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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia

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The Wales-Catalonia Website

 

Y Gwe-eiriadur

An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

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cr- -
1
cr- < cr- contraction of (k + vowel + r)

...1. Carannog (saints name) > Crannog (in the place name Llangrannog)

...2. Caradog (mans name) > Cradog (as such in the surname Cradog (descendant of ap Caradog), Englished as Craddock)

...3. careiau > creiau > criau > crie / cria (= shoelaces) (colloquial forms)

...4. cer
ydd (older Welsh) > crydd (modern Welsh form) (cobbler, shoemaker)
Cf Bret kere (= cobbler, shoemaker)
...5
. coranau > cranau > crane, crana plural form of coran. This is a colloquial form of coron (= crown)

:_______________________________.

cra
kraa masculine noun
1
(North Wales) = craf (qv) ramsons (broad-leaved wild garlic) (Allium ursinum)
In monosyllables the final
v is lost in the north cf gof / go (= smith), haf / ha (= summer), etc

Coed-
y-cra SJ2270 (farm in Sir y Fflint) ((the) wood (of) the ramsons).
Pant-
y-cra street name, Tabor, Dolgellau (Pant y Cra) ((the) hollow (of) the wild garlic)

:_______________________________.

crac, craciau
KRAK, KRAK ye (masculine noun)
1
crack, split

:_______________________________.

crachach
KRA khakh (plural noun)
1
(literally little scabs) name for Welsh people who admire and adopt the language and customs of the English, and look down with arrogance on their fellow Welsh people; affected anglicised or semi-anglicised middle-class Welsh people

:_______________________________.

crachdderwen
krakh-DHER-wen
1
(stunted oak) Another name for derwen digoes (Quercus petraea) sessile oak

ETYMOLOGY: (crach = small, stunted) + soft mutation + ( derwen = oak)

:_______________________________.

Y Crachdir
ə KRAKH-dir
1
name of a farm in Brymbo (Wrecsam)

:_______________________________.

crachen, crachennau
KRA khen, kra KHE ne (feminine noun)
1
scab (on a wound)
y grachen = the scab

:_______________________________.

cradur (cradur)
1 = creadur

:_______________________________.

craf
kraav masculine noun
1 ramsons (broad-leaved wild garlic) (Allium ursinum). A wild relative of chives.
The standard Welsh name for Allium ursinum is craf y geifr

Alternative English names for Allium ursinum are buckrams, wild garlic, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic or bear's garlic

7009_craf_wikipedia_081025

(delwedd 7009)

(Allium sativum) English name: garlic
Standard Welsh name: garlleg
Alternative name:
craf y gerddi ((the) garlic (of) the gardens)

(Allium scorodoprasum) English name: Sand leek.
Welsh names:
craf y nadroedd ((the) garlic (of) the snakes)
craf y natred (south-west) ((the) garlic (of) the snakes)

(Allium ursinum) English name: ramsons
Welsh name:
craf y geifr ((the) garlic (of) the goats)

(Allium vineale) English names: wild garlic, buckrams, wild garlic, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic or bear's garlic
The standard Welsh name of Allium vineale is garlleg gwyllt (wild garlic), but it is also known as:
craf y borfa ((the) garlic (of) the pasture).
craf y meysydd ((the) garlic (of) the fields).

2 (North Wales) cra

In monosyllables the final
v is lost in the north cf gof / go (= smith), haf / ha (= summer), etc

Coed y Cra (wood in Sir y Fflint) ((the) wood (of) the ramsons).
Pant-y-cra street name, Tabor, Dolgellau (Pant y Cra) ((the) hollow (of) the wild garlic)

3
SH7662 Afon Crafnant river in the county of Conwy, flowing north-east from the reservoir Llyn Crafnant, and joining the river Conwy north of Trfriw the valley / stream of the ramsons / wild garlic
(craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + (nant = stream)

4
crafgoed
wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic
(craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)

5
craflwyn wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic
(craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (llwyn = wood)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Irish creamh (= wild garlic, ramsons)
From the same Indoeuropean root: Greek kremnon


:_______________________________.

crafanc, crafangau
KRAA vangk, kra VA nge (feminine noun)
1
claw
y grafanc = the claw
morthw
yl crafanc clawhammer (hammer (of) claw)

2 talon

crafanc y frn buttercup

NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte. http://www.cheshirelittlefolk.co.uk/Old_dialect.htm

crow-foot : a buttercup ]

3 (crab) pincer



:_______________________________.

crafangog kra- va -ngog adj
1 clawed

ETYMOLOGY: (crafang- < crafanc = claw) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

crafangu kra VA ngi (verb)
1
to claw

2 crafangu am wellt
kra-va-ngi am welht
(claw for straws) clutch at straws; seek a solution to a problem out of desperation, although the proposed solution is unlikely to be successful
(crafangu = to claw) + (am = around; for) + soft mutation + (gwellt = straw)


:_______________________________.

crafangus
cra-va-ngis adjective
1
money-grubbing
2
grabbing

ETYMOLOGY: (crafang-, stem of crafangu = to claw, to grab with the claws) + (-us adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

craffu
KRAA fi (verb)
1
craffu ar (r
ywbeth) = observe (something) closely

:_______________________________.

crafgoed
krav -goid masculine noun
1
wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic

ETYMOLOGY: (craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)

:_______________________________.

crafiad, crafiadau
KRAV yad, jrav Y de (masculine noun)
1
scratch
cael crafiad ar eich llaw scratch your hand (= get a scratch, be scratched on the hand)

:_______________________________.

craflw
yn krav -luin masculine noun
1
wood with (Allium ursinum) ramsons or wild garlic

ETYMOLOGY: (craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (llwyn = wood)

:_______________________________.

Crafnant
krav -nant
1
SH7662 Afon Crafnant river in the county of Conw
y, flowing north-east from the reservoir Llyn Crafnant, and joining the river Conwy north of Trfriw

Ll
yn Crafnant a lake / reservoir from which the Crafnant river flows

In the village of Rhos (county of Conw
y) there is a road called Crafnant Road (which would be Ffordd Crafnant in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: the valley (or stream) of the ramsons / wild garlic (craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + (nant = stream)

:_______________________________.

cragen, creg
yn / cragennau KRAA gen, KREE gin / kra GE ne (feminine noun)
1
shell
y gragen = the shell

2 m
ynd ich cragen withdraw into yourself, go into your shell (go to your shell)
dod och cragen come out of ones shell

3
pysgod
yn cragen PLURAL pysgod cregyn shellfish

:_______________________________.

cragenbysgod
yn kra-gen-bə- sk -din masculine noun
PLURAL cragenbysgod
kra-gen-bə--skod
1
shellfish

ETYMOLOGY: (cragen = shell) + soft mutation + (pysgod
yn = fish)

:_______________________________.

craig, creigiau
KRAIG, KREIG ye (feminine noun)
1
cliff, crag, rock
y graig = the rock, the cliff, the crag

2
bod mor sefydlog r graig be as steady as a rock

3
rock = someone who is dependable, unchanging, reliable

Salmau 62:5 O fy enaid, disgwyl wrth DDUW yn unig: canys ynddo ef y mae fy ngobaith. (62:6) Efe yn unig yw fy nghraig, a'm hiachawdwriaeth: efe yw fy amddiffynfa: ni'm hysgogir.
Psalms 62:5 My soul, wait thou only upon God; for my expectation is from him.(62:6) He only is my rock and my salvation: he is my defence; I shall not be moved.

4
bod yn graig o arian have spadefuls of money, have loads of money, be as rich as Croesus
(be a rock of money)
:_______________________________.

Craig Berth-lw
yd kraig berth-LUID
1
hill in Merthyrtudful county, south of Treharris (ST 0996)

2
Craig-berth-lw
yd a district here

ETYMOLOGY: craig y Berth-lw
yd - the rock of Berth-lwyd house (craig = rock); y Berth-lwyd = (y definite article) + soft mutation + (perth = hedge) + soft mutation + (llwyd = gray / grey)

NOTE: written Graig Berthlwyd in the 1800s, with the soft-mutated form graig used as a radical form

:_______________________________.

Craig Ddu
kraig -DHII
1
SH 7010 crag in the district of Meirionn
ydd (county of Gwynedd)

2 SH 6152 crag in the district of Dw
yfor (county of Gwynedd)

3 crag at Castell ar Alun (county of Bro Morgannwg)

4 crag at Aberogwr (county of Bro Morgannwg)

ETYMOLOGY: black rock; (craig = rock) + soft mutation + (du = black)
NOTE: See also the form with the definite article (Y) Graig Ddu

:_______________________________.

Craigwil
ym pont- WI -lim
1
place name in Pen-t
yrch (county of Caer-dydd) - name of a tenement in the year 1666

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) rock (of) William) (craig = rock) + soft mutation + (Gwil
ym = William)

:_______________________________.

Craig-y-don
kraig ə DON

1
Craig-y-don

Dwelling in Llan-rug (1851 Census)
Address: Craig y Don
Surname: Hughes
Forenames: John
Relationship: Head
Condition: M
Age: 35
Occupation: Carpenter
Place of Birth: CAE(narvonshire)

2
Craig-y-don House name, Rhosneigr (Craig y Don)

3 Ffordd Craig-y-don (Craig y Don Road), Bangor

4
Craig-y-don SH7891 District of Llandudno (Craig y Don)

Thomas Peers Williams came into possession of the land in this district under the 1848 Enclosure Act. He named it after his estate in Biwmaris called Craig-y-don. In June 1884 he divided the Llandudno land and other landholdings in Marl, Llan-rhos and Baecolw
yn into small lots and sold them all freehold in the space of three days.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/122489 Craig-y-don, Llandudno

5 Craig-y-don SH5673, north-east of Porthaethwy

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH5673


6 Biwmaris / Beaumaris

CRAIG-Y-DON. We leave the Town [Biwmaris] proceed on the new terrace, and soon reach Craig-y-don, the recent creation of that true friend to his country, the late Owen Williams, Esq. M. P. for Marlow; a delightful situation, adapted to his wishes, where the Menai wafted his cutters to his doors, and laid her piscatory tributes almost on his hospitable tables, while his thriving plantations in return adorn her shores and islands.

Beaumaris Bay: The Shores of the Menai, and the Interior of Snowdonia; Scenery Unrivalled in its Comprehensive Variety, The Interesting Objects which it includes, and the Sublime Prominence of its Features. Richard Llwyd. 1832

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/416217 Ffordd y Castell


ETYMOLOGY: (the) rock (overlooking) the sea

(craig = rock, cliff) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (ton = sea; wave)

:_______________________________.

Craig y Pist
yll kraig ə pi -stilh
1
(SN7185) rocks 3km east of Bont-goch (county of Ceredigion)
Ll
yn Craig y Pistyll (SN7185) a lake to the east of the rocks

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) rock (of) the waterfall) (craig = rock, cliff) + (y definite article) + (pist
yll = waterfall)

:_______________________________.

Craig yr Oesoedd
kraig ər oi -soidh
1
the Rock of Ages = Christ

2 cysgu fel craig yr oesoedd sleep like a log (sleep like the rock of ages)

ETYMOLOGY: (craig = rock) + (yr = the) + (oesoedd ages, plural of oes = age)

:_______________________________.

crair, creiriau
KRAIR, KREIR yai, -ye (masculine noun)
1
relic

:_______________________________.

craith
kraith feminine noun
PLURAL creithiau
kreith -yai, -ye
Also: creithen
krei-then (craith) + (-en, diminutive suffix)

1
scar = mark left by a wound, burn
y graith the scar

Roedd ganddo graith fawr or glust dde at ei n
He had a big scar from his right ear to his chin

2
scar = memory of a painful experience, emotional hurt

Fe dorrodd fy nghalon ac maer graith yn aros o h
yd
She broke my heart and the scar is still there

Darllennais yr hen lythyrau y bore ma ac maer hen graith wedii hagor eto
This morning I read the old letters and the old scar has opened again

3
craith brech or craith y frech = pockmark, scar in the form of an indentation in the skin from the healing of a smallpox pustule

4
darn in a woolen garment (Englandic: woollen garment)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton kleizenn (= scar)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cracht (= wound)

:_______________________________.

cranc, crancod
KRANGK, KRANG kod (masculine noun)
1
crab

:_______________________________.

crancl
yd krangk -lid adjective
1
cranky, wayward, eccentric

ETYMOLOGY: (cranc = eccentric person) + (-l
yd, adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

crancsiafft
krangk -shaft feminine noun
PLURAL crancsiafftiau
krang-shaft-yai, -ye
1 crankshaft = main shaft in an engine
y grancsiafft = the crankshaft

ETYMOLOGY: English crankshaft (= crank + shaft)

crank (formerly = reel for yarn) < Old English
shaft < Old English sceaft (= arrowshaft, etc);

Cf German der Schaft (= axe handle)

Besides its cognates in the Germanic languages, shaft is related to
,,1/ Latin scpus (= shaft),
..2/ Greek skeptron (= staff); (skeptron has given English scepter, sceptre)


:_______________________________.

crand
krand adjective
1
grand = imposing, majestic

Yng nghanol tref Livorno yn yr Eidal saif t
y crand lle bu teulu Thomas Lloyd yn byw, a hwnnw bellach yw canolfan clwb tenis Livorno
In the middle of the town of Livorno in Italy there is an imposing house where the family of Thomas Lloyd lived which nowadays is the Livorno Tennis Club,

2
(hotel, car, etc) grand, ritzy, luxurious, impressive, ornate
aros mewn gwest
yau crand to stay in luxury hotels

3
(clothes) smart, elegant, showy, elaborate, impressive, ornate

dillad crand finery, elaborate and showy clothes

actorau ac actoresau wedi ymgasglu yn eu dillad crand i ganmol eu gil
ydd
Actors and actresses gathered together in their finery to compliment each other

gwisgon grand dress up in smart clothes, dress elegantly

merched yn gwisgo hetiau crand women wearing elaborate hats

4
(appearance) smart

5
imposing, unnecessarily ornate

pam y maer Sais mor awyddus i gael geiriau crand am bethau bob d
ydd?
why are the English so keen to have (such) grand words for everyday things?

6
splendid, excellent = giving great opportunity for

Blynyddau yn l yr oedd Abertawen lle crand am ddrama
years ago Abertawe was a great place for drama

7
(English accent), grand = belonging to the upper levels of a society

Mae elfen gref o snobeiddiwch ym Mrs Jones Pant-mawr ac mae hi wastad yn siarad Saesneg gydag acen grandiach nar Saeson eu hunain
Theres a strong element of snobbishness in Mrs Jones Pant-mawr and she always speaks English with an accent grander than that of the English themselves

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh crand < grand < English grand < Old French grand (= big) < Latin grandis (= great)

:_______________________________.

crasu
KRA si (verb)
1
to bake, to toast

:_______________________________.

craswellt
kras -welht masculine noun
1
dry grass
mor s
ych chraswellt odyn as dry as dry grass (for heating) an oven / a kiln

ETYMOLOGY: (cras = dry) + soft mutation + (gwellt = grass)

:_______________________________.

cratsh
KRACH masculine noun
PLURAL cratsh
ys KRA-chis
South-west Wales: cretsh

1 manger
drewi fel crash lloi stink like a calves manger

2 tailboard of a cart

3 (North-west Wales) stomach

4 crtsh = cage (confusion of ctsh (= cage) and cratsh (= manger) ?

mor apus a dou ganeri bach miwn crj

Nin Doi 1918 Glynfab t 39


ETYMOLOGY: English crach < Old French cresche (= manger) < Germanic. Cf English crib

Modern English (1854) has borrowed the modern French word crche = nursery



:_______________________________.

crau
krai masculine noun
1
( obsolete) blood, gore

2
creul
ys groundsel, bloodwort. (Senecio vulgaris)
blood plant (creu-, penult form of crau = blood) + soft mutation + (ll
ys = plant)
creul
ys cyffredin groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)

3
creulon cruel
( creu = penultimate-syllable form of crau) + soft mutation + (-llon suffix = full; llawn
adjective = full)

4
creulan (obsolete) battlefield (blood-field)
( creu = penultimate-syllable form of crau) + soft mutation + (llan = land)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic.
From the same British root: Cornish krow (= gore, bloodshed, death)

In Hibernian Celtic: Irish cr (= blood, gore)

Cf the English word cruel < Old French cruel < Latin crudlis < crdus (= bleeding)

Related words in other languages:

Greek krea, krewa (= flesh; as in the modern formation creosote),
Sanskrit kravs (= flesh)
English raw
Latin crdus (= bleeding) > English
crude.
Also Latin crdus (= bleeding) > (bloody meat, uncooked meat, raw meat) > (raw or uncooked food in general) > Catalan cru (= raw)

:_______________________________.

crau
krai masculine noun
PLURAL creuau, creuon
krei e, krei-on
1
(obsolete) hovel

2 (obsolete) pigsty

3 (obsolete) stockade, place of defence

4 creudd
yn (qv) fort

(creu = crau) + soft mutation + (din = fort)

5 Creuw
yrion

(modern form: Cororion, Llandygi SH5970, county of Gw
ynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *krw-o
From the same British root: Cornish krow (= hut, shed, sty), Cornish place name Ros-krow Roscrow, ((the) hill (of) (the) shed); Breton kraou (= cowshed)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cr (= enclosure, hovel, pigsty, sheepfold)

:_______________________________.

crawcwellt
KRAUK-welht
1
purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea)

7218_Molinia_caerulea_wikipedia_081202
(delwedd 7218)

:_______________________________.

Crawcwellt
KRAUK-welht
1
Afon Crawcwellt SH6929 river in Meirionnydd, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6929 map, ffoto

:_______________________________.

creadur, creaduriaid
kre A dir, kre a DIR yed (masculine noun)
1
creature, animal
2
y cradur! the poor thing!

:_______________________________.

Creaton
KRII-tn
1
village in Northamptonshire, England. Here the clergyman
Thomas Jones wrote a number of religious texts in Welsh, or translated texts into Welsh from English.

He was born in Cefnyresgair, Hafod, Ceredigion on 2 April 1752. He was curate of Creaton in Northamptionshire, England, for forty-three years, and rector for five years until the age of 80/81 in 1833. He died in 1845, and is buried at nearby Spratton

7611_creaton_lloegr_100320

7610_drws_yr_eglwys_100320

(delwedd 7610)

..
:_______________________________.

creawdwr, creawdw
yr kre AU dur, kre AUD wir (masculine noun)
1
creator

:_______________________________.

crebachiad
kre- bakh -yad masculine noun
PLURAL crebachiadau
kre-bakh- YAA -de
1
atrophy, withering, fading

ETYMOLOGY: (crebach- stem of crebachu = to shrink, to atrophy) +(-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

crech
KREEKH [kreːx] adjective
1
feminine form of crych (= curly; rippling; rough)

(1) As a first element in compound words with a feminine main element
crechwen (= scornful smile), < gwn (= smile)

(2) Adjective after a feminine noun grech.

ffrwd grech
fruud GREEKH [fruːd ˡgreːx] stream with churning water

Ffrwd-grech SO0227 farm south-west of Aberhonddu / Brecon (county of Pow
ys)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=204692 map

There is a road called Ffrwdgrech Road SO0328 (which in Welsh would be Heol Ffrwd-grech) in Aberhonddu, by Ffrwd-grech farm

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/61658 Heol Ffrwd-grech

:_______________________________.

crechwen
KREKH-wen [ˡkrɛxwɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL crechwenau
krech-WEE-nai, -e [krɛʧˡweˑnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
laughter, guffaw, scornful laugh, loud laugh, horselaugh (loud unrestrained laugh)
y grechwen = the loud laugh

2 nasty grin, scornful smile

ETYMOLOGY: (crech, feminine form of cr
ych = curly, agitated) + soft mutation + (gwn = smile)

:_______________________________.

