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ci, cŵn kii, kuun (masculine noun)
dog = Canis familiaris common quadraped
Typical dogs names in Welsh are Pero, Carlo, Cymro, Cardi, Ianto, Tango, Smot

bod fel ci a'r hwch (said of a couple man and wife) live a cat and dog life (be like a dog and the sow)

ymladd fel cŵn a chathod (fight between many people) fight like cat and dog
Roedd y Taffis ar Padis yn ymladd fel cŵn a chathod yn ardaloedd glo Amrica
The Taffies and the Paddies fought like cats and dogs in the coalmining areas of America

y Ci Mawr (the big dog) Canis Major

in compounds as a soft-mutated suffix -gi, in names of types of dogs
..1/ corgi cattle dog (cor- = small)

..2/ daeargi = terrier (daear = earth )

..3/ dyfrgi = otter (Lutra vulgaris) (dwfr = aigua)

..4/ gweilgi ocean (but the word formerly meant wolf).

The first element is *gwael = wolf).

(*gwael + soft mutation + ci, a compound probably already existing in the British language, or even in Common Celtic, as Welsh gweilgi has an exact correspondence in Irish: faolch = wolf)

..5/ gwaetgi bloodhound = large dog with an acute sense of smell used in tracking
...Gwaetgwn Gwent (former) nickname for the inhabitants of Gwent ((the) bloodhounds (of) Gwent)
gwaetgi < gwaed-gi (gwaed = blood) + soft mutation + (ci = dog, hound)

5 in compounds as a soft-mutated suffix -gi, for animals or fish considered to be similar to a dog
..1/ dyfrgi = otter (Lutra vulgaris) (dwfr = aigua)
..2/ gwenci = weasel (from gweinc-gi < gwanc = greed)
..3/ maelgi Squatina squatina = angel-fish (mael = mail, coat of mail)
..4/ morgi = dogfish (mr = sea; sea dog)

by coincidence there is a final syllable -ci in some words borrowed from English -
..a/ donci = donkey.
..b/ hysci = husky
..c/ mwnci = monkey,
..d/ twrci = turkey,

In the three the element has become identified with ci (dog). For monkey and turkey there are plural forms with cŵn (= dogs)
(1) doncis (*doncwn does not occur, except perhaps humorously)
(2) hyscis, hyscwn (= huskies);
(3) mwncod, mwncwn, mwncwns (this latter one with the English -s added to an existing native plural form) (= monkeys)
(4) twrcod, twrcaid, tyrcwn (= turkeys);

in compounds as a soft-mutated suffix -gi, in disparaging descriptions of men

clapgi a man who is a gossip (clap = gossip)

Megys y dychwel y ci at ei chwydfa like the dog that returns to its own vomit, in the same way that a dog returns to its vomit (said of someone who is attracted back to what is unpleasant or harmful, such as an addiction or bad company)

Pedr-2 2:22 Eithr digwyddodd iddynt yn l y wir ddihareb, Y ci a ymchwelodd at ei chwydfa ei hun; ar hwch wedi ei golchi, iw hymdreiglfa yn y dom
Peter-2 2:22 But it is happened unto them according to the true proverb, The dog is turned to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire

9 Cas gan gath y ci ai bratho Once bitten twice shy
((it is) hateful with a cat the dog which may bite it)

Cath i dŷ a chi i deulu ((a) cat for (a) house and (a) dog for (a) family) (Advice for someone who is thinking of keeping a pet a cat is loyal to the place where it lives, and a dog to the people who look after it)

11 cael caws o fola ci try to do the impossible (get cheese from (the) stomach (of) (a) dog)

types of dog:
ci potsiwr lurcher (dog (of) poacher)

bod yn hen gi be sex-mad (be a dog, hen (= literally old) used as a quasi-prefix of scorn / disparagement)
Hen gi yw Jones y Bont Jones y Bont is sex mad

fel ci ar gadwyn straining at the leash (like (a) dog on (a) chain)

15 fel ci i gynffon rhwng ei afl (like a dog with its tail in its crotch / between its legs) dejected, miserable, unhappy, crestfallen, with your tail between your legs, cowed

helygen y cŵn (Salix repens) creeping willow
See: corhelygen (corhelyg)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic. Indo-European root kwon-

Related to Greek kuōn (= dog)
The Greek adjective kunikos (= doglike) < ku
ōn, kun- (= dog)

The philosopher Diogenes of Sinope (modern-day Sinop, in Turkey) was nicknamed the dog (kuōn) because he is said to have praised the virtues of living in the same way as a dog, and for his behaviour like that of a dog in public. He ate publicly in the marketplace (considered to be very bad manners), urinated on opponents, defecated in the theatre, and on one occasion masturbated in public.

Adherents of his philosophical outlook were termed kunikos (= doglike, having the same ideas as the Dog).

These were the Cynic philosophers, who believed that only virtue led to happiness, and little else mattered, and so rejected the social conventions of their time.

The word passed into Latin as cynicus (= a Cynic philosopher), and itno English as Cynic, cynical, though the noun and adjective acquired a popular meaning, a cynic being a person believing that selfishness is the motivation of everybody, or somebody who has a scornful and negative oulook.


ci adar kii -dar masculine noun
PLURAL cŵn adar kuun -dar
retriever; gundog, one trained to work with hunters who shoot birds

ETYMOLOGY: dog (of) birds, bird dog (ci = dog) + (adar = birds, plural of aderyn = bird)

NOTE: also ci adara (with the verb adara = gather birds)


y ci a gerddo a gaiff ə kii aa gerdh aa gaif -
(the dog that walks gets), nothing seek, nothing find; you cant expect to get what you want if you dont make an effort

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + (ci = dog) + (a = which) + soft mutation + (cerddo subjunctive = it may walk, < cerdded = to walk) + (a = it is the one which) + soft mutation + (caiff = it gets / it will get)


ci Affganaidd kii af- g nedh masculine noun
Afgan hound = large hunting dog with silky hair and a tuft on the head

ETYMOLOGY: (ci = dog) + (Affganaidd = Afghan)


caidd k -edh adjective
inhuman, brutal, cruel
Bu farw yn sgil ymosodiad caidd He died following a brutal attack

ETYMOLOGY: (ci = dog) + (-aidd suffix for forming nouns)


ciamocs kya-mocs
pranks, tricks; See: giamocs


Can k -an masculine noun
mans name; name of a British monk of the Celtic church

Can has recently been revived as a given name, but was formerly obsolete, and found only as a place name element.

2 Llangan SH2928 locality in the area of Dwyfor (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: little warrior (ci = dog, warrior) + (-an diminutive suffix)


cian kyan masculine noun
can (North-west Wales)
cian o lager a can of lager See: can


ciando kyan -do masculine noun
kennel (North-west Wales)
See: cando


ci Annwfn kii a-nuvun masculine noun
PLURAL cŵn Annwfn kuun a-nuvun
(folk traditon) hellhound; See: cŵn Annwfn


ci arffed kii ar -fed masculine noun
PLURAL cŵn arffed kuun ar-fed

ETYMOLOGY: dog (of) lap, lap dog (ci = dog) + (arffed = lap)


cib kiib masculine noun
PLURAL cibau k -be
(fruits, seeds) shell, pod

Brenhinoedd-2 2:42 A daeth gŵr o Baal-salisa, ac a ddug i ŵr Dduw o fara blaenffrwyth, ugain torth haidd, a thywysennau o ŷd newydd yn ei gibau. Ac nid oedd dim niwed yn y crochan.
(Y Mab Afradlon) Kings-2 4:41 But he said, Then bring meal. And he cast it into the pot; and he said, Pour out for the people, that they may eat. And there was no harm in the pot.

Luc 15:16 Ac efe a chwenychai lenwi ei fol r cibau a fwytair moch; ac ni roddodd neb iddo
(The Prodigal Son) Luke 15:16 And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him.

taflu fel cibau ir moch treat with disdain, throw out to the pigs like pods

3 eggshell
cyfrir cywion yn eu cibau counting chickens before they are hatched (counting chicks in their shells)

4 place names:
..a/ Bwlchycibau; SJ1717 locality in the district of Maldwyn (= northern part of the county of Powys) (literally pass (of) the pods)

..b/ Afon Cib in Ffair-fach, Ceredigion; here there are also
....1/ Blaen-cib (blaen = river source; source of the river Cib),
....2/ Cwm-cib (cwm = valley; valley of the river Cib),
....3/ Tre-gib (tre / tref = farmstead; farmstead by the river Cib)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin cpa
From the same British root: Breton kib (= vessel, pod)

NOTE: Also the diminutive form: cibyn (qv)


ci bach kii- baakh masculine noun
PLURAL cwn bach kuun- baakh
puppy (little dog)
Botany pen ci bach antirrhinum majus = snapdragon (head (of) little dog)


ci bendith y mamau kii ben-dith ə ma-me masculine noun
PLURAL cŵn bendith y mamau kuun ben-dith ə ma-me
(folk tradition) a fairy dog

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) dog (of) (the) fairies),

(ci = dog) + (bendith y mamau = the fairies, literally (the) blessing (of) the mothers)
(bendith = blessing) + (y = definite article) + (mamau = mothers, < mam = mother)


cibddall kib -dhalh adjective
half-blind, dim-sighted
(figurative) short-sighted = unable to see the true situation, or unable to see the likely consequences of an action

ETYMOLOGY: (cib = pod) + soft muation + (dall = blind); that is, having cataracts, blind (from) a film (covering the eye)


cibddallineb kib-dha- lhi -neb masculine noun
(figurative) short-sightedness = inability to perceive the likely consquences of some action

ETYMOLOGY: (cibddall = half blind) + (-ineb = suffix). Cf dallineb (= blindness)


cibell ki -belh feminine noun
PLURAL cibellawr ki- b -lhaur
(obsolete) skin, hide, shell
y gibell = the skin / hide / shell

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin cpella; Breton kibell (= bath)


ciblys ki -blis masculine noun
PLURAL ciblysiau ki- bləs-ye

ETYMOLOGY: (cib = pod) + soft mutation + (llys = plant)


cibts ki- buts masculine noun
PLURAL cibwtsau ki- but se
kibbutz = a collective farm in Israel owned by its members

ETYMOLOGY: English < Hebrew kibbutz < modern Hebrew qibbs (= gathering)


Cibwr KI bur (feminine noun)
commote of the kntrev of Senghennydd (south-east Wales)

This was the bottom end of the kntrev, between the ridge of Cefn Onn = cefn yr onn (the) ridge (of) the ash trees and the coast. Its centre was probably Llys Faen (the) stone court. The precise locaton of the court is unknown, though the name survives as that of the village of Llys-faen, five miles north of Caer-dydd city centre, on the slope of Cefn Onn.

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Hwndrwd Cibwr The hundred of Cibwr / Kibbor (orange area 10 on the map above)
A group of eight parishes which corresponded to the area of the old kmmud of Cibwr (Y Caerau, Eglwys Ioan (Caer-dydd), Eglwys Fair (Caer-dydd), Llan-daf, Llanedern, Llanisien, Llys-faen, Y Rhath).

Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911) states:
Cardiff, however, appears to have been sometimes considered a commote or Hundred in itself; and when, in the reign of Henry VIII., the County of Glamorgan and its present Hundreds were constituted, the Commotes of Llandaff and Kibor were formed into the Hundred of Cardiff or Kibor, while the Borough was still kept distinct from the Hundred. The Commote of Kibor appears, however, still to subsist as an independent Lordship for some purposes.

He also cites a document for the year 1772 Thomas Thomas was this year Bailiff of Cardiff, and also Bailiff of the Hundreds of Cowbridge, Dinas Powis and Kibbor.

The Hundred of Kibbor continued in use for the purposes of Petty Sessions - it was the area outside the borough of Caer-dydd / Cardiff; Yr Eglwysnewydd / Whitchurch was regarded as its main centre (petty sessions or police courts, since the courtrooms were often in the police stations of the district, which dealt with minor crimes, and referred more serious crimes to higher courts, and regulated the licensing of public houses).


cibyn kii -bin masculine noun
PLURAL cibynnau, cibau ki--ne, k-be
pea pod, bean pod

(North-west Wales) measure = half a bushel

(North-west Wales) vessel holding half a bushel

ETYMOLOGY: (cib = pod) + (-yn = diminitive suffix)


cic kik masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL ciciau kik -ye
kick = a blow with the foot
y cic / y gic = the kick
rhoi cic i to kick; give a kick to (yn + part of body)
Rhoddodd gic iddo yn ei din She kicked him in his arse
cael cic yn eich tin get a kick up the arse

kick = a specified method of kicking the ball
cic adlam (rugby) drop kick

kick = type of kick awarded by a referee
cic gosb penalty kick

kick = (drink) immediate potent effect, strong intoxicating quality
diod a chryn gic ynddi a drink with quite a kick to it

Sut mae gwneud pregeth thipyn o gic ynddi? How do you write a sermon with a bit of a kick to it?

cic llyffant (swimming) type of kick in the breast stroke, similar to the way of swimming of a frog

ETYMOLOGY: English kick < Middle English < Scandinavian


ci cadno kii kad-no masculine noun
PLURAL cŵn cadno kuun kad-no
(South Wales) foxhound

ETYMOLOGY: dog (of) fox (ci = dog) + (cadno (South Wales) = fox)


cicaion ki-kei-on masculine noun
PLURAL cicaionau ki-kai--ne
name of a type of tree; this is either Palma Christi or else the gourd tree

Jona 4:6 A'r ARGLWYDD DDUW a ddarparodd gicaion, ac a wnaeth iddo dyfu dros Jona, i fod yn gysgod uwch ei ben ef, i'w waredu o'i ofid: a bu Jona lawen iawn am y cicaion. (4:7) A'r Arglwydd a baratdd bryf ar godiad y wawr drannoeth, ac efe a drawodd y cicaion, ac yntau a wywodd.
Jonah 4:6 And the LORD God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourd.(4:8) But God prepared a worm when the morning rose the next day, and it smote the gourd that it withered.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < Hebrew


cicio dros y tresi kik-yo dros ə tre-si
free oneself from restraints, rebel (kick over the traces)


cicio eich sodlau kik-yokh sod-le
(kick your heels) wait around with impatience


cicio nyth cacwn yn eich pen kik-yo niith ka-kun ən əkh pen
cause trouble for oneself (kick a wasps nest in its end, kick the bottom / top of a wasps nest)


cicio kik -yo verb
kick = strike with the foot

kick = propel forward by a kick or kicks
cicior bl to kick the ball
cae cicio football field

kick = inflict injury by kicks
Cicion nhw e pan oedd ar lawr They kicked him when he was on the ground

(intransitive verb) (horse) kick out = have a tendency to strike with the foot
Roedd yr eboles honno yn afreolus ac yn cicio That pony was hard ro control and kicked out

(Gm rygbi) Fe gawson ni ein cico gan y Saeson unwaith eto
(Rugby game) We were defeated again by the English

ETYMOLOGY: (cic = kick) + (-io suffix for forning verbs)

NOTE: In the south, the consonant i at the beginning of a final syllable is typically absent. Hence cicio > cico.


ciconia, ciconiaid ki KON ya, ki KON yed (feminine noun)
y giconia = the stork


ci defaid, cwn defaid kii DE ved, kuun DE ved (masculine noun)


Cidron ki-dron
Kedron, Kidron; a ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem, a small stream which rises near Jerusalem, and flows through the Iehosophat valley, disgorging into the Dead Sea

(1) Brenhinoedd-1 2:37
Canys bydd, y dydd yr elych allan, ac yr elych dros afon Cidron...
Kings -12:37
For it shall be, that on the day you goest out, and passest over the brook Kidron...

(2) Brenhinoedd-1 15:13
Ac efe a symudodd Maachah ei fam o fod yn frenhines, oherwydd gwneuthur ohoni hi ddelw mewn llwyn; ac Asa a ddrylliodd ei delw hi, ac ai llosgodd wrth afon Cidron
Kings-1 15:13
And also Maachah his mother, even her he removed from being queen, because she had made an idol in a grove; and Asa destroyed her idol, and burnt it by the brook Kidron.

(3) Brenhinoedd-2 23.6
Efe a ddug allan hefyd y llwyn o dŷ yr Arglwydd, ir tu allan i Jerwsalem, hyd afon Cidron, ac ai llosgodd ef wrth afon Cidron, ac ai malodd yn llwch, ac a daflodd ei lwch ar feddau meibion y bobl
Kings-2 23:6
And he brought out the grove from the house of the Lord, wiythout Jreusalem, unto the brook Cidron, andburned it at the brook Cidron, and stamped it small to powder, and cast the powder thereof upon the graves of the children of the people

(4) Brenhinoedd-2 23:12
Yr allorau hefyd, y rhai oedd ar nen ystafell Ahas... a ddistrywiodd y brenin, ac au bwriodd hwynt i lawr oddi yno, ac a daflodd eu llwch hwynt i afon Cidron
Kings-2 23:12
And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz... did the king beat down, and brake them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron

(5) Croniclau-2 15:16
Ar brenin Asa a symudodd Maacha ei fam o fod y frenhines; oherwydd gwneuthur ohoni ddelw mewn llwyn; ac Asa a dorrodd ei delw hi, ac ai drylliodd, ac ai llosgodd wrth afon Cidron

Chronicles-2 15:15
And also concerning Maachah the mother of Asa the king, he removed her from being queen because she had made an idle in a grove; and Asa cut down her idol, and stamped it, and burnt it at the brook Kidron

(6) Croniclau-2 29:16
Ar offeiriaid a ddaethant i fewn tŷ yr Arglwydd iw lanhau ef, ac a ddygasant hwy yr holl fryntni a gawsant hwy yn nheml yr Arglwydd, i gyntedd tŷ yr Arglwydd. Ar Lefiaid ai cymerasant, iw ddwyn ymaith allan i afon Cedron
Chronicles-2 29:16
And the priests went into the inner part of the house of the Lord, to cleanse it, and brought out all the uncleanliness that they found in the temple of the Lord into the court of the house of the Lord. And the Levites took it, to carry it to out abroad into the brook Kidron

(7) Croniclau-2 30:14
A hwy a gyfodasant, ac a fwriasant ymaith yr allorau oedd yn Jerwsalem; bwriasant ymaith allorau yr arogl-darth, a thaflasant hwynt i afon Cidron
Chronicles-2 30:14
And they arose and took away the altars that were in Jerusalem, and all the altar for incense took they away, and cast them into the brook Kidron

(8) Jeremeia 31:40
a holl ddyffryn y celaneddau, ar lludw, ar holl feysydd, hyd afon Cidron, hyd gongl porth y meirch tuar dwyrain, a fydd sanctaidd ir Arglwydd;
Jeremiah 31:40
And the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of the ashes, and all the fields until the brook of Cedron, unto the corner of the horse gate towards the east, shall be holy unto the Lord

(9) Samuel-2 15:23
Ar brenin a aeth dros afon Cidron, ar holl bobl a aeth drosodd, tua ffordd yr anialwch

Samuel-2 15:23
The king himself also passed over the brook Kidron, and all the people passed over, toward the way of the wilderness

NOTE: In Ioan (John) 18:1 the stream is called Cedron (qv)


ci Ebrill kii e-brilh masculine noun
cwn Ebrill curlews ( dogs (of) April) (from the sound of their cries in the spring)


cig KIIG (masculine noun)

bwyell gig
meat axe, cleaver PLURAL bwyeill cig
(bwyell = axe) + soft mutation + (cig = meat)

pelen gig, PLURAL pelenni cig meatball

(pelen = ball) + soft mutation + (cig = meat)

cigyn KII-gin piece of meat

5 llengig diaphragm
Literally tissue-flesh lln|gig < llin|gig < lli|in|gig
(lliein- < lliain = tissue ) + soft mutation + (cig = flesh, meat)
In Breton it is lienenn-gig (same meaning)


cigfran, cigfrain KIG vran, KIG vrain (feminine noun)
(corvus corax) rook
y gigfran = the rook


cig moch kiig MOOKH masculine noun
cyn hallted heli cig moch very salty as salty as (the) brine (for salting) pork


cigymwrthodwr, cigymwrthodwyr ki gə mor THO dur, ki gə mor THOD wir (masculine noun)


cigysol kig- ə -sol adjective
carnivorous, meat-eating

ETYMOLOGY: (cig = meat) + (-ysol = -eating);
(ys- stem of ysu = consume) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


cigysor kig- ə -sor masculine noun
PLURAL cigysorion kig-ə-sor-yon
carnivore, meat-eater

ETYMOLOGY: (cig = meat) + (-ysol = -eating); (ys- stem of ysu = consume) + (-or suffix for indicating a an agent; from Latin -rius, in words taken from Latin (canghellor (= chancellor) < cancellrius; afterwards used as a suffix with native words telynor = harpist)


ci heddlu, cŵn heddlu kii HEDH li, kuun HEDH li (masculine noun)
police dog


ci hela, cŵn hela kii HE la, kuun HE la (masculine noun)
hunting dog, hound


cil (1) kiil masculine noun
PLURAL ciliau kil -ye

(obsolete) retreating, recoiling, flight;
ar gil in retreat, fleeing

gyrru ar gil rout put to flight

This cil in the phrase ar gil, rather than being the noun cil, is in fact cil-, the stem of the verb cilio (= to retreat), though cilio is based on cil (= back, nook, retreat, etc) (+ -io verbal suffix)

(in certain compounds which mean remnant)
cilran (obsolete) (rhan = part)
cilcyn (obsolete) (-cyn= diminutive suffix),
cilyn (South Wales)

(in certain compounds with the meaning situated at the back)
cilddant molar (dant = tooth)
cf Irish clfhiacail (= molar) (cl = back) + (fiacail = tooth); also English back tooth;

yng nghil (rhywun / rhywbeth) following (somebody / something)

yn sgil (rhywun / rhywbeth) behind, riding pillion to; as a consequence of, following (somebody / something)
cf Irish marcaocht ar gla - ride pillion;
sgil < isgl < (is = below) + soft mutation + (cil = back)

(obsolete) (tool) non-cutting edge, back of an edged tool, non-sharpened edge;
cf Irish cil scine = back of a knife

cil y llygad the corner of the eye;
cil y foch (obsolete) corner of the mouth;
cil y pentan inglenook, corner of the hearth

(in certain compounds and turns of phrase) cud = food that a ruminating animal brings back from the first stomach to chew;
cnoi cil chew cud; reflect
cilfil ruminant (mil = animal)
cildri (obsolete) turn over in the mouth, masticate (troi = turn)
cilgni masticate (cnoi = chew)

recess, corner, nook, retreat, secluded place

cil haul secluded-place (away from the) sun, shady side, slope of a mountain which does not receive direct sunlight;.

