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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English



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7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q







7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z







C, c
ek feminine noun
) third letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
) third letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


In south-east Wales g
g as the first consonant of the final syllable, if followed by a vowel, is devoiced to c k
ticyn < dicyn < digyn < ychydigyn (ychydig = a bit) + (-yn diminutive suffix)
Ocwr < Ogwr (river name)


1 in words from British < Celtic < Indo-European, initial
k sometimes corresponds to intial h in English and German < Germanic < Indo-European. The initial k is also to be seen in equivalent Latin words.



caeth (= captive, enslaved),
cf Latin captus (= caught)

(no corresponding word in modern English; German though has der Haft (= detention), der Hftling (= detainee)

caru (= to love),
cf Latin carus (= dear, beloved, expensive)

whore (= prostitute), Old English hre

carw (= deer)
cf Latin cervus (= stag, deer)

hart haa(r)t (= male deer)

cas (= aversion), casu (= to hate)


celynen (= holly bush)


corn (= horn)
cf Latin cornu (= corn)


cynt (= quicker; before)

hind (= rear), behind

Welsh initial c- in words from English which have initial g-
crand (= grand, impressive) < English grand
cwter (= channel) < English gutter
1 monosyllables with final c
bloc block
brc brake
broc driftwood
clec bang
cnoc knock
doc dock
llac loose
mc brand, make
plwc tug, jerk
tric trick

c < g-g in alliteration

Y ddraig goch a ddyry cychwyn
<ə dhraig GOOKH a DHƏ-ri KƏKH-win> [ə raɪg ˡgoːx a ərɪ ˡkəxwɪn]

1 An alliterative line in a poem by Deio ab Ieuan Du (fl. 1450-1480), Llangynfelyn, Ceredigion thanking Sin ap Rhys for the gift of a bull, literally the red dragon gives a leap, but probably in the sense of the red bull mounts [the cow], given the nature of the context in which the line appears.

The alliteration is dd - r - c - ch / dd - r - c - ch - (n).
Y dd-raig goch a ddyry cychwyn (g-g and c are considered to be equivalent in alliterative verse)

c < c-g

In the place name Cnwclas (= green hill)

Cnwc-gls > Cnwcglas > Cnwclas

c kaa
See aa and caa
1 southern form of cae (= field)
2 southern form of cae (= close, second person singular imperative, < cau = to close)
dy ben < cae dy ben! (= shut your mouth!)
See aa / caa


ca kaa
Usually spelt (less correctly) c
See aa and caa
1 south-eastern form of cae (= field)
2 southern form of cae (= close, second person singular imperative, < cau = to close)
dy ben! < cae dy ben! (= shut your mouth!)


caa kaa
Usually spelt ca and (less correctly) c
See aa
1 southern form of cae (= field)
2 southern form of cae (= close, second person singular imperative, < cau = to close)
caa dy ben! < cae dy ben! (= shut your mouth!)


c <K> [kː]
Usually spelt c / c
See aa and caa
1 south-eastern form of cae (= field)

2 south-eastern form of caa
dy ben! < cae dy ben! (= shut your mouth!)


caal <KAAL> [kɑːl]
1 southern form of cael (= to get)
Usually spelt cl / cal
See aa


cl <KL> [kːl]
1 south-eastern form of cael (= to get)
Usually spelt cl / cl
See aa / caal


caar <KAAR> [kɑːr]
1 (in place names) e.g. Y Gaar < Y Gaer,
Southern form of caer (= hillfort)
Usually spelt cr / car
See aa


cr <KR> [kːr]
1 (in place names) e.g. Y Gr < Y Gaer,
south-eastern form of blaen (= hillfort)
Usually spelt cr / cr
See aa / caar


cb <KAB> [kab] masculine noun
PLURAL cabiau <KAB-yai, -e> [ˡkabjaɪ, -ɛ]
cab = enclosed part at the front of a lorry, railway locomotive and sometimes a bus or tram, where the driver sits
(crane) cab = enclosed part where a crane operator controls the movements of the machine
(tractor) cab = an enclosure over a drivers seat for shelter from the weather and to give protection to the driver in case the tractor overturns

ETYMOLOGY: English cab = taxi, abbreviated form of
cabriolet 1800- two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage
< French cabriolet = two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage
< cabriole = a little leap, a skip
< cabrioler = jump like a goat
< Latin capreolus = wild goat
< capra = goat;
the word cabriolet refers to the light movement of the carriage


caban ffonio, cabanau ffonio <KAA-ban FOON-yo, ka-BAA-nai, -e, FON-yo> [ˡkɑˑban ˡfɔnjɔ, kaˡbɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ, ˡfɔnjɔ] (masculine noun)
phone booth


cbidwl, cabidylau KAA-bi-dul, ka-bi-DƏ-lai, -e [ˡkɑˑbɪdʊl, kabɪˡdəlaɪ, -ɛ] (m)
capital (ecclesiastical meeting)
capital (of a column)


cabidyldy ka-bi-DƏL-di [kabɪˡdəldɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cabidyldai ka-bi-DƏL-dai [kabɪˡdəldaɪ]
chapterhouse = building attached to a cathedral or a monastery where a chapter meets, assembly place for the governing body of a cathedral or monastery
Estynnir croeso cynnes i bawb syn awyddus i fynychur gwasanaeth a gynhelir yng Nghabidyldyr Abaty am 3pm
A warm welcome is extended to everybody who wants to attend the service which will be held in the chapterhouse of the abbey at 3pm
county of Caerfyrddin y gabildi confusion, disorder

ETYMOLOGY: (cabidyl- = penult form of cabidwl) + soft mutation + (ty = house). Cabidwl is a learnd borrowing from Latin capitulum = ecclesiastical chapter, little head, < (caput = head) + (-ulum - suffix)


Cablyd <KA-blid> [ˡkablɪd] masculine noun
dydd Iau Cablyd
= Maundy Thursday, the Thursday before Good Friday

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cablyd < Old Irish caplat < Latin capitātiō (capit- stem of caput = head) + (-ātiō, -ātiōn-) (= shaving of the head) (on this day monks heads were shaved, and their feet were washed).

