahodd at gwrw da Good wine needs no bush ("(it is) needless (to) invite to good beer"). If something is good the news will get around, people will be informed by word of mouth, and there is no need to make efforts to draw peoples attention to it; good quality is its own publicity

Maer gwir yn y cwrw In vino veritas (the truth is in the beer)

Place names
Cwmrhydycwrw name of a village, the valley of Rhyd y Cwrw (= the ford of the beer), renamed in the 1800s as Cwmrhydyceirw (Rhyd y Ceirw = the ford of the stags) to eliminate the word cwrw (considered offensive by supporters of temperance living there)

5 cyfrdy (obsolete) beerhouse, tavern
cyfrdy < cyrfdy (penult form of cwrf = beer) + soft mutation + ( = house).
Modern Welsh cwrw (= beer) < cwrwf < cwrf

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cwrw [ˡkuˑrʊ] < cwrwf [ˡkuˑrʊv] < *cwryf [ˡkuˑrəv] < *cwrf [kʊrv] < British *korm

From the same British root: Cornish korev (= beer), Breton koref (= beer)

From the same Celtic root: Irish coirm (= beer; drinking party; concert)

Cf related words in non-Celtic languages:
..1/ Latin cremor (= broth, thick juice).
This is also used as a technical term in English - Webster 1913 cremor (= cream; a substance resembling cream; yeast; scum)

..2/ Greek kourmi (Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898); entry for Perseus: The beer or barley-wine of Crete was known as korma or kourmi.).

..3/ Russian korm (= forage)


cwrw bach
KUU-ru BAAKH [ˡkuˑrʊ ˡbɑːx] masculine noun

1 small beer, weak beer

2 (South Wales) (obsolete) 'bid-ale', an evening entertainment organised to raise money for a person with difficulties by selling beer and raffling items

NOTE: London, 1825. Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. by James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London. Glossary of words commonly used in the County of Somerset; but which are not accepted as legitimate words of the English language ; or words which, although once used generally, are now become provincial.

Ale. s. A liquor, brewed with a proportion of malt from about four to six bushels to the hogshead of 63 gallons ; if it contain more malt it is called beer ; if less, it is usually called small beer.


cwrwgl, cyryglau KUU-rug, kə-RƏ-glai, -e [ˡkuˑrʊg, kəˡrəglaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
coracle, wickerwork boat; llight portable wicker boat in the shape of an inverted tortoises shell for fishing on rivers. See corwg

ETYMOLOGY: samll beer (cwrw = beer) + (bach = small, little)


cwsg KUSK [kʊsk] (masculine noun)

trymgwsg deep sleep, heavy slumber, heavy sleep (trwm = heavy) + soft mutation + ( cwsg = sleep); bod mewn trymgwsg be in a deep sleep

NOTE: In North Wales the vowel is long:
csg KUUSK [kuˑsk]

cwsglys kusk -lis masculine noun
PLURAL cwsglysiau kusk- lə -sye
opium poppy; see cysglys


cwsmer ku-smer masculine noun
PLURAL cwsmeriaid ku-smer-yed
customer = a person who wishes to buy something in a shop or from a firm, or use the service of a bank, etc

customer = a person who buys regularly in a shop or from a firm, or uses the services of a bank, etc

customer = a drinker in a tavern or pub; holl gwsmeried y dafarn all the pubs customers

ar fesur cwsmer (clothes) made to measure, custom-made ("on measure (of) customer")

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cwsmer < colloquial English cusmer < custmer < standard English customer < (custom) + (-er); custom circa 1200 < French costume < Latin consutd (= get used to) < (con = together) + (suscere = be used to)

custmer > cusmer, Cf the colloquial Christmas > Chrismas <KRIS-mos>


cwsmera ku SME ra GƏ da (verb)
to shop, to be a customer


cwstard KU stard (masculine noun)

cwstard mewn crwst
KU stard meun KRUST
custard pie, custard tart


Cwstennin ku-ste-nin masculine noun
Maescwstennin street name in Cyffordd Llandudno, county of Conwy
(Maes Cwstennin)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) field (of) Constantine)
(maes = field) + (Cwstennin < Cystennin Constantine)

2 Llangystennin lhan-gə-STE-nin, A village and parish in Conwy. According to the wikipedia entry there is a variation of the name with w instead of y: Llangwstennin

The parish is south-east of the parish of Llan-rhos (in which Llandudno is situated). Cyffordd Llandudno (Llandudno Junction) is in Llangystennin parish.