Credig
KREE-dig [ˡkreˑdɪg] (masculine noun)
1
a colloquial pronunciation of the mans name Ceredig

The elimination of an intervening vowel in the sequence C-vowel-R occurs in:

Cradog (Caradog), hence the Englished surname Craddock
Llangrannog, i.e. Llangrannog a village in Ceredigion, historically Llangarannog


:_______________________________.

cred, credau
KREED, KREE-dai, -e [kreːd, ˡkreˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (f)
1
belief


2
Cred = the Christian faith;
gwled
ydd Cred Christendom = the Christian countries
o fewn terfynau Cred in Christendom, within the bounds of Christendom

:_______________________________.

credu
KREE-di [ˡkreˑdɪ] (verb)
1
to believe

2 Fe f
ydd yn anodd gennych ei gredu You wont believe it, youll hardly believe it (it will be difficult with you its believing)

:_______________________________.

cred
yd, credydau KREE-did, kre-DIID-ai, -e [ˡkreˑdɪd, krɛˡdiˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
credit

:_______________________________.

crefft, crefftau
KREFT, KREFT-ai, -e [krɛft, ˡkrɛftaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
craft
y grefft = the craft

:_______________________________.

crefftwr, crefftw
yr KREFT-ur,-KREFT-wir [ˡkrɛftʊr, ˡkrɛftwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
craftsman

:_______________________________.

crefft ymladd
kreft ƏM-ladh [krɛft ˡəmla] masculine noun
1
martial arts
cwrs crefft ymladd a martial arts course, a course to learn martial arts

ETYMOLOGY: "craft (of) fighting" (crefft = craft) + (ymladd = to fight)

:_______________________________.

cref
ydd, crefyddau KREE-vidh, kre-VƏƏ-dhai, -e [ˡkreˑvɪ, krɛˡvəˑaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
religion
y gref
ydd = the religion

:_______________________________.

crefyddol
kre-VƏƏ-dhol [krɛˡvəˑɔl] (adjective)
1
religious
:_______________________________.


Creidiol <KREID-yol> [ˡkrɪəɪdjɔl]
1 The bardic name of Jabez Edmund Jenkins 1840-1903, a cleric (beginning as a Congregationalist Minister) and poet from Gelli-groes, Mynyddislwyn.

He lived the last twenty years of his life in Y Faenor, then in the county of Brycheiniog, now in the county of Merthyrtudful, where in 1897 he published an English-language volume about Y Faenor Vaynor, its History and Guide.

In a housing estate in Mayhill, Abertawe / Swansea, which has streets named after various poets, there is a Heol Creidiol / Creidiol Road.

ETYMOLOGY: The meaning of his bardic name is obscure.

:_______________________________.

creigddu
KREIG-dhi [ˡkrəɪgɪ] feminine noun
1
black rock

Y Greigddu place name, Cricieth (county of Gwynedd) (English name: Black Rocks)
Traeth
y Greigddu place name, Cricieth (county of Gwynedd) (English name: Black Rock Sands)

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (du = black)
?graig-dd > (accent shift) grig-ddu > (regularisation of the penult diphthong ai > ei) grigddu

:_______________________________.

creigfa
KREIG-va [ˡkrəɪgva] feminine noun
PLURAL creigfaon
kreig-VAA-on [krəɪgˡvɑˑɔn]
1
rocky place
House name in Aber-gwaun (Sir Benfro)

2 rockery (in a garden)

gardd greigfa rockery garden

3 reef = ridge of rocks in the sea, hidden just below the surface or exposed above the surface

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)

:_______________________________.

creigiau
KREIG-yai, -ye [ˡkrəɪgjaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
crags, cliffs, rocks; plural of craig

:_______________________________.

creigiog
KREIG-yog [ˡkrəɪgjɔg] adjective
1
rocky, craggy, steep
2
Y Mynyddoedd Creigiog (USA) The Rocky Mountains, the Rockies

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + (-iog suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

creigle KREIG-le [ˡkrəɪglɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL creigleoedd kreig-LEE-oidh, -odh [krəɪgˡleˑɔɪ, - ɔ]
1
rocky place, crag, stony ground

Sant Marc 4:5 A pheth a syrthiodd ar greigle, lle ni chafodd fawr ddaear, ac yn y fan yr eginodd, am nad oedd iddo ddyfnder daear. 

Daint mark 4:5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (lle = place)

:_______________________________.

Creigmor
KREIG-mor [ˡkrəɪgmɔr] masculine noun
1 house name, Pwllheli

ETYMOLOGY: sea rock? The basis seems to be craig y mr (craig = rock) + (y definite article) + (mr = sea)

> *craig-mr (linking definite article dropped)

> crig-mr
(stress shifts to the first syllable)

> creigmor
where ai becoes ei,

maybe in imitation of the name of the shore at Cricieth,
Y Greigddu

:_______________________________.

creignant
KREIG-nant [ˡkrəɪgnant] (mf)
1 rocky stream, stream with a rocky bed

ETYMOLOGY: (creig-, penult syllable form of craig = rock) + (nant = stream)

NOTE: nant is a feminine noun. It was formerly a masculine noun meaning valley; later it came to mean stream, and probably took on the same gender as afon (= river), a feminine noun.

The only example of creignant in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / the University of Wales Dictionary of Welsh is a plural form from the 1300s (kreicneint glwys, or in modern Welsh creignaint glwys = pleasant rocky streams). The gender is given as masculine.

:_______________________________.

Creignant
KREIG-nant [ˡkrəɪgnant]
1
SJ2535 locality in the county of Shropshire, England, on the Welsh border, near Llangollen / Y Waun / Croesoswallt (misspelt as Craignant)

2 There is a street called Creignant in Nantmel, Powys (misspelt as Craignant)

3 Farm SN9178 in the parish of Llangurig, Pow
ys (misspelt as Craignant)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=250603 map

ETYMOLOGY: See the preceding entry

(unless Crignant is in fact < Craignnt < Craig-y-nant, crag overlooking the stream, though this seems an unlikely name. Older forms of the name Craignant need to be consulted to be sure of its origin in each case)

:_______________________________.

creigres
KREIG -res [ˡkrəɪgrɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL creigresi
kreig- RE -si [krəɪgˡrɛsɪ]
1 reef

creigres gwrel, creigresi cwrel coral reef
creigres lanw, creigresi llanw tidal reef

ETYMOLOGY: (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (rhes = row)

:_______________________________.

creigwel
y kreig WEE-li [krəɪgˡweˑlɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL creigwel
yau kreig-we-LII-ai, LII-e [krəɪgwɛˡliˑaɪ, -ˡliˑɛ]
1 bedrock, underlying rock

ETYMOLOGY: rock bed, a bed made of rock (creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (gwely = bed)
:_______________________________.

creiriau
KREIR-yai, -ye [ˡkrəɪrjaɪ, -jɛ] (plural noun)
1
relics; plural of crair

:_______________________________.

creision
KREI-shon [ˡkrəɪʃɔn] (plural noun)
1
plural of the adjective cras (= baked to a crisp)
2 (noun) crisps; flakes

:_______________________________.

creision
yn krei-SHOO-nin [krəɪˡʃɔnɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL creision
KREI-shon [ˡkrəɪʃɔn]
1
flake, crisp

creisionyn ŷd, creision ŷd IID [iːd]
corn flake

ETYMOLOGY: (creision = crisp things, < creision, plural form of the adjective cras = baked to a crisp) + (-
yn = singulative suffix)

:_______________________________.

crempogen, crempogau
krem-POOG-en, krem-POOG-ai, -POOG-e [krɛmˡpoˑgɛn, krɛmˡpoˑgaɪ, -ˡpoˑgɛ] (feminine noun)
1
pancake
y grempogen = the pancake

:_______________________________.

creon, creonau
KREE-on, kre-OON-ai, -OON-e [ˡkreɔn, krɛˡoˑnaɪ, -oˑnɛ] (masculine noun)
1
crayon

:_______________________________.

creu
KRƏI [krəɪ] (verb)
1
to create

creu ymwybyddiaeth o
KRƏI əm-ui-BƏDH-yaith, -yeth oo [krəɪ əmʊɪˡbəjaɪθ, -jɛθ oː]
make aware of, create an awareness of

:_______________________________.

creudd
yn KRƏI -dhin [ˡkrəɪɪn] masculine noun
1
(obsolete) stockade, place of defence, fort
(creu = crau) + soft mutation + (dỳn /
dynn = hill; fort)

2
Place name:

7057_creuddyn_CYMRU_OREN_081111

(delwedd 7057)

..a/ Creuddyn (northern Ceredigion) division (kmmud / 'cwmwd') of the cantref of Penweddig

Llanfihangel y Creuddyn (SN6676) village in the former kmmud of Creuddyn
(The village called) Llanfihangel (which is in the kmmud called) Y Creuddyn
(Llanfihangel = (the) church (of) Michael Archangel)

Llanfihangel y Creuddyn
parish in northern Ceredigion
Llanbadarn y Creuddyn parish in northern Ceredigion

The local pronunciation is crouddyn in south Wales a tonic syllable eu, and au in monosyllables (dau = two, cau = hollow) are pronounced [ou], preserving the older pronunciation of this diphthong

This is seen in nineteenth century (anglicised) spellings for the two parishes

Llanbadarn y Croythin = Llanbadarn y Crouddyn / Llanbadarn y Creuddyn
Llanvihangel y Croythin = Llanfihangel y Crouddyn / Llanfihangel y Creuddyn

7103_cymdeithas_y_beiblau_1813_081125

Here Llafihangel y Creuddyn is Llanvihangelycroythin

..b/ Creuddyn (southern Ceredigion)

Gwl
ycreuddyn view of the Creuddyn stream
Street name in Llanbedr Pont Steffan (county of Ceredigion)
(gwl = view) + (
y definite article) + (Creuddyn)

Stream names and river names are not preceded by the definite article in Welsh; the name, if referring to the stream, should be
Gwlcreuddyn gwl Creuddyn

Pont Creuddyn SN5552 http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/828118

Nant Creuddyn
the Creuddyn brook

..c/ Creudd
yn (Llandudno SH7881, county of Conwy)

Penrhyn Creuddyn
PEN-hrin KRƏI -dhin [ˡpɛnhrɪn ˡkrəɪɪn]

Creuddyn Peninsula, Llandudno (Conwy) (the) peninsula (forming part of) (the kmmud of) Creuddyn

Creuddyn was one of the three kmmuds of the kntrev of Rhos, along with Uwch Dulas and Is Dulas

Ysgol y Creuddyn name of a Welsh-language primary school (in Baepenrhyn, Llandudno)

Canol Creudd
yn name of a street in Llandudno (the) centre (of) Creuddyn, (the) middle (of) Creuddyn)

..d/
Creuddyn a lost stream name in Aber-gwaun SM9537

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SM9537

:_______________________________.

creulon
KRƏI -lon [ˡkrəɪlɔn] (adjective)
1
cruel

:_______________________________.

creulondeb
krəi -LON-deb [krəɪˡlɔndɛb] (masculine noun)
1
cruelty

:_______________________________.

creulys KRƏI -lis [ˡkrəɪlɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL creul
ysiau krəi -LƏ-shai, -she [krəɪˡləʃaɪ, -ʃɛ]
1
groundsel, bloodwort (Senecio vulgaris)
creul
ys cyffredin groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)

2 creul
ys y Wladfa Magellan ragwort (Senecio smiithi) ((the) groundsel (of) the Settlement, that is, Gwladfa Patagonia, the Welsh settlement in Patagonia established in 1865)

ETYMOLOGY: blood plant (creu-, penult form of crau = blood) + soft mutation + (llys = plant)





:_______________________________.

criafolen kri-a-VOOL-en [krɪaˡvoˑlɛn] f
PLURAL criafol kri-AA-vol [krɪˡɑˑvɔl]
1 (tree) (Sorbus domestica) mountain ash, rowan
Also: pren criafol mountain ash, rowan

2 mountain ash berry
criawal (South Wales) mountain ash berries
Also: crafan, crawel, criafon, criawal, criawol, grafel, cyrafol, crafol

3 There is a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) called Coedcriafol (spelt as Coed Craifol) rowan trees

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
Possibly criafol (through metathesis cri- < cir-) < *cirafol < cyrafol < cyrawol < *cerewol < *cereol < kreol-

From the same Common Celtic root: Irish caor (= berry, rowan berry); caora fnina (= grape),
caorthann (= rowan tree)

QUERY: Bwlch Greolen SJ0923 near Penygarnedd, Powys
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/559353
Is this a form of bwlch y griafolen? (the) pass (of) the rowan tree
:_______________________________.

crib, cribau
KRIIB, KRII-bai, -be [ˡkriːb, ˡkriˑbaɪ, -bɛ] (masculine or feminine noun)
(North = m, South = f)

Diminutive forms: criban, crib
yn

1
comb
y crib (North) = the comb
y grib (South) = the comb

2 ridge of a hill, mountain

Cefn-crib SN6898 Farm near Y Cwrt, Gwynedd
cefn y crib (the) back (of) the ridge

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=268626 map

Y Grib
SO1931 Hill near Pengenffordd, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1168353

3 talgrib (poetry) high ridge
( tal = tall) + soft mutation + ( crib = ridge)

7486_y_crib_y_grib_090408

(delwedd 7846)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British > Common Celtic
Cognates are:
Cornish
krib (= comb, ridge, reef of rocks), kribenn (= cocks comb, honeycomb);
Breton
krib (= comb), kribenn (= summit)
Irish
cor (f) (= comb), croch (f) = boundary, border

:_______________________________.

cribiad
KRIB-yad [ˡkrɪbjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cribiadau krib-YAA-dai, -de [krɪbˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
1
(action) comb, combing
rhoi cribiad ich gwallt give your hair a comb

ETYMOLOGY: (crib-, root of cribo = to comb) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cribin
KRIIB-in [ˡkriˑbɪn] feminine noun
PLURAL cribiniau
kri-BIN-yai, -ye [krɪˡbɪnjaɪ, -jɛ]
1
North Wales rake, hay-rake; in the south a different word is used: rhaca
y gribin = the rake

2 North Wales (masculine noun) miser, money-grabber, skinflint, grasper

3 In some place names, misspelling of crib
yn (= ridge)

ETYMOLOGY: (crib = comb) + (-in)
VARIANTS: (it can also be a masculine noun)

:_______________________________.

cribin fach
KRIIB-in VAAKH> [ˡkriˑbɪn ˡvɑːx] feminine noun
PLURAL cribiniau bach
[krɪˡbɪnjaɪ, -jɛ ˡbɑːx]
1
North Wales small rake, hand rake

:_______________________________.

cribiniad
kri-BIN-yad [krɪˡbɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cribiniadau
krii-bin-YAAD-ai, - YAAD-e [kriˑbɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
North Wales
1
raking = act of raking; rhoi cribiniad i to rake, to give a raking to
2
raking = a quantity (of hay) raked with one movement of the rake

ETYMOLOGY: (cribin = rake) + (-iad)

:_______________________________.

cribinll
yd kri-BIN-lhid [krɪˡbɪnɬɪd] (adj)

1 miserly, grasping, money-grabbing

ETYMOLOGY: (cribin = miser) + (-ll
yd adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.


cribo KRII-bo [ˡkriˑbɔ] (verb)
1
to comb

:_______________________________.

crib
yn KRIIB-in [ˡkriˑbɪn] (m)

1 ridge

2
Y Gribin SH8417 hill north-west of Abercywarch, Gwynedd
Possibly Y Cribyn (= the ridge) confused with y gribin (= the hayfork), < cribin (f) = hayfork

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/740110

...........................

SH3537 Pontycribyn Farm in Llannor, Gwynedd (Pont-y-Cribyn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=303759

ETYMOLOGY: (crib = ridge) + (-yn diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

Y Cribyn ə KRII-bin ˡkriˑbɪn] (m)

1 SN5251 Village in Ceredigion

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5251


Original name: Cribynyclotas (= ridge of the clods)

See also: cribyn, Cribyn Du
:_______________________________.

Y Cribyn Du ə KRII-bin DII ˡkriˑbɪn ˡdiː] (m)
1 SN7548 hill in Cil-y-cwm (county of Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=223619 map
:_______________________________.

cric, criciau
KRIK, KRIK-yai, -ye [ˡkrɪk,ˡkrɪkjaɪ, -jɛ] (masculine noun)
1
crick = muscle spasm in the neck or back
cael cric yn eich gwar get a crick in your neck

:_______________________________.

criced
KRI-ked [ˡkrɪkɛd] (masculine noun)
1
cricket
2 llain griced cricket pitch

3
cricket (insect)

:_______________________________.

cricied
yn, criciaid krik-YEE-din, KRIK-yaid, -ed [krɪkˡjeːdɪn, ˡkrɪkjaɪd, -jɛd] (masculine noun)
1
cricket (Acheta domesticus)

criciedyn hirgorn brith (Meconema punctatissima) speckled bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn brith)

...................................


criciedyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr (Metrioptera viridissima) great green bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr)

...................................


criciedyn hirgorn llwyd (Platycleis denticulata) grey bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn llwyd)

...................................


criciedyn hirgorn Roesel (Meconema roeslii) Roesels bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn Roesel)

...................................


criciedyn hirgorn tywyll
(Pholidoptera griseoaptera) dark bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn tywyll)

...................................


criciedyn hirgorn y dderwen
(Meconema thalassium) oak bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn y dderwen)

...................................


criciedyn hirgorn y gors (Metrioptera brachyptera) bog bush cricket

(cricsyn hirgorn y gors)

...................................


criciedyn y coed (Nemobius sylvestris) wood cricket

(cricsyn y coed)

...................................


criciedyn y maes (Gryllis campestris) field cricket

(cricsyn y maes)

...................................


:_______________________________.

crics
yn KRIK-sin [ˡkrɪksɪn] (masculine noun)
PLURAL crics, criciaid
KRIKS, KRIK-yaid, -yed [ˡkrɪks, ˡkrɪkjaɪd, -jɛd]
1
cricket (Acheta domesticus)

cricsyn hirgorn brith (Meconema punctatissima) speckled bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn brith)

...................................


cricsyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr (Metrioptera viridissima) great green bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn gwyrdd mawr)

...................................


cricsyn hirgorn llwyd (Platycleis denticulata) grey bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn llwyd)

...................................


cricsyn hirgorn Roesel (Meconema roeslii) Roesels bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn Roesel)

...................................


cricsyn hirgorn tywyll
(Pholidoptera griseoaptera) dark bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn tywyll)

...................................


cricsyn hirgorn y dderwen
(Meconema thalassium) oak bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y dderwen)

...................................


cricsyn hirgorn y gors (Metrioptera brachyptera) bog bush cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y gors)

...................................


cricsyn y coed (Nemobius sylvestris) wood cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y gors)

...................................


cricsyn y maes (Gryllis campestris) field cricket

(criciedyn hirgorn y gors)

...................................


grillian criciaid the chirping of crickets

2 bod yn iach fel crics
yn be in rude health, be as fit as a fiddle (be healthy like a cricket)
bod fel crics
yn o iach be in rude health, be as fit as a fiddle (be like a cricket of healthy)

NOTE: Alternative singular forms are cricied
yn and criced

An alternative name is pr
yf tn (= fire insect)
:_______________________________.

crimog
KRIM-og [ˡkrɪmɔg] feminine noun
PLURAL crimogau
kri-MOO-ge [krɪmˡoˑgaɪ, -gɛ]

1 shin
2
obsolete shin-guard
3
obsolete leg; and from this sense, applied to landscape features: ridge, spur

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = fragile) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

crimogio
krim-OG-yo [krɪmˡɔgjɔ] verb
1
William Owen-Pughe, in his dictionary 1793/1803, remarks -"crimmogiaw" "to kick shins. It is a diversion of the Pembrokeshire men; who have meetings for the purpose, where they attend properly prepared in thick shoes with nails projecting out at the sides."