Also from British Celtic:

..a/ Cornish diyow Chambliz (= Maundy Thursday),

..b/ Breton deiz iaou Gamblid (= Maundy Thursday)

Modern Irish has caplaid, in the phrases l Caplaide Maundy Day, Dardaoin Caplaide (= Maundy Thursday)


cabmon <KAB-mon> [ˡkabmɔn] masculine noun
PLURAL cabmyn <KAB-min> [ˡkabmɪn]

1 cabman = man driving in a cab of an excavator, etc
cabman = man who drives a hansom cab
cabman = taxi driver

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of the English cabman (cab = horse cab, cabin of an excavator, car which is a taxi cab) + (man); (with the suffix -mon replacing English -man)


cabl <ka-BOOL> [kaˡboːl] masculine noun
North Wales

ETYMOLOGY: see cyboli
NOTE: also cybl, cybolfa


caboledig <ka-bo-LEE-dig> [kabɔˡleˑdɪg] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: stem of caboli (= to polish) + (-edig past particle suffix)


cacen, cacenni <KA-ken, ka-KE-ni> [ˡkakɛn, kaˡkɛnɪ] (feminine noun)
y gacen = the cake


cach <KAAKH> [kɑːx] masculine noun
shit, dung, excrement

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic

From the same British root: Cornish kagh (= shit), Cornish cach (= shit)

Hibernian Celtic: Irish cac (= shit)

Cf Latin cacre (= to shit); and from this word Catalan cagar (= to shit).
This Latin word is also the ultimate origin of dialect English cack (= shit), and cack-handed (= left-handed)


cachad <KAA-khad> [ˡkɑˑxad] masculine noun
South Wales
See: cachiad


cachdy <KAKH-di> [ˡkaxdɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cachdai <KAKH-dai> [ˡkaxdaɪ]
shithouse, toilet

ETYMOLOGY: (cach = shit) + soft mutation + (ty = house)


cachfa <KAKH-va> [ˡkaxva] feminine noun
cock-up, disaster (said of something that has gone wrong)

ETYMOLOGY: (cach- stem of cachu = to shit) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating an action)


cachgi <KAKH-gi> [ˡkaxgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cachgwn <KAKH-gun> [ˡkaxgʊn]

shit = unpleasant person

Iacha croen, croen cachgi
Discretion is better than valour, sometimes to flee a conflict is better than to stand and fight (healthiest skin, skin (of) coward)
Pen iach yw pen cachgi ((it is) healthy head which-is head (of) coward)
Iach yw pen cachgi ((it is) healthy which-is (the) head (of a) coward )

county of Ceredigion cachgi bwm, or simply cachgi = hornet
fel cachgi mewn pot said of a loudmouthed person (like a hornet in a pot)

ETYMOLOGY: (cach = shit) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)


cachgaidd <kakh-GII-aidh, -edh> [kaxˡgiˑaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
mean, base, low, low-down, contemptible, deplorable
Dywedodd mai gweithred cachgaidd fu diswyddor rheolwr
He said that the sacking of the manager was a deplorable act

ETYMOLOGY: (cachgi = coward) + (-aidd = suffix for forming adjectives)


cachgo <kakh-GII-o> [kaxˡgiˑɔ] verb
North Wales
lose ones nerve, get cold feet, back out, chicken out, bottle out
Yr oedd arweinydd Rwsia wedi cachgo ac wedi ei drechu gan arlywydd ifanc Amrica, Kennedy, meddai rhai
Some said that the Russian leader had got cold feet and had been beaten by the young American president, Kennedy

ETYMOLOGY: (cachgi = coward) + (-o = suffix for forming verbs)


cachiad <KAKH-yad> [ˡkaxjad] masculine noun

PLURAL cachiadau <kakh-YAA-dai, -de> [kaxjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
shit = the act of shitting

2 instant, short time (i.e. the time it takes to have a shit - ?referring to a hen or birds in general)

North Wales fydda i ddim dau gachiad vulgar I wont be a moment (I wont be two shits)

South Wales bydda i nl mwn cachad vulgar Ill be back in a jiffy (in a shit)

NOTE: South Wales cachad (without the consonant i- at the beginning of the final syllable - this loss of the i- is normal in the South)

ETYMOLOGY: (cach-, stem of cachu = to shit) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)


cachlyd <KAKH-lid> [ˡkaxlɪd] adjective
shitty, filthy

2 shitty = unpleasant
wynebur dasg gachlyd o orfod parcio mewn lle cyfyng rhwng dau gar
face the shitty task of having to park in a tight space between two cars

ETYMOLOGY: (cach = shit) + (-lyd = suffix for forming adjectives; often has a hint of contempt)


Cachor <KAA-khor> [ˡkɑˑxɔr] feminine noun
Afon Cachor
SH4751 = river in Arfon

ETYMOLOGY: the first element is cach (= shit)


cachu 1 <KAA-khi> [ˡkɑˑxɪ] verb
verb without an object
shit, defecate

2 Maen nhwn cachu trwyr un twll (said of people who work very closely together in business, politics, etc for their own ends) = Theyre as thick as thieves (they shit through the same arsehole)

verb with an an object
ei chachu-hi
foul up, fuck up, screw up; = make a mess of some arrangement, activity; put the spanner in the works

4 mor brin chachu ceffyl pren (said of something scarce) as scarce as the shit of a wooden horse

ETYMOLOGY: (cach = shit) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)
Cf Middle English kakken (= to defecate), and also Latin cacre < Greek kaks (= bad)


cachu 2 <KAA-khi> [ˡkɑˑxɪ] masculine noun
shit, poo, cack, muck

2 (North) Mae on rhy arw i roi croen ei gachu ir brain (said of somebody who is stingy) (Hes too mean to give the crust of his shit to the crows)

3 shit, crap = something held in contempt

Fuon nhw erioed yn credu mewn Thatcheriaeth, nac mewn unrhyw gachu cyffelyb
They never believed in Thatcherism, or any similar crap


cachu defaid <KAA-khi DEE-vaid, -ed> [ˡkɑˑxɪ ˡdeˑvaɪd, -ɛd] masculine noun
sheep droppings


cachu rwtsh <KAA-khi RUCH> [ˡkɑˑxɪ ˡrʊʧ]
a load of crap


cachwr <KAA-khur> [ˡkɑˑxʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cachwyr, cachwrs <KAKH-wir, KAA-khurs> [ˡkaxwɪr, ˡkɑˑxʊrs]
shitter, a person who shits

2 shit = unpleasant person; scumbag

Yno, yn eu holl ogoniant, yr oedd cocia wyn, crafwrs, cachwrs a llyfwrs y genedl Gymreig yn croesawur prins
There, in all their glory, were the fools, creeps, shits and arselickers of the Welsh nation welcoming the prince

3 North Wales y cachwr uffarn! you shit! you bastard! (said, for example, as an insult to someone who does you a bad turn) (uffern / uffarn = hell)

ETYMOLOGY: (cach-, stem of cachu = to shit) + (-wr = suffix for forming nouns indicating an agent, man)


caci, cacis <KA-ki, KA-kiz> [ˡkakɪ, ˡkakɪz] (masculine noun)
kaki (fruit)


caci, cacis <KA-ki, KA-kiz> [ˡkakɪ, ˡkakɪz] (masculine noun)
khaki (fabric, colour)