Cil y Fwyalch - name of a folk tune (Blackbirds Retreat)
Also as Cil yr Aderyn Du

(i) Common in place names

...(a) Ciliau Aeron (river name Aeron)

...(b) Cilowain (mans name, Owain)

...(c) Cinmel (originally Clmael < Cil-mel) (male name Mael)

(ii) certain compound words = remote, secluded, out of the way
cilan (obsolete; found in place names) inlet, creek, cove (-an diminutive suffix) cf Irish cln = out-of-the-way place;

= secluded hollow (pant = hollow);

cilfa (obsolete) inlet, creek, cove (-fa, suffix = place)

cilfach secluded place, nook; (on the coast) inlet, creek, cove (bach = corner, bend)

(obsolete) nook (man = place);

cilffordd / cilheol = (obsolete) remote road, back road, by-way (ffordd = road);

cf certain place names cil as a prefix + soft mutation + name of topographic feature
...(a) Cilfynydd secluded upland (mynydd = upland, mountain),
...(b) Cilgoed secluded wood, backwood (coed = wood)

Cilgoed is the modern Welsh equivalent of these place names in England of early Welsh origin: Culcheth, Culgaith

Cf similar examples in Irish which indicate seclusion

claon = recess in a field,

clisean = nook,

clraid = secluded place

upper back part of a harp, where the short strings are
cilddant treble string, one of the short strings of a harp
un or tannau manaf yng nghil y delyn one of the smaller strings in the top back part of the harp

(place names) (South Wales) source of a stream
(a) Cilhepste = the source of the Hepste,
(b) Cil-laswg

(obsolete) nape of the neck, back of the neck; but it retains this sense in the compound gwegil = back of the neck (gwo- prepositional prefix = under) + soft mutation + (cil = back of the neck)

waning of the moon;
cil y lleuad waning of the moon;
cilgant crescent, last quarter of the moon
(cil = corner; waning) + soft mutation + (cant = circle, rim) (a nineteenth-century coining)

ar gil on the wane (this cil is more correctly, is cil- the stem of the verb cilio (= to retreat). Cilio is based on cil (= back, nook, retreat, etc))

Monosyllabic words in Welsh with i often have an Irish equivalent with

Hence cil, Irish cl
Cf the Irish expression T cl ar an ngealach The moon is waning, (there is waning (cl) on the moon)

(in some compound forms) side
(a) cilbost (North Wales) gatepost;
(b) cilolwg sideways look, glance (cf Irish clamharc = glance, side + look);
(c) cilgell / cilbarth (obsolete) sideroom;
(d) cildrem (obsolete) sideways look

15 space made when something is partially opened;
cil y drws back of the door; the gap between the door and the frame;
..agor cil y drws i rywun / agor y drws i rywun open the door to somebody
..Agor dipyn ar gil y drws open the door a bit more (in the Welsh folk song Mae gen i dipyn o dy^ bach twt / I have a neat little house)

cilagored = (door) ajar, half-open
..Maer drws yn gilagored the door is ajar, half-open

cil dwrn half-open hand
cildwrn tip

away - in the verb cilio = withdraw, retreat, move back (same as in Irish culaigh, ag cul = to retreat);
cilio yn ei garn - go back on ones word (retreat into ones hilt)

gwegil nape of the neck < *gwagil (with the change a > e under the influence of the i in the final syllable)
(gwa, a variant of the prefix gwo = under) + soft mutation + (cil = back part)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cil < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish kil (= nook, back), Breton kil (= back of an object)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cl (= back)
Related to the Celtic root: Latin clus (American: butt, ass; Englandic: bum, arse), hence Catalan cul (same meaning), Castilian culo (same meaning)


KII lan feminine noun
PLURAL cilannau
ki- lA -ne
recess, nook

cove = small bay; creek, inlet of sea

in place names in North-west Wales -
See Cilan


KII lan


Y Gilan house name in Craig-y-don, Llandudno (county of Conwy) (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)


Cilan Uchaf farm by Bwlchtocyn (Llyn peninsula, Gwynedd)

Mynydd Cilan
SH2924 upland in Bwlchtocyn

Pen Cilan

Trwyn Cilan a headland south of Mynydd Cilan Trwyn Cilan


Ln Cilan
street name in Cilcain, Yr Wyddgrug (Sir y Fflint)

Cilan, house name, Stryd Penlan, Pwllheli (Gwynedd)


Cilan SJ0237 farm in the county of Dinbych / Denbigh

Llawrcilan / Llawr Cilan SJ0237 farm in the county of Dinbych / Denbigh

Pont Cilan SJ0237 a bridge near Cilan farm

Hywel Cilan, poet in the 1400`s, said to be born at Llawrcilan / Llawr Cilan Llawrcilan

Llechwedd Cilan SJ0236 a hillside near Cilan farm

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = nook, recess, creek) + (-an diminutive suffix added to nouns)


KIL- ken
a local form of
Cilcain (qv) (a village in Sir y Fflint)


KIL- kAin
SJ1765 village in Sir y Fflint yr hen ysgol, Cilcain

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = corner, recess) + ??

NOTE: The local form is Cilcen (with the normal reduction in spoken Welsh in a final syllable of the diphthong
ai > the simple vowel e)

The Calvanistic Methodist church here was (is?) called Pentre Cilcen

(delwedd 7439)

kil- khwer -thin verb
cilchwerthin ar rywun to snigger at someone

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = corner, recess) + (chwerthin = to laugh)


Cilgoed KIL-goed
Culgaith NY6029, a village in Cumbria, England, 10 km east of Penrith

(delwedd 7022)

2 Culcheth SJ6595 village east of Warrington, England

(delwedd 7023)

ETYMOLOGY: secluded wood, backwood (cil = corner, recess, back) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)
(delwedd 7420)


Cilgwri PEN-hrin kil-GUU-ri
Penrhyn Cilgwri A peninsula in England between the estuaries of the Dyfrdwy / Dee and Mersey SJ3089 Parc Penbedw

ETYMOLOGY: (the) peninsula (of) Cilgwri
Cilgwri ?cil Gwri recess (of) Gwri (cil = recess) + (Gwri personal name)
(delwedd 7439)


cildyn kil -din adjective
obsolete stubborn, obstinate, recalcitrant

Diarhebion 2:15 Y rhai sydd u ffyrdd yn geimion, ac yn gildyn yn eu llwybrau
Proverbs 2:15 Whose ways are crooked, and they froward in their paths

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = back of the neck; retreat; corner, angle) + soft mutation + (tyn = obstinate)


ciledrych kil- e -drikh verb
ciledrych ar glance sideways at, cast a sideways glance at, look aside at, look askance at

ciledrych ir chwith look quickly to the left, glance to the left

ciledrych dros eich ysgwydd glance over your shoulder

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = corner, angle) + (edrych = to look)


ciledrychiad kil-e- drəkh -yad masculine noun
PLURAL ciledrychiadau kil-e-drəkh- y -de
sideways look

ETYMOLOGY: (ciledrych = to glance, look askance) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)


Cileli kiil-e- lai
locality in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf. Local pronunciation: Cileli kiil-e-li

ETYMOLOGY: source (of the river) Eli (cil = source of a stream)


cildri kil DROI (verb)


cildwrn, cildyrnau KIL durn, kil DƏR ne (masculine noun)
tip, gratuity
rhoi cildwrn give a tip
un da am roi cildwrn (speaking of a male) a good tipper
un dda am roi cildwrn (speaking of a female) a good tipper


cilfa kil-va feminine noun
PLURAL cilfydd, cilfaoedd kil-veidh, kil-v-odh
creek, cove, small inlet on the coast
y gilfa = the creek

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = corner, recess, nook) + (-fa = place)


cilfach kil -vakh feminine noun
PLURAL cilfachau kil- v -khe
nook, secluded spot, recess, corner
y gilfach = the nook

chwilio am gilfach gudd yn yr ogof look for a hidden corner of the cave

Roedd y plant wedi gadael y teganau mewn gwahanol gilfachau yn y lolfa
The kids had left the toys in various nooks around the lounge

corner for special activities
cilfach Sin Corn ar y llawr isaf Father Christmass Corner on the ground floor (of the shop)

Landscape nook, corner, isolated place
Y Gilfach-goch (the red corner) village in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf

Landscape cove, creek, sea inlet
also: cilfach fr (creek (of) sea)
Gilfach yr Halen (= cilfach yr halen) ((the) creek (of) the salt) name of a bay in Ceredigion (the mutation of c > g is unusual as a radical form in a name of this type, and would occur only in the usual contexts of mutation, such as after certain prepositions, such as i Gilfach yr Halen = to Cilfach yr Halen)

Ond pan gydar llanw dychwelaf / Ir gilfach, er gwell ac er gwaeth, / Bydd Gwylan, ai llygad yn llonnach, / Yn sefyll ar leithder y traeth
But when I return on the tide / to the cove, for better or for worse / There will be Gwylan, with her eyes merrier / Standing on the wetness of the beach.
From the poem Gwylan by Eifion Wyn (in Telynegion Maes a Mr, published 1908)

bay = recess by a way or road
cilfach lwytho loading bay, area for a vehicle to load or unload
cilfach barcio parking bay, area for a vehicle to park; layby, place at the roadside where a vehicla can stop temporarily

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = corner, recess) + soft mutation + (bach = corner, bend)


kil- v -lin masculine noun
PLURAL cilfilod
kil- v -lod
jirff - cilfilyn brych gyddfir Affricanaidd
giraffe a spotted long-necked African ruminant

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = cud) + soft mutation + (mil = animal ) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns)


cilgant kil -gant masculine noun
PLURAL cilgantau

crescent = concavo-convex shape of the moon during the first or last quarter

crescent = symbol of Islam
Y Cilgant Coch The Red Crescent, equivalent of the Red Cross organisation in Moslem countries

crescent = curved row of houses with the same faade

crescent = curved street; a road, usually suburban, in the shape of a crescent)

Street names:
..1/ Y Cilgant - street name in Penyrheol, county of Caerffili

Y Gilgant
(name of a street in Corwen, county of Dinbych) The Cresent
(for some reason a feminine noun here possibly an error in translation)

..2/ Cilgant Eglwys Wen name of a street in Bodelwyddan, Y Rhyl
(crescent (of) (the) white church)

..3/ Cilgant y Meillion name of a street in Rhws (county of Bro Morgannwg)
(crescent (of) the clover)

Many towns have streets named The Crescent on English-language maps. The Welsh name would be, as in the Penyrheol name, Y Cilgant (if no genuine Welsh name exists).

Towns with The Crescent:
..1 Abercynffig (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..2 Aber-dr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
..3 Arberth (county of Penfro)
..4 Bangor (county of Gwynedd)
..5 Bedwas (county of Caerffili)
..6 Caer-dydd
..7 Caerffili
..8 Cwm-brn (county of Torfaen)
..9 Glynebwy (county of Blaenau Gwent)
..10 Llanelwedd (county of Powys)
..11 Maesycwmwr, Hengoed (county of Caerffili)
..12 Merthyrtewdrig, Cas-gwent (county of Mynwy)
..13 Nant-y-glo (county of Blaenau Gwent)
..14 Notais, Porth-cawl (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..15 Pen-lan (county of Blaenau Abertawe)
..16 Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (county of Gwynedd) Bridgend, Glamorgan
..17 Porthmadog (county of Gwynedd)
..18 Rhos, Baecolwyn (county of Conwy)
..19 Tredegar (county of Blaenau Gwent)
..20 Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg)
..21 Y Creunant (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
..22 Y Cwm-du, Crugywel (county of Powys)
..23 Y Drenewydd (county of Powys)
..24 Y Gors-las (county of Caerfyrddin)
..25 Y Rhyl (county of Dinbych)
..26 Y Tyllgoed (county of Caer-dydd)
..27 Y Tywyn-bach (county of Caerfyrddin)

ETYMOLOGY: cilgant (cil = corner; wane of moon) + soft mutation + (cant = circle, rim) (a nineteenth-century coining)


Cilgerran kil-ge-ran feminine noun
SN1942 locality in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales
a parish at this place



cilgi kil -gi masculine noun
PLURAL cilgwn kil -gun
coward, person who runs off; especially in the saying

Iach cilgi drannoeth A coward lives to see another day; Flight is better than fight; Better to save your skin than stand and fight; Discretion is the better part of valour
Literally: ((it is) || healthy / all in one piece || (a) coward || the following day)

cilgi parod an out-and-out coward (Literally ready coward)

ETYMOLOGY: dog which flees cilgi (cil, stem of cilio = retreat, flee) + soft mutation + (ci = dog, used disparagingly for person in certain compound words)


cil haul kiil HAIL (masculine noun)
place in the shade, place which doesnt receive sunlight;
frequent in farm names and house names (Cil-haul)


cilio KIL yo (verb)
retreat, back off, back away, recede, move back

2 cilio ir cefndir take a back seat, fade into the background, move out of the public eye (retreat to the background)

3 cil hidden (stem of cilio)
(obsolete) retreating, recoiling, flight;

ar gil
in retreat, fleeing,
gyrru ar gil rout put to flight

NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:

GILL, hiding. Hes on gill hes hiding. From the Welsh Gil, a recess, a place to fly to. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 290 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)


cilo, cilos KI lo, KI los (masculine noun)

un cilo one kilo
cilo a hanner one and a half kilos
dau gilo two kilos
tri chilo three kilos
pedwar cilo four kilos
pum cilo five kilos
chwe chilo six kilos
saith cilo seven kilos
wyth cilo eight kilos
naw cilo nine kilos
deg cilo ten kilos
un cilo ar ddeg eleven kilos
deuddeg cilo twelve kilos


Cilpeddeg kil-p-dheg
Llanddewi Cilpeddeg (SO4430) locality in Gwent-in-England, in the county of Herefordshire, England, 6km northeast of Pontrilas
English name:: Kilpeck

ETYMOLOGY: Cilpeddeg is source (of the stream called) Peddeg
(cil = corner, nook; source) + (Peddeg meaning unknown, but the name of two other streams in the south-east)
Cil in the sense of the source of a stream is evidenced in other place names in South Wales

Llanddewi Cilpeddeg is (the) Llanddewi (which is at) Cilpeddeg.
Llanddewi church (of) David (
llan = church) + soft mutation + (Dewi = David) ; because there are other places with the same name Llanddewi, a tag is generally added to distinguish them.


kil- hree -din
(SN2734) locality in the county of Ceredigion, 6km southwest of Castellnewydd Emlyn
Ancient name: Llanddewi Cilrhedyn

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently nook (of) bracken; (cil = nook, secluded place) + (rhedyn = bracken).
The old name Llanddewi Cilrhedyn is the Llanddewi situated at Cilrhedyn (Llanddewi = church of David, a common church name)


cilydd KI lidh (masculine noun)
(obsolete) fellow;
ei gilydd each other (his fellow)

ai gilydd and another (and his fellow)

tiroedd ai gilydd one territory and another, one piece of land and another

Roedd nentydd yn aml yn ffiniau hwylus rhwng tiroedd a'i gilydd, a dyma pam y ceir ambell Nant y Ffin ar y map
Streams were convenient boundaries between one piece of land and another, and that is why we find an occasional Nant y Ffin (boundary stream) on the map

cilyn KII lin (masculine noun)
1 (Mid-Wales) kiln

ETYMOLOGY: cilyn / cilin < ciln < English kiln < Old English cyln < Latin culina kitchen < coquere (= to cook)


cilyn KII lin (masculine noun)
1 (South Wales) remnant

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = back) + (-yn suffix)

cim kim masculine noun
common land (found in place names in Arfon and the Llyn peninsula, county of Gwynedd)

..1/ Y Cim SH3125 at Porth Ceiriad, Aber-soch in the Llyn peninsula (county of Gwynedd)

..2/ Y Cim, Carmel SH4954 Gwynedd Carmel

..3/ Y Cim

..a) Distyll y Cim Llanengan (low-water mark at Y Cim) Y Cim


..4/ Y Cim at the foot of the mountain called Mynydd Cilan SH2924, south of Bwlchtocyn and Sarn-bach in the Llyn peninsula (county of Gwynedd)


..5/ Y Cim SH4452 by Brynaerau, Dyffryn Nantlle in the county of Gwynedd, east of Pontllyfni. Here too are

..a) Pont y Cim (the bridge at Y Cim)

..b) Efail y Cim (the smithy at Y Cim)

..c) Pistyll y Cim (the waterfall at Y Cim)

..d) Melin y Cim (the mill at Y Cim) Pont y Cim


..6/ Y Cim Lewis Morris, in Plans of Harbours, Bars, Bays and Roads in St. Georges Channels (1748) mentions Kim by Porth Dinllen SH 2741. Porth Dinllen is a cove by Morfanefyn, in the Llyn peninsula (county of Gwynedd)


There is also a derivative of the word cim formed by the addition of an unknown element ne; this base form cimne has given rise to the following variants, also listed as separate headwords on this page:

(a) cinme < cimne
(b) cimdda < cimdde < cimne
(c) cimla < cimle < cimne

ETYMOLOGY: unknown origin


cimdda kim -dha masculine noun
(South-east Wales) common land. Sometimes in the form cymdda kəm-dha

(1) Y Cymdda common land in Llan-daf (Caer-dydd). According to John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911):
Cymdda Bach / Cymla Bach (the little common.) In the parish of Llandaff (1730.) A small thatched cottage at Llandaff Yard.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, page 482, Y Cimdda, ger Llandaf (The common of Kimney of Landaffe, 1612, Card[iff] Rec[ord]s v. 13

(2) Y Cymdda common land in Y Rhath (Caer-dydd)
According to John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911):
Cyndda, or Cymdda, or Cymla Bach. A small thatched house which stood on the side of Pen-y-waun Road, on the corner of Ninian Road, by Roath Park. The name is Welsh and means The Common. In 1653 the house was described as a messuage and land, partly common, in the manor of Llystalybont. It was blown down in a storm (1895)

(3) Y Cimdda common land in Tre-lai (Caer-dydd). English name: Ely Common

John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911) quotes a verse by Twm Llewelyn, Llantrisant mocking the composer of verses (tribannau) Siemsyn Twrbil (James Turberville), who lived in Tre-lai:

Siemsyn Twrbil smala / A godwyd ar y Cimdda / Rwyt wedi dysgu iaith dy fam / A honno gan y gwydda
Drle Shemsyn Twrbil who was brought up on the Common; you have learnt your mothers language from geese

(4) Y Cymdda common land in Llantrisant (Rhondda-Cynon-Taf)
Nant Cymdda Bach stream between Llantrisant and Beddau (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, page 482, Y Cimdda, darn o gomin ger tref Llantrisant, (kimne 1578, RICE MERRICK: A Book of Glamorganshire Antiquities)
(= Y Cimdda, a part of common land near the town of Llantrisant)

(5) Y Cimla place at Llan-gan SS9577 (county of Bro Morgannwg), south-east of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, according to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, page 482

(6) Coed y Cymdda name of a wood east of Gwenf (county of Bro Morgannwg)

(7) Y Cymdda SS9183 common land south of Y Sarn (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
Y Cymdda street name by this place

cimne apparently (cim = common land) + (-ne, suffix of unknown meaning)
cimne > cimle (n > l)
cimle > cimla In south-east Wales a final e becomes a.
cimla > cimdda (l > dd)
cimdda > cymdda (the tonic vowel becomes an obscure vowel)

The change -ne > -le > -dde is also seen in shimne (= chimney) > shimle > shimdde


cimdde kim -dhe masculine noun
common land. Found in places names in the south-east in the form cimdda or cymdda. See cimdda.