The southern form would be in fact crimogo
krim-OG-o [krɪmˡɔgɔ]

ETYMOLOGY: (crimog = shin) + (-io)

:_______________________________.

crimp (1)
KRIMP [krɪmp] adjective
1
crisp, hard;
rhostio yn grimp roast until crisp

bara saim wedi ei ffrion grimp fried bread fried until crisp (fried bread = a slice of bread fried in a frying pan with boiling mutton / beef / pork fat)

2 godron grimp milk dry, milk until no more milk is forthcoming; also figuratively, exploit (for money, ideas, etc) until no more remains

3 dry; s
ych grimp (sych = dry) + soft mutation + (crimp = crisp) bone dry

4 dry (of mouth after drinking too much alcohol)

5 North Wales llosgin grimp burn to a cinder, burn to a crisp

ETYMOLOGY: English crimp (= fragile, brittle, crisp) < Old English "gecrympan" (= to curl up)

:_______________________________.

crimp (2)
KRIMP [krɪmp] masculine noun
PLURAL crimpiau
KRIMP-yai, -ye [ˡkrɪmpjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
sharp edge

2 ridge, spur

Y Crimpia SH7359 ("the ridges"; local form of crimpiau in north-west Wales a final au is pronounced as -a) place by Capelcurig SH7258 (Gw
ynedd, North-west Wales);

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/423029 Capelcurig

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=323521 Pen y Crimpiau SH7359

Nant y Crimp ("stream of the ridge") stream in Pont-lliw SN6101 (county of Abertawe, South-east Wales)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN6101 Pont-lliw

3 North Wales stingy person; hen grimp di hwnnw the one youre talking about is an old skinflint

ETYMOLOGY: from the adjective crimp (= fragile, brittle, crisp)

:_______________________________.

crimpen
KRIM-pen [ˡkrɪmpɛn] feminine noun
1
North Wales miser, skinflint (woman); crimpyn (man)
2
South-west Wales crisp oatcake, oatcake baked until it is hard

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = brittle; miser) + (-en)

:_______________________________.

crimpio
KRIMP-yo [ˡkrɪmpjɔ] verb
NOTE: South Wales crimpio > crimpo
1
verb without an object, North Wales to get scorched
2
verb with an object, South-west Wales crimpo to air (clothes in front of the fire)

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = fragile, brittle, crisp; dry) + (-io)

:_______________________________.

crimp
yn KRIM-pin [ˡkrɪmpɪn] masculine noun
1
something shrivelled up, dried up, shrunken up (by the heat)

llosgin grimp
yn ("burn into a crisp (thing)")
...(a) (intransitive verb) (action of the sun, intense heat): shrivel up, become shrivelled up
...(b) (transitive verb) llosgi (rh
ywbeth) yn grimpyn (action of the sun, intense heat): shrivel (something) up, cause (something) to shrivel up

2 North Wales miser, skinflint (man); crimpen (woman)

ETYMOLOGY: (crimp = (noun) miser, (adjective) crisp, brittle) + (-
yn)

:_______________________________.

crin
KRIIN [krn] masculine noun
1
withered

2 dry

3 parched, scorched

4 (field names) barren, unproductive

There is a Bryn Crin SH3835 ( scorched hill, barren hill if earlier forms do not show a different origin for this name) in Pwllheli, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH3835 map


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish
krin, Breton krin
From the same Celtic root: Irish cron, Manks creen

NOTE: See Crindai, crinfir, Crindy, cringoch, crino, crinsych, crinwellt

:_______________________________.

Y Crindai
ə KRIN-dai [əˡkrɪndaɪ]
Ordnance Survey Map reference: ST3189
1
locality in the county of Casnew
ydd; (in fact now part of the city of Casnewydd, where formerly there was a mansion called Crindai)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=170463 map, Y Crindai

ETYMOLOGY: probably houses with a roof of withered straw / withered reeds, plural form of crind
y

:_______________________________.

crindir
KRIN-dir [ˡkrɪndɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL crindiroedd
krin-DIIR-oidh, -odh [krɪnˡdiˑrɔɪ, -diˑrɔ]
1
parched earth, scorched earth, arid land

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (tir = land)

:_______________________________.

crind
y KRIN-di [ˡkrɪndɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL crindai
KRIN-dai [ˡkrɪndaɪ]
1
obsolete house with thatch of straw or reeds; see the place name Y Crindai

ETYMOLOGY: probably house with a roof of withered straw / withered reeds; (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (t
y = house)

:_______________________________.

Y Crind
y KRIN-di [ˡkrɪndɪ]
1
nickname for the the Bulls Head tavern in Walbrook, London, where a Welsh literary association (the Gwyneddigion = people of Gwynedd) used to meet at the end of the 1700s and beginning of the 1800s

(Walbrook TQ3281 street in the City, north of Cannon Street tube station)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/426534 Eglw
ys Sant Steffan, Walbrook

ETYMOLOGY: (crin) + soft mutation + (t
y = house). The members of the society referred to the landlord as Y Crin kriin [kriːn], and so the meaning is literally the Crin House or Crins House. The nickname could be either wizened, shrivelled (from his appearance), or it could allude to a lack of generosity since it also means stingy, tightfisted

:_______________________________.

cringoch
KRIN-gokh [ˡkrɪngɔx] adjective
1
(person) red-haired, having frizzy red hair

cringoch (m) red-haired man

2 (hair) red and frizzy
mwng o wallt cringoch a mane of ginger hair

3 (fox) having a red coat

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = shrivelled, curled up) + soft mutation + (coch = red)

:_______________________________.

cringoed
KRIN-goid [ˡkrɪngɔɪd]

1 withered trees

CRINGOED the white withered trees

p. 262 Collections Historical And Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders Volume XXIII 1889

A History of the Parish of Llanbrynmair / Richard Williams FRHS

Chapter XII A Glossary of Local Names



:_______________________________.

crinjio
KRINJ-yo [ˡkrɪnʤjɔ] verb
1 Englishism to cringe = feel uncomfortable or repulsed from extreme distaste or dislike

Mi fydda in crinjio bob tro y bydda i yn gweld y rhaglen honno
I cringe every time I see that progamme

ETYMOLOGY: English cringe (= feel distaste) < Old English cring(an) (= to yield in battle)
This Englishism is crinjo
KRINJ-o [ˡkrɪnʤjɔ] in South Wales
:_______________________________.

crinll
ys KRIN-lhis [ˡkrɪnɬɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL crinll
ys KRIN-lhis [ˡkrɪnɬɪs]
1
literary word violet, violets

ETYMOLOGY: (crin-, apparently from Greek krinon = lily) + soft mutation + (ll
ys = plant) > *crinlys > crinllys

:_______________________________.

crino
KRII-no [ˡkriˑnɔ] (verb)
1
wither

:_______________________________.

crins
ych krin -sikh adjective
1
dry, dessicated, parched

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = dry, withered) + (s
ych = dry)

:_______________________________.

crintach
KRIN-takh m

(North Wales)
1
miser, stingy person

ETYMOLOGY:
crintach is possibly < Irish crontach (= withered-up old person), nowadays in modern Irish crontachn, with the diminutive suffix n

:_______________________________.

crintachl
yd krin-TAKH-lid adj

1 stingy, mean, tightfisted
Fuodd o erioed yn un crintachlyd efo pres
He was never stingy with money (never a stingy one with money)

Rwyt ti wedi mynd mor ofnadw o grintachlyd
Youve become really stingy

ETYMOLOGY: (
crintach = miser) + (-lyd adjectival suffix, often with a pejorative connotation)

:_______________________________.

crinwydden krin-W-dhen fl
1 withered tree

Llyn y Grinwydden SJ0206, near Llanerfyl. Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/sj0206 map

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (gweydden = tree)

:_______________________________.

crinwellt krin -welht pl
1 withered grass, parched grass

ETYMOLOGY: (crin = withered, shrivelled) + soft mutation + (gwellt = grass)

:_______________________________.

cro
KRI o (verb) (North Wales)
1
to cry (North)

:_______________________________.

crisial
KRI shal (masculine noun)
1
crystal
2
clir fel crisial crystal clear

:_______________________________.

Crist
KRIST (masculine noun)
1
Christ

:_______________________________.

crist croes, tn poeth
krist kris taan pith -
1
colloquially cris croes tn poeth; said to somebody who doubts the truth of what you are saying (as in English cross my heart and hope to die)

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) cross of Jesus, hot fire"; Welsh < Middle English Cris-cross, Crist-cross = Christs cross + (tn = foc) + (poeth = calent)

:_______________________________.

crist croes y Beibl
krist kris ə bei-bil -
1
colloquially cris croes y Beibl; said to somebody who doubts the truth of what you are saying (as in English cross my heart and hope to die)

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) cross of Jesus (on the cover of) the Bible" Welsh < Middle English Cris-cross, Crist-cross (= Christs cross)

:_______________________________.

Cristion, Cristnogion
KRIST yon, krist NOG yon (masculine noun)
1
Christian

:_______________________________.

critigol
kri- tii -gol adj
1 critical (Chemistry, Physics) point in a measurement of some phenomenon at which an abrupt change occurs (100 Celsius is a critical temperature of water, when it changes from a liquid to a gas)
tymheredd critigol critical temperature

ETYMOLOGY:
(critig = critic) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives); imitation of the English word critical

:_______________________________.

criw, criwiau
KRIU, KRIU ye (masculine noun)
1
crew

:_______________________________.

crwr
kr -ur masculine noun
PLURAL crw
yr kr -wir
1
crier

2 crwr tref = town crier, official who attracts the attention of the public by ringing a bell and makes public announcements
Also: belman (from English bellman, man with a bell)

ETYMOLOGY: (cri- stem of cro = to cry out, to shout) + (-wr agent suffix, = man)

:_______________________________.

criws
krius masculine noun
South Wales
1
piss up, drinking spree
bod ar y criws be on a drinking spree

ETYMOLOGY: criws < carws
ka-rus < English carouse < French < Middle French carouse < German (dialectal) gar s (= gar aus trinken fully + out + drink, drink up completely)

:_______________________________.

Croateg
kro A teg (feminine noun, adjective) (language)
1
Croatian

:_______________________________.

croc
krok masculine noun
PLURAL crocs
kroks
1
hen groc (old person) crock
hen groc diogl
yd lazy old fool

2 hen groc crock = useless old horse

3 hen groc crock = old car

ETYMOLOGY: English crock (= old and useless person / animal / thing); (originally an old decrepit ewe) < Lowlandic (Scotland), probably Dutch kraak (= decrepit person / animal); related to Norwegian krake (= unhealthy animal)

:_______________________________.

crocbren, crocbrennau
KROK-bren, krok-BRE-ne (masculine noun)
1
gallows, hanging tree

:_______________________________.

crocbris
krok -bris
PLURAL crocbrisiau
krok- bri -she
1
exhorbitant price

talu crocbris am r
ywbeth
pay through the nose for something, pay the earth for something

codi crocbris am r
ywbeth charge the earth for something

ETYMOLOGY: a hanging price (crog-, stem of crogi = to hang) + soft mutation + (pris = price);
(c + p) > g-b > c-b
crg-pris


> crg-bris (qualifying element triggers soft mutation of initial consoant of the qualified element)

> crc-bris
(in such a combination, the final consonant [g] before the soft mutation is devoiced [k])

Meaning: query is this money paid to obtain a pardon and save from execution on the gallows?

:_______________________________.

crochan, crochanau
KROO-khan, kro-KHAA-nai, -e (masculine noun)
1
cauldron, iron pot, cooking pot

2 y tecil yn galw tinddu ar y crochan the pot calling the kettle black, accusing others of a having some fault which you too have but dont want to acknowledge or admit
(the kettle calling black-arse on the cooking pot, the kettle saying that the cooking pot has got a black bottom)


3 bola crochan (South) pot belly

:_______________________________.

crochen
ydd, crochenyddion kro-KHE-nidh, kro-khe-NƏDH-yon (masculine noun)
1
potter
troell crochen
ydd potters wheel

ETYMOLOGY: (crochan-, penult form of crochan = pot) + (-
ydd = noun suffix denoting an agent), vowel affection a > e throught the influence of the y [i] in the final syllable
:_______________________________.

crochlef
krokh -lev feminine noun
PLURAL crochlefau
krokh- LEE-ve
1 strident cry, clamour

2 clamour = noisy demand
anwybyddu crochlef barhus Cymryr fro am dai fforddadw
y
ignoring the constant demand of the Welsh people of the area for affordable housing

ETYMOLOGY: (croch = loud) + soft mutation + ( llef = cry )

:_______________________________.

croen, crw
yn crg-bris (masculine noun)
1
skin

2
Does dim gwaith yn eich croen chi Youre workshy (theres no work in your skin)

3
croen neidr PLURAL crw
yn nadroedd snakeskin

4
m
ynd och croen lose your temper, fly into a rage (go (out) of your skin)

5
yn g
yrn, croen a charnau hook, line and sinker (horns, skin / hide and hooves)

llyncu storin g
yrn, croen a charnau swallow a story hook, line and sinker, accept something improbable without questioning it

6 blaengroen foreskin
( blaen = front; fore) + soft mutation + (croen = skin)

Samuel-1 18:25 A dywedodd Saul, Fel hyn y dywedwch wrth Dafydd; Nid yw y brenin yn ewyllysio cynnysgaeth, ond cael cant o flaengrwyn y Philistiaid, i ddial ar elynion y brenin. Ond Saul oedd yn meddwl peri lladd Dafydd trwy law y Philistiaid.
Samuel-1 18:25 And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.

7
cael cyfrinach o groen rh
ywun prise / wheedle a secret out of somebody (get a secret from the skin of someone)

8
argroen epicarp
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (croen = skin)

9 noethlymun groen stark naked

10 blaidd mewn croen dafad sheep in wolf's clothing
bod yn flaidd mewn croen dafad be a sheep in wolf's clothing

11 cael gwlychfa at eich croen get soaked to the skin


NOTE: In South Wales croen kroin > cron kroon

:_______________________________.

croenwyn kroin win adj
1 white-skinned
pobl groenwyn white people

Mae en groenwyn, yn bum droedfedd deg modfedd o daldra, gyda gwallt tywyll byr a llygaid brown
He is white, five foot ten inches tall with short dark hair and brown eyes

ETYMOLOGY: (croen = skin) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white)
:_______________________________.

..1 croes, croesau / crw
ys KROIS, KROI se / KRUIS (feminine noun)
1
cross

2
Y Groes Sanctaidd the Holy Cross, the Holy Rood
Eglw
ys y Groes Sanctaidd Holy Cross Church (Name of a church in Llanor, Gwynedd)

3
croes Geltaidd, croesau Celtaidd
krois GEL tedh, kroi se KEL tedh (feminine noun)
Celtic cross

4
y Groes Goch
ə grois GOOKH (feminine noun)
the Red Cross (in Moslem countries Y Cilgant Coch, the Red Crescent)

5
gorsafoedd y groes (Catholic Church) stations of the cross - a sequence of 14 crosses or images in a church or along on a roadside representing the suffering and crucifixion of Jesus

6 yn groes ir cloc anticlockwise

7 ynghroes (arms) folded
i freichiau ynghroes with his arms folded

8
yn grwn ac ar groes completely (roundly and on a cross)
gwadu rh
ywbeth yn grwn ac ar groes completely deny something

:_______________________________.

..2 croes
KROIS (adjective)
1
opposite

2
y peth hollol groes i the complete opposite of

3
Mae hynn
yn groes iw gymeriad Its out of character for him (that is contrary to his character)


NOTE: In South Wales croes krois > cros kroos

:_______________________________.

croesair, croeseiriau
KROI sair, kroi SEIR ye (masculine noun)
1
crossword

:_______________________________.

Croesawd
y kroi- sau -di
1
(house name) house of welcome
Cwrt Croesawd
y street name. Y Drenewydd (county of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: (croesaw-, stem of creosawu = to welcome) + soft mutation + ( = house)

:_______________________________.

croesawferch
kroi- sau -verkh feminine noun
PLURAL croesawferched
kroi-sau- ver -khed
1
receptionist (woman)

ETYMOLOGY: (croesaw-, stem of creosawu = to welcome) + soft mutation + (merch = girl, woman)

:_______________________________.

croesawu
kroi SAU i (verb)
1
to welcome

:_______________________________.

Croescwrlw
ys kroi SKUR luis (feminine noun)
1
ST1174 A suburban district of Caer-d
ydd. The Welsh name is an adaptation of the English name, Culverhouse Cross, the crossroads by the Culverhouse. A culverhouse is a dovecote.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/search.php?i=8984554


croes y Cwrlw
ys (the) crossroads (at the place called) Y Cwrlwys < croes Cwrlwys. Strictly speaking, Croes Cwrlwys would be the name of the crossroads or the junction, and the habitative name, i.e. the name for the village, would be Croescwrlwys.

The linking definite article is often absent in place names.

Culverhouse is (culver = dove) + (house)

English culver is from Old English culfer or culfre, from Vuglar Latin *columbra (with an intrusive r) < Latin columbula (= dove; literally little dove) < (columb- < columba = dove) + (-ula diminutive suffix)

The Welsh form is
cwrlwys is properly cwrlws.

We may suppose the first element was
cwlfr, and the f [v] in the consonant cluster was eliminated (medial [v] is lost in many environments in certain words in Welsh). This left cwlr, which through metathesis became cwrl.

The second element is ws, common in many Welsh words borrowed from English where house is the second element. It would have been pronounced in English as [us] and this has been preserved in Welsh, whereas in English such words have been reformed to give house the pronunciation it has as a simple noun. For example, Welsh bacws (= bakehouse), wyrcws (= workhouse).

In cwrlwys it seems that the final syllable was understood of a local pronunciation of wys (in South Wales wy [ui] in a final syllable is regularly reduced to the vowel w [u]), probably because the word cwrlws had no apparent sense in Welsh, whereas in bacws and wyrcws the final element was still recognisably a form of English house.

E.g. ofnadwy (= awful) > ofnadw, annwyd (= a cold) > annwd.

The correct pronunciation was restored, but this is an example of hypercorrection. This process has occurred to in the name Maelgwn (qv), sometimes appearing as Maelgwyn.