ETYMOLOGY: English khaki < Urdu < Persian khk (= dust, ashes)


cacynen, cacwn <ka-KƏ-nen, KA-kun> [kaˡkənɛn, ˡkakʊn] (feminine noun)
y gacynen = the wasp


cād <KAAD> [kɑːd] feminine noun
PLURAL cādau <KAA-dai, -e> [ˡkɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
y gad = the battle
mynd ir gad dros to go into battle on behalf of; to campaign to help (a person, etc)

Mae hanner dwsin o fudiadau cefn gwlad yn mynd ir gad dros y ffermwyr
Half a dozen countryside organisations are going into battle for the farmers

2 element in many personal names from the British period, some of which have survived until modern times or have been revived in the modern period
Argad, Bodgad, Cadafael, Cadell, Cadyrn, Cadfael, Cadfan, Cadfarch, Cadfrawd, Cadlyw, Cadno, Cadog, Cadwal, Cadwaladr, Cadwallon, Cadwgan, Cadwr, Dingad, Eurgad, Gwengad

3 cadlys
battle-court, from which comes pencadlys main battle-court, company headquarters, administrative headquarters

4 croesgad crusade (croes = cross, Christian symbol) + soft mutation + (cad = battle)

5 cadbennaeth commander-in-chief (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (pennaeth = leader)

6 catrawd regiment (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (rhawd = army)

7 North Wales cad-yng-nghad at loggerheads

8 North Wales cad-yng-nghudyn at loggerheads

9 prefix strong, powerful; see Cadnant (= strong stream), cadwydd (= brambles, bramble brake); see also cadarn (= strong)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cad < British *kat- < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish kaz (= battle), Breton kad (= battle)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cath (= battle)

On the European mainland, kat- occurs as an element in place names in the zones which formerly had Celtic populations

In Normandy, Caen is from a Celtic word meaning battle field (kat- = battle) + (mag- = field, plain)

In Welsh this name would be Cadfa, Y Gadfa


cadach poced <KAA-dakh PO-ked> [ˡkɑˑdax ˡpɔkɛd] (masculine noun)


cadair <KAA-dair, -er> [ˡkɑˑdaɪr, -ɛr] feminine noun
PLURAL cadeiriau <ka-DEIR-yai, -e> [kaˡdəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 chair = individual seat, usually with four legs and a back
y gadair the chair

Yr oedd ef yn eistedd ar gadair yn ymyl y drws
He was sitting on a chair near the door

cadair asgellog wing chair
cadair blygu folding chair (plygu = fold)
cadair ddwyfraich armchair (dwyfraich = two arms)
cadair dreiglo (South Wales) (American: buggy) (Englandic: pushchair; also: baby buggy, buggy) (treiglo = to roll)
cadair dro swivel chair (tro = turn)
cadair drochi ducking stool (drochi = to dip, to submerge)
cadair drydan electric chair (trydan = electricity)
cadair fawr (county of Caerfyrddin) (mawr = big)
(1) armchair (2) big pew in a chapel (mawr = big)
cadair freichiau armchair (breichiau = arms)
cadair gefn (Cwm Tawe) armchair (cefn = back)
cadair godi chair lift (codi = to lift)
cadair gynfas deckchair (cynfas = canvas)
cadair hir chaise longue (hir = long)
chwarae newid cadeiriau musical chairs (chwarae = to play, newid = change)
cadair olwynion wheelchair (olwynion = wheels)
cadair siglo rocking chair, rocker (siglo = to rock)
cadair uchel babys high chair (uchel = high)
cadair wellt straw-bottomed chair (gwellt = straw)
cadair wiail cane chair (gwiail = canes)
cadair wrth fwrdd dining chair (wrth = next to, bwrdd = table)
cadair wthio (American: buggy) (Englandic: pushchair; also: baby buggy, buggy) (gwthio = to push)
saer cadeiriau chair maker (saer = craftsman)

2 cathedra, bishops throne in the cathedral

3 (university) professorship

4 seat occupied by a person presiding at a meeting or debate
cymryd y gadair take the chair, preside

5 (place names) fortress. In the medieval tale Breuddwyd Facsen (the Dream of Macsen) it is related how Macsen went hunting in Caer Fyrddin and from there onward to the summit of Y Frevi Fawr and set up camp there. A Chadair Facsen y gelwir y bebyllfa honno hyd heddiw (And (it is) the camp of Macsen that that encampment is called to this day)

Cadair Idris / Cader Idris mountain in Gwynedd which probably indicates a fort belonging to some past chief called Idris, though in the popular tradition Idris was the name of a giant

Pencader SN4436 village in the county of Caerfyrddin hill (of the) fort
(pen = hill) + (cadair = fort)

(place names) rock in the shape of a chair. Cf eisteddfa <ei-STEDH-va> [əɪˡstɛva]

(1) Cadair Arthur ((the) seat (of) Arthur, Arthurs seat)

(2) Cadair Fronwen

(3) Cader yr Arglwyddes ((the) seat (of) the lady, The ladys seat)

In his Topographical Dictionary of Wales, 1849, Samuel Lewis, in describing the parish od Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch, mentions Cader yr Arglwyddes, an eminence about a quarter of a mile to the west of the church

(4) Trwyn y Gadar <TRUIN ə GAA-dar> [ˡtrʊɪn ə ˡgɑˑdar]

the nose (headland) (of) the chair (the rock in the form of a chair)

SH2993 a headland on the north coast of Ynys Mn, 7 kilometres (5 miles) west of Cemais. (Trwyn y Gader on the Ordnance Survey Map, though this would not be pronounced as er in Ynys Mn)

(delwedd 7423) map

South-west Wales cradle

South-west Wales udder (of cow, ewe, goat, etc)
cadair buwch cows udder

9 seat for the pencerdd (chief bard) in the hall of a Welsh king / Welsh prince

10 (1800s) convention of bards (in this sense first used by Iolo Morganwg (1757-1826), poet and antiquary)
Cadair Powys the Powys convention of bards

11 chair awarded to a bard in an eisteddfod who has won the competition for the best poem (awdl - alliterative poem in different metres)
also: cadair eisteddfodol eisteddfod chair

cadair bardd eisteddfod chair, (winning) bards chair

cipior Gadair win the chair in an eisteddfod

atal y Gadair withold the Chair = not award the chair to any competitor, because no entry in the competition is considered good enough

cadair ddu chair awarded posthumously in an eisteddfod (literally: black chair, that is, one covered with a black cloth as a sign of mourning)

12 chair = steel socket holding a rail to the sleeper

13 (peninsula of Llyn, county of Gwynedd) plough handles

14 cluster of branches or twigs from the same trunk

15 cluster of stalks from the same seed

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cadair < cadeir < British < Latin catedra < cathedra

From the same British root: Cornish kader (= chair), Breton kader (= chair)

From the same Latin root: Irish cathair (= city; church)

NOTE: singular form:

(1) literary pronunciation cadair <KAA-dair> [ˡkɑˑdaɪr],

(2) general colloquial form cader <KAA-der> [ˡkɑˑdɛr],

(3) north-west Wales (an a-final area) cadar <KAA-dar> [ˡkɑˑdar],

(4) south-east Wales (another a-final area) catar <KAA-tar> [ˡkɑˑtar]

plural form:

(1) literary pronunciation cadeiriau <ka-DEIR-yau> [kaˡdəɪrjaʊ],

(2) South-west cadire <ka-DII-re> [kaˡdiˑrɛ],

(3) centre and North-east cadeirie <ka-DEIR-ye> [kaˡdəɪrjɛ],

(4) North-west cadeiria <ka-DEIR-ya> [kaˡdəɪrja],

(5) South-east cadira <ka-DII-ra> [kaˡdiˑra]


Cadair Arthur <KAA-dair, -er, AR-thir> [ˡkɑˑdaɪr, -ɛr, ˡarθɪr] feminine noun
Welsh name for the rock known as Arthurs Seat, above Edinburgh
place in the peninsula of Gwyr, south-east Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (the) chair (of) Arthur (cadair = chair) + (Arthur = Arthur)


cadair dro
<KAA-dair, -er, DROO> [ˡkɑˑdaɪr, -ɛr, ˡdroː]
swivel chair
y gadair dro = the swivel chair

ETYMOLOGY: chair (of) turning (cadair = chair) + soft mutaiton + (tro, stem of troi = turn)


Cadair Idris <KAA-dair, -er, I-dris> [ˡkɑˑdaɪr, -ɛr, ˡɪdrɪs]
1 (SH6913) mountain in the district of Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd) (893 metres in height)

Situated between the rivers Mawddach and Dysynni, it was on the boundary between the old kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys.

In local tradition, Idris was a giant (Idris Gawr = Idris (the) giant)

Below there is Llyn y Gadair (the) lake (of) Y Gadair

The peak is called Pen y Gadair (the) peak / top (of) Y Gadair the elements written separately as it is not a habitative name (The incorrect Penygadair is sometimes seen). Pen y Gadair Pen y Gadair

Local name: Y Gader (The general rule in writing place names is to use the standard Welsh form. Cadair [ˡkɑˑdaɪr] is generally cader [ˡkɑˑdɛr] colloquially. This local form is sometimes seen (Cader Idris) though modern maps have Cadair Idris.

The school in the town of Dolgellau below the mountain though is Ysgol y Gader, as is a local dental practice.

(delwedd 0035) Awst / August 2003

ETYMOLOGY: (the) chair (of) Idris


cadarn <KAA-darn> [ˡkɑˑdarn] (adjective)

2 y rhyw gadarn (= men) the stronger sex (the strong sex)

3 (district of Meirionydd) Maen gwyntio yn gadarn Its blowing hard, Theres stormy weather


cadarnle <ka-DARN-le> [kaˡdarnlɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL cadarnleoedd <ka-darn-LEE-oidh, -odh> [kadarnˡleˑɔɪ, -ɔ]
stronghold, bastion, fort; military defensive structure

2 stronghold, bastion = place where a principle or belief is strongly defended and supported
Cardarnle Islamyddol ywr rhan hon or wlad This part of the country is an Islamist stronghold

3 (Welsh language) stronghold, bastion, place where the Welsh language is the majority language of the community

Beth am ddyfodol y Gymraeg yn ei chadarnleoedd? What about the future of Welsh in its strongholds?

4 stronghold = place where support for a political party is very strong

Cadarnle Toraidd oedd Mynwy Mynwy was a stronghold of the Tory Party (= English Conservative Party)

ETYMOLOGY: (cadarn = strong) + soft mutation + (lle = place)


caddugol <ka-DHII-gol> [kaˡiˑgɔl] adjective
1 gloomy

ETYMOLOGY: (caddug = gloom) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


cadeiriau <ka-DEIR-yai, -ye> [kaˡdəɪrjaɪ, -jɛ] (plural noun)
chairs; see cadair


cadeirio <ka-DEIR-yo> [kaˡdəɪrjɔ] (verb)
(eisteddfod) award a chair to the winning poet

ETYMOLOGY: (cadeir-, penultimate form of cadair = chair, bishops throne) + (-i-o suffix for forming verbs).

cadeirlan <ka-DEIR-lan> [kaˡdəɪrlan] feminine noun
PLURAL cadeirlannau <ka-deir-LA-neai, -ne> [kadəɪrˡlanaɪ, -ɛ]
cathedral = main church in a diocese where the bishop of the diocese has his throne

y gadeirlan = the cathedral

Cadeirlan y Santes Fair Saint Marys Cathedral (name of a Roman Catholic cathedral in Wrecsam)

clos cadeirlan cathedral close, the precincts of a cathedral

clos y gadeirlan the cathedral close

Cadeirlan Deiniol Saint Deiniols Cathedral (Bangor, Gwynedd)

2 Heol y Gadeirlan street in Caer-dydd (road of the cathedral). The road goes from the centre of the city in the direction of Llan-daf, a former cathedral village in the countryside and now a district of Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (cadeir-, penultimate form of cadair = chair, bishops throne) + soft mutation + (llan = church).

A recent coining.

Not included in the 1953 section of Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary covering this part of the alphabet. Felt to be less cumbersome than the usual form eglwys cadeiriol (church + cathedratic, cathedratic church, church with a cathedra, church with a bishops throne)


cadeirydd, cadeiryddion <ka-DEI-ridh, ka-dei-RƏDH-yon> [kaˡdəɪrɪ,kadəɪˡrəjɔn] (masculine noun)


Cadfan <KAD-van> [ˡkadvan] (masculine noun)
mans name


cadfarch <KAD-varkh> [ˡkadvarx] masculine noun
PLURAL cadfeirch <KAD-veirkh> [ˡkadvəɪrx]
literary warhorse

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (march = horse)


cadfloedd <KAD-vloidh> [ˡkadvlɔɪ] feminine noun
PLURAL cadfloeddiau <kad-VLOIDH-yai, -ye> [kadˡvlɔɪjaɪ, -ɛ]
literary war cry
y gadfloedd = the warcry

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (bloedd = cry)


Cadi <KAA-di> [ˡkɑˑdɪ] feminine noun
womans name (Catherine)

in some expressions, a girl with boyish characteristics
South Wales cadi fachgen, cati fachgen tomboy
North Wales cadi bechgyn tomboy

in some expressions, a boy with girlish characteristics

North Wales cadi ffan effeminate man

North Wales cadi genod boy who prefers the company of girls

cadi merched boy who prefers the company of girls

cadi Martha effeminate man

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly a variant of Welsh Cati, pet form of Catryn (= Catherine), but more likely Cadi is direct from English Kaddy < Katty < Katharine (there was a tendency to voice medial consonants in some words in English)

NOTE: in the south-east, Cadi > Cati (the initial consonants d, b, g of the final syllable become devoiced t, p, c in this region)


Cadi Sin Dafydd <KAA-di SHAAN DAA-vidh> [ˡkɑˑdɪ ˡʃɑːn ˡdɑˑvɪ] feminine noun
a woman who renounces the Welsh language and culture in the belief that anything English is far superior; Welshwoman who shows contempt for her language and nation, preferring to be considered English

A man with these attitudes is a Dic Sin Dafydd Dick / Richard (son of) John (son of) David. This was the name of a character in a poem of the same name by Jac Glanygors (John Jones, 1766-1821). Dic moves to London to become a haberdasher, and decides to become English. He maintains that he has forgotten his Welsh, and on visiting his mother back in Wales he inisists on speaking English to her, a language which she does not understand)

The name for the female equivalent was used by Emrys ap Iwan in Breuddwyd Pabydd Wrth ei Ewyllys (c. 1890) (a papists dream off how he would have things to be).