ETYMOLOGY: (1) cimdde < cimne. Cimne is (cim = common land) + (-ne, unknown element)
(2) The change -ne > -le > -dde is also seen in shimne (= chimney) > shimle > shimdde


cimla kim -la masculine noun
common land

(1) Y Cimla SS 7696 a village in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan, on the eastern side of the town of Castell-nedd. From the name of common here, which on th Ordnance Survey map is indicated with the tautological Cimla Common
Heol y Cimla (Cimla Road) the road from Castell-nedd to Y Cimla

(2) Waun Cimla, open land on the east of Mynyddcynffig (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
= gwaun y cimne (the) heath (of) the common land

(3) Y Cimla Llan-daf (Caer-dydd). See Cimdda

(4) Y Cimla Y Rhath (Caer-dydd). See Cimdda

ETYMOLOGY: (1) In south-east Wales a final e becomes a. Thus cimla < cimle, which in turn is from cimne. Cimne is (cim = common land) + (-ne, unknown element)
(2) The change -ne > -le is possibly the result of confusion with the suffix -le, < lle (= place).
(3) The change -ne > -le is also seen in shimne (= chimney) > colloquially shimle


cimle kim -le masculine noun
PLURAL cimleydd, cimleoedd kim-l-idd, -odh
common land

Y Cimle place between Llanfaelrhys SH2126 and Rhiw, in the Llyn peninsula, county of Gwynedd
(Query: is the local form Cimla? since in the north-west a final e invariably becomes a)

ETYMOLOGY: (1) cimle < cimne. Cimne is (cim = common land) + (-ne, unknown element)
(2) The change -ne > -le is possibly the result of confusion with the suffix -le, < lle (= place).
(3) The change -ne > -le is also seen in shimne (= chimney) > colloquially shimle
See cimla

cimne kim ne masculine noun
common land; occurs in various forms in the place names of Wales

cimne > cimle (qv)
The change -ne > -le is also seen in shimne (= chimney) > colloquially shimle. It is possibly the result of confusion with the suffix -le, < lle (= place).

cimne > cimle > cimla (qv) (in south-east Wales e in a final syllable becomes a)

cimne > cimdde (qv)
The change -ne > -dde is also seen in shimne (= chimney) > colloquially shimdde

cimne > cimdde > cimdda (qv)

ETYMOLOGY: (cim = common land) + (-ne suffix of unknown meaning)


cin kin (m)
PLURAL ciniau, cinion, cinnau kin yai e, kin-yon, kin-ai -e
1 (not in use in modern Welsh) shred, piece of cŷh, rag

2 ciniach / cinnach (obsolete word) shreds, rags (cin) + (-i-ach or ach, plural ending, often indicating disdain, or worthless)

ETYMOLOGY: unknown

Cn-coed <kin KOID> [kɪnˡkɔɪd]
hill in Llangurig (Powys)

The History of the Parish of Llangurig. By Edward Hamer, Esq., and H. W. Lloyd, Esq. 1875

CIN-COED, cin may be a corruption of Cefn, ce'n; in which case the word would mean the ridge of the wood. It is the name of a hill in the t.p. [township] of Glyn-Brochan, and also of several small f[arm]s. and tenements on its slopes. 



ETYMOLOGY: cefn y coed ((the) hill (of) the wood). the wooded hill


Note: Often found as Cincoed, but if spelt according to the rules for such names with a stressed final monosyllabic element i.e. with a hyphen - (Cin-coed) there is no doubt about the pronunciation of this name. But more correctly still it would be Cn-coed, as the vowel needs to be marked as short it is usually long in this envioronent (blin, ffin, min, hin, tin)


Not also the spelling Cyncoed / Cyn-coed:

1 district of Caer-dydd (official spelling: Caerdydd, English Cardiff)


A Survey had and made of the said Lordshipp or Roth Kensam on the seventh day of May in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred and fiftye... for the lands late of David John William, [be]ing in Kenkoed in the said parish of Lanederne, formerlie in the tenure of Wenllian [He]rbert


(The Survey and Presentment of The Manor of Roath Keynsham in Glamorgan / Archaeologia Cambrensis / 4th Series / Vol XIV / 1883)

See Cyn-coed.



cingroen kin -gron feminine noun
PLURAL cingrwyn kin -gruin

stinkhorn Phallus impudicus, a fungus which gives off an offensive smell
y gingroen = the stinkhorn


in expressions to describe a bad smell:
drewi fel y gingroen stink like hell, stink to high heaven (stink like the stinkhorn)
mor ddrewllyd r gingroen as smelly as old socks (as smelly as the stinkhorn)

North Wales belittling expression for a person considered disagreeable
Dw in malio dim am yr hen gingroen afiach
I couldnt care less about that old turd (the old unhealthy stinkhorn)

ETYMOLOGY: shred of skin (cin = shred, rag, piece) + soft mutation + (croen = skin). Maybe because it was used as an exfoliant.

They really do use the stinkhorns in face cream preparations in the Balkans. The compounds in these mushrooms act as an exfoliant, leaving skin looking fresh and clean. Website: The Fungal Jungal. Page: Stinkhorns

NOTE: the literary pronuciation is kin-groin; the colloquial pronunciation kin-gron is also written cingron / cingron.

Colloquially the reduction oe > o in the final syllable of a word is typical


kin -yo masculine noun
PLURAL ciniawau
kin- YAA -we
dinner = midday meal, main meal of the day
cinio twym a hot dinner
hwylio cinio prepare dinner
ar ginio during dinner
llestr cinio dinner dish
bod ar eich cinio be at lunch (be on you dinner)

dinner, supper = evening meal

cinio ysgol school dinner, school lunch (provided to pupils in a school)
arian cinio = dinner money, formerly (especially 1950s, 1960s) taken to school by the pupil on a Monday to pay for the meals during the following week

cinio pecyn
packed lunch (food taken to school or to work in a lunch box) (bocs bwyd)

Mae e ar ei ginio Hes having dinner (he is on his dinner)

..a/ cinio < *cin + (-io suffix);
..b/ *cin < British (< Latin kna?) < Latin cna (= supper);

Cornish kiniow (= dinner)

NOTE: (South Wales) masculine noun y cinio, (North Wales) feminine noun y ginio


cinio echwydd kin-yo e-khwidh masculine noun
(now obsolete, but in use in the Blaenau Morgannwg area in south-east Wales until the 1900s) dinner

ETYMOLOGY: cinio (= dinner), echwydd (= afternoon)


cinio ysgol KIN yo Ə skol (masculine noun)
school dinner


Cinmeirch <KIN-meirkh> [ˡkɪnməɪrx]
(Place-names), occurs in Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch (the Llanrhaeadr / church of the waterfall in the cwmwd (commote / district) of Cinmeirch). SJ0863 4km south-east of Dinbych on the road to Rhuthun. See Ceinmeirch Y Ficerdy / The Vicarage

Bro Cinmeirch the Cinmeirch district

Ysgol Bro Cinmeirch
(the) school (of) Bro Cinmeirch
name of a primary school in Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch

(delwedd 7505)


Cinmel <KIN-mel> [ˡkɪnmɛl]

SH9874 Plas Cinmel (Kinmel Hall)

SH9874 Parc Cinmel (Kinmel Park)

3 Ffordd Cinmel street in Y Rhyl (Cinmel Street)

4 Baecinmel (SH9880) (county of Conwy) (Cinmel Bay) Twyni Cinmel / Cinmel Dunes Baecinmel

ETYMOLOGY: Cinmel < Clmael < Cil-mel secluded place of Mael
(cil = secluded place, recess) + (Mael male name)

ciosg, ciosgau KI osg, ki O ske (masculine noun)


cipio KIP yo (verb)
take, seize, snatch
cipio cneuen o wl y blaidd to beard (= oppose) the lion in his den; confront someone (take / snatch (a) hazelnut (from) (the) den (of ) the wolf)

2 pick up, detain
cipio troseddwr pick up a criminal


ciplun kip -lin masculine noun
PLURAL cipluniau kip-lin -ye

ETYMOLOGY: (cip- = glance, quick look; snatch) + soft mutation + (llun = picture)


ci poeth kii POITH (masculine noun)
PLURAL: cŵn poeth / cŵn poethion kuun POITH, kuun POITH-yon
1 hot dog (a frankfurter sausage in a bun)

ETYMOLOGY: (hot dog, a translation of the English expression)
(ci = dog) + (poeth = hot)


ciprys ki -pris verb
contend with, wrangle with
ciprys ag angau dice with death


NOTA: also ciprws


In Welsh, hirnod (long mark), or colloquially, to bach (little roof)

In monosyllables, it marks a long vowel in a short-vowel environment.

For example, in coch, mab, ffos, the vowel is long, but there is no need to indicate this with a diacritic because the vowel in monosyllables ending in ch, -b and s is long.

(If it happens to be short often because the word is a borrowing from English, a grave accent denotes this, though often this is ignored bg (= bag), bs (= boss), tb (= tab).

With words such as doc (= dock), het (= hat), map (= map), siop (= shop), the vowel is short. If it happens to be long it is marked by means of a circumflex - plt (= plate), wc (= a walk), pl (= ball).

It is also used in informal texts to indicate regional pronunciations with a long vowel when the standard language has a short vowel.

In the North, the vowel in monosyllables ending in st is long.
Nest > Nst (womans name)

In the South, the vowel in monosyllables ending in ll is long.
pwll > pŵll = pool
y llall
> y nll = the other one

In place names, sometimes it is to be seen in erroneous spellings such as in
cch / gch (not necessary; it should be coch / goch)

Y Talwrn-coch

Farm near Rhydroser, Ceredigion. Spelt as Talwrn-cch on the Ordnance Survey map

cist kist feminine noun
PLURAL cistiau kist -ye
1 chest (Scotland: cist)

y gist the chest
cist ddillad cŷhes chest

Allwedd pob cist yw cwrw In vino veritas ((it-is) (the) key (of) every chest that-is beer, beer is the key to every chest)

2 (South Wales) flour bin
cist flawd flour chest
cist flawd ceirch oatmeal chest

3 boot (= car boot) (USA: trunk)

4 cist ludw dustbin

5 dyfrgist cistern = water tank on a roof, or in a toilet for flushing a toilet bowl

6 cist bleidleisio balŷ box

7 cist = prehistoric stone tomb (English cist in this sense is from Welsh)
In names of prehistoric tombs
Cist Arthur Arthurs Coffer

ETYMOLOGY: British < Latin cista (= box, basket) < Greek kist (= box)
Cf English chest < Old English cest (= chest) < Latin cista < Greek

NOTE: in the North with a long vowel cst


Cist Arthur
kist ar -thir feminine noun
1 a stone on Ysgyrryd Fawr, Llandeilo Bertholau (SO 3218) (county of Mynwy)

Edward Lhuyd (1670-1709) noted 'There is upon Skerid Vawr a great stone shaped like a house called Cist Arthur' map

ETYMOLOGY: literally Arthur's Coffer, (the) coffer (of) Arthur

(cist = coffer) + (Arthur = Arthur)

cist ddroriau kist dhror-ye feminine noun
PLURAL cistiau droriau kist-ye dror-ye
1 chest of drawers (USA: bureau)

ETYMOLOGY: (chest (of) drawers) (cist = coffer) + soft mutation + (droriau = drawers, plural of drr = drawer)


cist de
kist dee feminine noun
PLURAL cistiau te kist-ye tee
1 tea chest = large wooden box in which tea is transported and stored

2 tea chest = this type of large wooden box reused (or a box similar in size and shape) for other purposes; generally for storing things, and for transporting objects on moving house

ETYMOLOGY: (cist = coffer) + soft mutation + (te = tea)


kist -vain masculine noun
PLURAL cistfeini kist- vei -ni
1 cistfaen prehistoric sepulchre, in the form of a box, with four slabs forming the sides, and a horizontal slab as a lid

ETYMOLOGY: (chest-stone) (cist = coffer) + soft mutation + (maen = stone)


cist flawd
kist vlaud feminine noun
PLURAL cistiau blawd kist-ye blaud
1 flour chest (Scotland: meal-ark)

ETYMOLOGY: (chest (of) flour) (cist = coffer) + soft mutation + (blawd = flour)


citbag, citbags
KIT bag, KIT bags (masculine noun)


Citi KI ti (feminine noun)
Kitty (Diminutive of Cathrin)


ciw, ciwiau KIU, KIU ye (masculine noun)

(North Wales) neidior ciw push in (in a queue), jump a queue, jump the queue
(in the South tsheto'r gwt) (cheat the queue)


ciwdod, ciwdodau KIU dod, kiu DO de (feminine noun)
(obsolete) tribe, community
y giwdod = the tribe


ki -wed feminine noun
PLURAL ciweidiau
ki- weid -ye
(obsolete) people, nation
y giwed = the nation, the people

rabble, mob, crowd, gang, riff-raff. scum
Dyna giwed! What a rabble!

Allwn ni ddim fforddio i'r un o'r giwaid ddianc o'n gafael.
We cant let any of the riff-raff get away / give us the slip

y giwed (form of address) you rabble!
Dowch ymlaen, y giwed Come along, you rabble

bloody things, nuisances

Os ywr ardd gefn yn llawn danadl, peidiwch bod yn rhy barod i gael gwared 'r giwed. Maent yn fagwrfa i fath arbennig o loyn byw
If the back garden is full of nettles, dont be too keen to get rid of the nuisances. They are a breeding place for a special kind of butterfly.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < *ciwd < < British *civit- < Latin cvits (= citizenship, state, town) < cvis (= citizen)


ciwi, ciwis KI wi, KI wis (masculine noun)
kiwi fruit


ciwt KIUT (adj)
1 sharp, clever, ingenious

Menyw giwt, alluog iawn oedd Sianir Waun

Siani from Y Waun was a clever, capable woman

2 clever with one's hands

ETYMOLOGY: English cute < acute < Latin acūtus (= sharpened), the past participle of acuere (= to sharpen). The verb stem acū- is related to acus (= needle), and ācer (= sharp). TO the stem is added (-tus past participle suffix)

Although in English nowadays it means attractive, the older sense (the one preserved in Welsh) still survives, in regional colloquial English, if not in the standard language.

London, 1825. Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London.
Cute. adj. Sharp, clever.


KIU-trA (m)
1 sharpness, cleverness

ETYMOLOGY: ciwtra < cwt-tra (ciwt = sharp, clever) + (-tra abstract noun suffix)


ci ysgyfarnog, cŵn ysgyfarnog kii ə skə VAR nog, kuun ə skə VAR nog (masculine noun)
dog for hunting hares


cl-, cl-
contraction of k + vowel + l, especially in colloquial Welsh
(1) calandrio (= calculate) > clandro / clandro

(2) Calan Gaeaf (= All Saints Day, first day of November, the calend of winter) > > *
Clangeua > Clyngeua

is pronounced as if written geuaf; the final f of polysyllabic words in Welsh is lost geuaf > geua
a vowel in the pretonic syllable may be reduced to the obscure vowel a sporadic feature in Welsh
Clangeua > Clyngeua

(3) Calan Mai (= May Day, first day of May) > Clame

(4) caledu (= harden, go hard, make hard) > cledu

(5) caletryd (= hard + ford; either a ford with a firm foundation, or ford through a strong-flowing stream) > cletryd (Y Gledryd in place names)

(6) caledwch (= hardness) > cledwch

(7) caletaf (hardest) > cleta

(8) caletir (= hard ground; in place names) > cletir

(9) caletwr (= hard water i.e., strong-flowing, rushing, violent; in stream names) > cletwr (in place names)

(10) calonnau (= hearts) > clonna

(11) ceiliagwydd (= gander) > clacwydd

(12) celanedd (= corpses) > bod yn glana chwerthin (= nearly die laughing)

(13) celwyddau (= lies) > clwyddau
(North Wales) > clwdda (Caernarfon)

(14) celwyddgi (= liar) > clwddgi

(15) Celynnau (= holly bushes) > Clenna (= place name, local form)

(16) Celynnog (= holly place) > Clynnog (= place name)

(17) colomen (= dove) > clomen

(18) coluro (= apply make-up) > cluro

(19) cwlwm (= knot; cluster of nuts) > clwm

(20) cyflogi (= to employ, to hire) > clogi

(21) cylymau (knots, clusters) > clyme

2 initial tl in certain words can become cl kl in spoken Welsh
(1) tlawd (= poor) > clawd
(2) tlws (= pretty) > clws
(3) Talerddig (= name of a village in Powys) > Tlerddig > Clerddig


klAk-son masculine noun
PLURAL clacsonau
klaxon = electric horn, especially of a car
canur clacson sound the claxon

ETYMOLOGY: English claxon, from the name of a company


cladd, claddau KLAADH, KLAA-dau,- e (m)
hole in the ground

2 trench, ditch

3 potato clamp, potato pit = hole in the ground for storing potatoes
cladd tatws potato clamp

NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
bury : a potato heap ]

In A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, (in three parts) by a Lady: to which is added a Glossary. James Frederick PALMER, Mary Palmer. 1837: such a clamp is described, under the local name of CAVE OF POTATOES as a pit of potatoes earthed up and thatched over for the winter.

4 pool where fish spawn in a river

5 spawn of fish

6 (South Wales) angladd funeral
(an intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cladd = burial)

(::b)ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cladd < British *klad- < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton klaz
From the same Celtic root: Irish cladh = (ditch)


claddfa, claddfydd KLADH-va, kladh-VEIDH (feminine noun)
graveyard, cemetery
y gladdfa = the graveyard


claddu KLAA-dhi (verb)
to bury

Gadwch i ni ei chladdu hi Lets forget about the matter, Lets drop it, Let byegones be byegones, Lets bury the hatchet (lets bury it)

3 claddu dan yr hen drefn eat heartily (bury under / according to the old system)

4 claddu asgwrn y gynnen bury the hatchet, make ones peace (bury the bone of contention / (the) bone (of) the dispute)

PLURAL claddwyr

Eseciel 39:15 Ar tramwywyr, a gyniweiriant trwy y tir, pan welo un asgwrn dyn, efe a gyfyd nod wrtho, hyd oni chladdo y claddwyr ef yn nyffryn Hamon-gog.
Ezekiel 39:15 And the passengers that pass through the land, when any seeth a man's bone, then shall he set up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in the valley of Hamongog.

person with a hearty appetite
Maen gladdwr He has a hearty appetite, He has a good appetite

ETYMOLOGY: (cladd- = stem of claddu = to bury) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix) + (-wr suffix = man)


1 river in Elenydd (highland area in central Wales)

Llyn Claerwen Claerwen Reservoir
(the) lake (of) (the) Claerwen (stream / river)


(delwedd 7042)

3 womans name (from the river name) (rare)

claf, cleifion KLAAV, KLEIV yon
(adjective) sick

(masculine noun) patient
cleifion allanol outpatients

3 gwahanglaf leper = person with leprosy
(gwahan- = different, separate ) + soft mutation + ( claf = sick person )


clagwydd / clagwydd kla -guidh masculine noun
See ceiliagwydd = gander


klAis masculine noun
PLURAL cleisiau, cleisau
kleis-ye, klei-se / -she
tan eich cleisiau bruised, black and blue

bod yn gleisiau a chlwyfau be (all) cut and bruised (be bruises and wounds)

rhoi rhywun tan ei gleisiau / rhoi rhywun dan ei gleisiau beat (someone) black and blue

cyraeddasom i waelod y cwm heb fawr o niwed mwy nac ambell glais yma ac acw
we reached the bottom of the valley relatively unscathed apart from a couple of bruise here and there

(South Wales) ditch
Clywais ŵr o Forgannwg wrth bregethu yn y Gogledd, yn dweyd, Codi dyn o'r clais; ond nid oedd neb yn ei ddeall (tudalen 240 Seren Gomer 19 1898)
I heard a man from Morgannwg (= former county in the south, Glamorgan) when preaching in the North, saying, to raise a man from the clais (ditch)) but nobody understood him (nobody was understanding him)

clais clawdd roadside ditch, bottom of the hedgebank

yng nghlais y clawdd at the bottom of the hedgebank, in the ditch

cysgu yng nghlais y clawdd sleep in the ditch, sleep out under the stars, sleep rough (sleep in the ditch of the hedgebank)

rivulet, small stream

ETYMOLOGY: From a Celtic element *klad- (= hit, break, fall), seen also in claddu (= to dig), clawdd (= hedgebank).