Cf Welsh cwrlid (= coverlet, counterpane) < Middle English coverlite, from Norman French < Old French covre-lit (it) covers (a) bed (covre = it covers, < covrir = to cover) + (lit = bed)

The Welsh form is either from a variant in English, or is a reworking of the English form:

If it is occurred in Welsh, it would be coverlite > Welsh cwfrlid > cwrlid (medial [v] is lost in many environments in certain words in Welsh)

:_______________________________.

croesewl
kroi -seul feminine noun
1
(South-east Wales) crossroad. See croesheol
krois-heul
y groesewl = the crossroad

:_______________________________.

croesfa, croesf
ydd KROIS va, krois VEIDH (feminine noun)
1
pedestrian crossing
y groesfa = the crossing

:_______________________________.

croesfan, croesfannau
KROIS van, krois VA ne (feminine noun)
1
pedestrian crossing
y groesfan = the crossing

2 (USA: grade crossing) (Englandic: level crossing); crossing = place where a railway is crossed.
Also croesfan wastad, croesfannau gwastad (level / flat crossing)
Also croesfan reilffordd, croesfannau rheilffordd (railroad / railway crossing)

croesfan heb ei goruchwylio unmanned level crossing (level crossing without its supervising)
Cadwch yn groesfan yn glir (on railway warning signs in Wales) < Keep crossing clear>, i.e. do not obstruct the railway line on the crossing
:_______________________________.

croesfan reilffordd, croesfannau rheilffordd
KROIS van REIL fordh, krois VA ne RHEIL fordh (feminine noun)
(USA: grade crossing) (Englandic: level crossing)

:_______________________________.

croesfan zebra
KROIS van ZE bra (feminine noun)
zebra crossing

:_______________________________.

croesffordd, croesff
yrdd KROIS fordh, KROIS firdh (feminine noun)

1 crossroad
y groesffordd = the crossroad

2 Y Groesffordd (the crossroad)
..a/ (SH7675) locality in the county of Conw
y

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH7675

..b/ street name in Bryncrug, Tyw
yn (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (croes = cross, shape like a plus sign + or letter x) + (ffordd = road)

:_______________________________.

croesfwa
krois- v -a feminine noun
PLURAL croesfwu
krois-vu-ai
1
crossbow
y groesfwa the crossbow

ETYMOLOGY: literal translation of English crossbow (croes = cross) + soft mutation + (bwa = bow)

:_______________________________.

croesfwwr
krois-vu-AA-ur masculine noun
PLURAL croesfww
yr krois-vu-AA-wir
1
crossbowman

ETYMOLOGY: (croesfwa = crossbow) + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

croesheol
krois-heul / krois-eul feminine noun
PLURAL croesheol
ydd krois- heu lidh / krois-eu-lidh
South Wales

NOTE: Colloquially in the south-east as
(1) croesol / y groesol
krois ol / ə grois -ol or
(2) croesewl / y groesewl
krois eul / ə grois -eul.
(3) Also without soft mutation y croesewl
ə krois -eul

1
crossroad the intersection of two roads

y groesheol = the crossroad

Lle ofnadwy am ysbrydion oedd Croesol Rhiw Felan yn Nhonyrefail
The Rhiw Felan crossroad in Tonyrefail was a terrible place for (coming across) ghosts

...(1) Penygroesheol ((the) top (of) the crossroad) Street name in Trelewis (Treharris, county of Merth
yrtudful) (misspelt as Pen-y-Groes Heol)

...(2) Croesheol y Sblot place in the county of Bro Morgannwg where Heol y Wig (the Wig road) crosses the road from Sain Dunw
yd to Llanfihangel y Bont-faen ((the) crossroad (of) the Sblot) (Y Sblot = name of a nearby farm on the Sain Dunwyd road)

...(3) Croesol T
yn-y-bryn the crossroads a Tyn-y-bryn; place in Tonyrefail

Dyna Dic yn tynu ein sylw at ganw
yll gorff yn dod oddiwrth Groesol Tyn-y-bryn tuar Waun-rhydd (Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl. Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 60)
Dic drew our attention to (There is Dic drawing our attention to) a death candle (candle of body) coming from Croesol T
yn-y-bryn (the crossroads by Tyn-y-bryn farm) towards Y Waun-rhydd.

2
crossroad one of the four branches of a crossroad
Dim ond un t
y oedd ar Donyrefail y pryd hynny. Roedd yn sefyll yn nghanol y Pentre, lle y mae pedair o groesheolydd - un yn arwain ir Cymer, un arall i Lantrisant, un arall i Glynogwr, ar llall i Gwm Eli, ac yn arwain ir Bont-faen.
(Addasiad o ddarn yn Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl, Thomas Morgan, 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 46)
There was only one house in Tonyrefail at that time. It stood in the middle of the village, where there are four crossroads one leading off to Cymer, another to Llantrisant, another to Glynogwr, and the last to Cwm Eli, and going on to Y Bont-faen.

2
croesheol
ydd four crosses, four roads four branches of a crossroad emanating from the crossroad centre

Croesheol
ydd farm south of Rhiwderyn, by the road south-west to Pen-y-lan
(query: the name on the map is in standard Welsh; ?the local form is surely Cros-ewl
ydd)

ETYMOLOGY: (croes = cross, shape like a plus sign + or letter x) + (heol = road)

:_______________________________.

Croesheol
krois-heul / krois-eul

1 place name in Malpas (Casnew
ydd / Newport)

Thos (Thomas) Howell, near Croesheol in Malpas (died) 11 Nov 1814 (aged) 81
(Mentioned in Llantarnam Burials 1813-74)
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~monfamilies/llantarnbur1813-74.htm

ETYMOLOGY: cross road, though Y Groesheol (with the definite article and the soft mutation it causes) might have been expected

:_______________________________.

croesi
KROI si (verb)
1
to cross

:_______________________________.

croesir bont
kroi-sir bont phrase
1
cross the bridge, go over the bridge

2
cross the bridge - said of learners of Welsh who begin to acquire fluency, be fluent enough to use Welsh with confidence

Croesir Bont name of such a book for Welsh learners at this stage of learning

3
Fe groeswn nir bont honno pan ddown ni ati
Well cross that bridge when we come to it, i.e. well consider that problem at the due time

:_______________________________.

croeslin
krois -lon feminine noun
PLURAL croesliniau
krois-lin-ye
1
diagonal, diagonal line

y groeslin the diagonal

ETYMOLOGY: (croes = root of creosi = to cross) + soft mutation + (llin = line)

:_______________________________.

croeso
kroi -so masculine noun
1
welcome = a reception
croeso cym
ysg mixed reception
Croeso cym
ysg a fu ir datganiad the statement had a mixed reception
croeso tlawd a poor reception
croeso oeraidd a cool reception
croeso oerll
yd a cool reception
noswaith dda a chroeso (radio presenter, TV presenter, etc) good evening and welcome

2 croeso! welcome! (word of greeting to a someone who arrives in a place and who is received with pleasure)

croeso i chi! a welcome to you

Croeso is very common on signs in Wales. With place names, there is soft mutation (affecting the nine initial consonants c p t / g b d / m ll rh) after the preposition i (= to)

Cymru: Croeso i Gymru Welcome to Wales
KROI so i GM-ri [ˌkrɔɪsɔ ɪ ˡgəmrɪ]

Caernarfon: Croeso i Gaernarfon Welcome to Caernarfon
[ˌkrɔɪsɔ ɪ gaɪrˡnarvɔn]
Note: colloquially Caernarfon is Cyrnarfon
[kərˡnarvɔn], Cynarfon [kəˡnarvɔn]
(Croeso i Gyrnarfon, Croeso i Gynarfon)

Pwllheli: Croeso i Bwllheli Welcome to Pwllheli

Tregaron: Croeso i Dregaron Welcome to Tregaron

Gartholwg: Croeso i Artholwg Welcome to Gartholwg (Church Village)

Bangor: Croeso i Fangor Welcome to Bangor

Dinb
ych: Croeso i Ddinbych Welcome to Dinbych (Denbigh)

Merth
yrtudful: Croeso i Ferthyrtudful Welcome to Merthyrtudful

Llandudno: Croeso i Landudno Welcome to Llandudno

Rhuthin Croeso i Ruthin Welcome to Rhuthin

Y Drenew
ydd: Croeso ir Drenewydd Welcome to Y Drenewydd (Newtown)

Y Trallwng: Croeso ir Trallwng Welcome to Y Trallwng (Welshpool)

3
croeso i bawb all welcome, everyone is welcome

4
croeso gwanw
yn ((the) welcome (of the) spring) o croeso i'r gwanwyn (welcome to the spring) daffodil

5
welcome = welcoming ceremony

fel rhan o groeso sw
yddogol y Maoriaid
as part of the Maori welcoming ceremony

6
Bwrdd Croeso Cymru Welsh Tourist Board (Board of Welcome of Wales)
Y Bwrdd Croeso The Tourist Board

7
Croeso Chwe-deg Naw (The Welcome of Sixty-nine)
A celebration promoted by the English Government in the Year 1969 preceding the Investiture of the English prince Charles Windsor as Prince of Wales in the castle of Caernarfon

8
rhoi croeso i (r
ywun) make someone welcome

9 parod eich croeso welcoming (ready your welcome)
llawn croeso welcoming (full (of) welcome)

10
parti croeson l homecoming party (party of welcoming back)

11
Does dim croeso i chi yma Youre not wanted here
(there is no welcome for you here)

Mae croeso i chi bob amser You're welcome any time, You're always welcome
(there is a welcome for you always)

12
Can croeso iddo ei wneud He's quite welcome to do it
("a hundred welcomes for him to do it")

13
m
ynd yn hyfach na'ch croeso outstay your welcome
("become bolder than your welcome")

aros yn hw
y na'ch croeso outstay your welcome
("stay longer than your welcome")

14
Mae croeso ichi alw You're welcome to call
(there is a welcome to you calling)

15
chroeso you're welcome
phob croeso you're welcome

-Diolch yn fawr. Mae i chi bob croeso. -Thank you very much. Youre welcome (there is to you every welcome)

16
chroeso with pleasure! youre welcome! youre more than welcome to! (in affirming a request for a favour)

17
mawr eich croeso warmly welcomed, greatly welcomed, receiving acclaim
ll
yfr fydd yn fawr ei groeso a book that will be warmly welcomed

18
also as a house name, hotel name, etc: Croeso
See also Croesawd
y

19
croeso i youre / shes / hes / theyre welcome to...
Croeso iddo ddod i ngweld i unrhyw dro Hes welcome to visit me at any time

20
B
ydd Croeso yn Aros yn y Bryniau The translation of the title of a twentieth-century song written in English We'll Keep a Welcome in the Hillsides, with schmaltzy mawkish lyrics and a mournful melody, which is considered in England to be an emblematic song of Wales.
Apparently addressed to Welsh exiles returning to the old country on a visit.

Some Welsh choirs (I would say to their shame) include this in their repertoire, though as far as I am aware the ultimate act of degradation - the song being translated and performed in Welsh has not yet taken place!

ETYMOLOGY: croeso < croesaw. Etymology unknown. Possibly a derivative of croes (= cross)

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croesol
kroi -sol feminine noun
1
(South-east Wales) crossroad. See croesheol
krois-heul
y groesol = the crossroad

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crofft kroft feminine noun
PLURAL crofftiau kroft-yai -ye

1 croft, small field by a house

y grofft the crofft

2 Grofft SH8104 house in Glantwymyn (Powys)

y grofft the croft (y definite article) + soft mutation + (crofft = croft)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH8104 map

3 Cefn-rofft
SJ0049 farm east of Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ0049 map

cefn y grofft (the) ridge (of) the croft (cefn = back; hill, ridge) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (crofft = croft)

4 Crofftyperthi SO0969 Farm near Llanddewi Ystradenni, Powys (Croftyperthi on the O.S. map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=242485 map

crofft y perthi (the) croft (of) the bushes (crofft = croft) + (y definite article) + (perthi bushes, plural of perth = bush)

ETYMOLOGY: English croft

NOTE: There is also a form where grofft was taken to be the base word, and the definite article before it has resulted in the form y rofft

Mynwent Rofft-wen SH4165 mynwent y Rofft-wen the cemetery (by) Y Rofft-wen name of a cemetery in Niwbwrch (Ynys Mn)

Y Rofft-wen is the white croft

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (grofft = croft) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/835470 Mynwent Rofft-wen

See also crofft


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..1 crog
kroog feminine noun
PLURAL crogau
KROO-gai, -e
1
(obsolete) cross
y grog = the cross

2
(obsolete) crucifix
Betws
y Grog old name of Ceirchiog (Llechylched SH3476) in Mn. According to Melville Richards (Enwau Tir a Gwlad, 1998), mae crog yn cyfeirio at sgrin yn yr eglwys. Yr enw Saesneg oedd Holy Rood Church. (= crog refers to a screen in the church. The English name was Holy Rood Church)

3
crucifixion
Gwener
y Grog (literary) (Friday (of) the crucifixion) Good Friday.
Usually D
ydd Gwener y Groglith

4
Gw
yl y Grog Exaltation of the Cross, Holy Cross Day (September 14). Until the abolition of the practice in 1840 by Pope Gregory 14, Jews in Rome were obliged to attend a Catholic church on this day to listen to a sermon

5
Gw
yl Caffael y Groes (festival (of) (the) finding (of) the cross) Invention of the Cross (May 3)

6
b
ynsen y Grog hot cross bun (bun (of) the cross)

7
lilir Grog Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum)

8
(obsolete) gallows

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *krok- < Latin *cruc-a < cruc-em < crux
From the same British root: Cornish krog (= suspension), Breton kroug (= gallows)
Irish has croch (= cross, gallows) from the Latin crux


:_______________________________.

..2 crog
KROOG (adjective)
1
hanging, suspended

:_______________________________.

crogfa KROG-va feminine noun
PLURAL crogfydd krog-VEIDH

1 (obsolete) hanging, execution

2 (obsolete) place of execution

ETYMOLOGY: (crog- stem of crogi = to hang, crucify) + (-fa suffix indicating an action or a place)

:_______________________________.

crogi
kr -gi
verb with an object
1
hang = kill a person by suspending by the neck

Crogai ei fam ta hynn
y'n elw iddo
(he'd hang his mother if it would bring him any profit)
Hed sell his grandmother (= hes so unscrupulous and greedy for money that he'd sell his grandmother)

2
hang = (punishment) execute a person by suspending from a tree, gallows, etc

Esther 2:23 A phan chwilwyd y peth, fe a gafwyd felly: am hynny y crogwyd hwynt ill dau ar bren. Ac ysgrifennwyd hynny mewn llyfr cronicl gerbron y brenin.

Esther 2:23 And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king.

crogi delw o r
ywun hang somebody in effigy

Eled iw grogi! Hang the fellow!

3
(archaic) hang = crucify (See: croglith)

4
cael eich crogi = be hanged ("get your hanging")

5
crogi eich hun, hang yourself ("hanging + your + self");
more correctly eich crogi eich hun ("your + hanging + (of) your + self")

6
hang = be suspended
Wedir ddamwain ar y bont, roedd y lori yn crogi uwchlw y ffordd brysur o dan y bont
After the accident on the bridge, the lorry was hanging over a busy road under the bridge

7
hang = (gate) be suspended from a post
Crogir y llidiart wrth fachau haearn yn awr, ond g
ynt troai ar ei gorddyn wrth wden
The gate now hangs with iron hinges but formerly it swung on its pivots by means of withy loops

8
crocbren gallows, gallows tree
(crog-, stem of crogi = to hang) + soft mutation + (pren = tree)

9
North Wales
Dos ith grogi! Go hang yourself!

Cyngor y Dre! Aed iw crogi!
The town council! Hang the lot of them! ("let it be gone to hang them")

10
South Wales cer i grogi! go hang yourself! ("go to hang / to be hanged")

11
Mae llawer ffordd i ladd ci heblaw ei grogi
There are many ways to achieve ones aims if one examines the problem properly
("there are many ways to hang a dog besides hanging it")

12
ar eich crogi on your life (on your hanging), even if someone threatens to hang you

Rwin addo ar y nhrogi na weda i air wrth neb
I swear on my life I wont tell another soul ("I promise in spite of my hanging I wont tell anybody")

13
tros eich crogi, dros eich crogi on your life (over your hanging), even if someone threatens to hang you

A i ddim iw weld o dros y nghrogi!
I wont go and see him even if they hang me

14
m
ynd ich crogi ride for a fall, do something which will inevitably bring about punishment, retribution ("go to your hanging")

15
crogi, diberfeddu a chwarteru hang, draw and quarter kill by hanging, pulling out the entrails, and cutting off the limbs

crogi a darnu hang and quarter, hang and cut off the limbs and the head

Rhoddodd y gwarchodlu yno yr hen Spenser ir frenhines. Crogw
yd a darnwyd ef, a rhoddwyd ei gnawd i gŵn.
The retinue gave Spenser to the Queen. He was hanged and cut up, and his flesh was given to dogs.

ETYMOLOGY: (crog = hanging tree, gallows) + (-i, suffix for forming verbs); crog < British < Latin *croc-em (= cross)
From the same British root: Cornish krog (= hanging, suspension); Breton krouga (= to hang)
:_______________________________.

croglith
KROG lith (feminine noun)
1
crucifixion verses, crucifixion text. , text about the crucifixion; chapters 18 and 19
in Efengyl Sant Joan / Saint Johns Gospel; later on, chapter 18 was excluded.

PENNOD 18
18:1
Wedi ir Iesu ddywedyd y geiriau hyn, efe a aeth allan, efe ai ddisgyblion, dros afon Cedron, lle yr oedd gardd, ir hon yr aeth efe ai ddisgyblion.
18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

18:2
A Jwdas hefyd, yr hwn ai bradychodd ef, a adwaenair lle: oblegid mynych y cyrchasair Iesu ai ddisgyblion yno.
18:2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.

18:3
Jwdas gan hynny, wedi iddo gael byddin a swyddogion gan yr archoffeiriaid ar Phariseaid, a ddaeth yno lanternau, a lampau, ac arfau.
18:3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

18:4
Yr Iesu gan hynny, yn gwybod pob peth a oedd ar ddyfod arno, a aeth allan, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Pwy yr ydych yn ei geisio?
18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

18:5
Hwy a atebasant iddo, Iesu o Nasareth. Yr Iesu a ddywedodd wrthynt, Myfi yw. A Jwdas, yr hwn ai bradychodd ef, oedd hefyd yn sefyll gyda hwynt.
18:5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.

18:6
Cyn gynted gan hynny. ag y dywedodd efe wrthynt, myfi yw, hwy a aethant yn wysg eu cefnau, ac a syrthiasant i lawr.
 18:6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

18:7
Am hynny efe a ofynnodd iddynt drachefn, Pwy yr ydych yn ei geisio? A hwy a ddywedasant, Iesu o Nasareth.
18:7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

18:8
Yr Iesu a atebodd, Mi a ddywedais i chwi mai myfi yw: am hynny os myfi yr ydych yn ei geisio, gadewch ir rhai hyn fyned ymaith:
18:8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:

18:9
Fel y cyflawnid y gair a ddywedasai efe, Or rhai a roddaist i mi, ni chollais ir un.
18:9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

18:10
Simon Pedr gan hynny a chanddo gleddyf, ei tynnodd ef, ac a drawodd was yr archoffeiriad, ac a dorrodd ymaith ei glust ddeau ef: ac enwr gwas oedd Malchus.
18:10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priests servant, and cut off his right ear. The servants name was Malchus.