(Cadi = Catherine, Catty) + (Sin = Jane) + (Dafydd = David),
Cadi (daughter of) Sin (daughter of) Dafydd;

This is an imitation of Dic Sin Dafydd

(1) substitution of Cadi as a common name for a woman; a clever substitution since it shares three letters with the name Dic

(2) Sin instead of Sin - a common name for a girl and the name corresponding to Sin,

(3) retention of Dafydd as the final element


cadlan <KAD-lan> [ˡkadlan] feminine noun
PLURAL cadlannau <kad-LA-nai, -ne> [kadˡlanaɪ, -ɛ]
(obsolete) battlefield
y gadlan = the battlefield

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (llan = field)


cadlanc <KAD-langk> [ˡkadlaŋk] masculine noun
PLURAL cadlanciau <kad-LANGK-yai, -ye> [kadˡlaŋkjaɪ, -ɛ]
cadet = student at a military college or a naval college

cadet = young person training to become a military or naval officer

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (llanc = youth, lad, young man)


cadlas <KAD-las> [ˡkadlas] feminine noun
PLURAL cadlasau <kad-LA-sai, -se> [kadˡlasaɪ, -ɛ]
obsolete green, enclosure (for playing certain games - bowls, tennis)
y gadlas = the green


North Wales rickyard = place to store hay

4 South-east Wales; obsolete dance = a get-together for dancing, merrymaking

5 Y Gadlas <ə GAD-las> [ə ˡgadlas] (= the farmyard) monthly Welsh-language community newspaper serving the area between the rivers Conwy <KOO-nui> [ˡkoˑnʊɪ] and Clwyd <KLUID> [klʊɪd] in North-west Wales, south of the village of Abergele <a-ber-GEE-le> [abɛrˡgeˑlɛ]

Place names:

..a/ In Llsfaen, Baecolwyn, county of Conwy there is a Gadlas Road (which would be Ffordd y Gadlas in Welsh)

..b/ Possibly Gatlas ST3492 (county of Mynwy), and Coed y Gatlas, Gatlas Lane, north of Caerllion
Query: I have no earlier examples of this place name - is this from gadlas / gadlys? On the map it is seen to be near a Civil War Fort

Such a form would be expected in the south-east (Y Gadlas > Y Gatlas) since devoicing d > t occurs generally before a vowel if at the head of the penultimate syllable.

This seems too to be the case of dl > tl in the south-eastern dialect as in the case of Pysgodlyn (fishpond) > Pysgotlyn

Cadlas street name in Ceiconna (county of Y Fflint)

..d/ Y Gadlas SJ3637 farm in Shropshire, England, near Llandudlyst yn y Traean / Dudleston Heath

Beside it on the map there is a symbol for an earthwork, marked Moat

ETYMOLOGY: cadlas < cadlys (= fort, earthworks). The change > a apparently happened as a result of the influence of the a in the first syllable.

Other examples of this are the words
Siarlas (= Charles) < Siarlys, and
taplas (= merrymaking, party) < taplys


cadle <KAD-le> [ˡkadlɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL cadleoedd <kad-LEE-oidh, -odh> [kadˡleˑɔɪ, -ɔ]

2 place names:
...(1) Cadle, near Fforest-fach (county of Abertawe)
...(2) Bodgadle in the peninsula of Llyn (county of Gwynedd) (bod = house)

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (lle = place)


cadlef <KAD-lev> [ˡkadlɛv] feminine noun
PLURAL cadlefau <kad-LEE-vai, -ve> [kadˡleˑvaɪ, -ɛ]
warcry, battle cry
y gadlef = the battle cry

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (llef = cry)


cadlys <KAD-lis> [ˡkadlɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL cadlysoedd <kad-LƏS-oidh, odh> [kadˡləsɔɪ, -ɔ]
defensive ditch; fort, camp;
it occurs in the place names
...(1) y Gadlys, Aber-dr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf, South-east Wales),
...(2) y Gadlys, Llangynwyd (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, South-east Wales)

courtyard, enclosure; see the entry cadlas above

masculine noun main battle-court, company headquarters, administrative headquarters

ETYMOLOGY: (cad <kaad> [kɑːd] = battle) + soft mutation (+ llys <lhiis> [ɬiːs] = court). In modern Welsh llys is masculine, but in older Welsh it was originally feminine; in certain old compounds such as cadlys it remains feminine, as well as in some place names (Llys-wen = (the) white court, rather than Llys-gwyn)


Cadnant <KAD-nant> [ˡkadnant] feminine noun
Afon Cadnant
river in the county of Gwynedd near Caernarfon SH4963 map

2 Afon Cadnant river in the county of Conwy near the town of Conwy SH8654
...Ysgol Cadnant name of a school in the town of Conwy map

3 Afon Cadnant river in the county of Mn near the village of Porthaethwy SH5675 map

4 Cadnant SJ1418 stream south of Llanfyllin, Powys map

5 Cadnant stream near Pen-y-bont-fawr (Powys)

Cadnant SJ0295 A farm by this stream map

(delwedd 7454)

ETYMOLOGY: (cad prefix = strong, forceful, < cad = battle) + (nant = stream); the sense is stream with a strong flow, rushing headlong as in a battle

cadno <KAD-no> [ˡkadnɔ] masculine noun
PLURAL cadnid, cadnawod, cadnawon, cedny <kad-NOID, kad-NAU-od, kad-NAU-on, KED-ni> [kadˡnɔɪd, kadˡnaʊɔd, kadˡnaʊɔn, ˡkɛdnɪ]
South Wales

fox = (this animal hunted as a pastime)
hela cadnoaid foxhunting, hunting foxes

3 (during the day) unreliable weather - fair weather which is likely to give way to bad weather later in the day

-Ryn ni wedi cael tywydd teg or diwedd
-O, cadno yw e

-Weve got good weather at last
-Oh, it wont last the morning (it is a fox)

(during a period longer than a day) unreliable weather
diwrnod cadno a fine day in the middle of wet weather