Irish has the related form clais (= water channel, ditch; trench, furrow; rut, groove)


Clamai / Clamai kla-mai masculine noun
See Calan Mai = the first of May

ETYMOLOGY: Calan Mai / Calanmi > Cala-mi > Cla-mi > Cl-mai (accent shift)


Clanmai / Clanmai klan-mai masculine noun
See Calan Mai = the first of May

ETYMOLOGY: Calan Mai / Calanmi > Clan-mi > Cln-mai (accent shift)


Clanme / Clame kla-me masculine noun
See Calan Mai = the first of May

ETYMOLOGY: Calan Mai / Calanmi > Cala-mi > Cla-mi > Cl-mai (accent shift) > Calme (colloquial reduction of final diphthong ai > vowel e)


..1 clap clap
PLURAL clapiau klap -ye
(sound) clack, bang
clo clap padlock

bang = noise of a slamming door
caur drws yn glap bang a door shut, close a door with a bang, slam the door shut

(North Wales)
cath glap (1) the game of tipcat (2) the cat used in this game (cath = cat, clap = noise of striking)

(flour mill) clack = device which strikes the hopper and causes it to move to and fro
fel clap melin / fel clap y felin (said of a talkative person) like the clack of a mill

claps tittle-tattle, gossip
hela claps to gossip

gossip, person who engages in tittle-tattle, tell-tale
clapgi gossip (man)
clapgast or clapiast gossip (woman)
clap a chleber tales and gossip, gossip and hearsay
clap a chelwydd gossip and lies

lump, round object
clap siwgr sugar lump
clap rhew / clap i ice cube
clap glo lump of coal
clap o lo lump of coal
mn glapiau small lumps (of coal, etc)
malu glo mn yn glapiau try to do the impossible (break small lumps of coal into big lumps)

(of a bell) clapper, tongue

9 clap = a single clap of the hands
rhoi clap ar eich dwylo clap your hands together (in expectation) (give a clap on your hands)

clap = applause
cymryd clap (actor at the end of a performance) take a bow

clap = a light blow
clap ar y cefn a clap on the back (a sign of congratulation)

ETYMOLOGY: English clap (= loud abrupt sound) < Old English claeppan. Of imitative origin.

Cf German der Klapper (= childs rattle), klappern (= to rattle)

NOTE: Plural form in southern Welsh: clapau (minus the initial i of the final syllale) > clape.
A diminutive form is clepyn (= lump, small lump)


..2 clap klap masculine noun
y clap the clap, gonorrhoea

ETYMOLOGY: English clap < Old French clapoir (= sore caused by gonorrhea) < clapier (= brothel) < Occitan clapir (= brothel) < clap (= pile of stones)


clapgast klap -gast masculine noun
PLURAL clapgeist klap -geist
1 gossip = person who gossips, blabbermouth = one who reveals
a secret

NOTA: clapiast, PLURAL clapieist, variant of clapgast (= gossip)

ETYMOLOGY: (mil = animal) + soft mutation + (gast = bitch) > clapiast

The lack of soft mutation in clapgast is possibly in fact the restoration of the radical form

Thus clapiast > clapgast

If it were a regular compound word, it would be *clapast

Cf pennardd and peniardd (in place names, promontory)
The consonant g when soft-mutated has become semivowel i

NOTE: Cf miliast greyhound bitch, which has an alternative form with no soft mutation of the initial g - milgast


clapgi klap -gi masculine noun
PLURAL clapgwn klap -gun
1 gossip = person who gossips
clapgast / clapiast : a woman who is a gossip (clap = gossip)
NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
clap-tongue : a gossip, tale-teller, chatterbox ]


clapiog KLAP yog (adjective)
mewn Cymraeg clapiog in broken Welsh (= in lumpy Welsh)


Clarach KLAA-rakh (feminine noun)
village (North-west)


clarint, clarinetau kla ri NET, kla ri NE te (masculine noun)


cls KLAS (masculine noun)
(colloquial) class (in standard Welsh, dosbarth)


clas klaas masculine noun
PLURAL clasau kla -se
monastica classis, monastic community, monastery, monastic settlement

4 place names:
..1/ Clas ar Wy village in Powys

..2/ Y Clas (part of the old parish of Llangyfelach, in the county of Abertawe)
This is Clase kleiz in English, though one would expect Clace kleis. (with s), though it has probably fallen in with words spelt with s but pronounced z in English (phase) though such words usually have the spelling z (haze, amaze, blaze, glaze), rather than those which have retained s (base) though such words usually have the spelling c (space, trace, mace, place, pace)

The vowel change is aa > ei which occured in the 1400s in English (as in late laat > leit, tame taam > teim, face faas > feis, etc)

There is a district marked on English maps as Clase in Llangyfelach, north of Mynydd-garn-llwyd

There is Clase Drive in Y Clas in Llangyfelach (translated, the Welsh name would be Ln y Clas or something similar); and Claze Road in Treforus (translated, the Welsh name would be Heol y Clas).

In Llangyfelach there is also a Clasemont Road (apparently Clase + English mont = hill, used in coining idyllic names in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, on the pattern of genuine names taken from French such as Beaumont (beau = beautiful), Claremont (clair = bright), and perhaps the less genuine Verdmont in Bermuda (verd = green), and Vermont in the USA.

In Vermont Genealogy, Journal of the Vermont French-Canadian Genealogical Association, I,1 (Spring 1996), Joseph-Andr Senecal states:

Vermont is not in any historical way, connected with the French presence in the Green Mountain state before 1760...

The first documented use of the word Vermont is dated April 11, 1777. On that day, in Philadelphia, Thomas Young had a broadside printed and addressed To the Inhabitants of Vermont, a Free and Independent State....

All evidence points to Young as the originator of the word Vermont, a translation of the English Green Mountains. In concert with the Allen brothers, Young's purpose was probably to honor, in a thinly disguised manner, the bombastic Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys....

In French mont is much older than montagne. The word is documented as early as 1080 and figures prominently in the epic Song of Roland, However, by the late 1700s, the word had clearly lost out to montagne. This has remained true to this day.

Except for writing poetry and geographic naming (such as Outremont) we seldom call upon the word mont in modern French.

Even in 1777, at the time when Vermont was coined, mont was an archaic word. However, its use in place naming was well established and carried an aura of antiquity and nobility.

..3/ Clasgarmon in Saint Harmon (county of Powys) (monastery of Harmon)

Clas Myrddin a supposed early name of Britain

In a manuscript from the century 1300-1400:
Kyntaf enw a uu ar yr ynys honn... clas myrdin
= (in modern Welsh spelling) Cyntaf enw a fu ar yr ynys hon... Clas Myrddin
The first name of this island (which was on this island) Clas Myrddin The cloister of Myrddin

clastir glebeland

7 In modern street names, as an equivalent of English close
Clas Ael-y-bryn, Ynys-y-bwl (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
Clas Dyfrig, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Gabriel, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Gwernifor, Aberpennar (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
Clas Ifor, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Illtyd, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Isan, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Odyn, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Teilo, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Tynewydd, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Tyn-y-cae, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas Tŷ-wern, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas y Dderwen, Aberpennar (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (as Clas y Dderwen)
Clas Yorath, Caer-dydd (county of Caer-dydd)
Clas yr Onnen, Waunarlwydd (county of Abertawe) (as Clas yr Onnen)
Clas y Bedw, Waunarlwydd (county of Abertawe) (as Clas y Bedw)
Clas y Deri
, Waunarlwydd (county of Abertawe) (as Clas y Deri)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin class-is (= army, class)


Clas ar Wy klaas ar ui
(SO1739) locality in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
English name: Glasbury
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: the place called Clas on the river Gwy
(clas) + (ar = on; on the banks of) + soft mutation + (Gwy = river name; English Wye).
Clas means monastic settlement


clasur kla -sir masculine noun
PLURAL clasuron kla-s-ron
classic = one of the standard works of Roman or ancient Greek literature

Y Clasuron, Classics = subject of study in a university - the literature of the Romans and ancient Greeks

classic = a work of the greatest quality in literature or art
Bellach y maer emyn O Fab y Dyn, Eneiniog Duw yn glasur
Now the hymn O son of Man, Gods Anointed One is a classic

ETYMOLOGY: word coined in 1850 (clas- = first syllable of the English word classic) and the final syllable (-ur) of the words awdur (= author), doethur (= doctor).
The word classic < Latin classicus of the first order / rank < classus (= division, rank, class)


clasurol kla-SII-rol (adjective)
ffug-glasurol pseudo-classical


clatsh KLACH
clo clatsh (North Wales) padlock


clawdd klaudh masculine noun
PLURAL cloddiau, cloddion klodh-ye, -yon

Luc 6:39 Ac ef a ddywedodd ddameg wrthynt: a ddichon y dall dywysor dall? oni syrthiant ill dau yn y clawdd?
Luke 6:39 And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?

(business) mynd ir clawdd, fail, be unsuccessful, go to the wall (go into the ditch)

2 obsolete earth thrown up from digging a hole

dyke, earth wall, wall
clawdd yr ardd garden wall; hedgebank around a garden
clawdd cerrig stone wall = stone field bank
codi clawdd cerrig o gwmpas (rhywbeth) build a stone wall around (something)
clawdd moel wall made of sods (literally bare wall)
clawdd pridd earthern wall, earthern bank (around a field)

hedgebank; earthern bank with a hedge planted on top (especially hawthorn)
y tu clytaf ir clawdd on the sheltered side of the hedgebank

eistedd ar y clawdd, eistedd ar ben y clawdd sit on the fence - not favour either of two options, remain undecided (sit on the wall / hedgebank)

Maer mwyar duon gorau bob tro ar yr ochr arall ir clawdd
the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence (the best blackberries are always on the other side of the hedge)

Gorau cymydog, clawdd (the best neighbour is a hedgebank / a wall) a hedgebank or wall prevents excessive interaction with neighbours, allows privacy

5 hedge (made of plants such as hawthorn)
clawdd gwrych thorn hedge
clawdd drain thorn hedge

Diarhebion 15:19 Ffordd y diog sydd fel cae drain; ond ffordd yr uniawn sydd wastad.
Proverbs 15:19 The way of the sŷhful man is as an hedge of thorns: but the way of the righteous is made plain.

demarcation ditch and bank;
clawdd terfyn = boundary ditch / wall / bank / fence

See Clawdd Offa (a boundary ditch between Wales and England),

Clawdd Wat Wats Dyke A 40 mile-long earthwork between Abaty Dinas Basing / Basing werk Abbey to Maesbury in Shropshire, running more or less parallel to Clawdd Offa, at times alomost contiguous and at others up to three milers distant

See Caron Uwch Clawdd (district in the county of Ceredigion = Caron above (the) ditch)

stopbank, levee, embankment; riverside dyke preventing floods

8 barrage in a river estuary
Maer adarwyr wedi condemnior cynllun i adeiladu clawdd ar draws aber yr afon Gonwy
The ornithologists have condemned the plan to build a barrage across the Conwy estuary

Also: morglawdd (mr = sea) + soft mutation + (clawdd = barrage)

9 (obsolete) mine, pit; quarry
but in this sense especially in derived words:
cloddfa quarry, mine (clawdd = mine, ditch, diggings) + (-fa suffix = place)
mwnglawdd mine (clawdd = mineral, ore) + soft mutation + (clawdd = mine, ditch, diggings)
also: mwynglawdd

10 taflu ir clawdd throw away, to dump, to ditch, throw out of the window (throw into the ditch)

Er mwyn ymddangos yn fwy Seisnig mae ein plaid genedlaethol wedi taflur iaith Gymraeg ir clawdd
In order to appear more English our national party has thrown the Welsh language out of the window

gweirglodd (= hay meadow) < gweirglawdd (gweir, penult form of gwair = grass, hay) + soft mutation + (clawdd = hedge; place enclosed by a hedge)

dringo dros glawdd y ffos (trench warfare) go over the top, climb out of the trench and go over the defensive rampart

cysgu fel y clawdd sleep like a top (sleep like a hedgebank)
cysgu yng nghlais y clawdd sleep in the ditch, sleep out under the stars, sleep rough (sleep in the ditch of the hedgebank)

llwyd y clawdd (Prunella modularis) hedge accentor, hedge sparrow (grey (bird) (of) the hedgebank)

at the bottom of the hedgebank
ym mn y clawdd (bn = stump, trunk, base, bottom)
yng nghlais y clawdd (clais = ditch)
yn nhin y clawdd (tin = arse)

South Wales ym molar clawdd (bola = belly)

North Wales (area of Penllyn, and the valley of the river Clwyd, north-west Wales) hedgebank

arglawdd railway embankment or canal embankment
arglawdd y rheilffordd the railway embankment
arglawdd y gamlas the canal embankment

gwrthglawdd rampart, embankement surrounding a fort

cloddio to dig, to excavate (from an underlying clwdd-io)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *kld-

From the same British root: Cornish kledh (= ditch, bank), Breton kleuz (= ditch, bank)

From the same Celtic root: Irish cladh (literary) ditch, trench

NOTE: In the dialects, there is a variety of words to indicate a hedgebank
(1) In the South-west, clawdd is the usual designation.
(2) In the South-east, perth is the usual description.
(3) In mid-Wales, shetin is used, and
(4) in the North the usual term is gwrychen


Clawdd Offa klaudh o-fa
An almost continuous ditch which goes from Prestatyn in the north of our country to the river Gwy (Wye) by Trefynwy (Monmouth) in the south.

It was constructed in the eighth century, according to tradition on the order of Offa, king of Mercia (reigned 38 or 39 years, 757-796 A.D.) to indicate the boundary between his kingdom (originally Welsh land, the eastern part of Powys, which had been conquered and settled by the Anglians) and the remaining lands of the Welsh.

Over 1200 years later the ditch still exists, and it is still known as Clawdd Offa, ((the) ditch (of) Offa), and in English Offas Dyke

(in some expressions) the boundary between England and Wales. Nowadays it no longer marks the exact border part lies within Wales and part is in England.

mynd dros Glawdd Offa = go to England (go over Offas Dyke)

byw y tu draw i Glawdd Offa = live in England (live beyond Offas Dyke)

Nid am y tro cyntaf y mae dyn papur newydd or tu draw i Glawdd Offa
wedi sathru ar gyrn y Cymry

Not for the first time a newspaperman from England (from beyond Offas Dyke) has offended the Welsh (`has trodden on the corns / bunions of the Welsh) .

Trefyclo (qv) SO2872 tre--klo Village in the county of Powys on the frontier with England.
This, the official Welsh name for the village, is in origin a colloquial reduction with a shift of accent of Tref-y-clawdd trev-ə-klaudh ((the) trv / farmstead (of) the dyke). This latter form is also in use. The English name is Knighton.

Tref-y-clwdd > Tref-y-clw > Trefclaw > Trefclo

3 Clawddoffa street name in Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam) (on street maps as Clawdd Offa)

ETYMOLOGY: the ditch / dyke of Offa (clawdd = ditch / dyke) + (Offa).


clawr, cloriau KLAUR, KLOR ye (masculine noun)
cover; lid

clawr llygad eyelid

- clawr caled klaur KA led (masculine noun)
hard cover (of a book)

- clawr gwyddbwyll klaur GUIDH builh (masculine noun)
chess board

- clawr meddal klaur ME dhal (masculine noun)
soft cover (of a book)


cleber, clebrod KLEE-ber, KLE brod (feminine noun)
chat, chatting, gossip
y gleber = the gossip, the chatting

clap a chleber tales and gossip, gossip and hearsay


clec, cleciau / clecs KLEK, KLEK-yai, -ye, KLEKS (feminine noun)

sharp sound (click, clack, click-clack, snap, bang, crash)
y glec the bang

clywais glec i gansan o ar y drws I heard the clack of his cane on the door

coes glec wooden leg (leg (of) click-clack from the noise of such a leg against a hard surface)

ss glec, swsys clec a smacker, a smacker of a kiss, a smackeroo of a kiss, a smacking kiss, a noisy kiss (kiss (of) (a) clicking sound)
rhoi ss glec i rywun give somebody a noisy kiss

helygen glec (helyg clec) (Salix fragilis var. fragilis) crack willow (willow (of) crack /(of) snapping sound) See: helygen frau (helyg brau) (brittle willow)

clo clec padlock

a clap of thunder, thunderclap; bang of an explosion
clec taran a clap of thunder, thunderclap
clec tanchwa the bang of an explosion
clec y danchwa the bang of the explosion
y ffrwydron yn tanio efo clec the detonators going off with a bang
clec fawr a big bang

clec gwn gunshot

Dyna glec gwn A shot rang out, there was the sound of a gunshot (See-there (the) bang (of a) gun)

the sound of cynghannedf (consonance in poetry)

5 rhoi clec i ferch make a girl pregnant, get a girl into trouble,

6 smack
cael clec gan rywun get a smack from someone, get smacked by someone

7 tale, a piece of gossip; clecs tales, gossip
Paid holi clecs dont ask me to tell ysles about people, dont ask me to tell you that, dont ask me to gossip about that
clec yn dechrau cerdded a piece of gossip beginning to make its rounds
gwrando clecs to listen to gossip
cario clecs go around gossiping

(South-east Wales) pen y glec (the) top (of) the chat place (bridge, street corner, etc) where people come together to chat after work or after a chapel service

Pont y Glec (the) bridge (of) the chat a name given to the bridge called Pont ar Daf north of Cefn-coed y Cymer, now under the waters of the Llwyn-On reservoir, (except in times of drought, when the water level is low, and the remains of it reemerge)

NOTE: Used in Cambrian English (the form of English with influences from the Welsh language once a second language but nowadays used by non-Welsh speakers brought up in Wales) Please don't clec on me! (= Please don't reveal my secret!)

Example from The Valley Phrasebook from a website dedicated to Cwm Sirhywi. (

8 (North Wales) yn glec suddenly
darfod yn glec come to a sudden end

9 (North Wales) yn glec with a snap, with a bang
torri'n glec to snap, break with a snapping sound
cau'n glec close with a bang

10 di-glec silently = without a clicking noise or without a retort
(di- privative prefix) + soft mutation + (clec = bang)
Taniodd y pistol yn ddi-gle The pistol fired without a sound

11 clec ar fawd a click of the fingers (click on thumb)

rhoi clec ar fawd to click ones fingers

ETYMOLOGY: English clack (= a sharp noise)

NOTE: (1) [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
clack : to snap the fingers, to crack a whip ]

clecian KLEK-yan (verb)
(vt) to click
clecian eich sodlau to click your heels

2 (vi) (teeth) chatter (from the cold)


..1 cledd kleedh masculine noun
(obsolete) left side.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *kli-i < *klei (= to bend)

From the same British root: Cornish kledh (= left), a-gledh (= on the left), Breton kleiz (= left)

In the Hibernian languages, equivalents of cledd, from the same Celtic root, are:
Irish cl (= left hand),
Scottish Gaelic cl (= left-handed)

NOTE: cledd survives in modern Welsh in the word gogledd (= north)

This is (go-, gwo- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cledd = left hand).

The north was on a person's left when he / she looked east, in the direction of the rising sun.

From the same British root as gogledd: Breton gwalez (= north wind).


..2 cledd kleedh masculine noun
PLURAL cleddyfau kle- dhə -ve

(literary Welsh, especially in poetry) sword.
ceidwad y cledd (Eisteddfod) sword-bearer

cledd is also used in some compound words
cleddbysgodyn swordfish (pysgodyn cleddyf is a less literary name)
crymgledd scimitar (cleddyf pengam is a less literary name)

ETYMOLOGY: probably shortened from cleddyf (= sword)

NOTE: In colloquial Welsh, the usual word for sword is cleddau (spoken as cledde), and also cleddyf (spoken as cleddy)


cleddyf, cleddyfau KLEE dhiv, kle DHƏƏ ve (masculine noun)
blaen cleddyf tip of a sword

cleddyf deufin two-edged sword

3 rhoich cleddyf trwy rywun put your sword through someone, wound or kill someone with a sword

4 cleddyf Dmocles the sword of Damocles, a constant danger (As related by Cicero, Dionysius the Elder, ruler of Syracuse wishing to show his sycophantic courtier Damocles that his power and wealth were not to be envied, since they placed him under constant threat. To give him a sense of the precariousness of his position, he sat his courtier at a banquet under a sword suspended from the ceiling by a single hair.

pobl oeddynt 'r cleddyf megis yn hongian uwch eu pennau wrth edef deneu iawn
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)
They were people with a sword (the sword) as it were hanging over them on a very thin thread

cledr cle-der feminine noun
PLURAL cledrau cle -dre

NOTE: Also the diminutive form cledren (cledr + diminutive suffix -en), plural cledrennau, cledrenni

(obsloete) stave, pole
y gledr = the stave

(obsolete) boundary marker

rail (of railway)
cledrffordd (obsolete) railway (now rheilffordd)

trn un gledren monorail

gosod cledrau tracklaying, platelaying

peiriant gosod cledrau tracklaying machine, tracklayer

codir cledrau remove the rails

Rhedair trn bach ar gledrau deunaw modfedd eu lled
The train ran on a eighteen-inch gauge track (on rails eighteen inches their width)

palm (of the hand)
cledr y llaw / cledren y llaw the palm of the hand

yr wyf fin gyfarwydd nhw fel cledr fy llaw
I know them like the back of my hand

yng nghledr ei law in his palm

Brenhinoedd-1 18:44 Ar seithfed waith y dywedodd efe, Wele gwmwl bychan fel cledr llaw gŵr yn dyrchafu or mr
Kings-1 18:44 And it came to pass at the seventh time, that he said, Behold, there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea, like a mans hand.

Samuel-1 5:4 Codasant hefyd yn fore drannoeth; ac wele Dagon wedi syrthio i lawr ar ei wyneb, gerbron arch yr Agrglwydd; a phen Dagon, a dwy gledr ei ddwylo, oedd wedi torri ar y trothwy; corff Dagon yn unig a adawyd iddo ef.
Samuel-1 5:4 And when they arose early on the morrow morning, behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of the LORD; and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold; only the stump of Dagon was left to him.