18:11
Am hynny yr Iesu, a ddywedodd wrth Pedr, Dod dy gleddyf yn y wain: y cwpan a roddes y Tad i mi, onid yfaf ef?
18:11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

18:12
Ynar fyddin, ar milwriad, a swyddogion yr Iddewon, a ddaliasant yr Iesu, ac ai rhwymasant ef,
18:12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,

18:13
Ac ai dygasant ef at Annas yn gyntaf: canys chwegrwn Caiaffas, yr hwn oedd archoffeiriad y flwyddyn honno, ydoedd efe.
18:13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

18:14
A Chaiaffas oedd yr hwn a gyngorasai ir Iddewon, mai buddiol oedd farw un dyn dros y bobl.
18:14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

18:15
Ac yr oedd yn canlyn yr Iesu, Simon Pedr, a disgybl arall: ar disgybl hwnnw oedd adnabyddus gan yr archoffeiriad, ac efe a aeth i mewn gydar Iesu i lys yr archoffeiriad.
18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest.

18:16
A Phedr a safodd wrth y drws allan. Yna y disgybl arall yr hwn oedd adnabyddus gan yr archoffeiriad, a aeth allan, ac a ddywedodd wrth y ddrysores, ac a ddug Pedr i mewn.
18:16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

18:17
Yna y dywedodd y llances oedd ddrysores wrth Pedr, Onid wyt tithau o ddisgyblion y dyn hwn? Dywedodd yntau, Nac wyf.
18:17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this mans disciples? He saith, I am not.

18:18
Ar gweision ar swyddogion, gwedi gwneuthur tn glo, oherwydd ei bod hin oer, oeddynt yn sefyll, ac yn ymdwymo: ac yr oedd Pedr gyda hwynt yn sefyll, ac yn ymdwymo.
18:18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

18:19
Ar archoffeiriad a ofynnodd ir Iesu am ei ddisgyblion, ac am ei athrawiaeth.
18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

18:20
Yr Iesu a atebodd iddo, Myfi a leferais yn eglur wrth y byd: yr oeddwn bob amser yn athrawiaethu yn y synagog, ac yn y deml, lle maer Iddewon yn ymgynnull bob amser; ac yn ddirgel ni ddywedais i ddim.
18:20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.

18:21
Paham yr wyt ti yn gofyn i mi? gofyn ir rhai am clywsant, beth a ddywedais wtthynt: wele, y rhai hynny a wyddant pa bethau a ddywedais i.
18:21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

18:22
Wedi iddo ddywedyd y pethau hyn, un or swyddogion ar oedd yn sefyll gerllaw, a roddes gernod ir Iesu, gan ddywedyd, Ai felly yr wyt tin ateb yr archoffeiriad?
18:22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so?

18:23
Yr Iesu a atebodd iddo, Os drwg y dywedais, tystiolaetha or drwg; ac os da, paham yr wyt yn fy nharo i?
18:23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

18:24
Ac Annas ai hanfonasai ef yn rhwym at Caiaffas yr archoffeiriad.
18:24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.

18:25
A Simon Pedr oedd yn sefyll ac yn ymdwymo. Hwythau a ddywedasant wrtho, Onid wyt tithau hefyd oi ddisgyblion ef? Yntau a wadodd, ac a ddywedodd, Nac wyf.
18:25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

18:26
Dywedodd un o weision yr archoffeiriad, (cr ir hwn y torasai Pedr ei glust,) Oni welais i di gydag ef yn yr ardd?
18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?

18:27
Yna Pedr a wadodd drachefn; ac yn y man y canodd y ceiliog.
18:27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.

18:28
Yna y dygasant yr Iesu oddi wrth Caiaffas ir dadleudy: ar bore ydoedd hi, ac nid aethant hwy i mewn ir dadleudy, rhag eu halogi; eithr fel y gallent fwytar pasg.
18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

18:29
Yna Peilat a aeth allan atynt, ac a ddywedodd, Pa achwyn yr ydych chwi yn ei ddwyn yn erbyn y dyn hwn?
18:29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?

18:30
Hwy a atebasant ac a ddywedasant wrtho, Oni bai fod hwn yn ddrwgweithredwr, ni thraddodasem ef.atat.
18:30 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

18:31
Am hynny y dywedodd Peilat wrthynt, Cymerwch chwi ef, a bernwch ef yn l eich cyfraith chwi. Yna yr Iddewon a ddywedasant wrtho, Nid cyfreithlon i ni ladd neb:
18:31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

18:32
Fel y cyflawnid gair yr Iesu, yr hwn a ddywedasai efe, gan arwyddocu o ba angau y byddai farw.
18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

18:33
Yna Peilat a aeth drachefn ir dadleudy, ac a alwodd yr Iesu, ac a ddywedodd wrtho, Ai ti yw Brenin yr Iddewon?
18:33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

18:34
Yr Iesu a atebodd iddo, Ai ohonot dy hun yr wyt ti yn dywedyd hyn, ai eraill ai dywedasant i ti amdanaf fi?
18:34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?

18:35
Peilat a atebodd, Ai Iddew ydwyf fi? Dy genedl dy hun ar archoffeiriaid ath draddodasant i mi. Beth a wnaethost ti?
18:35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

18:36
Yr Iesu a atebodd, Fy mrenhiniaeth i nid yw or byd hwn. Pe or byd hwn y byddai fy mrenhiniaeth, fy ngweision i a ymdrechent, fel nam rhoddid ir Iddewon: ond yr awron nid yw fy mrenhiniaeth i oddi yma.
18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

18:37
Yna y dywedodd Peilat wrtho, Wrth hynny ai Brenin. wyt ti? Yr Iesu a atebodd, Yr ydwyt ti yn dywedyd mai Brenin wyf fi. Er rnwyn hyn ym ganed, ac er mwyn hyn y deuthum ir byd, fel y tystiolaethwn ir gwirionedd. Pob un ar sydd or gwirionedd, sydd yn gwrando fy lleferydd i.
18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

18:38
Peilat a ddywedodd wrtho, Beth yw gwirionedd? Ac wedi iddo ddywedyd hyn, efe a aeth drachefn at yr Iddewon, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Nid wyf fi yn cael dim achos ynddo ef.
18:38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.

18:39
Eithr y mae gennych chwi ddefod, i mi ollwng i chwi un yn rhydd ar y pasg: a fynnwch chwi gan hynny i mi ollwng yn rhydd i chwi Frenin yr Iddewon?
18:39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

18:40
Yna y lefasant oll drachefn, gan ddywedyd, Nid hwnnw, ond Barabbas. Ar Barabbas hwnnw oedd leidr.
18:40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber

PENNOD 19
19:1
Yna gan hynny y cymerodd Peilat yr Iesu, ac ai fflangellodd ef.
19:1 ::Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.

19:2
Ar milwyr a blethasant goron o ddrain, ac ai gosodasant ar ei ben ef, ac a roesant wisg o borffor amdano;
19:2 And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,

19:3
Ac a ddywedasant, Henffych well, Brenin yr Iddewon; ac a roesant iddo gernodiau.
19:3 And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.

19:4
Peilat gan hynny a aeth allan drachefn, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Wele yr wyf fi yn ei ddwyn ef allan i chwi, fel y gwypoch nad wyf fi yn cael ynddo ef un bai.
19:4 Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.

19:5
Yna y daeth yr Iesu allan, yn arwain y goron ddrain, ar wisg borffor. A Pheilat a ddywedodd wrthynt, Weler dyn.
19:5 Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man!

19:6
Yna yr archoffeiriaid ar swyddogion, pan welsant ef, a lefasant, gan ddywedyd, Croeshoelia, croeshoelia ef. Peilat a ddywedodd wrthynt, Cymerwch chwi ef, a chroeshoeliwch: canys nid wyf fi yn cael dim bai ynddo.
19:6 When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him.

19:7
Yr Iddewon a atebasant iddo, Y mae gennym ni gyfraith, ac wrth ein cyfraith ni efe a ddylai farw, am iddo ei wneuthur ei hun yn Fab Duw.
19:7 The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.

19:8
A phan glybu Peilat yr ymadrodd hwnnw, efe a ofnodd yn fwy;
19:8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;

19:9
Ac a aeth drachefn ir dadleudy, ac a ddywedodd wrth yr Iesu, O ba le yr wyt ti? Ond ni roes yr Iesu ateb iddo.
19:9 And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.

19:10
Yna Peilat a ddywedodd wrtho, Oni ddywedi di wrthyf fi? oni wyddost ti fod gennyf awdurdod ith groeshoelio di, a bod gennyf awdurdod ith ollwng yn rhydd?
19:10 Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?

19:11
Yr Iesu a atebodd, Ni byddai i ti ddim awdurdod arnaf fi, oni bai ei fod wedi ei roddi i ti oddi uchod: am hynny yr hwn am traddodes i ti, sydd fwy ei bechod.
19:11 Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.

19:12
O hynny allan y ceisiodd Peilat ei ollwng ef yn rhydd: ond yr Iddewon a lefasant, gan ddywedyd, Os gollyngi di hwn yn rhydd, nid wyt ti yn garedig i Gesar. Pwy bynnag ai gwnelo ei hun y frenin, y mae yn dywedyd yn erbyn Cesar.
19:12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesars friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

19:13
Yna Peilat, pan glybur ymadrodd hwn, a ddug allan yr Iesu; ac a eisteddodd ar yr orseddfainc, yn y lle a elwir y Palmant, ac yn Hebraeg, Gabbatha.
19:13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.

19:14
A darpar-ŵyl y pasg oedd hi, ac ynghylch y chweched awr: ac efe a ddywedodd wrth yr Iddewon, Wele eich Brenin.
19:14 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!

19:15
Eithr hwy a lefasant, Ymaith ag ef, ymaith ag ef, croeshoelia ef. Peilat a ddywedodd wrthynt, A groeshoeliaf fi eich Brenin chwi? Ar archoffeiriaid a atebasant, Nid oes i ni frenin ond Cesar.
19:15 But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

19:16
Yna gan hynny efe ai traddodes ef iddynt iw groeshoelio. A hwy a gymerasant yr Iesu, ac ai dygasant ymaith.
19:16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.

19:17
Ac efe gan ddwyn ei groes, a ddaeth i le a elwid Ller benglog, ac a elwir yn Hebraeg, Golgotha:
19:17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

19:18
Lle y croeshoeliasant ef, a dau eraill gydag ef, un o bob tu, ar Iesu yn y canol.
 19:18 Where they crucified him, and two others with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

19:19
A Pheilat a ysgrifennodd deitl, ac ai dododd ar y groes. Ar ysgrifen oedd, IESU O NASARETH, BRENIN YR IDDEWON.
19:19 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.

19:20
Y teitl hwn gan hynny a ddarllenodd llawer or Iddewon; oblegid agos ir ddinas oedd y fan lle y croeshoeliwyd yr Iesu: ac yr oedd wedi ei ysgrifennu yn Hebraeg, Groeg, a Lladin.
19:20 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.

19:21
Yna archoffeiriaid yr Iddewon a ddywedasant wrth Peilat, Nac ysgrifenna Brenin yr Iddewon; eithr dywedyd ohono ef, Brenin yr Iddewon ydwyf fi.
19:21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

19:22
Peilat a atebodd, Yr hyn a ysgrifennais, a ysgrifennais.
19:22 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.

19:23
Yna y milwyr, wedi iddynt groeshoelior Iesu, a gymerasant ei ddillad ef, ac a wnaethant bedair rhan, i bob milwr ran; ai bais ef: ai bais ef oedd ddiwnad, wedi ei gwau or cwr uchaf trwyddi oll.
19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

19:24
Hwythau a ddywedasant wrth ei gilydd, Na thorrwn hi, ond bwriwn goelbrennau amdani, eiddo pwy fydd hi: fel y cyflawnid yr ysgrythur sydd yn dywedyd, Rhanasant fy nillad yn eu mysg, ac am fy mhais y bwriasant goelbrennau. Ar milwyr a wnaethant y pethau hyn.
19:24 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.

19:25
Ac yr oedd yn sefyll wrth groes yr Iesu, ei fam ef, a chwaer ei fam ef, Mair gwraig Cleoffas, a Mair Magdalen.
19:25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mothers sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

19:26
Yr Iesu gan hynny, pan welodd ei fam, ar disgybl yr hwn a garai efe yn sefyll gerllaw, a ddywedodd wrth ei fam, O wraig, wele dy fab.
19:26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!

19:27
Gwedi hynny y dywedodd wrth y disgybl, Wele dy fam. Ac or awr honno allan y cymerodd y disgybl hi iw gartref.
19:27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.

19:28
Wedi hynny yr Iesu, yn gwybod fod pob peth wedi ei orffen weithian, fel y cyflawnid yr ysgrythur, a ddywedodd, Y mae syched arnaf.
19:28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

19:29
Yr oedd gan hynny lestr wedi ei osod yn llawn o finegr; a hwy a lanwasant ysbwng o finegr, ac ai rhoddasant ynghylch isop, ac ai dodasant wrth ei enau ef.
19:29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.

19:30
Yna pan gymerodd yr Iesur finegr, efe a ddywedodd, Gorffennwyd: a chan ogwyddo ei ben, efe a roddes i fyny yr ysbryd.
19:30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

19:31
Yr Iddewon gan hynny, fel nad arhoair cyrff ar y groes ar y Saboth, oherwydd ei bod yn ddarpar-ŵyl, (canys mawr oedd y dydd Saboth hwnnw,) a ddeisyfasant ar Peilat gael torri eu hesgeiriau hwynt, au tynnu i lawr.
19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

19:32
Yna y milwyr a ddaethant, ac a dorasant esgeiriaur cyntaf, ar llall yr hwn a groeshoeliasid gydag ef.
19:32 Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.

19:33
Eithr wedi iddynt ddyfod at yr Iesu, pan welsant ef wedi marw eisoes, ni thorasant ei esgeiriau ef.
19:33 But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs:

19:34
Ond un or milwyr a wanodd ei ystlys ef gwaywffon: ac yn y fan daeth allan waed a dwfr.
19:34 But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.

19:35
Ar hwn ai gwelodd, a dystiolaethodd; a gwir yw ei dystiolaeth; ac efe a ŵyr ei fod yn dywedyd gwir, fel y credoch chwi.
19:35 And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.

19:36
Canys y pethau hyn a wnaethpwyd, fel y cyflawnid yr ysgrythur, Ni thorrir asgwrn ohono.
19:36 For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

19:37
A thrachefn, ysgrythur arall sydd yn dywedyd, Hwy a edrychant ar yr hwn a wanasant.
19:37 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

19:38
Ac ar l hyn, Joseff o Arimathea (yr hwn oedd ddisgybl ir Iesu, eithr yn guddiedig, rhag ofn yr Iddewon) a ddeisyfodd ar Peilat, gael tynnu i lawr gorff yr Iesu: a Pheilat a ganiataodd iddo. Yna y daeth efe ac a ddug ymaith gorff yr Iesu.
19:38 And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.

19:39
A daeth Nicodemus hefyd, (yr hwn ar y cyntaf a ddaethai at yr Iesu o hyd nos,) ac a ddug fyrr ac aloes yng nghymysg, tua chan pwys.
19:39 And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.

19:40
Yna y cymerasant gorff yr Iesu, ac ai rhwymasant mewn llieiniau, gydag aroglau, fel y mae arfer yr Iddewon ar gladdu.
19:40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.

19:41
Ac yn y fangre lle y croeshoeliasid ef, yr oedd gardd; a bedd newydd yn yr ardd, yn yr hwn ni ddodasid dyn erioed.
19:41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.

19:42
Ac yno, rhag nesed oedd darpar-ŵyl yr Iddewon, am fod y bedd hwnnw yn agos, y rhoddasant yr Iesu.
19:42 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.


y groglith the crucifixion verses

2 D
ydd Gwener y Groglith
Good Friday ("Friday of the reading about the crucifixion")

ETYMOLOGY: crucifixion reading (crog- stem of crogi = to hang, crucify) + soft mutation + (llith = reading)

:_______________________________.

crogwr
kr -gur masculine noun
PLURAL crogw
yr krog -wir
1
hangman
2
(South Wales) (in children's rhymes) b
ys y crogwr = ring finger

ETYMOLOGY: (crog- stem of crogi = to hang) + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

crombil
krom-bil masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL crombiliau
krom-bil-ye
1
crop or gizzard of a bird
y crombil / y grombil = the gizzard

2
belly
Fe aeth e i lawr ir dafarn i gael rh
yw ychydig o gwrw yn ei grombil
He went down to the pub to get some beer into his belly
hel yn eich crombil stuff yourself with food (gather into your belly)

3
core = innermost part of something; the depths / bowels / heart / far interior / recesses (of a place); deep inside (a place)

Daeth hen ŵr o grombil y siop
An old man came out of the recesses of the shop

yng nghrombil y ddaear
in the depths of the earth, in the bowels of the earth, in the core of the earth

Bachodd bump o fygiau o grombil y cwpwrdd
He got five mugs from deep inside the cupboard

Fflat new
ydd sy tua deng munud o waith cerdded o grombil y ddinas
A new flat which is about ten minutes walk from the centre of the city

yng nghrombil y coed deep inside the woods

m
ynd i mewn i grombil y llong go into the bowels of the ship

ETYMOLOGY: curved skin (crom, feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (pil = skin, loose skin, birds crop)

:_______________________________.

cromlech PLURAL cromlechi, cromlechau
KROM lekh, krom L khi, krom L khe (feminine noun)
1
cromlech = stone table, a tomb in the form of a room made of a stone slab resting horizontally on three or four stone columns; a standing stone

y gromlech the cromlech

2 Cae'r Gromlech street name in Y Ffr SH3938 (county of Gwynedd)
((the) field (of) the cromlech)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/543184 Y Ffr

:_______________________________.

cromlin
crom -lin feminine noun
PLURAL cromliniau
krom-lin-ye
1
curve on a graph
y gromlin the curve

2
amgrwm convex
cromlin amgrwm convex line
ceugrwm concave
cromlin geugrwm concave line

ETYMOLOGY: (crom = feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (llin = line)

:_______________________________.
cron
kron
1 adjective feminine form of crwn (qv) (= round)
Y Waun-gron (round moorland) district of Caer-dydd

2 verb cron- root of cronni (= to gather, to collect)
cronfa fund; reservoir
cronfa ddŵr
reservoir
cronl
yn reservoir

3 adjective The word cronglw
yd (= roof) was formerly cromglwyd, and so the first element is in fact crom, the feminine form of crwm (= curved)

:_______________________________.

cronglw
yd krong-luid feminine noun
PLURAL cronglw
ydi krong-lui-di
1
obsolete roof hurdle
y gronglw
yd = the roof hurdle

2
obsolete roof
Genesis 19:8 Wele, yn awr, y mae dw
y ferch gennyf fi, y rhai nid adnabuant wr; dygaf hwynt allan atoch chwi yn awr, a gwnewch iddynt fel y gweloch yn dda; yn unig na wnewch ddim ir gwyr hyn; oherwydd er mwyn hynny y daethant dan gysgod fy nghronglwyd i
Genesis 19:8 Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes: only unto these men do nothing; for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof.

Mathew 8:8 Ar canwriad a atebodd ac a ddywedodd, Arglw
ydd, nid ydwyf deilwng i ddyfod ohonot dan fy nghronglwyd: eithr yn unig dywed y gair, am gwas a iacheir
Matthew 8:8 The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed.

ETYMOLOGY: curved hurdle - cronglw
yd kro-ngluid < crng-glwyd krong-gluid < crn-glwyd kron-gluid < cromglwyd krom-gluid (crom, feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (clwyd = hurdle).