Hys gydar ci a hwi gydar cadno
to have a foot in both camps, to support both sides in a dispute (at him, boy! with the dog and lets go! with the fox)

crafty person, sly person, cunning person
Maen hen gadno = hes a smart one

sly person, cunning person, untrustworthy person (the word is used by some monolingual speakers of Cambrian English in the south - Dont trust him - hes a proper old cadno

mor ffalsed r cadno as untrustworthy as the fox, as false as the fox

cyfrwys fel cadno as sly as a fox, as cunning as a fox, as artful as a monkey (in the north: fel llwynog = like a fox)

derogatory - unpleasant person, despicable person
(y brenin gormesol) Da gennym i gyd, mi wn, fod addysg a diwylliant wedi gyrrur cadno
hwnnw iw ffau am byth
(the figure of the depostic king) we are all thankful, I know, that education and culture have sent that fox / despicable character to his den for ever

ETYMOLOGY: Cadno is most likely a personal name (not used in modern Welsh) with a final element -gno (= well-known, fine). Some names of this type are found incorporated in place names

..1/ Beuno (Llanfeuno, in Herefordshire, England),

..2/ Gwyddno (Porthwyddno, older form of Y Borth in the county of Ceredigion),

..3/ Machno (Afon Machno, river in Conwy county, Penmachno - a village by this river),

..4/ Mochno (Cors Fochno, a bog in the county of Ceredigion).

..5/ Tudno (Llandudno, county of Conwy),

For more information on these names see -gno. The first element in Cadno is cad = battle, from Celtic kat-, an element used frequently in Celtic compound names, and found in Welsh names such as Cadwaladr, and Cadfael (and its hypochoristic form Cadog).
The name may have been used to avoid using the real name for the animal. There are examples in many languages of a taboo on using this real name of certain animals and alluding to them by the use of descriptive forms or personal names.

(1) In north Wales a fox is llwynog, (bushy (animal)), referring to its tail, from llwyn = bush.

(2) In Catalan, the animal is guineu - in origin a Germanic personal name Winihild.

(3) In the Lowlandic language of Scotland it is called tod (apparently a personal name) and also lowrie (apparently the personal name Lawrence), or a combination of these lowrie-tod, tod-lowrie.
(4) In English Reynard was a common by-name for a fox, from the medieval story Renard The Fox.

Compare bynames for the hare - y gwta or y gota (the bob-tailed (animal)), and the usual name for the animal which is probably also from a byname - yr ysgyfarnog - (the eared (animal), the animal with long ears)

NOTE: popularly cadnoaid > cadnid; and there is a metathesised form cedny > cendy; in South-east Wales there is metathesis of cadno > canddo / cynddo
The singular form cadnaw sometimes found in literature is results from imitation of other words in a final -o which is a reduction of a historial -aw still found in derivatives.

An example is athro = teacher. The -aw is seen in the plural athrawon and the feminine form athrawes (= woman teacher). For this reason some writers considered that the obsolete form athraw was more correct than the modern reduced form athro.

(In fact, cadnaw is not a recent form since there is an example of it as long ago as the 1400s).
Thus cadnaw comes from the belief that this is the underlying form of cadno, though this is not the case. In turn, from cadnaw come

(1) the plural forms cadnawon, cadnawod (more usually cadnoid, cedny) and

(2) the word for vixen cadnawes (more usually cadnes).

The -aw form could also be the result of the influence of the word cenau = young dog, young fox, the plural of which is cenawon


cadnes <kad-NOO-es> [kadˡnoˑɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL cadnoesau <kad-no-E-sai, -e> [kadnɔˡɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
South Wales
vixen = female fox;
y gadnes = the vixen

ETYMOLOGY: (cadno = fox) + (-es suffix for forming nouns which indicate a female)
NOTE: also cadnawes; in North Wales, llwynoges; in the South-east, also gast cadno (bitch (of) fox)


cadoediad <kad-OID-yad> [kadˡɔɪdjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cadoediadau <kad-oid-YAA-dai, -e> [kadɔɪdˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
ceasefire, truce = temporary pause in fighting
cadoediad dros dro temporary truce

armistice, peace = cessation of fighting to discuss peace terms

Diwrnod y Cadoediad Armistice Day, anniversary of the armistice signed on Nov 11 1918 which ended the First World War (USA: Veterans Day). After the Second World War it was replaced by Sul y Coffa, (Remembrance Sunday) (also called Dydd y Coffa Remembrance Day), the second Sunday in November and so the Sunday closest to November 11; on this day the dead of both World Wars are commemorated

ceisio cadoediad
seek a truce

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + (oediad = delay)


Cadog KAA-dog masculine noun
in older Welsh, a hypochoristic form of Cadfael

ETYMOLOGY: (cad-, first element of the name Cadfael) + (-og suffix)
The Breton equivalent is Kazeg

NOTE: In South-east Wales Cadog > Catwg.
See Catwg, Llangatwg


cadr kadr adjective
obsolete handsome

obsolete powerful, mighty

as an element in certain names for males from the British period: Cedrig, Cedris

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kat-ro < *kat- = to fight.
In Breton it is in everyday use as kaer (= beautiful, fair) < kazr < British *kat-ro


Cadrod kad -rod masculine noun
early Welsh personal name

2 Cadrawd early form of the name, with the diphthong aw, which in modern Welsh in the final syllable is the simple vowel o

Cadrawd was the pseudonym of Thomas Christopher Evans (1846-1918)

3 Cadrawd Calchfynydd a ruler of the district of Calchfynydd in the 500s; this was possibly in southern Scotland (Calchfynydd is chalk mountain, probably modern day (English) Kelso / (Scots) Kelsae / (Gidhlig) Cealsach.
ETYMOLOGY: (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (rhawd = course, route) > Cadrawd > Cadrod

cadw KA du (verb)

cadw ar rywun cover up for somebody
.....Un peth ydi i mi gau fy ngheg am y dwyn - peth arall ydi i mi gadw ar lofrudd
Its one thing for me to keep my mouth shut about the theft but its quite another thing to cover up for a murderer


CEFN: cadw cefn rhywun plead someones cause

CYFRINACH: cadw cyfrinach keep a secret
.....Rw i ar fy llw i gadwr gyfrinach Ive sworn not to tell the secret, Im sworn to secrecy (Im on my oath to keep the secret)

DYDD: cadw dydd yr Arglwydd keep the Lords Day, keep the Sabbath, observe the Lords Day

GOLWG: cadw golwg am look out for something

GWELY: cadwch gwely be confined to bed, be in bed, stay in bed

LLONG: cadw llong uwchlwr dŵr keep a ship afloat

LLYGAD: cadw llygad am look out for, keep an eye out for

LLYGAID: cadwch llygaid yn eich gwegil to have a blinkered attitude (to keep your eyes in the back of your neck)