(delwedd 7079)

..1 cwt, cytiau KUT, KƏT ye (masculine noun)
Also: cwt moch, cytiau moch kut MOOKH, KƏT ye MOOKH

bod yng nghwt y mwg be in the doghouse, in disgrace (in the smoke hut)


..2 cwt, cytiau KUT, KƏT ye (feminine noun)
(South Wales) queue
y gwt = the queue
tsheto'r gwt push in (in a queue), jump a queue, jump the queue ("cheat the queue")
(in the North neidior ciw)


cwta KU ta (adjective)

Feminine form: cota

1 short

blewyn cwta short straw
(South Wales) tynnu blewyn cwta am (rywbeth) draw the short straw for (to choose someone out of two or more people blades of straw are held in the hand, apparently all the same length but one is shorter than the other or others, and whoever draws this is chosen)

Tynnwyd blewyn cwta am y baich ysgafnach The lightest load was allotted by drawing straws ( a short straw was drawn for the lightest load)

2 having a docked tail; having no tail, tailless

buwch goch gota ladybug (Englandic: ladybird) (tailless red cow)


cwter ku -ter feminine noun
PLURAL cwteri, cwterydd, cwterau ku-te-ri, -ridh, -re
gutter (by roadside), drain, stream
y gwter the drain
cwter gwsg stone drain in field drainage (sleeping gutter)
cwter garthu gutter or drain behind a cowshed (gutter (of) cleaning out)

2 gwasg y gwter the gutter press
...un o afonydd mwyaf prydferth Ewrop, sef y Rhine (sic, = Rhein). Y mae Tafwys mewn cymhariaeth fel cwter, a Thywi deg fel llond bwced o ddwr (Seneddwr ar Dramp Rhys J Davies 1935)
One of the prettiest rivers in
Europe is the Rhine. The Thames in comparison is like a drain, and fair Tywi like a bucket of water

Y Gwter-fawr (the big gutter) former name (1800s) of the village of Brynaman SN7114 (county of Caerfyrddin)

Pwll y Gwter a former coal mine here, opened in 1855 ((the) pit (of) the gutter)

In Wild Wales by George Borrow (1862) the author, an Englishman, (interestingly he was half-Cornish, his father being from Cornwall; his mother was English, from Norfolk), recounts his trip eight years earlier in 1854.

He had stopped by the a fulling mill on the Lleidiach stream and struck up a conversation in Welsh with a decent looking man engaged in sawing a piece of wood by the roadside. The man mistakes him for a Northern Welshman, which Borrow does not contradict. At the close of the conversation the man asks:

Welshman: "Where are you going tonight?"

Borrow: "To Gutter Vawr"

Welshman: "Well, then, you had better not loiter, Gutter Vawr is a long way off over the mountain. It will be dark, I am afraid, long before you get to Gutter Vawr. Good evening David! I am glad to have seen you, for I have long wished to see a man from the north country. Good evening! you will find plenty of good ale at Gutter Vawr."

Pant y Cwteri ((the) hollow (of) the gutters) name of a hollow near the village of Aberogwr (county of Bro Morgannwg)

y gwter the gutter (figurative of destitution)
treio codi (rhywun) or gwter try to raise (somebody) from the gutter, bring somebody back from a state of destitution

6 Y Gwter. Street name in Central Caer-dydd / Cardiff. Originally it went down from Heol Eglwys Fair / Saint Mary Street to the bank of the river Taf but later the course of the river was shifted further west and now it leads down as far as Heol y Porth / Westgate Street.

The English name is Golate, which is apparently a reformation of English gullet = alley, possibly to suggest go late - maybe the alley was seen as a short cut to the riverside wharf for people who wanted to board a boat that was about to sail.

NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.

gullet : a long, narrow piece of land or a narrow alley, street ]

ETYMOLOGY: cwter < gwter < English gutter < Old French goutire < goute (= drop of liquid) < Latin gutta (= drop of liquid). Modern French goutte (= drop), goutire (= gutter, drain; gutter on a roof)

NOTE: the initial g- was understood as the soft-mutation of c-, and so the radical form cwter came about


cwt ieir kut yeir masculine noun
hen coop, henhouse

gwifren cwt ieir; also weiren cwt ieir chicken wire = wire with a hexagonal mesh ("wire (of) hen coop")

ETYMOLOGY: "shed (of) hens", (cwt = shed) + (ieir = hens)


cwteuo ku- tei -o verb
North Wales
shorten = make short

bob (a horses tail), cut (a horses tail) to leave only the stump

shorten = become short
Maer dydd yn cwteuo The days are getting shorter ("the day is getting shorter")

ETYMOLOGY: (cwteu-, penult form of cwtau = short) + (-o = verbal suffix).
The base form of cwta was taken to be cwtau. Words which have final -au in the standard language are colloquially -a in the north-west, and -e in the north-east.
Apparently cwta was assumed to be from an original cwtau, which in the penult gives cwteu-

NOTE: colloquially cwtuo ku-tii-o


cwtiad, cwtiaid KUT-yad, KUT-yaid, -yed (masculine noun)

Diminutive form: cwtyn KU-tin

lapwing, plover (Vanellus vanellus)