(1) There was confusion between crwm / crom (= curved) and crwn / cron (= round);

(2) and the combination n-g, as in Bangor became ng, as in llong; another example of this change is dan|gos (= to show) (ng-g) which is pronounced dangos (ng) in the North

:_______________________________.

cronl
yn kron -lin masculine noun
PLURAL cronlynnau
kron- lə -ne
1
reservoir
Cronl
yn Pontsticyll Pontsticyll reservoir

2
Ffordd y Cronl
yn street name, Caerfyrddin

(delw 6994) Ffordd y Cronlyn
(delwedd 6994) Ffordd y Cronlyn, Y Tanerdy, Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen in August 2003 (during a Cymdeithas yr Iaith march from North-west Wales to the Welsh capital in the south-east to demand affordable housing for the low-waged in Welsh communties; in the Welsh-speaking districts there is acute housing crisis for local people as a result of the massive immigration of rich incomers (mainly from England) over the past couple of decades)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=199352 Y Tanerd
y, map

ETYMOLOGY: The first noted occurrence of cronl
yn is in the year 1851
(cronn- root of cronni = to gather) + soft mutation + (ll
yn = lake)

More usually reservoir is cronfa ddŵr or cronfa

:_______________________________.

cropian
KROP yan (verb)
1
(North) to drag,
2
(South) to crawl

:_______________________________.

crosewl
kro -seul feminine noun
PLURAL crosewl
ydd kro-seu-lidh
(South-east Wales)
1
crossroad; see croesheol
y grosewl the crossroad

Croesheol
ydd farm south of Rhiwderin, by the road south-west to Pen-y-lan
(?the local form is surely Crosewl
ydd)

:_______________________________.

crosol
kro -sol feminine noun
(South-east Wales)
1
crossroad; see croesheol
y grosol = the crossroad

:_______________________________.

croten, crots
KRO ten, KROTS (feminine noun)
1
lass, girl (South Wales)
y groten = the lass

:_______________________________.

crotes, crotesi
KRO tes, kro TE si (feminine noun)
1
lass, girl (South Wales)
y grotes = the lass

:_______________________________.

Croudd
yn KROI dhin
1
a local form of the name Creudd
yn (qv) in Ceredigion

Llanbadarn y Creudd
yn (parish name) > Llanbadarn y Crouddyn

Llanfihangel y Creudd
yn (parish name) > Llanfihangel y Crouddyn

:_______________________________.

croth, crothau 1
KROOTH, KRO the (feminine noun)
1
womb
y groth = the womb
2
croth or croth y goes calf (of the leg)

:_______________________________.

cro
yw KROI u (adjective)
1
(water) fresh, sweet, pure = not salt
dŵr croyw fresh water
p
ysgodyn dŵr croyw freshwater fish
ll
yfrothen dŵr croyw (f), llyfrothod dŵr croyw (Gobio gobio) gudgeon

:_______________________________.

Crucadarn
KRI KAA darn (masculine noun)
1
A village SO0842 in Pow
ys. The English spell it Crickadarn.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0842

Crucadarn < crug cadarn (strong hill, fortified hill) (crug = hill) + (cadarn = strong, firm)

:_______________________________.

crud, crudau
KRIID, KRI de (feminine noun)
1
cradle
y grud = the cradle

:_______________________________.

Crudycastell
kriid-ə-ka-stelh
1 Street name in the town of Dinb
ych (county of Dinbych) (Crud Y Castell)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the wind) (crud = cradle) + (y = the) + ( castell = castle)

:_______________________________.

Crud-y-gw
ynt kriid-ə-gwint
1 house name

2 Street name in
..a/ the town of Dinb
ych (county of Dinbych) (Crud Y Gwynt)
..b/ Myn
yddisa (county of Y Fflint) (Crud Y Gwynt)

NOTE: Although Crud-y-gw
ynt is a more correct spelling, it is normally spelt with the elements separated Crud y Gwynt

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the wind) (crud = cradle) + (y = the) + (gwynt = wind)

:_______________________________.

Crudyrawel
kriid-ə-rau-el
1 house name
..g/ Pen-y-fai (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Crud Yr Awel)

2 Street name in
..a/ the town of Castell-nedd (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (Crud Yr Awel)
..b/ Clawddnewydd, Rhuthun (county of Dinb
ych) (Crud Yr Awel)
..c/ the town of Dinb
ych (county of Dinbych) (Crud Yr Awel)
..d/ Efail-wen, Clynderwen (county of Caerfyrddin) (Crud Yr Awel)
..e/ Gorseinion (county of Abertawe) (Crud-Yr-Awel)
..f/ Niwbwrch (county of Yn
ys Mn) (Crud Yr Awel)
..g/ Pen-y-fai (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Crud Yr Awel)

NOTE: Although Crudyrawel would be a more correct spelling, it is normally spelt with the elements separated Crud yr Awel

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the wind / breeze) (crud = cradle) + (yr = the) + (awel = wind / breeze)
:_______________________________.

Crud-yr-haul
kriid-ər-HAIL
1 house name in Tal-y-bont, Conw
y

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) cradle (of) the sun) (crud = cradle) + (yr = the) + (haul = sun)
:_______________________________.

crug, crugiau
KRIIG, KRIG ye (masculine noun)
1
mound, heap

..............................................................

2 castle mound

..............................................................

3 burial mound, tumulus

..............................................................

..a/ Cefnwyrgrug SN8196 by Aberhosan (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys) < cefn yr wyddgrug (the) hill (of) the tumulus

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=266813 map, Cefnwyrgrug

..b/ Gwyddgrug (SN4635) at Llanfihangel ar Arth (county of Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1176201 Gwyddgrug

..c/ Y Wyddgrug (=Y 7003_w_gytsain_081018yddgrug) at Madrun SH6673, near Abergwyngregyn (county of Gwynedd)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/151498 Madrun, map

..d/ Y Wyddgrug (=Y 7003_w_gytsain_081018yddgrug) at Ffordun SJ2200 (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2200 Ffordun. Map.

..e/ Yr Wyddgrug SJ2363 town in the county of Y Fflint (English name: Mold)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2363 Yr Wyddgrug. Map.

..............................................................

7429_map_llwyd_cymru_LLIW_yr_wyddgrug_090311

(delwedd 7429)

3 Crucadarn (qv) (Crug Cadarn). Village in Pow
ys.

6995_crugiau_awst_2004_0801001
(delwedd 6995) Crugiau. Enw tŷ yng Nghorris, Awst 2003. House name, Corris, 2003

:_______________________________.

Crugcadarn
KRI KAA darn (masculine noun)
1
See Crucadarn

:_______________________________.

crugan
kr-gan masculine noun
1 mound

There is a Crugan Avenue (which would be Coedlan y Crugan / Coedlan Crugan or Rhodfar Crugan / Rhodfa Crugan in Welsh) in Baecinmel (SH9880) (county of Conw
y)

ETYMOLOGY: little mound (crug = tumulus) + (-an diminutive suffix added to nouns)

:_______________________________.

Crug Mawr
kriig MAUR

1 former name of the hill
SN2047 in Llangoedmor (Ceredigion) known as Banc y Warren (qv)
Below the hill there is a farm called
Crugmor
Also in stress shift, especially noticeble in place names with an original mawr / fawr (= big)
crug-mwr (great heap / mound) > crg-mawr > crgmor

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/54234

:_______________________________.

crug
yn KRIIG-in
1 little mound

Y Crug
yn SN9872 Name of an earthwork west of Sant Harmon, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=245196

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) mound (of) the bronze) (crug = mound) + (yr = the) + (ef
ydd = bronze)

:_______________________________.

Crugyref
ydd kriig ər EE-vidh
1 Street name in Crym
ych (county of Penfro) (Crug Yr Efydd)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) mound (of) the bronze) (crug = mound) + (yr = the) + (ef
ydd = bronze)

:_______________________________.

crwban, crwbanod
KRU ban, kru BA nod (masculine noun)
1
tortoise

2
crwban mr, crwbanod mr
kru ban MOOR, kru BA nod MOOR
sea turtle

:_______________________________.

crwca
kru -ka adjective

NOTE: there is feminine form croca > groca used after feminine nouns; thought the masculine form crwca > grwca is also used, as in some examples below.

1 hunchbacked, humpbacked
hen wraig grwca a hunchbacked old woman

2
crooked, bent

3
trw
yn crwca hooked nose, curved down like an eagle's beak

4
pont grwca humpbacked bridge

pompren grwca humpbacked footbridge

Rh
yd y bompran grwca
Pw welas-ti'n m
y
nd drwa? (= pwy a welaist ti yn mynd drwodd?)
Dy gariad di, lliw blota'r drain,
(= lliw blodaur drain)
Fel cambric main o'r India

Verse in the triban style, south-east Wales, 1800s
In standardised Welsh:

Rh
yd y bompren groca
Pw
y a welaist ti yn mynd drwodd?
D
y
gariad di, lliw blodaur drain
Fel cambric main or India


The ford of the humpbacked footbridge
Who did you see going through?
Your sweetheart, as fair as hawthorn blossom, (your love of-you, (the) colour (of) flowers (of) the hawthorn-bushes)
Like fine cambric cloth from India

5
ffon groca, plural ff
yn crwca curved stick (for games such as bando or hockey)

6
Cae Crwca field name in Llangrallo (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) . Field with a mound

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English croke (= Modern English crook) < Norse krokr = hook

:_______________________________.

crwm
KRUM [krʊm] adjective
1
crooked, curved

2
(nose) aquiline, hooked

3
stooping, hunched

4
in masculine compound words or derivative forms as a first element as crym-
..... (1) cryman = sickle, reaping hook (-an = suffix)
..... (2) crymedd = curvature (-edd = suffix)
..... (3) crymffast = lad (ffast = unknown element)
..... (4) crymgledd = sabre (curved sword) (cledd = sword)
..... (5) cryml
yn = curved valley (glyn = valley)
Also the verb crymu = to bend

5
in feminine compound words as a first element as crom-
..... (1) crombil crop or gizzard of a bird
(crom = feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (pil = skin, loose skin, birds crop)
..... (2) cromfach (punctuation) bracket (bach = hook)
..... (3) cromgell vault, underground chamber (cell = cell)
..... (4) cromlech burial chamber (llech = stone slab)
..... (5) cromlin curved line (eg on a graph) (llin = line)

6
amgrwm convex
cromlin amgrwm convex line

7
ceugrwm concave
cromlin geugrwm concave line

8
cefngrwm crook-backed

9 gwargrwm round-shouldered, hunched
Eisteddai yn wargrwm wrth y tn He was sitting hunched by the fire
(gwar = nape of the neck, back of the neck ) + soft mutation + (crwm = bent )

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic

From the same British root: Cornish kromm (= curved), Breton kromm (= curved),
From the same Celtic root: Irish crom (= curved).

Greek kramb-, as in krambe (= plant with wrinkled leaves, i.e. cabbage)
cf Lowlandic crummock (= stick with curved end) < Scottish (Gaelic) cromag (= hook)

NOTE: feminine form: crom, plural crymion

:_______________________________.

crwn, crynion
KRUN, KRƏN-yon [krʊn,ˡkrənjɔn] (adjective)
Feminine form: cron / gron

1
round

2
yn grwn ac ar groes completely (roundly and contrarily)
gwadu rh
ywbeth yn grwn ac ar groes completely deny something

3
Cae Crwn y cae crwn = the round field
Cae-crwn street name
..a/ Dynfant (county of Abertawe) (Cae Crwn)
..b/ Machynlleth (county of Pow
ys) (Cae Crwn)

4 (y) Waun-gron (round moor) district in Caer-dydd

5 bwa hanner-crwn semi-circular arch

:_______________________________.

crwner
KRUU-ner [ˡkruˑnɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL crwneriaid
kru-NER-yaid, -yed [krʊˡnɛrjaɪd, -ɛd]
1
coroner = law officer who holds an inquest to investigate deaths which are suspicious or the result of an accident. Historically he was an officer of a county or municipality whose function was to keep records of court cases and to protect royal property. A surviving duty relating to this is deciding whether or not treasure trove (eg. buried hoards of old coins, grave artefacts) belongs to the Crown, or to the finder

NOTE: Also colloquially crowner
KROU-ner [ˡkrɔʊnɛr]

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English crowner < French of England corouner (= official of the Crown) < (coroune = crown) + (-er agent suffix); < Latin corona (= crown).

Modern French couronne (= crown)

:_______________________________.

crwst, crystiau
KRUST, KRƏST-yai, -ye [krʊst, ˡkrəstjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
crust (bread)

:_______________________________.

crwt / crwt
yn, crwts KRUT, KRU-tin, KRUTS [krʊtˡ, ˡkrʊtɪn, krʊts] (masculine noun)
1
lad (South Wales)

:_______________________________.

crwth, crythau
KRUUTH, KRƏ-thai, -the [kruːθ, ˡkrəθaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
fiddle

2 chwaraer crwth a Rhufain yn llosgi; also canu crwth tra llosgo Rhufain
fiddle while Rome burns, attend to unimportant matters during an emergency or a crisis

3
basgrwth
double bass
(bas = bass) + soft mutation + (crwth = violin)
Also: dwbl bas

A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, (in three parts) by a Lady: to which is added a Glossary. James Frederick Palmer, Mary Palmer. 1837: CROWD or CROWDY-KIT, s[ubstantive]. a fiddle : from Crwth, Welsh.

:_______________________________.

crw
ydr KRUIDR, KRUI-dir [ˡkrʊɪdr, krʊɪdɪr]
PLURAL crw
ydrau KRUI-drai, -dre [ˡkrʊɪdraɪ, -ɛ]
1 (obsolete) sieve

2 wandering

3 (adj) (animal) stray
ci crw
ydr, pl. cŵn crwydr stray dog
cath grw
ydr, cathod crwydr stray cat

4 ar grwydr wandering around
ar grw
ydr yng Nghasnewydd wandering around in Casnewydd

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kreitr-
From the same British root: Cornish kroedr (= sieve), Breton krouer (= sieve) < kroezr

From the same Indoeuropean root: Latin cribrum (= sieve), English riddle < Old English hriddel < hridder

:_______________________________.

crw
ydro KRUI-dro [ˡkrʊɪdrɔ] (verb)
1
to wander

:_______________________________.

crw
yn KRUIN [krʊɪn]

1
skins; plural form of croen

:_______________________________.

crw
ynwr KRUI-nur [ˡkrʊɪnʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL crw
ynwyr KRUIN-wir [ˡkrʊɪnwɪr]
1
dealer in furs

ETYMOLOGY: (crw
yn = fur) + (-wr agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

crw
ys KRUIS [krʊɪs]
feminine noun
South Wales
1
obsolete (as either a feminine or a masculine noun) y grw
ys / y crwys = the cross, the crucifix

2
obsolete y crw
ys = the crosses, the crucifixes.
The singular noun (crw
ys = cross) was later understood as a plural noun (crwys = crosses), and a new singular form croes came about, on the analogy of the native words (Welsh < British < Celtic)
.....(1) oen = lamb (plural w
yn = lambs), and
.....(2) croen = skin (crw
yn = skins).

3
There are some place names in South Wales with crw
ys (though whether it is used as a singular or a plural form is unclear in some cases)

(1) Y Crw
ys (county of Abertawe) (the crosses) (English name: Three Crosses)

(2) Pant-y-crw
ys (Craig-cefn-parc, county of Abertawe) ((the) hollow (of) the crosses / the cross) (The poet Crwys (William Crwys Williams 1875-1968) was from Craig-cefn-parc),

(3) Bwlch-crw
ys (by Aber-porth, county of Ceredigion) (= bwlch y crwys, (the) gap (of) the crosses / the cross)

(4) Heol y Crw
ys ((the) road (of) Crwys farm) (qv). A street in Caer-dydd, from the name of a farm now demolished probably at the site of a cross marking a parish boundary

3
Also the saying tan eich crw
ys (again it is unclear whether it is used as a singular or a plural form) = laid out before burial (literally under your cross; that is, with a crucifix placed on the corpse; or possibly under your crossed arms)

In "Hanes y B
yd ar Amseroedd" (History of the World and the Ages) (1718, 1721), the author Simon Thomas states:
Fe ddywedir pan fo farw un, fod y cyfr
y
w un "dan ei grwys" Canys felly yr oedd y Ddefod gynt, sef, wneuthur Crwys (hynny yw Croes)... ai gosod ar {sic} y Corph hyd oni osodid mewn daiar :
It is said, when one dies, that such a person is "dan ei grw
ys" (under his cross). For thus was the practice formerly, that is, to make a "crwys" (that is, a cross)... and put it on the body until it might be placed in the ground
Studies in Welsh Grammar and Philology / Samuel J. Evans / Caerd
ydd / no date (1925?) (Tudalen / Page 222)

Dan ei grw
ys, literally under his cross is a familiar expression in South-west Wales for a body between death and burial. The phrase is to be explained by reference to the habit of placing a cross over the corpse to prevent the approach of the Evil One, who might otherwise spirit it away, (Tudalen / Page 63) "Y mae dan ei grwys" is a familiar expression in South-west Wales for a body between death and burial. The expression recalls a Roman Catholic custom.
Also: tan y crwys = under the crosses (or the cross), tan grwys = under crosses (or a cross)

ETYMOLOGY: Latin crux (= cross) > British *kruks > Welsh


The usual modern Welsh word for cross, croes, is a reworking of crwys, since this resembles a plural form in words of Celtic origin

oen - w
yn (lamb - lambs),
croen - crw
yn (skin - skins),

and so a singular form with oe came about, and crw
ys in the main then had a plural sense.

From the same British root *kruks:

Breton kroas (= cross),

Cornish krows (= cross, from Old Cornish krois, which should have given kros - the form krows is unexpected and unusual)

:_______________________________.

Y Crw
ys ə KRUIS [əˡkrʊɪs]
1
SS5794 locality in the county of Abertawe, literally the crosses. The English call it Three Crosses.

:_______________________________.

crybw
yll KRƏ-builh [ˡkrƏbʊɪɬ] v
1 mention
Er mw
yn popeth, peidiwch a chrybwyll y peth wrth Owain y Bont
For Gods sake dont mention it to Owain y Bont

2 mention = refer to, talk briefly about
Er fy mod wedi crybw
yll rahi fel y beirdd au noddwyr ynghynt
Although I mentioned people like the poets and their sponsors before

3 bondigrybw
yll = scarcely mentionable, best not mentioned, dare I say it, that everybody talks about; (as if an adjective) much talked-about, well-known, notorious
(na bo ond i grybw
yll = which might not be except for its mentioning (na = which-not) + (bo = it might be) + (ond = but, except) + (i / ei = its) + soft mutation + (crybwyll = mention, mentioning)

ETYMOLOGY: (prefix cy-) + soft mutation + (infix rh
y) + soft mutation + (pwyll-, = root of pwyllo = consider, contemplate)



:_______________________________.

cr
ych KRIIKH [kriːx] masculine noun
PLURAL crychiau
KRƏKH-yai, -ye [ˡkrəxjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
ripple, ripplet
(South Wales) berwi yn grychiau > berwin griche boil furiously

2
rough water in a river, a shallow

3
ripple = fault in a slate

4
curly-top = somebody with curly hair
Cr
ych Elen (curly-hair (from Dolydd) Elen) was the pseudonym of poet Thomas Lloyd (1841-1909). Born in Liverpool, his father was English and his mother was from Dolwyddelan, and on the death of his father he went to live with his grandmother at Tyn-y-fron, Dolwyddelan.