(South Wales) cledren = punch, blow
cledro = to beat, to hit, to batter
cledrad (< cledriad) = beating, hiding, battering
cledrwr = person who is prone to hit or beat others

6 (heraldry) pale = vertical stripe in the middle of a shield, usually about one-third of the shields width

ETYMOLOGY: In other Celtic languages:
..a/ Breton kler / kleren (= one of the sticks of a wattle) < klezr / klezrenn;
..b/ Irish cliothar (literary word) (= shelter)


cledren kle -dren feminine noun
rail; See cledr
y gledren = the rail


Cledwyn kledwin
1 male forename (rare)

2 Llanglydwen lhan GLƏD-wen
SN1826 village name, Caerfyrddin

Samuel Lewis, 1844,
A Topographical Dictionary of Wales:
LLANGLYDWEN (LLAN-GLEDWYN), a parish, in the union of NARBERTH The church, dedicated to St. Cledwyn, is a small neat edifice map, llun / map, photo



(Sir Frycheiniog / Breconshire, eastern Sir Caerfyrddin / Carmarthenshire) stream name. See Clydach


cleien klei-en feminine noun
South Wales
clayey soil
y gleien = the clayey soil

Heol Gleien (= heol y gleien, ?the street of the clayey soil) street in Cwm-twrch Isaf (county of Powys)

lump of clay

ETYMOLOGY: (clei-, penult form of clai = clay) + (-en, suffix to form singular nouns from collective nouns)


clefyd, clefydau KL vid, kleVƏ de (masculine noun)
illness, complaint, malady

y clefyd coch diphtheria (the red illness)
clefyd llwch y garreg = pneumoconiosis ((the) illness (of) the stone)


cleilyd klei -lid adjective

Daniel 2:41 A lle y gwelaist y traed a'r bysedd, peth ohonynt o bridd crochenydd, a pheth ohonynt o haearn, brenhiniaeth ranedig fydd; a bydd ynddi beth o gryfder haearn, oherwydd gweled ohonot haearn wedi ei gymysgu phridd cleilyd.
Daniel 2:41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay

ETYMOLOGY: (clei, penult form of clai = clay) + (-lyd suffix for forming adjectives, = full)


clemio KLEM yo (verb)
to starve, be very hungry


clerc, clercod KLERK, KLER kod (masculine noun)


Clerddig kler -dhig
a local pronunciation of the place name Talerddig (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: Clerddig < Tlerddig < Talerddig

Cf the change tl < cl in the colloquial forms
..a/ clawd < tlawd (= poor),
..b/ clws < tlws (= pretty)


cleren, clr KLEE ren, KLEER (feminine noun)

y gleren the fly

2 Cleren o'r domen sy'n hedfan ucha a fly from the dung heap flies highest (said of someone of lowly beginnings who rises to a very prominent position, possibly from striving to get as far away as possible from his-her lowly origin)

3 gelyn y clr bladder campion
Gelyn-y-clr (street name in Y Barri, Bro Morgannwg)

(delwedd 7906)

(the) enemy (of) the flies
(gelyn = enemy) + (y = the) + (clr = flies)

Evolutionary biology of metal resistance in Silene vulgaris / Ernst, W. H. O.; Schat, H.; Verkleij, J. A. C. / Evolutionary Trends in Plants 1990 Vol. 4 No. 1 pp. 45-51 / Abstract: Using S. vulgaris as a specific example, possible mechanisms of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn) resistance in higher plants are discussed, especially with reference to the adaptive significance and the mutual relations of resistance-dependent changes at the level of the cell, the whole plant and the population. The high concentration of metals in the leaves and stems of plants growing on metalliferous sites protects them from insects and other herbivores, except for seed predators, as the seeds are excluded from metal accumulation....


cleren KLEE ren (feminine noun)
(South Wales) slap, box on the ears

ETYMOLOGY: Probably cleren < clebren


KLE tur (feminine noun)
SO0942 name of a river by Erwyd (Powys) Erwyd

The river Clettwr rushes over rocks and through craggy places until it falls into the Wye at Erwood.
The Place-Names of Wales. / Thomas Morgan (Skewen) / 1912

ETYMOLOGY: caletwr (= hard water i.e., strong-flowing, rushing, violent) > cletwr > cletwr

NOTE: An (incorrect) spelling used on English-language maps is Clettwr

See Caletwr

Clic y Bont klik ə bont feminine noun
((the) clique / crowd (of) the bridge / (of) Pont-y-pridd) a group of poets and musicians from the town and the surrounding area in the second half of the 1800s.

Amongst their number were
Brynfab (Thomas Williams, 1848-1927)
Carnelian (Coslett Coslett, 1834-1910)
Dewi Haran (David Evans, 1812-1885),
Dewi Wyn o Esyllt DEU-i win oo E-silht (Thomas Essile Davies, 1820-1891)
Glanffrwd (William Thomas, 1843-1890),
Myfyr Morganwg (Evan Davies, 1801-1888)

(Morgannwg / Glamorganshire) stream name. See Clydach


climach KLI-mach (m)

1 lanky person
Rhyw glimach trwsgl o ddyn Oedd Wil Dafydd Pen-cwm
Wil Dafydd Pen-cwm was an ungainly lanky man

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly Irish gliomach (= lobster; awkward ungainly person)


PLURAL clinigau
clinig cyfarwyddo plant child guidance clinc
clinig cyn geni ante-natal clinc
clinig cynllunio teulu family-planning clinc
clinig lles plant child welfare clinc

ETYMOLOGY: English clinic < Latin clnicus (= person on a sickbed) < Greek klin (= bed)


clip klip (m)
PLURAL clipiau
klip-yai -ye
(especially North Wales)
1 steep slope, hill

2 precipice

In place names:

a) Clip Coch
John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw), Cardiff Records, (compiled 1889-1911)
CLIP-COCH (the red declivity.) A dike or embankment, with a declivity on the west side only; on the right bank of the river Ely, near its mouth, in the parish of Leckwith.

b) Pen-clip, Penmaen-mawr;

c) Clip y Gylfinir, Rhiw, Dwyfor;

d) Y Clipiau place west of Aberangell, Powys
Pen y Clipiau
name of a summit (180m) situated north of Y Clipiau Y Clipiau / Pen y Clipiau

ETYMOLOGY: From English. It seems there was a dialect English word clip which was a variant of cliff

Cf German, where die Klippe = a cliff


The loss of the pretonic syllable of a word in Welsh is a very charcteristic feature of the language.

.blaw BLAU (prep) < heblaw (= besides)

.Beca BE-ka (f) < Rebeca (= Rebecca)

.does (dim) dois DIM (v) < nid oes (= there is not)

.fale VAA-le (pl) < afalau (= apples)

.ffyle FƏ-le (pl) < ceffylau (= horses)

.foty VO-ti (m) < hafoty (= summer place, sumer dwelling)

.lla i ddim lha i DHIM < alla i ddim < ni allaf i ddim < ni allaf (= I cant)

.pasa PA-sa verb (Meirionnydd, district in the county of Gwynedd) aphetic form of pwrpasa (= to intend)

.pasu PA-si verb (Meirionnydd, district in the county of Gwynedd) aphetic form of pwrpasu (= to intend)

.foty VO-ti (m) < hafoty (= summer place, sumer dwelling)

.mofyn, moyn MOO-vin, MOIN (v) < ymofyn (= to want, to fetch)

.sgitshe SKI-che (pl) < esgidiau (= shoes)

.sgubor SKII-bor (f) < ysgubor (= farm)

.sgrifennu sgri-VE-ni (f) < ysgrifennu (= to write)

.sgwrs SGURS (f) < disgwrs (= conversation, talk, chat) < English discourse < Late Latin discursus (= conversation) < Latin discursus (= running around) < discurrere (= to run around), (dis- prefix = apart) + (curro, currere, cucurri, cursum = to run). Indo-European root: kers-.

The clipped form would seem to be from an older pronunciation of the noun when it was accented on the final syllable: discurse, as the verb still is in present-day English.

(The clipped form however more likely occurred in English rather than in Welsh: discourse > scourse > sgwrs)

.steddwch! STEE-dhukh (v) < eisteddwch! (= sit!, take a seat!)

.tho i
THOI (prep) < wrtho i < wrthyf fi (= to me, by me, near me)


It occurs too with a tonic vowel in some disyllables

KU (adv) < yco (= over there) (South Wales)

.co KU (adv) < dyco (= see over there; that over there is) (South Wales)

.cw KU (adv) < acw (= over there)

.cw KU (adv) < dacw (= see over there; that over there is)

.ma MA (adv) < yma (= here)

.ma MA (adv) < dyma (= see here; here is, this is)

.na NA (adv) < yna (= there)

.na NA (adv) < dyna (= see there; that is)


Some English clipped forms were taken into Welsh.

Some Welsh words which are borrowings from English are clipped forms which existed in English but now no longer do so, as the full form has become standard in English; or exist as colloquial forms alongside the unclipped standard form

prentis (from English prentice): apprentice = person who is learning a trade having agreed to work for a certain number of years for an employer while learning
ETYMOLOGY: English prentice (in standard modern English it has reverted to the full form apprentice) < Old French aprentis < aprendre = to learn < Latin apprehendere = grasp, get hold of, < ad + pre + hendere.

..b/ sterics (from English sterics): hysterics

..c/ seilam (from English sylum): asylum

The clipped form still occurs in English as a surname PRENTICE

Other English clipped forms remain as such in English

..a/ ffens (= a fence). From English defence (Englandic spelling; spelt defense in American English).

..a/ sgweier (= squire). From English squire (Middle English squier, from Old French esquier). Exists in English alongside esquire

clip papurau, clipiau papurau klip pa PI re, KLIP ye pa PI re (masculine noun)
paper clip

ETYMOLOGY: Translation of English paper clip.

clip of papers (clip = clip) + (papurau = papers)



clir kliir (adjective)

gadael ffordd glir leave a passageway, leave room to get by

clir fel crisial crystal clear


(Morgannwg / Glamorganshire) stream name. See Clydach


cltoris kli-to-ris masculine noun
PLURAL clitorisau kli-to- ri-se

ETYMOLOGY: English clitoris < New Latin < Greek kleitoris; cf Greek kleien (= to close)


cliw kliu masculine noun
PLURAL cliwiau kliu -ye
Dyma gliw bach i ti Heres a little clue for you

ETYMOLOGY: English clue (now kluu but formerly kliu); < clew (= ball of yarn; roll into a ball) < Old English cliewen (= roll into a ball)


clo, cloeon / cloeau KLOO, KLOI-on, KLOI-ai, -e (masculine noun)

clo clap padlock
clo clwt padlock
clo clec padlock
clo clatsh (North Wales) padlock
(In the English word, pad- is of unknown origin)

clo adlam spring lock

dan glo under lock and key; padlocked
dan glo ac allwedd under lock and key; padlocked
tan glo (North Wales) under lock and key; padlocked
tan glo ac allwedd (North Wales) under lock and key; padlocked
rhoi rhywun dan glo (yn rhyw le) to lock somebody (in somewhere)
fe ddylai hwnnw fod dan glo he (the person being talke about) should be locked up

saer cloeau (PLURAL: seiri cloeau) locksmith (saer = artisan)
saer cloeon (PLURAL: seiri cloeon) locksmith
gof cloeau (PLURAL: gofaint cloeau) locksmith (gof = smith)
gof cloeon (PLURAL: gofaint cloeon) locksmith

datod clo pick a lock
pigio clo pick a lock
pigwr cloion lockpicker

rhoi clo ar to lock
rhoi clo ar y drws tolock the door

ynghlo (= yn + nasal mutation + clo) locked
bod ynghlo be locked


clo KLOO adj
1 locked
drws clo locked door

2 ynghlo locked
Cafodd fod drws ei gartref ynghlo He found that the door to his home was locked
(yn = in) + nasal mutation + (clo = locked)
drws ynghlo locked door

ETYMOLOGY: stem of cloi (= to lock)

cloc, clociau KLOK, KLOK ye (masculine noun)

tŵr cloc clock tower, tŵr y cloc the clock tower

cloc parcio parking meter

troir cloc yn ei l (turn the clock in its back trail)
..1/ put the clock back = change the time on a clock (especially to the correct time if it has gained time)
..2/ put the clock back = change from summer time to daylight-saving time on the last Sunday in October
..3/ put the clock back = create a situation which resembles how things have been at a former period

5 yn groes ir cloc anticlockwise


cloch, clychau KLOOKH, KLƏ khe (masculine noun)
canu clychaur Calan
ring in the New Year

bell = doorbell
cloch drws = doorbell; cloch y drws = the doorbell
canu cloch y drws = ring the doorbell
Cana gloch y drws = (imperative) Ring the doorbell
Mae cloch y drws yn canu The doorbells ringing
cloch tŷ = doorbell; cloch y tŷ = the doorbell
canu cloch y tŷ = ring the doorbell
cloch rybudd plural clychau rhybudd alarm bell, warning bell, tocsin

3 flower names:

clychaur gog (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) bluebells ((the) bells (of) the cuckoo)
clychaur tylwyth teg (Erinus alpinus) fairy foxglove ((the) bells (of) the fairies)


clochdar KLOKH-dar (v)
clochdar y bydd yr ir a chanu y bydd y ceiliog
a hen clucks and a cock crows

2 (noun) clucking
clochdar yr ir the clucking of the hen

3 name of a bird - clucking (bird), clucker
clochdar y cerrig stonechat clucker (of) the stones (Saxicola torquata) stonechat.

(wikipedia 2012-10-11) The male's song is high and twittering like a dunnocks. Both sexes have a clicking call like stones knocking together.


clochdar y cerrig klokh dar ə ke-rig masculine noun
(Ornithology) = stonechat.

An alternative name is crec y garn

There is a street called Stonechat Close in Caer-dydd, and another in Y Porth (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf). The Welsh translation would be Clos Clochdar y Cerrig

ETYMOLOGY: (the) cluck(er) / cackle(r) / chatter(er) (of) the stones

(clochdar = cluck(er) / cackle(r) / chatter(er)) + (y = the) + (cerrig = stones, plural of carreg = stone)

(wikipedia 2012-10-11) The male's song is high and twittering like a dunnocks. Both sexes have a clicking call like stones knocking together

clociwr klok -yur masculine noun
PLURAL clocwyr klok -wir
clockmaker, clock repairer

ETYMOLOGY: clock-man (cloc = clock) + (-i-wr agent suffix)


cloc larwm klok LA rum (masculine noun)
alarm clock


clocsio mynd <kloks-yo MIND> [ˡklɔksjɔ ˡmɪnd] (verb)
go quickly


clod, clodydd <KLOOD, KLOO-didh> [kloːd, ˡkloˑdɪ] (masculine and feminine noun)
y clod, y glod = the praise
gydar clod uchaf summa cum laude (with the highest praise)

2 fame, renown, respect (from laudable deeds)

Hwy clod na golud longer renown [through praiseworthy actions] than wealth, a good name will outlive wealth

Motto of Bwrdeistref Rhondda (Borough of Rhondda) 1955-1996

3 Maen glod iddo It does him credit (it is praise to him)

4 goreuglod (adjective) of greatest renown
(goreu- penult syllable form of gorau = best) + soft mutation + (clod = renown; praise)

5 canu clodydd rhywun sing (somebodys) praises


cloddfa, cloddfydd <KLODH-va, klodh-VEIDH> [ˡklɔva, klɔˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
y gloddfa = the mine

cloddfa fflint flint mine
Cloddfa Aur Dolaucothi Dolaucothi Gold Mine (county of Caerfyrddin)


cloddio <KLODH-yo> [ˡklɔjɔ] (verb)
to dig
dig a ditch, make a hedgebank
cau a chloddio hedging and ditching, to repair hedges and dig ditches

3 ymgloddio entrench oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (cloddio dig a ditch, dig ditches, entrench)


cloddiwr, cloddwyr <KLODH-yur, KLODH-wir> [ˡklɔjʊr, ˡklɔwɪr] (masculine noun)
hedger, dyke-builder
(Military) sapper


clodfawr KLOD-vaur [ˈklɔdvaʊr] (adjective)
renowned, celebrated, famous

2 worthy, praiseworthy

Cymry a fynnai brofi eu bod nhw'n aelodau clodfawr o Ymerodraeth y Sais a chystal pob dim 'r Saeson
Welsh people who wanted to prove that they were worthy members of the Empire of the English and every bit as good as the English

ETYMOLOGY: ((of) great praise) (clod = praise) + soft mutation + (mawr = great)


clodrydd KLOD-ridh [ˈklɔdrɪ] (adjective)
renowned, celebrated, famous

Elystan Glodrydd (died c. 1010) said to be the founder of the fifith royal tribe of Wales

2 lavish in ones praise

ETYMOLOGY: ((of) free praise) (clod = praise) + soft mutation + (rhydd = free, liberal, generous)

NOTE: The spelling clodrudd / glodrudd is wrong, as the second element is not rhudd (= red)


clodwiw KLOD-wiu [ˈklɔdwɪʊ] (adjective)
praiseworthy, laudable

ETYMOLOGY: ((of) fitting praise) (clod = praise) + soft mutation + (gwiw = fitting)

NOTE: First noted in William Owen-Pughes dictionary (in parts from 1794 onwards). Probably another neologism of the lexicographer; one of the few that has been incorporated into the modern language

See the entry Owen-Pughe, William


cloff KLOOF [kloːf] (adjective)


clog KLOOG [kloːg] (f)
PLURAL clogau KLOO-gai, -ge [ˈkloˑgaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
cliff, precipice

Y Glog (qv) hill name SN7974 north of Cwmystwyth

The word occurs as in a number of compound forms:

clogwyn cliff, precipice < *clogwwyn < *clogfwyn < clogfaen
clogfryn cliff
penglog skull

clogi / clogi KLOO-gi [ˈkloˑgɪ] verb
See cyflogi = to hire, to employ


clogyn KLOO-gin [ˈkloˑgɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL clogynnau <klo--nai, -e> [klɔˡnaɪ, -ɛ]
(South Wales)
stori glocyn a chyllell cloak and dagger story

(figurative) shroud, cloak = something that covers

clogyn (o rywbeth) cloak = excuse (for / of something, a poor substitute for, an inferior type of), something in name only

clogyn o grefydd an excuse of a religion

ETYMOLOGY: (clog = cloak) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns);
(Welsh clog < medieval English cloke (in modern English cloak) < Old French cloque < medieval Latin clocca (= cloak; bell; from the bell-like shape of the cloak) < Celtic origin.

Cf Welsh cloch (= bell)

NOTE: South-east Wales clocyn
In south-east Wales the voiced consonants <b-d-g> [bdg] become unvoiced > <p-t-k> [ptk]


cloi KLOI [klɔɪ] (v)
1 to lock
cloi rhywun mewn ystafell lock somebody in a room
cloi rhywun mewn cell lock somebody in a cell

cloi rhywun allan lock somebody out

bod wedich cloi i mewn be locked in
bod wedich cloi allan be locked out

nyten gloi
(PLURAL: nytiau cloi) lock-nut


(western Sir Caerfyrddin / Carmarthenshire, Sir Benfro / Pembrokeshire) stream name. See Clydach


clom klom [klɔm] masculine noun
county of Preseli, and the adjoining zone of Godre Ceredigion (= Lower Ceredigion
cob = a mixture of earth / clay and straw (for tensile strength) to make blocks for building walls; other additional ingredients are sand / cow dung or horse dung / horsehair / sheeps wool

tŷ clom a cob house, earthen house

cloam = a clay mixture for sealing the door over an oven opening
ffwrn glom cloam oven

ETYMOLOGY: English cloam (= mud)


clomen / clomen KLO-men [ˈklɔmɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL clomennod / clomennod klo-ME-nod [klɔˈmɛnɔd]
dove; a colloquial form of colomen / colomennod with contraction of the prepretonic syllable.

The colloquial contracted forms are also spelt without the apostrophe: clomen, clomennod


KLO-pa [ˈklɔpa] masculine noun
PLURAL clopu klo-PAI [klɔˈpaɪ]
(South Wales)

(slang) head (bonce, nut, noddle, chump, etc)
Fei naiff, os oos rwfaint o synnwr yn i glopa
Hell do it, if theres any sense in his head

knob on a walking stick
clopa ffon

head (of nail, of pin)
clopa pn pinhead

ei tharo hi ar ei chlopa hit the nail on its head (hit it on its head)

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English clobbe (which in modern English is club) < Old Norse klubba

NOTE: Also a feminine noun hence y clopa (m) and y glopa


KLOO-ruth [ˈkloˑrʊθ] masculine noun
(South Wales) clorwth mawr big fat slob, great hulk of a fellow

clorwth o ddyn big fat slob, great hulk of a fellow

(North Wales) horwth o ddyn big fat slob, great hulk of a fellow

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly distended surface
(clawr = surface) + soft mutation + (rhwth = open, hollow, distended, loose) > clwr-rwth > clr-rwth > clorwth


clos (= clōs) KLOOS [kloːs] masculine noun
PLURAL closau KLOO-sai, KLOO-se [ˈklɔsaɪ, -ɛ]
pair of breeches
clos pen-glin knee breeches
clos dwyn fale knickerbockers (trousers (of) stealing apples)

troi eich clos / troich clos take down ones trousers (roll down your trousers)
cael eich dal yn troi clos be caught with your trousers down

troi eich clos a chael pisiad / troich clos a chael pisiad undo your trousers and have a piss (roll down your trousers and have a piss)

Dyma droii glos a chael pisiad tawel y tu l i gar yr heddwas
So he undid his trousers and had a quiet piss behind the policemans car

troi clos evacuate ones bowels
Prif achos clwyr marchogion ydy gwthio gormod wrth droi clos
The main cause of piles (injury of the horsemen) is straining too much when emptying the bowels

ETYMOLOGY: English close klooz a present-day colloquial form in Englandic (and previously a standard form in Englandic, as it still is in American English) of cŷhes

< Old English clthas, plural of clth (= cŷh)

From the same Germanic root: German das Kleid (= dress, frock), die Kleider (= cŷhes)


(= clōs) KLOOS [kloːs] masculine noun
PLURAL closydd KLO-sidh [ˈklɔsɪ]
1 close = courtyard enclosed by buildings; or a way leading into this.
clos cadeirlan cathedral close, the precincts of a cathedral
clos castell courtyard of a castle
Cerddodd drwyr dre nes dyfod i'r castell. Aeth Morgan i mewn drwy'r clos

(South Wales) farmyard, courtyard. Also beili, cwrt
clos ffermdy farmyard, courtyard.