PWYLL: cadwch pwyll keep your wits about you, act prudently (keep your prudence)

STŴR: cadw stŵr make a noise, be rowdy

SŴN: cadw sŵn make a noise

TREFN: cadw trefn gaeth ar (rywbeth) strictly control (something

TWRW: cadw twrw make a noise, be rowdy

cadw + yn
(= as)

: cadw (rhywbeth) yn ddirgelwch keep (something) a secret

cadw + yn
(= linking particle)

cadw yn heini
KA du ən HEI ni / cadwn heini (verb) keep fit

5 cadw + rhag (= preposition)

cadw rhag annwyd escape a cold

6 cadw + adverbial phrase

cadw yn y cudd
keep a low profile, keep your head down, try not to draw attention, remain in hiding (keep in the hiding)

7 cas cadw da healthy outward appearance, (man, animal), good condition
(condition (of) good keeping) (cas = case, condition) + (cadw = to keep, keeping) + (da = good )
...mewn cas cadw da in good condition; in good repair, in good working order

8 (past participle) kept, kept by, saved; reserved;
llaeth cadw milk kept for churning, milk for churning ("kept milk")
sedd gadw PLURAL seddau cadw reserved seat

9 (in phrases meaning to make a noise)

cadw stŵr make a noise, be rowdy
cadw sŵn
make a noise
cadw twrw
make a noise, be rowdy

save from perdition, preserve

South Wales Dir caton pawb! may God save us all! God preserve us! < Duw an catwo ni bawb (may God save us all)

NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:
DINE GATTON PAWB, an exclamatory phrase expressive of wonder and astonishment a corruption of a Welsh phrase which means God preserve us all: (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 289 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)

11 observe a religious day, observe a tradition

cadwr Calan observe New Year traditions; observance of New Year traditions

cadwr Saboth observe the Sabbath; observance of the Sabbath

12 keep in prison
anfon rhywun iw gadw send somenbody to be jail, send somebody to be locked up


Cadwaladr kad WA la dər (masculine noun)
mans name

Familiar form: Dwalad
..a/ Cadwaladr > Cadwalad (loss of final r after d, which occurs in other names and words in Welsh e.g. Llangynidr > Llangynid)
..b/ Cadwalad > Dwalad (loss of the pretonic syllable, a common feature of Welsh)

3 ap Cadwaladr
son of Cadwaladr (patronymic with ap)
Dafydd ap Cadwaladr David, son of Cadwaladr
ferch Cadwaladr
daughter of Cadwaladr (patronymic with ferch)
Gwenllian ferch Cadwaladr Gwenllian, daughter of Cadwaladr

4 Cadwaladr
(patronymic without ap or ferch)
Dafydd Cadwaladr David, son of Cadwaladr
Gwenllian Cadwaladr
Gwenllian, daughter of Cadwaladr

5 Cadwaladr
fixed surname (= ancestor of [ap] Cadwaladr)
In English it has some spellings at variance with the Welsh forms:
Cadwalader, Cadwallader (which shows the use of the English double l, probably to indicate that the preceding vowel is pronounced short in English; cf Welsh spelling Lewelyn > English spelling Llewellyn), Cadwalladr, Cadwalladar, etc


Cadwch afraid erbyn eich rhaid
ka -du əkh av-raid er bin də hraid
be thrifty, keep what you don't need now for possible future use; put something away for a rainy day; waste not, want not = if you do not waste things, you won't be poor

ETYMOLOGY: keeping your unneeded (things) against your need (cadw = keep / keeping) + (ch < eich = your) + (afraid (adjective) = unnecessary; (noun) = unnecessary things) + (erbyn = against) + (eich = your) + (rhaid = necessity)

NOTE: Also:

(different preposition) cadwch afraid at eich raid (at = towards),

dy = thy, instead of eich = your) cadw dafraid erbyn dy raid, cadw dafraid at dy raid


cadw cyfrinach ka -du kə-vr -nakh
keep a secret
Rw i ar fy llw i gadwr gyfrinach Ive sworn not to tell the secret, Im sworn to secrecy (Im on my oath to keep the secret)

ETYMOLOGY: (cadw = to keep) + (cyfrinach = secret)


cadw drws agored ka -du druus a-g-red
keep open house, be very hospitable, welcome all and sundry

ETYMOLOGY: keep (an) open door (cadw = keep) + (drws = door) + (agored = open)


cadwedig kad w-dig adjective
(theology), redeemed, saved
pechadur cadwedig a redeemed sinner, a sinner who has been saved

ETYMOLOGY: (cadw = keep, save) + (-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)


Cadwgan ka-DUU-gan masculine noun

1 mans forename

ETYMOLOGY: battle + praise (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (gwogawn, older form of gogawn = praise)

A possibly sequence of changes is *Cadwogawn > *Cadwogon > *Cadwogan > Cadwgan (though the change of penultimate [wo] > [u] is strange)

..a/ Cadwogawn > Cadwogon .A final syllable aw > o is a general feature in Welsh (older Welsh athraw = teacher, modern Welsh athro; the diphtjhong is preserved as a penultimate syllable, athrawon = teachers, athrawes = female teacher)

..b/ Cadwogon > Cadwogan. A final syllable o > a occurs sporadically; ofn (= fear) becomes disyllabic colloquially > ofon, and has in some places in the south become ofan
c/ Cadwogan > Cadwgan Influence of the verb cadw = keep, preserve?


cadw golwg ar KAA-du GOO-lug ar
keep an eye on, observe (keep a view on)

Rhaid cadw golwg ar sut maen nhwn gwario arian y trethdalwyr
We have to keep an eye on how they spend the taxpayers money


cadw-mi-gei ka -du mii gei masculine noun
(North Wales)
money box, piggy bank

ETYMOLOGY: keep (and) you shall get = save the money and you shall have it later
(cadw = keep!, imperative form of cadw = to keep) + (mi gei = you shall get)

Mi gei is (mi preverbal particle) + soft mutation + (cei = you shall get, from the verb cael = to obtain, receive, get)


cadwydd kad-widh plural
brambles, bramble brake, place full of brambles

ETYMOLOGY: (cad = intensifying prefix; this prefix is derived from cad = battle) + soft mutation + (gwydd = trees, bushes); Welsh < British

From the same British root: Cornish kazwedh
(As in the Cornish place name Porthkazwedh, English Cadgwith)


cadwyn, cadwynau KAD win, kad Wə ne (feminine noun)
chain = string made up of links (of paper, metal, etc)
blaen cadwyn end of a chain

fel ci ar gadwyn straining at the leash (like (a) dog on (a) chain)


cae KAI masculine noun
PLURAL caeau kei -e

(obsolete) hedge

dodi cae o amgylch (rhywbeth) place a hedge around something

Marc 12:1 Ac efe a ddechreuodd ddywedyd wrthynt ar ddamhegion. Gŵr a blannodd winllan, ac a ddododd gae oi hamgylch, ac a gloddiodd le ir gwingafn, ac a adeiladodd dŵr, ac ai gosododd hi allan i lafurwyr, ac a aeth oddi cartref.
Mark 12:1 And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.