Bryncwtyn (?former) farm in Pen-coed (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

bryn y cwtyn (the) hill (of) the plover

ETYMOLOGY: cwtiad: (cwt < English coot) + (-i-ad noun suffix)

cwtyn: (cwt-, root of cwtiad = plover) + (-yn diminutive suffix)


cwtsh kutsh masculine noun

PLURAL: cwtshis KUTSH-is
storage place
South Wales cwtsh dan str space under the stairs, place under the stairs, cupboard under the stairs, stair cupboard

y cwtsh dan str; or simply y cwtsh the place under the stairs
North Wales cwtsh tatws potato clamp

South Wales cwtsh glo coalshed, coal bunker

hiding place

4 nook
ym mhob cwtsh a chornel in every nook and cranny

cwtsh ci kennel, dogs kennel, dog basket;
or simply
cwtsh kennel, dogs kennel, dog basket
yn ei gwtsh maer ci the dogs in his basket

In the 1841 Census a house in the town of Penrth (county of Bro Morgannwg) is called Cwtsh y Cŵn (written as Cwtch y Cwn) ((the) kennel (of) the dogs, the dogs kennel)

Y Cwtsh place in the Rhondda Fach valley, between Pont-y-gwaith and Ynys-hir
(17 Mehefin 1797) (William Thomas Howel a Jennet John) Y rhai olaf hyn oedd fy nhad-cu am mam-gu, neu fel y dywedwn yn y gogledd, fy nhaid am nain, tad a mam fy nhad; priodasant, ac aethant i fyw ir Cwtch (sic), ac yno, fel dengys y registers y bedyddiwyd amryw or plant.
(17 June 1797) (William Thomas Howel and Jennet John) These last (two) were my tad-cu (grandfather) and mam-gu (grandmother), or as they say in the north, my taid and my nain, my fathers father and mother; they married, and went to live in Y Cwtsh, and there, as the (parish) registers indicate several of the children were baptised

(From: Llanwynno - Yr Hen Amser, yr Hen Bobl ar Hen Droeon = Llanwynno the old time, and the old people and the old events. Year of Publication: 1888. Author: Glanffrwd = William Thomas 1843-1890)

Y Cwtsh farm by Heol y Goedlan, Pen-rhiw-fawr SN7410 (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (on the Ordnance Survey map with a semi-anglicised spelling cwtch)

8 cuddle, hug
rhoi cwtsh i (rywun) to cuddle / hug someone, to give someone a cuddle / hug
rhoi cwtsh bach i (rywun) to give someone a little cuddle / hug

dera cwtsh i fi give me a cuddle, give me a hug

ETYMOLOGY: English couch *kuch < kuuch < Middle English couche (= couch; recess) < 1400- French couche (= bed) < coucher (= lie down) < collocre (= arrange) < (con- = with) + (locre = to put)

The modern English form is couch kauch < kuuch (with the normal change in the long vowel of uu to au, but the Welsh form must have come from an English pronunciation with a short u, as in the word touch tuch)

Modern French has coucher (= lie down)
Latin collocre is the source of English collocate

NOTE: Used in Cambrian English in South Wales


cwtsho KU-cho (verb)
1 cuddle up, snuggle up (USA: cozy up)
cwtsho at cuddle up to, snuggle up to (USA: cozy up to)

cwtshon dynn cuddle tight
cwtshon gls cuddle tight

2 to snuggle up in bed

3 clasp (something) to oneself

4 (west central Wales) hide

5 crouch, stoop
cwtsh lawr! get down! (= hide! get out of sight)

6 lie down

dymar cin cwtsho lawr the dog then lay down

7 store (potatoes in a clamp) (North Wales)
cwtshior tatws to put the potatoes in a clamp

8 ail, get thin, go pale, lose ones healthy look

Da chi 'di cwtsio youve gone pale-looking

ETYMOLOGY: (cwtsh = embrace; safe place, cosy place) + (-i-o = verbal suffix)

NOTE: Used in Cambrian English in South Wales
Go and cwtsh! command to a dog, in sending it to its basket or kennel

NOTE: Also spelt cwtsio.
Also a variant cwtshan

cwtyn, cwtiaid KU-tin, KUT-yaid, -yed (masculine noun)

1 plover. See cwtiad


cwymp, cwympiau KUIMP, KUIMP-yai, -ye (masculine noun)
1 fall

2 mynd ich cwymp head for a fall, be riding for a fall (go to your fall)


cwympo KUIM po (verb) (South Wales)
to fall; (In the North = syrthio)

Fuwch fach gota glaw neu hindda?
Os daw glaw, cwympa om llaw;
Os daw haul, hedfana!

(Weather lore)
Ladybird rain or fine weather?
If rain will come, fall from my hand
If sun will come, fly!

cwympo ar eich gorwedd fall flat on your back

NOTE: colloquial pronunciation cwmpo / cwmpo
KUM po (


cwynfan KUIN van (verb)
to lament


cwynfanllyd kuin VAN lh