3 close = residential street in the form of a cul de sac
Aeth i fynyr clos i barcior car He went up the close (the cul de sac) to park his car

ETYMOLOGY: English close (= enclosure) < Old French clos (adjective = enclosed) < Latin clausus (adjective = enclosed, shut up) < claudere (= to close)

Cf Jrriais (Jersey French) clios (= a field)

Modern French clos 1 (adjective) enclosed; 2 (noun) enclosed place, vineyard

NOTE: Sometimes written cls with a circumflex, but in fact there is no need to mark the long vowel because by default a monosyllabic word with a single vowel and a final s has a long vowel


(= clŏs) KLOS [klɔs] (adj)
1 (weather), close, sultry, muggy (= damp and close)
Canol Awst 'roedd hi, a'r tywydd yn drwm a chlos
It was mid-August, and the weather was oppressive and close

Diawch! Mae'n glos, yn tydi? Damn, its close, isnt it?

2 silent, quiet, taciturn, spare with words, reluctant to talk
bod yn gls fel wystrysen be tight-lipped (closed like an oyster)

3 clos wrth ei gilydd tight together
Er mor glos ydy cregyn yr wystrysen wrth ei gilydd, mae big pioden y mr yn medru eu gorfodi nhw i agor
Although the shells of the oyster are so tight together, the beak of the oystercatcher can force them to open

cwtshon gls cuddle tight

4 tight, mean, tightfisted, miserly, stingy
Un go gls am y ginog odd Wiliam Tŷ-coch Wiliam Tŷ-coch was a rather tightfisted

O dyna hen fenyw glos yw hi Oh shes a really tightfisted woman

cls eich boced (close (as regards) your pocket) stingy

5 close = neighbourly
cymdeithas gls a close community

6 (relationship) close
Er iddi hi ac Marged Prys fod yn dipyn o ffrindiau ers talwm,'dyw'r perthynas ddim mor glos erbyn hyn
Although she and Marged Prys were quite friendly some time back, the relationship is not so close nowadays

Ffrindiau cls imi ydyn nhw
Theyre close friends of mine

7 (proximity) close, near
Balchder a rhodres - ma'r ddou beth yn gls iawn idd'i gilydd
Pride and arrogance the two things are very close to each other

cls wrth close to
Yr oedd y car wedi'i barcio ar rimyn o borfa yn glos wrth y clawdd
The car was parked on a strip of grass close to the hedgebank

9 aerglos airtight
nwyglos gasproof

ETYMOLOGY: English close (a dialect form of closed)


clos Dafydd Jns
(= clōs) <kloos DAA-vidh JOONS> [kloːs ˡdɑˑvɪ ˡjoːns] masculine noun
Penmachno (county of Conwy) patches of blue sky after rain and a sign of approaching good weather. Literally Dafydd Jnss trousers (David Jones), probably from the patched trousers of a local character

ETYMOLOGY: (clos = trousers) + (Dafydd Jns = name + surname)


clos Gwyddel (= clōs) kloos GUI-dhel [kloːs ˈguiɛl] masculine noun
Ysbyty-ifan (county of Conwy) patches of blue sky after rain and a sign of approaching good weather. Literally Irishmans trousers, probably from the patched trousers of Irish navvies who built the railways in North Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (clos = trousers) + (Gwyddel = Irishman)


closet pridd KLO-set PRIIDH [klɔsɛt ˈpriː] feminine noun
PLURAL closeti pridd, closetau pridd klo- se-ti, klo- se-tai, -e, priidh [klɔˈsɛtɪ ˈpriː, kloˈsɛtaɪ, -ɛ, ˈpriː]
earth closet = a toilet consisting of a hole in the ground where excrements are covered over with earth, or ashes from a fireplace

ETYMOLOGY: (closet = closet, toilet) + (pridd = earth)


clown KLOUN [kloun] masculine noun
PLURAL clowniau, clowns KLOUN-yai, -e, KLOUNZ [ˈklounjaɪ, -ɛ / klounz]
clown = entertainer with grotesque cŷhes, often with a painted face and a red false nose and greatly outsized shoes

Rhyw ddyn yn gwisgo dillad clown
Some man in a clown outfit

a person with illogical behaviour

Paid actio fel clown, wnei di?
Stop acting like a clown, will you?

(disparaging for a person considered stupid)

Pwy ywr clown bach seimllyd sydd yn sefyll dros y Toraid y tro hwn?
Whos the greasy little clown whos standing (as election candidate) for the Tories this time?

ETYMOLOGY: English clown formerly with the meaning of countryman, rustic; probably of Low German origin



(Latin) penwaig herrings


cludiad KLID yad [ˈklɪdjad] (masculine noun)
carriage = the action of transporting something
cludiad am ddim carriage paid; post free; delivery free


cludo KLII-do [ˈkliˑdɔ] (verb)
1 transport = carry goods from one place to another (USA: haul)
awyren gludo transport plane
llong gludo freighter


cludwr KLIIdur [ˈkliˑdʊr]
PLURAL cludwyr KLID-wir [ˈklɪdwɪr]
cludwr nwyddau haulage contractor, haulier

pall bearer

ETYMOLOGY: (clud- stem of cludo = to carry) + (-wr suffix = man)


clun KLIIN [kliːn] feminine noun
PLURAL cluniau KLIN-yai, -e [ˈklɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]

After the definite article: y glun

1 hip
arthrosis y glun hip arthrosis
asgwrn clun, plural esgyrn cluniau hipbone
clun blastig plastic hip, replacement hip
cymal y glun hip joint
Faint ych chi am eich cluniau? Whats your hip size? (what-amount are you around your hips)
mynd o glun i glun waddle = walk like a duck (go from hip to hip)

2 thigh
pen y glun hip ((the) top (of) the thigh)

3 cael gwln rhywiog ar glun gafr make a silk purse out of a sows ear
(find fine wool on a goats thigh)

ni cheir gwln rhywiog ar glun gafr you cant make a silk purse out of a sows ear
(fine wool on a goats thigh is not found / is not had)

3 leg

clun bren wooden leg

Rhys Glun Bren Rhys with the wooden leg (16-11-1883 tarian y Gweithiwr: yr hen Rees Glunbren yn dywedyd wrthyf fi = old Rhys Glun Bren saying to me


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic, if not British < Latin
Cornish klun (= buttock), Breton klun (= buttock)

Cf Latin clnis (= buttock)

clun KLIIN [kliːn] masculine noun
PLURAL cluniau KLIN-yai, -e [ˈklɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]

(place names) meadow

Y Clun (Englished as Clyne) Village SN8000 between Castell-nedd to the south and Resolfen


clust KLIST [klɪst] masculine noun
North Wales:
clst KLIIST [kliːst]
PLURAL clustiau KLIST-yai, -e [ˈklɪstjaɪ / ˈklɪstjɛ]

pen a chlustiau head and ears
siarad ar draws pen a chlustiau talk the hind legs off a donkey

moeli clustiau / moelich clustiau prick up your ears

codi clustiau / codich clustiau prick up your ears

gwneud clust fel hwch mewn haidd prick up your ears (make (the) ear like (a) sow in barley)

6 i mewn trwy un glust ac allan trwyr llall
in one ear and out the other, in at one ear and out at the other

Aiff i mewn trwy un glust ac allan trwyr llall
It goes in one ear with him and out the other

troi clust fyddar i rywbeth turn a deaf ear to something

sharp pain, intense pain
Mae arna i i angen fel angen pigyn yn y clust I need it like a hole in the head (i.e. I dont need it at all, it would not be pleasant to have it) (I need it like a pain in the ear)

bod at eich clustiau mewn gwaith be up to ones eyes in work (be to your ears in work)

achlust rumour; tip-off
cael achlust o get to know of
rhoi achlust i (rywun) give (somebody) a tip-off, tip somebody off

(ad intensifying prefix) + spirant mutation + (clust = ear) *ad-chlust > achlust > achlust

tynnuch clustiau pull your ears

(South-west) Mae en tynnu nghlustiau He gets on my nerves, He gets up my nose, He gets on my tits (he pulls my ears)

12 unglust <IN-GLIST> ɪnglɪst] one-eared
(un = un) + soft mutation + ( clust = ear)

Also: un glust
<IIN GLIST> [ˡiːn ˡglɪst]


clustfys <KLIST-vis> klɪstvɪs] masculine noun
PLURAL clustfysedd <klist--sedh> [klɪstˡsɛ]
little finger

ETYMOLOGY: (ear finger) (clust = ear) + soft mutation + (bys = finger)


clustlipa <klist-LI-pa> [klɪstˡpa] adjective

miserable, unhappy, crestfallen, down in the dumps, dejected, downhearted, defeated, beaten, cowed

ETYMOLOGY: (clust = ear) + soft mutation + (llipa = weak, drooping)


clust llygoden y felin <KLIST lhə-GOO-den ə VEE-lin> klɪst ɬəˡgoˑdɛn ə ˡveˑlɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL clustiau llygoden y felin < <KLIST-yai, -e, lhə-GOO-den ə VEE-lin> klɪstjaɪ, -ɛ, ɬəˡgoˑdɛn ə ˡveˑlɪn]
Cerastium tomentosum Snow-in-summer

(1) clust y llygoden (of) the mill.
(2) Clust y llygoden ear (of) the mouse is the mouse-ear plant;
(3) (clust = ear) + (llygoden = mouse) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (melin = mill)


clustogi <kli-STOO-gi> [klɪˡstoˑgɪ] verb

ETYMOLOGY: (clustog = cushion) + (-i suffix for forming abstract nouns) (causes change in the penultimate vowel a > e vowel affection)


clẁb, clybiau <KLUB, KLƏB-yai, -e> [klʊb, ˡkləbjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
2 C.P.D. = F.C. or football club (initials of Clẁb Pl-droed)
C.P.D. Cwm-sgwt (on a players shirt, for example) Cwm Sgwt F.C. (= Football Club)


clẁb cant <klub KANT> [klʊb ˡkant] masculine noun
PLURAL clybiau cant <KLƏB-yai, -e, KANT> kləbjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkant]
Literally hundred club, a group of people who take part in a raffle restricted to a maximum of one hundred members to generate funds for non-profit organisations or a political party
Dyma enwau enillwyr Clwb Cant Cyfeillion Cymru-Ariannin dynnwyd ym Mhwyllgor Gwaith y Gymdeithas ym mis Mai
These are the names of the winners of the (raffle of the) Friends of Wales-Argentina Hundred Club drawn in the Executive Committee meeting of the association in May

ETYMOLOGY: club (of) (one) hundred (clwb = club) + (cant = one hundred)


clẁb golff <klub GOLF> [klʊb ˡgɔlf] (masculine noun)
PLURAL clybiau golff <KLƏB-yai, -e, GOLF> kləbjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡgɔlf]
1 golf club


clẁb heicio <KLUB HEIK-yo> [klʊb ˡhəɪkjɔ] masculine noun
PLURAL clybiau heicio <KLƏB-yai, -e, HEIK-yo> kləbjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡhəɪkjɔ]
hiking club, club for hikers

ETYMOLOGY: (club (of) hiking)


clwm <KLUM> [klʊm] (adjective)
1 tied
bwthyn clwm tied cottage


clwstwr, clystyrau
<KLU-stur, klə-STƏ-rai, -e> [ˡklʊstʊr, kləˡstəraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
boquet of flowers;
cluster of houses


clwt, clytiau <KLUT, KLƏT-yai, -e> [klʊt, ˡklətjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
cloth; parcel of land

clytio (verb with an object) patch (clothes)
(clyt- = penult syllable form of clwt = cloth, patch) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

3 clo clwt padlock

clwto <KLU-to> klʊtɔ] verb
(South Wales form of clytio) (verb with an object) patch (clothes)
clwto ffrg to patch a frock

ETYMOLOGY: (clyt- = penult syllable form of clwt = cloth, patch) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)
The southern form is clwto (in South Wales, the w of a monosyllable is conserved in the tonic syllable of a derivative; the suffix -io is generally -o


Clwt-y-bont <klut-ə-BONT> [klʊtəˡbɔnt] (masculine noun)
village (north-west Wales)


clwyd <KLUID> [klʊɪd] feminine noun
PLURAL clwydi <KLUI-di> klʊɪdɪ]
wattle hurdle for stopping a gap, partioning, or forming enclosures such as a sheepfold
cau (rhywbeth) chlwydi hurdle off, enclose with hurdles
rhoi clwydi am hurdle off, put hurdles round, close off with hurdles

South-east Wales gate (for a field, a garden)

South-east Wales opening, gateway

South-east Wales (formerly) turnpike gate
Y Glwyd = locality by Y Drenewydd, Rhymni (county of Caerffili)

North Wales perch, roost; place where hens sleep at night
mynd ir glwyd (1) (hens) go to roost (2) (people, facetiously) go to bed

(athletics) hurdle = wooden frame for jumping over
ras glwydi hurdle race
neidiwr clwydi hurdler, hurdle racer

hurdle = low fence for horses to jump over in some forms of horseracing

hurdle used for carrying something
clwyd fawn = a hurdle for carrying peat

hurdle = a frame on which criminals were tied to be dragged to execution

llwybr clwydi hurdle trackway, path across marshy ground with hurdles as a base

mat of vegetation
bod yn un glwyd, bod yn un glwyden, bod yn glwydi
be matted together, be tangled up, be all tangled together; be in a tangled heap

clwyd bladur wattle holder for carrying a scythe

clwyd frag hurdle for drying malt on

obsolete hurdle used as a fish trap in a river or stream - see the river name Clwyd

South-east Wales torglwyd = gate (tor-, stem of torri = to break) + soft mutation + (clwyd = gate)

obsolete cronglwyd = roof < cron-glwyd < cromglwyd (crom, feminine form of crwm = curved) + soft mutation + (clwyd = hurdle)

17 hurdle used as a harrow
thorn harrow (for smoothing down the soil surface after ploughing, in preparation for seeding)

See the separate entry for the diminutive form clwyden (clwyd + -en)

19 Y Glwyd-goch <ə gluid GOOKH> [ə glʊɪd ˡgoːx]
SN5162 farm south of Pennant, Ceredigion (the red gate)
(y definite article) + soft mutation + (clwyd = gate) + soft mutation + (coch = red) SN5162 Y Glwyd-goch

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *klt- < Celtic *kleit-

From the same British root: Cornish kloez (= hurdle, lattice), Breton kloued (= fence, harrow)

From the same Celtic root: Irish cliath (= hurdle), as in the name of the capital of Ireland, Baila tha Cliath, the farmstead of the ford of the hurdles (for catching fish)

Also Celtic > Vulgar Latin *clta > French claie (= fence), Catalan cleda (= farmyard, cattle pen, sheepfold )


Clwyd <KLUID> [klʊɪd] feminine noun
SJ0549 Afon Clwyd = river in north-east Wales

Dyffryn Clwyd
the valley of the river Clwyd

dianc o Glwyd a boddi ar Gonwy
go from the frying pan into the fire
(escape from (the river) Clwyd and drown on (= crossing) (the river) Conwy)

Clwyd (1974-1996) for 22 years, a large county in the North-east named after the river; this former super-county was created by amalgamating the counties of Y Fflint and Dinbych; Clwyd was abolished in 1996, and became the three counties of Y Fflint, Dinbych (these two though with different boundaries compared to the historic counties abolished in 1974), and a new county, Wrecsam

3 In the names of parliamentary constituences in the area, the name Clwyd is still in use:
De-orllewin Clwyd (South-west Clwyd), Gogledd-orllewin Clwyd (North-west Clwyd) electoral constituencies returning a member each to the English parliament

4 Moelydd Clwyd Clwydian Range, line of hills to the east of the Clwyd valley, opposite Rhuthun, Dinbych, Llanelwy
hills (of) Clwyd (moelydd = (bare) hills) + (Clwyd name of a river)

ETYMOLOGY: the river name is apparently fish-trap (river), Welsh clwyd = wattle (used as a fish-trap).

See the preceding entry (clwyd as a common noun)


Clwyd <KLUID> [klʊɪd] masculine noun
mans name (from the river name)


clwydda, clwydda
<KLUI-dha> klʊɪa]
(North-west) colloquial for celwyddau (= lies), plural of celwydd


clwyden <KLUI-den> klʊɪdɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL clwydenni <klui-DE-ni> [klʊɪˡnɪ]

mat of vegetation
bod yn un glwyden be a mat of vegetation

clwyden o i = layer of ice
clwyden o rew = layer of ice
clwyden o faw = layer of dirt

ETYMOLOGY: (clwyd = wattle, hurdle) + (-en = diminutive suffix)


Clwydfardd <KLUI-vardh> klʊɪvar] masculine noun
1 Dafydd Gruffudd (1800-1894), poet, born in Heol y Dyffryn, Dinbych
See Hen Arweinwyr Eisteddfodau / Daniel Williams / Llyfrau Pawb 12 / 1944

ETYMOLOGY: (Clwyd = river name) + soft mutation + (bardd = poet)


clwydo <KLUI-do> klʊɪdɔ] verb
(birds) roost
bod wedi clwydo be roosting, have gone to roost

mynd i glwydo
(bird) go to roost
(person) (humorous) go to bed

Roedd hin hanner awr wedi un arnaf yn mynd i glwydo neithiwr

I didnt get to bed until half past one last night (it was half past one on me going to roost last night)

clwydo yn ei gilydd become matted together, become entangled, become interwoven

ETYMOLOGY: (clwyd = wattle, hurdle) + (-en = suffix for forming verbs)


clwyf / clwy <KLUIV, KLUI> [klʊɪv, klʊɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL clwyfau <KLUI-vai, -e> klʊɪvaɪ, -ɛ]
wound, sickness, illness

2 llunglwyf <LHIN-gluiv> ɬɪnglʊɪv] Mondayitis = reluctance to begin a new week of work after the weekend break (Llun = Monday) + soft mutation + (clwyf = illness)

3 gwahanglwyf (Elephantiasis graecorum) leprosy
separation-illness, i.e. illness characteristed by isolation of sufferers from other people (gwahan- = different, separate ) + soft mutation + (clwyf = illness)


clwyfedig klui-VEE-dig [klʊɪˡveˑdɪg] adj
1 wounded
llwynog clwyfedig a wounded fox

ETYMOLOGY: (clwyf- stem of clwyfo = to wound) + (-edig past participle suffix)


clybiau <KLƏB-yai, -e> [ˡkləbjaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
clubs; plural of clwb


clychsain <KLƏKH-sain> kləxsaɪn] feminine noun
PLURAL clychseiniau <kləkh-SEIN-yai, -e> [kləsəɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 chime

ETYMOLOGY: (clych <ə> [ə] = penult form of clych <i> [ɪ] = bells) + (sain = sound)


clyd <KLIID> [kliːd] (adjective)
clytaf most sheltered

y tu clytaf ir clawdd
on the sheltered side of the hedgebank (the most sheltereed side to the hedgebank) (note that Welsh uses the superlative form of the adjective where English prefers the comparative when the comparison is between two)

cosy, comfortable


Clydach <KLƏ-dakh> [ˡklədax]
river name; there are a number of streams or rivers with this name in South Wales

Melinclydach ((the) mill (of the stream) Clydach (Isaf))
Another name for Melin-cwrt (SN8101) locality of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan 10km north-east of Castell-nedd at the confluence of the Clydach Isaf stream (Melin Court Brook) and the river Nedd

3 village SN6801 in the county of Abertawe

Local name: Glitach (p. 445, Y Treigladau au Cystrawen, T. J. Morgan, 1952). The soft mutation is explained as being the result of the names frequent occurrence in speech after the prepositions i (= to) and o (= from), and the soft-mutated form came to be regarded as the radical form

..a/ Clydach > Clidach
<KLII-dakh> [ˡkliˑdax] (y in the tonic syllable > i in the local dialect, a southern feature)

..b/ Clidach > Clitach
<KLII-takh> [ˡkliˑtax] (devoicing of gbd > cpt at the head of the final syllable in south-east Wales)

..c/ i Glitach (= to Clydach), o Glitach (= from Clydach)
After these frequent prepositions there is always soft mutation; and yng Nghlydach (nasal mutation) is yn Glydach / yn Glitach (tendency in the south to confuse the prepostion yn (nasal mutation) with the complement marker yn (soft mutation). Thus the name is used a ŷ more often in its soft-mutated form, and comes to be regarded as the base form)

4 village SO2312 in the county of Mynwy

CLYDACH: The village of Clydach takes its name from the stream which
flows from Mynydd Llangatwg to join the Usk near Gilwern. Mr. R. J.
Thomas lists no fewer than 22 streams or rivers in South Wales bearing the name variously written Clydach, Cleidach, Cloidach (and formerly Cloutac, Clydagh, Cledagh etc.). The name is generally pronounced Cleidach in Breconshire and east Carmarthenshire, Cloidach in other parts of Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, and Clidach or Clitach (as well as the 'literary' pronunciation Clydach) in Glamorgan. Mr. Thomas has shown that the name is borrowed from the Irish cladach, clodach, denoting a stony shore or a river flowing over a stony bed.