(Dolwyddelan is dl W
yddelan = the meadow of Gwyddelan, but a popular interpretation was dolydd Elen = the meadows of Elen, wife of Macsen Wledig).

He was the author of a song popular in the late 1800s, Y Bwth
yn Bach To Gwellt (the little thatched cottage). He later emigrated to the USA, and is buried in Fair View Cemetery, Slatington, Pennsylvania. See the article in Welsh Cerddor o Gymro yn cael ei gofio ar y We (Welsh musician commemorated on the Web) / Iwan Hughes / Y Faner Newydd 15 / Blwyddyn 2000 / tt32-33

ETYMOLOGY: from the adjective cr
ych (= wrinkled, curly)

NOTE: The base form of the Southern Welsh plural is crychau, with -au instead of -iau;
..a/ Colloquially a penult
y i [ɪ]
, instead of becoming y ə [ə] remains, hence crichau;
..b/ Final -au is
e [ɛ] in the south-west, a [a] in the south-east.

Hence criche / cricha

:_______________________________.

cr
ych KRIIKH [kriːx] adjective
1
rippling, swirling, agitated, rough, violent

ffrwd grech stream with churning water

There is a road called Ffrwdgrech Road (which in Welsh would be Heol Ffrwd-grech) in Aberhonddu (county of Pow
ys)

:_______________________________.

crychddu

1 stream name

gwallt crychddu ri

ETYMOLOGY: Probably (crych = rippling, swirling) + soft mutation + (du = black)


:_______________________________.

cr
ychdon KRƏKH-don [ˡkrəxdɔn] feminine noun
PLURAL
crychdonnau KRƏKH-do-nai, -ne [krəxˡdɔnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
ripple

ETYMOLOGY: (crych- Ə [ə] penult syllable form of crych II [iː] = ripple) + soft mutation + (ton = wave)

:_______________________________.

cr
ychdonni KRƏKH-do-ni [krəxˡdɔnɪ] verb
1
to ripple
tanc cr
ychdonni (Physics) ripple tank

ETYMOLOGY: (crychdonn- penult syllable form of crychdon = ripple) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cr
yd KRIID [kriːd] (masculine noun)

PLURAL crydiau KRƏD-yai, -ye [ ˡkrəjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
trembling, shivering, shuddering
hala cryd ar make somebodys spine shiver (send a shuddering on)

hala tipyn o gryd ar send a shiver down somebodys spine, make somebodys spine shiver (send a bit of a shuddering on)

Mae gweld nadredd yn hala tamed o gryd arna i

Seeing snakes sends a shiver down my spine

2 fever, ague
cryd cymalau / cricymylau rheumatism < cryd y cymylau fever of the joints

cryd poeth burning fever
Deuteronium 28:22
Yr ARGLWYDD a'th dery darfodedigaeth, ac chryd poeth, ac llosgfa, ac gwres, ac chleddyf, ac diflaniad, ac mallter; hwy a'th ddilynant nes dy ddifetha
Deuteronomy 28:22 The LORD shall smite thee with a consumption, and with a fever, and with an inflammation, and with an extreme burning, and with the sword, and with blasting, and with mildew; and they shall pursue thee until thou perish.

crynfa or cryd (obsolete) an attack of the shakes (from a fever) (a shivering from the fever)
crynfar cryd (obsolete) an attack of the shakes (from a fever) ((the) shivering (of) the fever)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *krit-
From the same British root: Cornish krys (= trembling, shivering), Breton kridienn (= shudder, shiver)
From the same Celtic root: Irish crith (= shudder, shiver)


:_______________________________.

cr
ydd, cryddion KRIIDH, KRƏDH-yon [kriː, ˡkrəjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
shoemaker, cobbler

:_______________________________.

cr
yf, cryfion KRIIV,KRƏV-yon [kriːv, ˡkrəvjɔn] (adjective)
1
strong

2
esgidiau cryfion = stout shoes

3
cystadleuaeth am y cryfaf a competiton to see whos the strongest, a trial of strength

4
y rh
yw gref (= men) the stronger sex (the strong sex)



:_______________________________.

cryfion
KRƏV-yon [ˡkrəvjɔn] adj
1
plural form of cr
yf = strong
esgidiau cryfion = stout shoes

ETYMOLOGY: (cr
yf = strong ) + (-ion suffix for forming plurals of adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cr
ygu KRƏ-gi [ˡkrəgɪ] (verb)
1
grow hoarse; have a frog in your throat

:_______________________________.

cryman
KRƏ-man [ˡkrəman] masculine noun
PLURAL crymanau
krə-MA-nai, -ne [krəˡmanaɪ, -ɛ]
1
sickle, reaping hook; implement with a curved blade for cutting grass or corn

2
bill, hook; implement with a long blade and a hooked point for cutting thorn hedges

3
sickle = symbol of agricultural labour on Communist insignia; y morthwl ar cryman the hammer and the sickle

4
comparison: mor gam chryman said of something bent, such as a persons back ("as crooked as a sickle")

5
comparison: ar ffurf cryman in the shape of a sickle
heol ar ffurf cryman a sickle-shaped street, a crescent-shaped street

6
South-west Wales dalen gryman (indefinite form), dalen y cryman (definite form) plantago lanceolata ribwort plantain
Welsh cryman (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + (-an)

From the same British root: Cornish krommenn (= sickle), Breton krommenn (= curve)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cromn = (
anatomy) hip, (mechanics) crank)

:_______________________________.

crymanbig ddu
krə-MAN-big DHII [krəˡmanbɪg ˡiː] feminine noun
PLURAL cr
ymanbigau du / duon krə-man-BII-gai, -ge, DII, krə-man-BII-gai, -ge, DII-on [krəmanˡbiˑgaɪ, -ɛ, ˡdː, krəmanˡbiˑgaɪ, -ɛ, ˡdiˑɔn]
1
Ornithology; plegadis falcinellus = glossy ibis
y grymanbig = the ibis

ETYMOLOGY: "black sickle-beak" (cryman = sickle) + soft mutation + (pig = beak)

:_______________________________.

cryman cau
KRƏ-man KAI [ˡkrəman ˡkaɪ] masculine noun
1
hedging bill, hedging hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (for) making-a-hedge" (cryman = sickle) + (cau = to close, to enclose, to make a hedge)

:_______________________________.

cryman medi
KRƏ-man MEE-di [ˡkrəman ˡmeˑdɪ] masculine noun
1
reaping hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (of) reaping" (cryman = sickle) + (medi = to reap)

:_______________________________.

cryman perthi
KRƏ-man PER-thi [ˡkrəman ˡpɛrθɪ] masculine noun
South Wales
1
hedging bill, hedging hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (of) hedges" (cryman = sickle) + (perthi = hedges)

:_______________________________.

cryman taro
KRƏ-man TAA-ro [ˡkrəman ˡtɑˑrɔ] masculine noun
North Wales
1
reaping hook

ETYMOLOGY: "sickle (of) knocking / hitting" (cryman = sickle) + (taro = to knock, to hit)

:_______________________________.

crymedd
KRƏ-medh [ˡkrəmɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL crymeddau
krə-MEE-dhai, -dhe [krəˡmeˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
curvature = the curved part of something
crymedd y ddaear = the curvature of the earth

ETYMOLOGY: (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + (-edd)

:_______________________________.

crymffast
KRƏM-fast [ˡkrəmfast] masculine noun
PLURAL crymffastiau
krəm-FAST-yai, -ye [krəmˡfastjaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales
1
boy; pan oeddan nin grwmffastiau when we were boys

2
crymffastiau boys; boys and girls

3
crymffast o hog
yn big strapping lad, big strong lad

4
lout

y crymffast digywil
ydd! the cheeky lout! you cheeky lout!

5
large young sheep

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh crymffast < crynffast (cryn-, penult form of crwn = round) + (ffast, unknown element)
VARIANTS: crwmffast, crynffast, crwmffost

:_______________________________.

crymffastes
krəm-FAS-tes [krəmˡfastɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL crymffastesau
krəm-fas-TE-sai, -se [krəmfasˡtɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales
1
girl, lass; strapping lass
y grymffastes the lass

ETYMOLOGY: (crymffast = boy) + (es, suffix to denote a female)

:_______________________________.

crymgledd
KRƏM-gledh [ˡkrəmglɛ]
masculine noun
PLURAL cr
ymgleddyfau krəm-gle-DHƏ-vai, -ve [krəmglɛˡəvaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(USA: saber) (Englandic: sabre) = sword with a curved blade

ETYMOLOGY: (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (cledd = sword)

:_______________________________.

Y Cryml
yn ə KRƏM-lin [ə ˡkrəmlɪn]
1
(ST2198) locality in the county of Caerffili (Anglicised as "Crumlin");
Population 1961: 4,967 (3% Welsh speakers)

2
also north-west of Heol-y-c
yw (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) there is Nant Crymlyn SS9583, Blaen Crymlyn, and a farm called Blaencrymlyn
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1019689 Nant Crymlyn
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

3
Crymlyn farm west of Y Sgiwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
By here, according to English-language maps, are

Crymlyn Brook (?Nant Cryml
yn)
Crymlyn Bog (Cors Cryml
yn)
Crymlyn Road between Y Sgiwen and Winsh-wen (?Heol Cryml
yn)
Crymlyn Parc, in Y Sgiwen (?Parc Cryml
yn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS6995

4 Cryml
yn farm name, Abergwyngregyn SH6572 (county of Conwy), mentioned in the 1851 Census

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6572 Abergwyngregyn

ETYMOLOGY: (crym-, penult form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (gl
yn = valley)

:_______________________________.

cr
yn KRIN [ˡkrɪn] (adverb)
1
considerable
Mae cr
yn daith on blaenau We have a long way to go (there is a considerable journey before us)

Mae cr
yn bellter on blaenau We have a long way to go (there is a considerable distance before us)

Mae cr
yn siwrnai on blaenau We have a long way to go (there is a considerable journey before us)

2
g
yda chryn drafferth with great difficulty

bod cryn le i wella ar (rywbeth) leave a lot to be desired (to be a considerable place to improve on something)

3
cryn dipyn quite a bit

darllen cryn dipyn am read quite a bit about

4
cryn dipyn o quite a bit of

clywed cryn dipyn o Gymraeg hear quite a bit of Welsh

bod yn gr
yn dipyn o gybydd be a real miser, be a real skinflint

5 gr
yn dipyn (adverbial) considerably, much, very much, quite a bit

There is soft mutation
cryn dipyn > gryn dipyn because of its adverbial function

Lleihaodd nifer
yr aelodau gryn dipyn The membership dropped quite a bit

Adjectives are introduced by the linking
yn:

Mae hi gr
yn dipyn yn dwymach heddiw Its a lot warmer today

bod gryn dipyn yn oerach be much colder, quite a bit colder

bod gryn dipyn yn well be a lot better

bod gryn dipyn yn uwch be a lot higher

bod gryn dipyn yn llai be a lot less

bod gr
y
n dipyn yn fwy be a lot more

6 o gryn dipyn by quite a bit

bod yn well eu b
yd o gryn dipyn be considerably wealthier / better off

:_______________________________.

crynfr
yn KRƏN-vrin [ˡkrənvrɪn] masculine noun
1
round hill
(1) Rhes Crynfr
yn street name, Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion) (rhes = row of houses)

(2) Crynfr
yn SN3625 farm 2km south-south-west of Cynwyl Elfed (county of Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=202958

ETYMOLOGY: (cryn-, penult form of crwn = round) + soft mutation + (br
yn = hill)

:_______________________________.

crynhi
krə-NHOI [krəˡnhɔɪ] (verb)
1
collect

:_______________________________.

crynoder
krə-NOO-der [krəˡnoˑdɛr] masculine noun
1
conciseness

ETYMOLOGY: (cryno = concise) + (-der suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

crynu
KRƏ-ni [krənɪ] (vi)
1
(vi) shake, shudder (from fear, cold)

Rw in crynu i g
yd (Im shaking all) Im shaking all over

Also in the South cyrnu
KƏR-ni [kərnɪ], a form showing metathesis;

cf in the South pyrnu
PƏR-ni [pərnɪ] < prynu (= to buy)

:_______________________________.

cr
ys, crysau KRIIS, KRƏ-sai, -se [ˡkriːs, ˡkrəsaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
shirt

2 gwregys belt

crys (= shirt) >

*gwogrys (= under-shirt) (prefix gwo-, from the Old Welsh preposition gwo = under) >

*gwagrys (a takes the place of o; in certain other words with an original gwo- this gwa- survives in modern Welsh e.g. gwaredu = to get rid of) >

*gwegrys (vowel affection; a > e because of the i in the final syllable) >


*gwregys metathesis, GR > R-vowel-G

:_______________________________.

cr
ys dur kriis DIIR [kriˑs ˡdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL crysau dur
KRƏ-sai, -se, DIIR [ˡkrəsaɪ, -ɛ, ˡdiːr]
1
hauberk = tunic of chain mail

ETYMOLOGY: shirt (of) steel (cr
ys = shirt) + (dur = steel)

:_______________________________.

cr
ys nos kriis NOOS [kriːs ˡnoːs]
(masculine noun)
1
nightshirt (men)

:_______________________________.

crysbais, crysbeisiau
KRƏS-bais, -bes, krə-SPEIS-yai, -ye [ˡkrəsbaɪs, -ɛs, krəˡsbəɪsjaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
vest

:_______________________________.

crysbais weu, crysbeisiau gweu
KRƏS-bais, -bes, WEI, krə-SPEIS-yai, -ye, GWEI [ˡkrəsbaɪs, -ɛs, ˡwəɪ, krəˡsbəɪsjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡgwəɪ] ( (feminine noun)
1
(Englandic: woollen vest)

:_______________________________.

cryst
yn, crystiau KRƏ-stin, KRƏST-yai, -ye [ˡkrəstɪn, ˡkrəstjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
crust

:_______________________________.

crythwr
KRƏ-thur [ˡkrəθʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL crythw
yr KRƏTH-wir [ˡkrəθwɪr]
1
crwth player, someone who plays a crwth, fiddler

ETYMOLOGY: (cryth-, penult form of crwth = fiddle) + (-wr agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

Y Cr
yw ə KRIU [ə ˡkrɪʊ]

1 SJ3215 village in Powys. English name: Crewgreen

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/924677

:_______________________________.

c-t < g-d
dicter
anger
(dig [diig] = angry) + soft mutation + (-ter suffix for forming abstract nouns) > *digder > dicter (g-d > c-t)

gwacter emptiness
(gwag [gwaag] = empty) + soft mutation + (-ter suffix for forming abstract nouns) > *gwagder > gwacter (g-d > c-t)

:_______________________________.

CTCC ek-tii-ek-EK [ ɛk ti: ɛk ˡɛk]
cmera teledu cylch cyfyng

CCTV, closed circuit TV camera

7360_camera_teledu_cylch_cyfyng_090131

(delwedd 7360) (Gorsaf Abertawe / Swansea Station, Awst 2006)

:_______________________________.

ctn.
1
abbreviation of cytundeb (= agteement)
:_______________________________.

cu
KII [kiː] adj
1 dear, beloved
ein Ceidwad cu our dear Saviour
Iesu cu dear Jesus
cyfaill cu bosom friend

As a noun
y cu (m) the beloved one
y gu (f) the beloved one

Deuteronomium 21:15-16
15 Pan fyddo i ŵr ddwy wraig, un yn gu, ac un yn gas; a phlanta or gu ar gas feibion iddo ef, a bod y mab cyntaf-anedig or un gas:
16 Yna bydded, yn y dydd y rhanno efe ei etifeddiaeth rhwng ei feibion y rhai fyddant iddo, na ddichon efe wneuthur yn gyntaf-anedig fab y gu o flaen mab y gas, yr hwn sydd gyntaf-anedig;
Deuteronomy 21:15-16
15: If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated, and they have born him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the firstborn son be hers that was hated:
16: Then it shall be, when he maketh his sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may not make the son of the beloved firstborn before the son of the hated, which is indeed the firstborn:

2 cu gan beloved by
Roedd ei wyres fach yn gu iawn ganddo He was very fond of his little granddaughter (very loved by him)

Samuel-2 1:26 Gofid sydd arnaf amdanat ti, fy mrawd Jonathan: cu iawn fuost gennyf fi: rhyfeddol oedd dy gariad tuag ataf fi, tu hwnt i gariad gwragedd.
Samuel-2 1:26 I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan: very pleasant hast thou been unto me: thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women

3 cuedd love, affection
amguedd dear things; property, wealth, treasure (am- = around)
amgueddfa museum (-fa = place)

4 (South Wales)
mam-gu grandmother (beloved mother)
tad-gu grandfather (beloved father)

5 Final element in the given names Dyddcu / Dyddgu (f), Lleucu (f)

ETYMOLOGY: cu < cuf < British < Celtic *koim-
From the same British root: Cornish kuv, Breton kuv

:_______________________________.

cudd
KIIDH [kiː] masculine noun
1
concealment; hiding place

cadw
yn y cudd stay in hiding, keep a low profile, keep your head down, try not to draw attention (keep in the hiding)

bod
ynghdd be hidden

2 (adjective) hidden, secret = ndeclared, not told to anybody

Bu'n uchelgais gudd genn
yf ymuno r llynges fasnachol
It was a secret ambition of mine to join the merchant navy

3
secret = undercover, clandestine; used hidden methods

cudd-weithredwr secret agent
heddlu cudd secret police
gwasanaeth cudd secret service

4 neidr gudd snake in the grass, treacherous person (hidden snake)

5 cudd y coed (Clematis vitalba) old mans beard, travellers joy

(the) hidden [plant] (of) the wood

(
cudd = hidden (adj); a hidden thing (noun)) + (y = the) + (coed = wood)

Cudd-y-coed Name of a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) (spelt as Cudd y Coed)

7915_clematis-vitalba_cudd-y-coed_120925

(delwedd 7915)

ETYMOLOGY: British; also in Breton kuzh (= hidden; hiding place) (e-kuzh = in secret)

:_______________________________.

cudd-deithio
kiidh-DEITH-io [kiːˡdəɪθɪɔ] verb
1
stow away = hide in a ship or a plane in order to travel without paying

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = secret, hidden ) + soft mutation + ( teitho = to travel)

:_______________________________.

cudd-deithiwr
kiidh-DEITH-yur [kiːˡdəɪθjʊr]
masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-deithw
yr kiidh-DEITH-wir [kiːˡdəɪθwɪr]
1
stowaway = a person who hides in a ship or a plane in order to travel without paying the fare

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = secret, hidden ) + soft mutation + ( teithiwr = traveller)

:_______________________________.

cuddio
KIDH-yo [ˡkɪjɔ] (verb)
1
to hide

2
Ofer cuddioch pen
yn y tywod Its no use hiding your head in the sand (from the erroneous belief that when danger threatens an ostrich buries its head in the sand in order to ignore the danger)

3
ymguddio hide oneself

:_______________________________.

cuddliw
KIDH-liu [ˡkɪlɪʊ] masculine noun
PLURAL cuddliwiau
kidh-LIU-yai, -ye [kɪˡlɪʊjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
camouflage = a form of disguise in which a creature adopts the colour and texture of its surroundings and appears to be part of them

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd-, stem of cuddio = to hide) + soft mutation + (lliw = color)

:_______________________________.

cuddliwio
kidh-LIU-yo [kɪˡlɪʊjɔ] verb
1
to camouflage = disguise by adopting the colour and texture of the surroundings and appearing to be part of them

ETYMOLOGY: (cuddliw = camouflage) + (-io, suffix for forming a verb)

:_______________________________.

cuddliwiol
kidh-LIU-yol [kɪˡlɪʊjɔl] adjective
1
apatetic = relating to colouring which hides an animal and protects it from predators

ETYMOLOGY: (cuddliw = camouflage ) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cudd-weithredwr
kiidh-weith-REE-dur [kiːwəɪθˡreˑdʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-weithredw
yr kiidh-weith-RED-wir [kiːˡwəɪθˡrɛdwɪr]
1
secret agent

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = secret, hidden ) + soft mutation + (gweithredwr = operator)

:_______________________________.

cuddwisg
KIDH-wisk [ˡkɪˡwɪsk] feminine noun
PLURAL cuddwisgoedd
kidh-WIS-koidh, -godh [kɪˡwɪskɔɪ, -ɔ]
1
disguise = clothing or make-up to hide the true identity of a person
y guddwisg the disguise
bod mewn cuddwisg be in disguise

ETYMOLOGY: hide-clothing (cudd-, root of cuddio = to hide) + soft mutation + (gwisg = dress)

:_______________________________.

cudd-ymchwil
kiidh-ƏM-khwil [kiːˡəmxwɪl] masculine noun
1
intelligence = secret information about an enemy

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = hidden) + (ymchwil = research)

:_______________________________.

cudd-ymchwiliwr
kiidh-əm-KHWIL-yur [kiːəmˡxwɪljʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-ymchwilw
yr kiidh-əm-KHWIL-wir [kiːəmˡxwɪlwɪr]
1
intelligence agent = person who gathers secret information about an enemy

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd-ymchwil = intelligence) + (-i-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

cudd-ymosodiad
kiidh-ə-mo-SOD-yad [kiːəmɔˡsɔdjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cudd-ymosodiadau
kiidh-ə-mo-sod-YAA-dai, -de [kiːəmɔsɔdˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
ambush

ETYMOLOGY: (cudd = hidden) + (ymosodiad = attack)

:_______________________________.

cud
yll KII-dilh [ˡkiˑdɪɬ] masculine noun
PLURAL cudyllod
ki-DI-lhod [kɪˡdɪɬɔd]
(North Wales)
1
hawk
ffraeo fel dau gud
yll have a violent row (dispute like two hawks)

ETYMOLOGY: (cud = kite) + (-
yll). Cud is from English kite

:_______________________________.

cuf
ydd KII-vidh [ˡkiˑvɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cufyddau
ki-VƏ-dhai, -dhe [kɪˡvəaɪ, -ɛ]
1
cubit = ancient measure of length, the length of the forearm, half a yard

Daniel 3:1 Nebuchodonosor y brenin a wnaeth ddelw aur, ei huchder oedd yn drigain cufydd, ei lled yn chwe chufydd; ac efe ai gosododd hi i fyny yng ngwastadedd Dura, o fewn talaith Babilon.
Daniel 3:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon.