Some Breconshire Place-Names / Stephen J. Williams, M.A., D.LITT./ Brycheiniog / Vol. 11 / 1965


Clyddau <KLƏdhai, -e> kləaɪ, -ɛ]
1 Name of a farm SN5252 in Cribyn, by Llanbedr Pont Steffan (Ceredigion) map

2 Locality in the county of Penfro?
1881 Census: 18 Bryn Zion St. Merthyl Tydfil, Glamorgan. David OWENS, 50 Collier, born Clyddau, Pembroke



Clydwyn KLƏDwin klədwɪn]
1 male forename (rare)
2 a son of Brychan, ruler of Brycheiniog in the 400s, one of Brychans 12, 24 or 63 children (according to different sources)



clymblaid <KLƏM-blaid> kləmblaɪd] feminine noun
PLURAL clymbleidiau <kləm-BLEID-yai, -e> [kləmˡbləɪdjaɪ, -ɛ]
coalition party, coalition (American: also fusion)

ETYMOLOGY: (clym-, penult form of clwm = tied together) + soft mutation + (plaid = party)

clymbleidio <kləm-BLEID-yo> [kləmˡbləɪdjɔ] verb
form a coalition
A fydd y Toraid yn clymbleidio r Democratiaid Rhyddfrydol?
Will the Tories form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats?

ETYMOLOGY: (clymblaid = coalition) + (-i-o suffix for forming verbs)


clymu <KLƏ-mi> [ˡkləmɪ] (verb)
to bind together

clymu rhywun draed a dwylo hogtie somebody, bind hand and foot (bind somebody feet and hands)

Mae ishe clymu dy ben di
You need your head examining


Clyngaea, Clyngaea <klən-GEI-a> [klənˡgəɪa] masculine noun
a colloquial form of Calan Gaeaf (= All Saints, (the) calend (of) winter) > Clangaea / Clangaea > Clyngaea


clynnen (clynnen) <KLƏ-nen> [ˡklənɛn]

1 a reduced form of celynnen (= holly bush)

In the 1881 Census (Tywyn, District 3) David Davies (55) mariner is recorded as living at Pantyglynnen (spelt as Pant y Glynen) (= hollow of the holly bush)


Clynog <KLƏ-nog> [ˡklənɔg]

1 a misspelling on English-language maps of Clynnog


Clynnog (Clynnog) <KLƏ-nog> [ˡklənɔg]

1 a reduced form of celynnog (= place of holly bushes)

In Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant there is a farm Clynog SJ1225 which is probably Clynnog map

2 Clynnog-fawr SH4149 also known simply as Clynnog
A village in Gwynedd y pentref / the village

ETYMOLOGY: clynnog / clynnog < celynnog
(celynn- penult form of celyn = holly bushes) + (-og adjectival suffix ) > celynnog (adj) (= abounding in holly bushes) > celynnog (noun) (= place abounding in holly bushes)


clystyrau <klə-STƏ-rai, -e> [kləˡstəraɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
clusters; plural of clwstwr


lt syllable form of clwt (= cŷh, patch)

..a/ clytiau rags

..b/ clytio to patch, put a patch or patches on


clytaf (clyta / clyta) <KLƏ-tav, KLƏ-ta> klətav, ˡkləta] adjective
most sheltered; superlative form of clyd (= sheltered)
y tu clytaf ir clawdd on the sheltered side of the hedgebank

(in Welsh, the superlative form of the adjective is often used where English uses the comparative degree)


clytiau <KLƏT-yai, -e> [ˡklətjaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
rags; plural of clwt


clytio <KLƏT-yo> klətjɔ] verb
(verb with an object) patch (cŷhes), put a patch or patches on
clytio ffrg to patch a frock

2 cobble (shoes)

throw together, cobble together. make in haste and without preparation
clytio cinio throw together some dinner, prepare dinner hastily

ETYMOLOGY: (clyt- = penult syllable form of clwt = cŷh, patch) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

NOTE: South: clwto (in South Wales, the w of a monosyllable is conserved in the tonic syllable of a derivative; the suffix -io is generally -o


..1 clyw <KLIU> [klɪʊ] masculine noun
hearing, ability to hear

o fewn clyw within earshot

..2 clyw
<KLIU> [klɪʊ] verb
he / she / it hears (< clywed = to hear)
Fe gaiff ffit pan glyw amdano Hell have a fit when he finds out


clywed <KLƏ-wed> [ˡkləwɛd] verb
to hear
Fel arall y clywais i I heard differently
teclyn clywed hearing aid (device (of) hearing) (teclyn = device) + (clywed = hearing )

to feel
Clywai y bysedd meinion yn tynhau am ei llaw
She felt the slim fingers tightening around her hand


cn- is explained in a number of ways

It occurs in native words, and already existed in Celtic (some of the words in the following list have Irish equivalents with cn-)

..1 cnaif (= act of shearing wool; sheeps fleece); cneifyn (= fleece) , cneifio (= to shear)
Cf. Irish cna (= corrosion)

..2 cnau = nuts, cneuen (= a nut);
Irish cn (= nut)

..3 cnawd = (= flesh)

..4 cnewyllyn (= kernel, core, heart)

..5 cnicyn (= hammer of a gun) Probably < cnycyn < cnwc (= lump; hill)

..6 cnith (= nibbling), probably related to cnoi (= to bite)

..7 cnucho, cnuchio, cnycho, cnychio (= to fuck)

..8 cnoi (= to bite)

..9 cnu (= sheeps fleece)
Irish cnmh (= bark, skin) is possibly the same word

..10 cnud (= pack of wolves) (possibly from the same root as cnwd = crop)

..11 cnwch (= hill)
Irish cnoc (= hill)

..12 cnwd (= crop)
Irish cnuas (= nuts)

..13 cnwff / cnwffyn (= lump) < cwlff (= chunk)

..14 cnyw (= colt, foal) (possibly a form of cenau = cub, pup)

They may be borrowed English words, borrowed when when the initial k was still sounded in English
..1 cnac (= trick; also rebellious action of a horse) < English knack

..2 cnaf (= scoundrel) < English knave

..3 cnap (= small hill; also state of inebriation) < English cnap (= lump, heap) < cnaepp (= top)

Also from the same source cnapan (= ball of hard wood), with native diminutive ending -an

..4 cnec (= bang; fart) < English knack (= crack, click)

..5 Y Cnicht (hill name) < English knight

..6 cnocio (= to knock) < English knock; from the same source, cnocell = woodpecker (with Welsh ending -ell)

..7 cnol (= hill) < English knoll (= hill)

..8 cnot (= knot) < English knot; also cnotyn (= knot; garden bed for onions)

..9 cnl (= death knell) from a Middle English word related to knell (= slow ringing of a bell)

..10 cnwb / cnwbyn (= knob; lump (of a fellow)) < English knob; also cnwpa, knob of a stick

Shortening involving syllable loss

..1 cna:

y cna bach < y cena bach < y cenau bach! (= the little devil! you little devil! the little puppy)

..2 Caernarfon (town in the north-west) > Cnarfon, Cnafron (colloquial names for the town)

..3 canl (= canal; south-east Wales; from an English variant of canal) > cnel

..4 canwyllbren (= candlestick) > cnwyllbren

..5 ceiniogwerth (pennyworth) > cnegwerth / (North-west) cnegwarth

..6 cenawes (= bad girl) > cnawes

..7 cwynosfwyd (= tea, supper) > cnysfwyd

..8 cyfnither (= female cousin) > cnither

..9 cynaeafa (= to harvest, to gather in the harvest) > cnafa

..10 cynhaeaf (= harvest) > cnaea, cnua

..11 cynhebrwng (= funeral) > cnebrwn

..12 cynhesol (= warming, which warms) > cnesol

..13 cynhesu (= warm up) > cnesu

..14 cynhordy (= gatheouse) > cnordy

..15 cynrhonyn (= maggot) > cnonyn

..16 cyrnadu (= howl, shout) > cnadu

..1 Cneset (= Israeli parliament) < Hebrew

..2 cnwc (= hill), a loan word in Welsh from Irish cnoc (= hill)


cnac <KNAK> knak] m
PLURAL cnaciau, cnacau <KNAK-yai, -e; KNA-kai, -e > knakjaɪ, -ɛ; ˡknakaɪ, -ɛ]
(South Wales)
1 trick
chwarae cnac rhywun play a trick on somebody
bod yn llawn cnaca be full of tricks

ETYMOLOGY: English knack (= special way of doing something) < Middle Dutch cnakken (= tos strike, to hit) < cnak- probably an imitation of the sound

cnaf, cnafon / cnafiaid <KNAAV, KNAA-von / KNAV-yaid, -ed> [knɑːv, ˡknɑˑvɔn / ˡknavjaɪd, -ɛd] (masculine noun)
rascal, knave, rogue, scoundrel
cnaf or math gwaethaf the worst of rogues, a rogue of the first order


Cnafron <KNAV-ron> [ˡknavrɔn] (feminine noun)
local form of Caernarfon (with metathesis R-V > V-R

> Cnafron


Cnarfon <KNAR-von> knarvɔn] feminine noun
colloquial form of Caernarfon (qv)

Caernarfon > Cyrnarfon > Cynarfon > Cnarfon

cnap PLURAL cnapiau <KNAP, KNAP-yai, -e> [knap, ˡknapjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
small hill

place names:
..a/ Cnap-llwyd
a farm on the hill to the south of Glanamman Village
(Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society and Field Club 6 / 1910 /1911 / p52)

..b/ Cnap-llwyd, district of Abertawe / Swansea
In this place in Abertawe there are streets called Heol y Cnap and Cnap Llwyd Road (which would be Heol y Cnap-llwyd in Welsh)

Pen y Cnap SN5121 hill in Llanegwad, county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen

Y Cnap
John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911) (1905 volume) notes: Knap, The. An alternative name for Allens Bank, according to an Alŷment Map of Cardiff Heath, of teh commencement of teh 19th century. Welsh cnap, a knob or tump.


c'nau, cnau <KNAI> [knaɪ] verb
(North Wales) to clean. See glanhu


cneuen, PLURAL cnau <KNEI-en, KNAI> [ˡknəɪɛn, knaɪ] (feminine noun)
cneuen gyll (= hazel-nut), plural cnau cyll (= hazel-nuts)

cipio cneuen o wl y blaidd beard (= oppose) the lion in his den; confront someone (take (a) hazelnut (from) (the) den (of ) the wolf)

gefel gnau nutcrackers = device, type of lever, for cracking the shells of nuts
yr efel gnau the nutcracker

(gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (cnau = nuts, plural of cneuen = nut)

4 cneuen gastan PLURAL cnau castan chestnut

y gneuen gastan the chestnut

5 (North Wales) plisgyn cneuen nutshell
(South Wales) masgl cneuen nutshell

6 cneuen Ffrengig walnut (French nut)

English walnut has a similar sense: foreign nut (wal- foreign, as in Wales, the foreign people, the people not like us; and the adjective Welsh).
Cf Dorset dialect (south-western England): welshnut = walnut
/ FREDERICK THOMAS ELWORTHY (1930-1907) / 1886.

FRENCH NUT... Walnut. (Always.)


cnicyn <KNI-kin> knɪkɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL cniciau <KNIK-yai, -e> knɪkjaɪ, -ɛ]
hammer of a gun, part of a firearm which strikes the explosive cap on the cartridge to detonate it

ETYMOLOGY: apparently a variant of cnycyn <KNƏ-kin> [ˡknəkɪn] = little knob,
from (cnyc-, cnwc = knob; hill) + (-yn = diminutive suffix)


cnipell <KNI-pelh> knɪpɛɬ] masculine noun
1 hillock, knoll

Y Gnipell place name in Llan-bryn-mair

Gnipell the eminence

p. 261 Collections Historical And Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders Volume XXIII 1889

A History of the Parish of Llanbrynmair / Richard Williams FRHS

Chapter XII A Glossary of Local Names

ETYMOLOGY: (cnip) + (-ell dimunitve suffix)

Cnip is an unknown element. There are vaguely similar words indicating hillocks or hills cnwc, cnwch, clip. clog: or lump - cnap, clap


cnoc, cnociau <KNOK, KNOK-yai, -e> [ˡknɔk, ˡknɔkjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
knock, tap


cnocell, cnocellau <KNO-kelh, kno-KE-lhai, -e> [ˡknɔkɛɬ, knɔˡkɛɬaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
y gnocell = the woodpecker


cnocell fraith fwyaf (fwya) <KNO-kelh VRAITH VUI-av, VULL-a> knɔkɛɬ ˡvraɪθ ˡvʊɪav, ˡvʊɪa] feminine noun
PLURAL cnocellau brith mwyaf (mwya) <kno-KE-lhai, -e, BRIITH MUI-av, MUI-a> [knɔˡɬaɪ, -ɛ, ˡbriːθ ˡmʊɪa]
(Dendrocopos major) great spotted woodpecker

ETYMOLOGY: (cnocell = woodpecker) + soft mutation + (braith, feminine form of brith = speckled) + soft mutation + (mwyaf = the greatest, the biggest)


cnocell fraith leiaf (lleia)<KNO-kelh VRAITH LEI-av> knɔkɛɬ ˡvraɪθ ˡvʊɪav, ˡvʊɪa] feminine noun
PLURAL cnocellau brith lleiaf (lleia)[knɔˡɬaɪ, -ɛ, ˡbriːθ ˡɬəɪav, ˡɬəɪa]
(Dendrocopos minor) lesser spotted woodpecker

ETYMOLOGY: (cnocell = woodpecker) + soft mutation + (braith, feminine form of brith = speckled) + soft mutation + (lleiaf = least, smallest)


cnocell werdd <KNO-kelh WERDH> knɔkɛɬ ˡwɛr] feminine noun
PLURAL cnocellau gwyrdd <kno-KE-lhai, -e, GWIRDH> [knɔˡɬaɪ, -ɛ, ˡgwɪr]
(Picus viridus) green woodpecker

ETYMOLOGY: (cnocell = woodpecker) + soft mutation + (gwerdd, feminine form of gwyrdd = green)


cnocer <KNO-ker> knɔkɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL cnoceri <kno-KEE-ri> [knɔˡkeˑrɪ]
knocker, door knocker

ETYMOLOGY: English knocker < knock < Old English cnocian (= to knock)
NOTE: also cnocar


cnocio <KNOK-yo> [ˡknɔkjɔ] (verb)
to knock


cnoes <KNOIS> [knɔɪs] verb
it/she/he bit; third person singular past of cnoi (= to bite)

cudyn or ci ach cnoes a hair of the dog that bit you, the idea that a bad hangover from excessive drinking might be alleviated by drinking more alcohol (cudyn = tuft of hair)
NOTE: Also cnodd.

Cf ffodd / ffoes it/she/he fled,
trodd / troes it/she/he turned,
rhodd / rhoes it/she/he gave,
clodd / cloes it/she/he locked, etc


<KNOO-VIL> knoˑvɪl] masculine noun
PLURAL cnofilod
<kno-VII-lod> [knɔˡviˑlɔd]
rodent = small animal with incisor teeth for gnawing which grow constantly

ETYMOLOGY: (cno- = stem of cnoi = to bite) + soft mutation + (mil = animal ) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns)


cnol <KNOL> [knɔl] feminine noun
PLURAL cnoliau <KNOL-yai, -e> knɔljaɪ, -ɛ]

obsolete (but found in place names) hill, knoll

(1) Y Gnol GNOL> [ə ˡgnɔl] locality in Rhymni (county of Caerffili)

(2) Y Gnol GNOL> [ə ˡgnɔl] locality in Castell-nedd (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

(3) Twyn y Gnol TUIN ə GNOL <TUIN ə GNOL> tʊɪn ə ˡgnɔl] hill by Trecelyn (county of Caerffili) (seems to be the hill [belonging to] Y Gnol maybe there is or was a nearby farm of this name)

(4) SN8260 Y Gnol Wen, Powys. North of Penrhuddfa / Devils Staircase, Powys

As clol in the name Top-y-glol ((the) top (of) the hill), near Moelfre Isaf, 8km south-east of Abergele (county of Conwy)

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English knoll (= hill) {knol} < Old English cnoll [knol]
In modern English knoll is pronounced without the intial k [nol], but in Welsh it has been preserved

Cf Lowlandic (Germanic language of Scotland; Scots, Lallans) know (= hill);

From the same Germanic root; German die Knolle (= tuber), die Knollnase (= bulbous nose)


cnonyn KNOO-nin masculine noun
1 (North Wales) form of cynrhonyn (= maggot)


cnu knii masculine noun
PLURAL cnuoedd kn-odh
fleece = the coat of a sheep

fleece = wool shorn from a sheep

Barnwyr 6:37 Wele fi yn gosod cnu o wln yn y llawr dyrnu: os gwlith a fydd ar y cnu yn unig, a sychder ar yr holl ddaear; yna y caf wybod y gwaredi di Israel trwy fy llaw i, frl y lleferaist.
Judges 6:37 Behold, I will put a fleece of wool in the floor; and if the dew be on the fleece only, and it be dry upon all the earth beside, then shall I know that thou wilt save Israel by mine hand, as thou hast said.

Barnwyr 6:40 A Duw a wnaeth felly y noson honno; canys yr oedd sychder ar y cnu yn unig, ac yr holl ddaear yr oedd gwlith
Judges 6:40 And God did so that night: for it was dry upon the fleece only, and there was dew on all the ground.

Job 31:20 Os ei lwynau ef nim bendithiasant, ac oni chynhesodd efe gan gnu fy nefaid i
Job 31:20 If his loins have not blessed me, and if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep;

Salmau 72:6 Efe a ddisgyn fel glaw ar gnu gwln; fel cawodydd yn dyfrhau y ddaear,
Psalm 72:6 He shall come down like rain upon the mown grass: as showers that water the earth.

hen ddafad yng nghnu oen bach (an old sheep in the fleece of a little lamb) mutton dressed up as lamb, an old person trying to hide his or her age by imitating young peoples cŷhing styles

y Cnu Aur = the Golden Fleece

cnur ddafad farw = something given to a person from the possessions of somebody who has died ((the) fleece (of) the dead sheep)

aros am gnur ddafad farw (wait for the dead sheeps fleece) wait for a dead mans shoes, wait for someone to die (in order to have the persons property)

heraldry - sheepskin (suspended by a ring)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
Breton kreo (= fleece) < kneo
Irish cnmh (= bark, skin) is possibly related

NOTE: also cnuf, plural cnufiau kniiv, kniv-ye, and a diminutive form cnufyn kn-vin


cnuchiad knikh-yad masculine noun
PLURAL cnuchiadau knikh-y-de
copulation, fuck, grind

ETYMOLOGY: (cnuch-, stem of cnuchio = to fuck) + (-iad, suffix for forming nouns)
NOTE: Also cnychiad


knikh -yo verb
NOTE: (South Wales) variants: cnucho, cnwcho, cnocho, cnycho
(verb with an object) / (verb without an object) fuck, screw, bonk, knock off

(South-west Wales) cnycho (rhywun) fuck someone = do someone, cheat someone

cnycho llaw masturbate (fuck (a) hand)



knikh -yur masculine noun
PLURAL cnuchwyr
knikh -wir
fucker, shagger; man who has sexual intercourse

ETYMOLOGY: (cnuch- stem of cnuchio = to whore, to go whoring) + (-i-wr suffix = man)


cnucho KNI kho (verb)
to fuck


cnuf kniiv masculine noun
(= cnu) fleece

ETYMOLOGY: cnu + a non-etymological final f
Cf. hy (= daring, insolent), which has become hyf,
also with a non-etymological final f.


cnufio kniv -yo verbs
(North-west Wales) wrap up fleeces after shearing

ETYMOLOGY: (cnuf = fleece) + (-io, suffix for forming verbs)


cnl knil masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL cnuliau knil ye
death knell, sound of a bell announcing that somebody has died, or announcing a funeral, tolling of a death bell

y cnl, y gnl = the death knell
canu cnl (bell) to toll, to sound

Yr oedd cloch yr eglwys yn canu cnl
The church bell sounded the death knell

cnl clust tingling in ears, ringing in ears (as a premonition of a death)

cadw cnl complain continually (keep (a) death knell)

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English knul < Old English knyll;
related to Dutch knal (= bang, peal of thunder, explosion, sound of a gunshot); German knllen (= crumple (material)),

NOTE: Also clul (n > l)


cnulio knil -yo verb
(verb without an object) toll = (bell) ring to announce a death or a funeral

(verb with an object) toll = ring (a bell) to announce a death or a funeral

ETYMOLOGY: (cnl = death knell) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


cnwc knuk
1 hill

2 Y Cnwc hill SO0601 (375 metres), west of Troed-y-rhiw, Merthyrtudful map


cnwch knuukh
1 hill

Cefn Cnwch Eithinog SN7548 near Ystrad-ffin (county of Caerfyrddin) (the) ridge of Cnwch Eithinog

Cnwch Eithinog = gorse-covered hill (cnwch = hill) + (eithinog = gorse-covered)

To the north-east is Nant y Cnwch (the) stream of Y Cnwch (Eithinog)


Cnwcydintir knuk ə din-tir
street name in the town of Aberteifi (county of Ceredigion)

ETYMOLOGY: cnwc y dintir < cnwc y deintur ((the) hill (of) the tenter frame).
(cnwc = hill) + (y = definite article) + (deintur = tenter frame)

NOTE: Also incorrectly as Cnwc-y-Dintir, Cnwc y Dintir
If the name refers to the hill, then Cnwc y Dintir is correct; if it refers to a street or a district, then it is written as a single word Cnwcydintir


ult syllable form of cnwch (= copulation, fuck)

..a/ cnychio, cnychu to copulate, to fuck


cnychiad knəkh-yad masculine noun
PLURAL cnychiadau knəkh-y-de
(South Wales)
1 act of sexual intercourse, a fuck, sex

cnychio KNƏKH yo (verb)
to copulate, to fuck


cnychu KNƏ khi (verb)
to copulate, to fuck


cnychu dwrn knə khi DURN (verb)
to masturbate (fuck fist)


lt syllable form of cnwd (= crop)

..a/ cnydiau crops


cnydiau KNƏD ye (plural noun)
crops; plural of cnwd


cb kob m
PLURAL cobiau kob -ye
1 cob of Indian corn, corncob
india-corn ar y cb corn on the cob

ETYMOLOGY: English cob = corncob. Same origin as English cob = round lumo, short strong horse


cb kob m
PLURAL cobiau kob yai, -ye
1 embankment (standard Welsh: argae, arglawdd)
Buont yn dadlau beth iw wneud i atal llifogydd yn y dyfodol a bu rhai yn anwgrymu tynnur cob, neu gostwng lefel y cob

They discussed what to do to prevent floods in the future and some of them suggested moving the embankment or lowering the height of the embankment

Cb Porthmadog SH5738 (short form: Y Cb)
Also Cb y Port Y Cb

(delwedd 7410)

3 Cb Malltraeth SH4068

4 Cb y Fali SH2879
(English name: Stanley Embankment)

ETYMOLOGY: English cob (= embankment)

NOTE: In Lyme Regis in Dorset (England) the harbour wall is known as The Cobb SY3492.

(Wikipedia, Lyme Regis, accessed 2009-03-02): The first written mention of the Cobb is in a 1328 document describing it as having been damaged by storms. The structure was made of oak piles driven into the seabed with boulders stacked between them. The boulders were floated into place tied between empty barrels.

coch KOOKH (adjective)

Coch i fyny, teg yfory Red sky at night, shepherds delight
(red up [above], fair tomorrow)
= if the sky is red at sunset, tomorrow will be a fine day

y clefyd coch diphtheria (the red illness)

me-lən-goch yellowy red; orange

5 flower names
pabi coch (Papaver rhoeas) corn poppy, field poppy (red poppy)

(water) containing iron. ferrous
ffynnon goch chalybeate spring
(used in Ceredigon, according to Welsh Leader 16 11 1906 p142)
(ffynnon = well) + soft mutation + (coch = red)

place names red = colour of stone

..a/ Maen-coch farm 2km east of Llanboudy SN2123 (county of Caerfyrddin)
the red stone (y = definite article) + (maen = stone) + (coch = red)

..b/ Plas-coch (SH5168) mansion in Ynys Mn (Gwynedd)
Plas-coch: this interesting house has long been of importance.
At the beginning of the twelth century it was the residence
of Llywarch ab Bran { = Brn}
, Lord of Cwmmwd Menai... It was called Porthamael till 1569 when Hugh Hughes, Esq, built the present house, which, from the complexion of the stone, acquired the name of Plas Coch (Red Hall)
(Parry's New Guide to Wales / Edward Parry / 1847)

ETYMOLOGY: y plas coch (the) red mansion (y definite article) + (plas = mansion) + (coch = red)


cochboeth kokh -boith adj
1 red-hot (cooler than yellow-hot and white-hot)

ETYMOLOGY: (coch = red) + soft mutation + ( poeth = hot)

cochion koch -yon adjective
plural form of coch (= red)
Coed Cochion (place name) ((the) red trees, (the) red wood)
Grisiaucochion ((the) red steps) name of a street in Bangor (LL57 4YN)

(noun) Y Cochion The Reds, people wearing this colour of cŷhes (e.g. a football team)

ETYMOLOGY: coch + plural suffix -ion


coch y berllan KOOKH ə BER lhan (masculine noun)
(Pyrhhula pyrrhula) bullfinch


coc oen kok OIN (masculine noun)
useless fool, idiot (lambs penis)


cocni, cocnis KOK ni, KOK nis (masculine noun)
Cockney (From English cocks egg)


cocsed kok -sed masculine noun
cockshoot = clearing in a wood into which woodcocks were driven and captured in nets across the opening

Cocsed place in Ceredigion, between Llangybi and Llanio
See cocsut


cocsut kok -sit masculine noun
cockshoot = clearing in a wood into which woodcocks were driven and captured in nets across the opening


in place names, especially field names by woods;

Cae Cocsut this is caer cocsut (with the linking definite article dropped) = (the) field (of) the cockshoot

Enw diddorol ar gae rhwng Llangrallo a'r Coety yw Kae Coxid, 1740 a 1631 (Cylchgrawn Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru / Journal of the National Library of Wales Rhif / Number 14, 1966)

An interesting field name between Llangrallo and Y Coety is Kae Coxid, (in the years) 1740 and 1631

Sometimes in the form cocsyth kok-sith, cocsed kok-sed
Cocsed A place in Ceredigion, between Llangybi and Llanio

ETYMOLOGY: dialect English cockshyt < cockshoot = (obsolete) place for capturing woodcocks (cock < woodcock) + (shoot)


cocsyth kok -sith masculine noun
(place names) cockshoot = clearing in a wood into which woodcocks were driven and captured in nets across the opening
See cocsut


cocwyllt kok- wilht adjective
(Englandic: randy) (USA: horny)

ETYMOLOGY: (coc = cock, penis ) + soft mutation + (gwyllt = wild, out of control)


Y Cocyd KO-kid
1 SS6294 locality in Abertawe
English name: Cockett

John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911) (1905 volume) notes: Gocket, Cocket; Gockid. A tenement in Pentyrch (c. 1670, 1763.) This name is found also in Monmouthshire and West Herefordshire, and near Swansea.

In Lydart, Monmouthshire SO5009 there is an old drovers inn called Gockett Inn
In a 1695 deed: at Mitchelltroy, on the road from Monmouth to the Gockett


cocyn hitio KO kin HIT yo (masculine noun)
aunt Sally, someone who takes the blame


cod, codiau KOOD, KOD ye (masculine noun)
bag, pouch;


coden, codennau KO-den, ko-DE-ne (femenine noun)

2 coden fustl gall bladder
plural: codau / codenni / codennau bustl


codi KO di (verb) (-se)
to raise, to raise

codi clustiau / codich clustiau prick up your ears

codi (rhywbeth) ar (rywun) charge somebody for something
codi ar (rywun) am (rywbeth) charge somebody for something

codi crocbris am rywbeth
charge the earth for something (raise a hanging price for something)

codi tl am charge a fee for

4 codi cynnig ir gwynt fly a kite, test the weather = make a suggestion, start a rumour, leak information, carry out part of a plan to see what kind of reaction is causes (raise an offer / a try to the wind)

codich gwar shrug your shoulders

codi cywilydd ar (rywun) to shame (somebody), put (somebody) to shame

rise (from the grave)
codi o farwn fyw come back from the dead (rise from dead alive)

codi testun choose a text (for a sermon, etc)

codi terfysg cause unrest

(ticket) buy
codi tocyn buy a ticket
codi ticed i Gaer buy a ticket to Chester

codi llais yn erbyn speak out against (raise a voice against)

codi awydd bwyd arnoch whet your appetite (raise (the) desire (of) food on you)
codi stumog work up an appetite, stimulate ones appetite

13 (fear used in expressions meaning to make afraid)

codi ofn am eich enaid arnoch scare the living daylights out of, scare the shit out of, put the fear of God into, frighten somebody stiff (raise fear for your soul on you)

bod yn ddigon i godi ofn arnoch be creepy (be enough to raise fear on you)

codi arswyd ar frighten, scare, fill with dread

codi angor weigh anchor (raise anchor)

(river) rise, originate, take its rise, flow from
Mae Dyfrdwy yn codi yn Llyn Tegid The River Dyfrdwy (Dee) flows from Llyn Tegid (Lake Bala)

16 codi argae ar draws cwm / ar draws dyffryn to dam a valley

codi corff o fedd exhume a body (raise a body from a grave)

raise = increase a bid, a bet
codi ar (rywbeth) (auction) bid for something

19 codich trwyn ar (rywbeth/rywun) be disdainful towards (something), regard (something / somebody) with disdain

20 codi cywilydd ar make (somebody) feel ashamed (raise shame on)

codin chwysigennod come out on blisters

22 codi archwaeth ar rywun to whet somebodys appetite

23 codi ar eich traed get to your feet


sedd godi tip-up seat


codiad, codiadau KOD yad, kod YA de (masculine noun)
NOTE: In the South, cwnnad < cychwyniad is often used instead of codiad


erection of the penis
(South Wales) cala chodiad arno erect penis ((a) penis with (a) erection on it )
cael codiad have an erection
Fe ges i ddiawl o godiad I got a hell of an erection


codiad haul
kod yad hAil masculine noun
sunrise = rising of the sun over the horizon
Also; codiad yr haul
ar godiad haul / ar godiad yr haul at sunrise
gyda chodiad haul at sunrise
Gwlad y Codiad Haul The Land of the Rising Sun

the time of this event

ETYMOLOGY: (the) rise (of) (the) sun (codiad = rise) + (haul = sun)


codi allan k-di a -lhan
(North Wales) be out and about after an illness

turn out = come out of one's house, go onto the stret (to see a procession, etc)

Mi glywson ni'r 'band' yn y dre heddiw. Yr oedd yno gantoedd o bobl wedi codi allan i'w clywed nhw We heard the band in the town today. Hundreds of people had turned out to listen to them

ETYMOLOGY: (codi = rise, get up) + (allan = out)


codi arian ar k-dir ar-yan ar
to mortgage (something)

ETYMOLOGY: (raise money on) (codi = rise, get up) + (arian = money) + (ar = on)


codi min
ko-di miin
(North Wales) get an erection, have an erection

ETYMOLOGY: (codi = to raise) + (min = sharpness / erection)


codi pais ar l piso k-di pais ar ool pi-so
lock the stable door after the horse has bolted; do something too late for it to be of any use; try to undo what has been done

ETYMOLOGY: ((to) lift (a) skirt after pissing) (codi = lift) + (pais = skirt, petticoat) + (ar l = after) + (piso = pissing, to piss)


codi pais cyn piso koo-di pais kin pi-so
do first what should be done first, follow the correct procedure to avoid a future calamity

ETYMOLOGY: (lift skirt before pissing) (codi = lift) + (pais = skirt, petticoat) + (cyn = before) + (piso = pissing, to piss)


codir corff koo-dir korf
(funeral cortge) set out for the cemetery; (Scotland: lift = take up for burial)

ETYMOLOGY: (raise the body) (codi = rise, get up) + (y = the) + (corff = body)


codi yn y byd
koo-di ən ə biid
to better oneself

ETYMOLOGY: (codi = to rise) + (yn = in) + (y = the) + (byd = world)


codwm, codymau KO dum, ko DƏ me (masculine noun)
2 mynd am godwm head for a fall, be riding for a fall (go for (a) fall)


codwr, codwyr KOO dur, KOD wir (masculine noun)
bore godwr = early riser
codwr morgais
ko dur MOR ges mortgagee, person who takes out a mortgage


coeca KOI ka (masculine noun)
(South-east Wales) coetgae

Used in Cambrian English.

Excerpt from a comment (retrieved 2008-10-18) in the forum at:
BBC South-east Wales Walks: Pant yr Eos / Twm Barlwm

How many people were on Twmbarlwm before me who are still going? My grandfather George Morton who farmed the Darran Farm carried me before I could walk along the top of the Darran Rocks and I was able to point out later on, when I grew a bit the large rock along the coiker where we rested. On that occasion I can't claim to have climbed to the tump, but in my youth my pals and I were always up there always refreshed by the marvellous view. My most recent climb was last year, not bad for 85!


koik -ya masculine noun
(North Wales) a colloquial form of coetgae (= hedge, field)

Cb y Coecia (place name) ((the) embankment (of) the field)
(a cb is an embankment which carries a road across an estuary)

(Llanllyfni) Dymar siopau a oedd yno yn yr 1890au:.. Siop Gruffudd Jones y Cigydd (cododd dy ar Ln Coecia yn ddiweddarach ac fei galwodd yn Bod Ruffudd)
(Llanllyfni) These are the shops that were there in 1890s:.. The shop of Gruffudd Jones the Butcher (he built a house on Ln Coecia (ln y Coecia Coecia Lane / Road) later and he named it Bod Ruffudd)

Tafarn y Coecia (a godwyd yn arbennig ar gyfer gweithwyr y rheilffordd).
The Coecia tavern (built especially for the people working on the railway)

(Pantrefi Dyffryn Nantlle / ) (Dyfyniad a godwyd 2008-10-18 / quote retrieved 2008-10-18)

> coetg(i)a > coecia <KOIK-ya> kɔɪkja]


coed KOID (plural noun)
trees; wood (= collection of trees)
See coeden

wood (material)

3 cudd y coed
(Clematis vitalba) old mans beard, travellers joy
(the) hidden [plant] (of) the wood
cudd = hidden (adj); a hidden thing (noun)) + (y = the) + (coed = wood)

Cudd-y-coed Name of a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) (spelt as Cudd y Coed)

(delwedd 7915)

4 There is a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) called Coedcriafol (spelt as Coed Craifol) rowan trees

5 danhogen y coed PLURAL: dannog y coed (Stachys officinalis) (wikipedia): commonly known as Purple Betony, Betaine (fr), Betonie (ger), Bishopwort, Lousewort, Wild hop, Wood betony (Do not confuse with true Wood Betony (Pedicularis canadensis)), or Bishop's wort... The word stachys comes from the Greek, meaning "an ear of grain," and refers to the fact that the inflorescence is often a spike.

There is a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) called Dannog-y-coed (wood betonies), on street maps as Dannog y Coed

(delwedd 7017)


coedallt koid -alht feminine noun
obsolete wooded hillside

ETYMOLOGY: (coed = wood, trees) + (allt = hill)


Coed Alun koid a -lin
1 wood in Caernarfon (county of Gwynedd)
Meaning: (the) wood (of) Alun (Alun = ?a stream name).

This has become colloquially Coed Helen literally Helens wood

A Short Introduction to the Study of Comparative Grammar (Indo-European) T. Hudson Williams 1935 t.9):
The Coed Helen Estate at Caernarfon was originally Coed Alun and is still so called in popular speech; the name was changed to bring in the Helen legend

This Helen was Elen Luyddog (Elen of the Hosts, llu = host, army), from a noble family in Segontium (Caernarfon). She married Macsen Wledig (Magnus Maximus), who had been born in the Iberian peninsula, and who became commander of the Roman army in Britain. In AD 383 he went to Rome where he deposed Gratian and made himself Emperor, and became a Christian. It is said that Elen returned to Wales after Macsens death five years later, in AD 388.

The tale is preserved in Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig (the dream of Magnus (the) leader) , written down around 1400 and forming part of the collection of twelve medieval Welsh tales known as the Mabinogion.

A deed in English dated 1740 mentions the capital messuage of Coed Alun otherwise Coed Helen... in the liberties of Caernarfon and parish of Llanbeblig.

Elens name is perpetutated in Caernarfon in the street called Ffordd Santes Helen (road of Saint Helen), and popularly it occurs in Sarn Helen (Helens way, Helens pavement) a name given to several sections of Roman road between Caernarfon and Caerfyrddin.


Coed-bach koid bAAkh
street name

..a/ Y Fflint (Sir y Fflint) (Coed Bach)
..b/ Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg / Vale of Glamorgan) (Coed Bach)
..a/ Pen-coed (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Bridgend) (Coed Bach)

ETYMOLOGY: (y) coed bach (the) little wood,
(y definite article) + (coed = wood) + (du = black)


Coed Cadw koid ka-du -
name of a wood in Clawdd-coch (county of Bro Morgannwg)

ETYMOLOGY: (y) coed cadw (the) kept wood, preserved wood (?query - in the sense of coppice, wood with small trees grown as a source of wood and cut from time to time) (coed = wood) + (cadw = to keep; keeping; kept)


coed cae / Coed Cae koit -ga masculine noun
incorrect spelling of coetgae (= hedge which encloses; enclosed field). This error is frequent in place names


coedcae / Coedcae koit -ga masculine noun
incorrect spelling of coetgae (= hedge which encloses; enclosed field). This error is frequent in place names


coed celyn koid kee-lin masculine noun
holly wood

2 Coedcelyn
..a/ farm in Betws-y-coed (Conwy) (Coedcelyn)
..b/ street in Abergele (Conwy) (Coed Celyn)

ETYMOLOGY: (y) coed celyn (the) wood (of) holly trees, (the) holly wood
(y definite article) + (coed = wood) + (celyn = holly trees)


coedd KOIDH adj
ar goedd publicly
ar goedd gwlad publicly, (declaring) to all and sundry

Cyfeiriai yr ysgolfeistr byth a hefyd ar goedd yr holl ysgol at helynt y ddrwm fawr. Daff Owen / Lewis Davies / 1924 / t31
The schoolmaster referred constantly before the whole school to the incident of the big drum

ETYMOLOGY: c|oedd > c|oedd > coedd
The usual form is cyhoedd (c|oedd > c|hoedd)

(delwedd 7367)


Coed-du koid dii
street name in Rhyd-y-mwyn (Sir y Fflint)
2 Heol y Coed-du (Coed Du Road), Y Creunant (Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

ETYMOLOGY: (y) coed du (the) black wood,
(y definite article) + (coed = wood) + (du = black)


Coed-duon koid dii-on
ST1797 village in the county of Caerffili.
English name: Blackwood

ETYMOLOGY: (y) coed duon (the) black wood,
(y definite article) + (coed = wood) + (duon, plural form of du = black)


coeden, coed KOI den, KOID (feminine noun)
y goeden = the tree

coed = wood, woodland, forest
sgrech y coed (Garrulus glandarius) jay ((the) screech (of) the wood) (sgrech = screech) + (y definite article) + (coed = wood)

coed = wood (material)

bod fel dail y coed be ten a penny, be very common (be like the leaves of the tree)

erlid o goed i gastell chase from pillar to post, hound from place to place (chase from wood to castle)

methu gweld y coed gan brennau not see the wood for the trees

coeden helyg (f) (coed helyg) (Salix) willow tree
See: helygen

8 crafgoed wood with ramsons or wild garlic (Allium ursinum) (craf = ramsons / wild garlic) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)

House names, street names:

Dolgoed meadow wood, wood by a meadow
y ddolgoed the meadow wood
There is a street called Ddolgoed in Dre-fach, Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin)
(dl = meadow) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)

(glwys (obsolete) fair, beautiful, pleasant) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)
house name in Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion)
(in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)

Is-y-coed (below the wood)
..a/ Gwenf (county of Caer-dydd) (Is Y Coed)
..b/ Y Maerdy (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (Is-Y-Coed)

tan- ə-KOID
..a/ street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)
(spelt as Tanycoed)
tan y coed (the place) below the wood
(tan = under, below) +
(y definite article) + (coed = wood; trees)

10 llwyn o goed wood, small wood

Safai yr hen Wenallt mewn pantle, rhwng y fan y saif y Wenallt presenol a'r llwyn o goed a elwir Nyrs Fachddeiliog, yn ymyl hen orsaf ffordd haiarn y Bala.
Adgofion Andronicus (= John William Jones, Y Bala, 1842-1895) Cyhoeddwyd: Caernarfon 1894 t24

The old Wenallt (farmhouse) stood in a hollow, between the place where the present Wenallt stands and a wood which was called Fachddeiliog Nursery, next to the old railway station in Y Bala

NOTE: In south Wales in monosyllables the diphthn