Genesis 6:14 Gwna i ti arch o goed Goffer; yn gellau y gwnei yr arch, a phyga hi oddi wrth mewn ac oddi allan phyg.
(6:15) Ac fel hyn y gwnei di hi: tri chan cufydd fydd hyd yr arch, a deg cufydd a degain ei lled, a deg cufydd ar hugain ei huchder.
Genesis 6:14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. (6:15) And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cuf
ydd < *cufyd < British < Latin cubitum (= elbow, a measure of length using the forearm, from the fingertips to the elbow)

:_______________________________.

Cuhel
yn ki-HEE-lin [kɪˡheˑlɪn] masculine noun
1
mans name
Cuhel
yn Fardd poet of the early 1100s

2
(legend) Cuhel
yn son of Afarwy, who was son of Lludd, King of Britain, during Roman times

3
street name Maescuhelyn Llannerch-y-medd (county of Mn) (Maes Cuhelyn) ((the) field (of) Cuhel
yn)

:_______________________________.

cul, PLURAL culion
KIIL, KIL-yon [kiːl,ˡkɪljɔn]
(adjective)
1
narrow

:_______________________________.

culfan
KIL-van [ˡkɪlvan] masculine noun
PLURAL culfannau
kil-VA-nai, -ne [kɪlˡvanaɪ, -ɛ]
1
narrow place
Culfan name of a street in Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam)

2
(Medicine) stricture = abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage in the body

ETYMOLOGY: (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + (man = place)

:_______________________________.

culfarn
KIL-varn [ˡkɪlvarn] feminine noun
PLURAL culfarnau
kil-VAR-nai, -ne [kɪlˡvarnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
bigotry, narrow-mindedness

2 (adjective) bigotted, narrow-minded

ETYMOLOGY: (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + (barn = opinion)

:_______________________________.

culfedd
KIL-vedh [ˡkɪlvɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL culfeddau
kil-VEE-dhai, -dhe [kɪlˡveˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(literary word) narrow grave

Fe ddaw hon oi chulfedd unig - yn gorph,
Mewn gwisg anllygredig;
Er marw, draw Mary drig,
Yn flod
yn dwyfoledig
(from a collection of verses on gravestones in the Ogwen valley - Englynion Beddau Dyffr
yn Ogwen - by J Elwyn Hughes, 1979)
She will come from her narrow grave - a body
in spotless dress
In spite of death, Mary will live yonder
A sanctified flower

ETYMOLOGY: (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + (bedd = grave)

:_______________________________.

culfor
KIL-vor [ˡkɪlvɔr] masculine noun
PLURAL culforoedd
kil-VOO-roidh, -rodh [kɪlˡvoˑrɔɪ, -ɔ]
1
strait = narrow stretch of water joining two areas of sea
Abbreviation on maps: Cf

2
In geographical names

..1/ Culfor Bab el Manddeb between Djibouti and Yemen, leading into the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden

..2/ Culfor Dofr the Straits of Dover, between Dover in England and Calais in the French state

..3/ Culfor Melaka Malacca Strait between Malaysia and Sumatra

..4/ Gwladf
ydd y Culfor Straits Settlements = a former English colony made up of Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan and other islands

3
In Casllwchwr in the county of Abertawe there is a road called Culfor Road (which would be Heol y Culfor in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: narrow sea (cul = narrow) + soft mutation + ( mr = sea)

:_______________________________.

Culhwch ac Olwen
KIL-hukh ag OL-wen [ˡkɪlhʊx ag ˡɔlwɛn]
(masculine noun)
1
See: Mabinogion
ma-bi-NOG-yon [mabɪˡnɔgjɔn]

:_______________________________.

Cumru
1
Name of a township in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Pronounced in English as KUUM-ruu [ˡkuːmruː]. The adjacent townships are Lower Alsace Township and Exeter Township to the north-east, Robeson Township to the east, Brecknock Township to the south and Spring Township to the east.

The first landowner was Hugh Jones, who bought 1,000 acres of land in this part of Lancaster County in the year 1732. (Berks County was formed out of Lancaster County in 1752)

It seems that the name is a form of the Welsh word Cymru KƏM-ri [ˡkəmrɪ] (= Wales), with the spelling of the vowel of the first syllable changed to u.

..a/ Although y is the obscure vowel (mid central unrounded vowel) , which also exists in English of course, there is no special symbol for it in English. Since the letter u in English can represent the half-open unrounded vowel between back and front (phonetic symbol - an inverted v) (as in run, sun, hunt, etc) has almost the same sound, in Anglicising spellings of Welsh place names it is often seen. Examples from Wales are Crymlyn > Crumlyn (curved valley), Dyffryn > Duffryn (= valley).

..b/ Another consideration is that the obscure vowel does not occur in a tonic syllable in English, and is considered an unnatural pronunciation.

..c/ The final u of Cymru / Cumru, pronounced as i [ɪ] in South Wales (and a variant i [ɪ] sound in the north) has been reinterpreted as English u. If the place name had been spelt Cumri in English it would have retained more of the original Welsh pronunciation.

(There is the (unlikely) possibility that the name is Cwm (valley) and some unknown element, but (1) this valley is not a cwm, (2) the second element ru does not resemble any likely Welsh word, (3) in such a case the stress would be on the last syllable, but Cumru is stressed on the first syllable.)

Following is additional information from the Township of Cumru, Berks County, Pennsylvania Website http://www.cumrutownship.com/home/historyofthetownship.html :

The name Cumru is Welsh in origin and its name comes from the early settlers who were Welsh.

Hugh Jones was the first landowner. He bought one thousand acres along the Wyomissing Creek in 1732.

Cumru Township was founded in 1737.

It originally included what is now Spring Township, the boroughs of Kenshorst, Mohnton and Shillington, and areas that have since been incorporated into Reading borough.

According to tax lists prepared by David Evans Jr. in 1759 there were 142 married men and 20 single men in the township.

In 1842 some residents attempted to split Cumru Township into two new townships, but there was opposition to this. They tried again in 1845 and were again unsuccessful.

Finally a third attempt in 1850 was successful and Cumru Township was divided into two areas of the same size, and Spring Township was formed from one half of Cumru Township.

The reason was that Cumru Township was too big for holding elections and having township meetings, and for the repair of the roads.

The oldest church was at Ruths Mill, a Welsh-language Baptist Church whose minister was the Rev. Thomas Jones.

Shillington, Mohnton and Kenshorst became boroughs and this decreased the size of Cumru Township yet further.

Land has also been annexed by adjoining boroughs (West Hills, Shillington, Reading) .

Agriculture is now virtually non-existent and housing and industry has been built on the old farmland.

The address of the Township of Cumru is 1775 Welsh Road, Mohnton, Pennsylvania 19540.

7920_cumru_121208(delwedd 7920)

History of Berks County, Pennsylvania. Morton L. Montgomery. 1886:
Among the first settlers in the counties of Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester were large colonies of Welshmen, who purchased immense tracts of land, and when townships were formed they gave to many the names of the places from which they had emigrated. Among them may be named Radnor, Haverford, Merion, Gwynedd, Uwchlan, Tredyffrin, Caernarvon, Cumru and Breknock, these last three now being included in Berks County, although they were formerly in Lancaster County.



See Cymru

:_______________________________.

cun
KIIN [kiːn]
1
(literary word) fine, pleasant; dear, beloved

ETYMOLOGY: From Celtic. In Gaulish there was a personal name (Latinised as Counus) which contains this element

A related word is German schn (= beautiful)

:_______________________________.

Cunllo
KIN-lho [ˡkɪnɬɔ]
masculine noun
1
See C
ynllo

:_______________________________.

cunnog
KI-nog [ˡkɪnɔg] feminine noun
PLURAL cunogau
ki-NOO-gai, -e [kɪˡnoˑgaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales
1
milking pail
y gunnog = the pail


ETYMOLOGY: probably from Irish; in modern Irish cuinneg KIN-yoog [kɪnɔːg] (= churn)
VARIANTS: there is also a diminutive form: cunog
yn masculine noun ki-NOO-gin [kɪˡnoˑgɪn]

:_______________________________.

cunnog laeth
KI-nog LAITH [ˡkɪnɔg ˡlaɪθ] feminine noun
PLURAL cunogau llaeth
ki-NOO-gai, -ge, LHAITH [kɪˡnoˑgai, -ɛ ˡɬaɪθ]
North Wales
1
milking pail

ETYMOLOGY: (cunnog = pail) + soft mutation + (llaeth = milk)

:_______________________________.

cunnog odro
KI-nog O-dro [ˡkɪnɔg ˡɔdrɔ] feminine noun
PLURAL cunogiaid godro
ki-NOO-gai, -ge, GO-dro [kɪˡnoˑgai, -ɛ ˡgɔdrɔ]
North Wales
1
milking pail

ETYMOLOGY: (cunnog = pail) + soft mutation + (godro = to milk)

:_______________________________.

cunog
yn ki-NOO-gin [kɪˡnoˑgɪn] masculine noun
See: cunnog

:_______________________________.

cupresw
ydden ki-pres-WƏ-dhen [kɪprɛsˡwəɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL cupresw
ydd ki-PRES-widh [kɪˡprɛswɪ]
1
cypress
y gupreswydden = the cypress

ETYMOLOGY: (cupres- cypress tree) + soft mutation + (gw
ydden = tree); < Latin cyparrisus < Greek kuparissos

:_______________________________.

Cupros
KI-pros [ˡkɪprɔs] feminine noun
1
Cyprus

ETYMOLOGY: Greek Kŷpros

:_______________________________.

cur
KIIR [kiːr] masculine noun
PLURAL curiau
KIR-yai, -ye [ˡkɪrjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
North Wales pain

2
North Wales cur yn y pen headache;
Mae gen i gur yn y pen Ive got a headache ("Ive got a pain in the head")

3
throbbing

4
obsolete battle

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cur < British < Latin cra (= care, attention, treatment);
From the same British root: Breton kur = beating, hitting

:_______________________________.

curad
KII-rad [ˡkiˑrad] masculine noun
PLURAL curadiaid
ki-RAD-yaid, -yed [kɪˡradjaɪd, -ɛd]

1
in the Anglican church, curate = deputy to a parish priest (a vicar or a rector)

2
Anglican clergyman who has charge of a parish; also curad mewn gofal (curate-in-charge)


Drws Yr Eglwys Weledig Wedi Ei Agor Yn Lled y Pen, Fel y Gallo Credinwyr a Phlant Bychain Ddyfod I Mewn (1799) Gan Thomas Jones, Curad Creaton yn Sir Northampton The door of the visible church opened wide so that believers and little children can come in, by Thomas Jones, Curate of Creaton in the county of Northampton

Thomas Jones (Yr Hafod, Ceredigion 1752-1845)

7610_drws_yr_eglwys_100320
(delwedd 7610)

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of Middle English curat (modern English curate) < Latin crtus < cra (= spiritual care)

VARIANTS: Also ciwrad

:_______________________________.

curadiaeth
ki-RAD-yaith, -yeth [kɪˡradjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
PLURAL curadiaethau
ki-rad-YEI-thai, -e [kɪradˡjəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]
1
curacy, the position of a curate
y guradiaeth = the curacy
Daliodd guradiaeth Llanegr
yn am chwarter canrif
He had the curacy of Llanegr
yn for a quarter of a century

ETYMOLOGY: (curad = curate) + (-iaeth)

:_______________________________.

curadur
ki-RAA-dir [kɪˡrɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL curaduron, curaduriaid ki-ra-DII-ron,-ki-ra-DIR-yaid, -yed [kɪraˡdiˑrɔn,kɪraˡdɪrjaɪd, -ɛd]
1
curator = person in charge of the exhibits in a museum or in an art gallery; can be, but is not necessarily, the museum director

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of the Latin word curator (used in English in the sense of museum director / museum administrator), according to changes which loans from Latin via British into Welsh underwent; crtor = person who takes charge < crre = take charge < cra = charge, care

:_______________________________.

curfa
KIR-va [ˡkɪrva] feminine noun
PLURAL curf
ydd, curfaoedd kir-VEIDH, kir-VAA-oidh, -odh [kɪrˡvəɪ, kɪrˡvɑˑɔɪ, -ɔ]
North Wales
1
thrashing, beating
y gurfa = the thrashing

2
beating = act of beating

3
punishment, a beating as a punishment
cael curfa = be beaten as a punishment

4
thrashing = defeat;
cael curfa iawn get a sound thrashing, be soundly defeated (e.g. team in a rugby game)

ETYMOLOGY: (cur-, stem of curo = hit, beat) + (-fa suffix = action)

:_______________________________.

Curig
KII-rig [ˡkiˑrɪg] (masculine noun)
1
mans name; Llangurig - village in Pow
ys

:_______________________________.

curn
KIRN [kɪrn] feminine noun
PLURAL curnau, cyrnau
KIR-nai, -e, KƏR-nai, -e [ˡkɪrnaɪ, -nɛ, ˡkərnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
heap, mound, stack (such as a heap of stones, potatoes, straw, pyramidical in shape)

2
(obsolete) cyrnennu ŷd to stack corn

3
(obsolete) church spire

4
(place names) cone-shaped hill
There are three cone-shaped hills in the county of Gw
ynedd with curn
Y Gurn Goch the red peak
Y Gurn Ddu the black peak
Y Gurn Las the green peak

5
Y Cyrnau Place north-west of Pen-y-wal farm on the road from Y Graig-wen (ST0690), Pont-y-pridd, to Llanwynno (ST0295) (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

NOTE:
..a/ alternative spelling (less correct) curn > c
yrn

..b/ diminutive forms:
.1 with suffix -en : cyrnen (f), PLURAL cyrnennau

.2 with suffix
yn : cyrnyn (m), PLURAL cyrnynnau

.3 with plural suffix -os (diminutives formed by adding -os to a feminine noun behave as feminine singular nouns after the definite article there is soft mutation)

(see the entry curnos below)

ETYMOLOGY: ??
Cf. Breton kern (= peak; point; top of the head; tonsure; hopper in a mill, crown of a hat)

:_______________________________.

curnos
KIR-nos [ˡkɪrnɔs] plural
1
small heaps, small mounds, little mounds

With plural suffix -os (diminutives formed by adding -os to a feminine noun behave as feminine singular nouns after the definite article there is soft mutation)

curnos - found in place names in south Wales
........................................curnos > Y Gurnos
........................................cyrnos > Y Gyrnos
........................................ceirnos > Y Geirnos


The Blackcock Inn on Myn
ydd Caerffili bewteen Caer-dydd (Cardiff) and Caerffili

was known as Clw
yd y Gurnos (it became the Blackcock Inn apparently in the 1850s)

ETYMOLOGY: (curn = pile, heap) + (-os suffix for forming diminutives of collective nouns; it is found especially with names of certain plants)

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curo
KII-ro [ˡkiˑrɔ] (verb)
1
to beat = strike, hit repeatedly

curo dw
ylo KII-ro DUI-lo [kiˑrɔ ˡdʊɪlɔ]
to clap hands

2 curo drwm
to beat a drum, play a drum
curoch drwm dros
drum up support for
ffon guro drwm drumstick (stick (of) beating drum)

3
to beat = to defeat
curo rh
ywun ar ei dir ei hun beat someone at his / her own game (beat someone on his own land / ground)

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cusan, cusanau
KI-san, ki-SAA-nai, -e [ˡkɪsan, kɪˡsɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
kiss

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cusanu
ki-SAA-ni [kɪˡsɑˑnɪ]
1
to kiss
cusanu (rh
ywun) o dan yr uchelwydd ki-SAA-ni o dan ər i-KHEL-widh [kɪˡsɑˑnɪ ɔ dan ər ɪˡxɛlwɪ] kiss (somebody) under the mistletoe

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cw
KU [kʊ] (adverb)
1
over there (clipped form of acw)

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cwar
KWAR [kwar] masculine noun
PLURAL cwarrau, cwerr
ydd KWA-rai, -e, KWE-ridh [ˡkwaraɪ,- ɛ, ˡkwɛrɪ]
1
South-east Wales stone quarry

(1) Clos y Cwarra
Street name in Llanbedr y Fro ((the) close (of) the quarries) < cwarrau = quarries

(2) Cwarclydach
Short name: Y Cwar

District in Clydach, county of Abertawe / Swansea ((the) quarry (of) Clydach)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN6801 Clydach

In the West Wales Baptist schism in 1799, members of Salem chapel in Llangyfelach who ambraced Arminianism took over a small chapel, built bu members of Salem four years previously in 1795. This building was known as Capel y Cwar (the) chapel / meeting house (in) Y Cwar