gosod cae yng nghylch (rhywbeth) place a hedge around something

Mathew 21:33 Clywch ddameg arall. Yr oedd rhyw ddyn o berchen tŷ, yr hwn a blannodd winllan, ac a osododd gae yn ei chylch hi, ac a gloddiodd ynddi winwryf, ac a adeiladodd dŵr, ac ai gosododd hi allan i lafurwyr, ac a aeth oddi cartref.
Matthew 21:33 Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:

gwasgaru cae destroy a hedge (scatter a hedge)
Pregethwyr 10:8 Y sawl a gloddio bwll, a syrth ynddo; ar neb a wasgaro gae, sarff ai brath
Ecclesiastes 10:8 He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it; and whoso breaketh an hedge, a serpent shall bite him.

dryllio cae destroy a hedge (make pieces of a hedge)
Salmau 89:39 Diddymaist gyfamod dy was; halogaist ei goron, gan ei thaflu i lawr. (89:40) Drylliaist ei holl gaeau ef; gwnaethost ei amddiffynfeydd yn adwyau.
Pslams 89:39 Thou hast made void the covenant of thy servant: thou hast profaned his crown by casting it to the ground. (89:40) Thou hast broken down all his hedges; thou hast brought his strong holds to ruin.

tynnu ymaith gae remove a hedge (pull away a hedge)
Eiseia 5:5 Ac yr awr hon mi a hysbysaf i chwi yr hyn a wnaf im gwinllan: tynnaf ymaith ei chae, fel y porer hi; torraf ei magwyr, fel y byddo hi yn sathrfa
Isaiah 5:5 And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down:

cau cae make a hedge
Eseciel 13:4 Dy broffwydi, Israel, ydynt fel llwynogod yn yr anialwch (13:5) Ni safasoch yn yr adwyau, ac ni chaeasoch y cae i dŷ Israel, i sefyll yn y rhyfel ar ddydd yr ARGLWYDD
Ezekiel 13:4 O Israel, thy prophets are like the foxes in the deserts. (13:5) Ye have not gone up into the gaps, neither made up the hedge for the house of Israel to stand in the battle in the day of the LORD.

Eseciel 22:30 Ceisiais hefyd ŵr ohonynt i gau y cae, ac i sefyll ar yr adwy om blaen dros y wlad, rhag ei dinistrio; ac nis cefais
Ezekiel 22:30 And I sought for a man among them, that should make up the hedge, and stand in the gap before me for the land, that I should not destroy it: but I found none.

cae drain thorn hedge
Micha 7:4 Y gorau ohonynt sydd fel miaren, yr unionaf yn arwach na chae drain; dydd dy wylwyr, a'th ofwy, sydd yn dyfod: bellach y bydd eu penbleth hwynt.
Micah 7:4 The best of them is as a brier: the most upright is sharper than a thorn hedge: the day of thy watchmen and thy visitation cometh; now shall be their perplexity.

Diarhebion 15:19 Ffordd y diog sydd fel cae drain; ond ffordd yr uniawn sydd wastad.
Proverbs 15:19 The way of the slothful man is as an hedge of thorns: but the way of the righteous is made plain.

4 field = land enclosed by a fence or hedge used for livestock
cae pori pasture (field (of) grazing)
cae porfa pasture

5 field = land enclosed by a fence or hedge used for crops
cae ŷd cornfield
cae gwair hay meadow

cae llafur field of cereals

cae tro ploughed field (field + ploughed)
cae troi ploughed field (field (of) ploughing)

6 (chwaraeon = sport) field, ground = piece of land for the playing certain sports

cae chwarae playing field
cae antur adventure playground

field, ground for other activities
cae sioe showground

ar ganol y cae in the middle of the field
yng nghanol y cae
in the middle of the field

(Place names) Frequent in field names, and through transference, in settlement names (farms, villages, suburbs, houses, streets)

FIELD NAME: Caer Ffynnon well field, ((the) field (of) the well). Usually as Cae Ffynnon (in field names / place names the linking definite article is often lost)

SETTLEMENT NAME: Caerffynnon, Caeffynnon (settlement names are more correctly spelt as a single word)

10 Gwarycaeau Street in Port talbot (Gwar Y Caeau)

The local form would be gwar y cia.

(the place) above the fields

11 SJ3049 Cored y Caeau Name of a weir on the river Clywedog in Y Bers / Bersham, Wrecsam
(the) weir (at) Y Caeau

Pont y Caeau a bridge here (the) bridge (at) Y Caeau

12 ddim yn yr un cae not in the same street as, far superior, beyond compare (not in the same field as)

13 mill dam; riverside embankment, earthwork to raise the height of a riverbank to prevent flooding (ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + ( cae = enclosure)

(South Wales) caer nos field near a farmhouse where cattle and sheep are kept during the night
mynd i gae'r nos go off to bed, hit the sack (go to the night-time field)

(North Wales) caer hun bed ((the) field (of) the sleep)

16 bod mewn cae arall (be in another field) be missing the point, be parking up the wrong tree

nid + bod yn pori yn un cae (not + be grazing in the same field) be missing the point, be parking up the wrong tree
Dwyt ti ddim yn pori yn yr un cae You dont get my point

cau < cae-u (cae = hedge) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

19 cae ras racecourse (field (of) race)
cae rasio racecourse (field (of) racing)
cae rasys racecourse (field (of) races)

Y Cae Ras (English: The Racecourse, or The Raceourse Ground) is the name of the football stadium in Wrecsam, where Wrexham Football Club began playing in 1872, the year it was founded, on what was originally land used for cricket and horse-racing.

CAE as a final element:

(qv) embankment

(qv) field (originally hedge, and then the place enclosed by a hedge)
coetgae < ced-gae (coed = trees) + soft mutation + (cae = hedge)

Quite frequent in place names, especially in the south-east; it has various colloquial pronunciations. Generally misspelt as coedcae or coed cae, and as a result often explained as meaning coed y cae (the) field (by) the wood

cytgae common boundary, boundary hedgebank between two farms
cytgae < cd-gae (cyd- < cyd- = existing together, joint, shared) + soft mutation + (cae = hedge, hedgebank) (d-g > t)

hyddgae (qv) deer park
(hydd = deer) + soft mutation + ( cae = hedge; field)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cae (= field) < *cagh < British *kag- < Celtic <Indoeuropean

From the same British root: Cornish ke (= hedge), Breton kae (= hedge)

French quai (= quay) < Gaulish *kaion

Thus English quay (a word taken from French) and Welsh cae are both words of Celtic origin

Related words in Germanic (from the same Indoeuropean root)
..a/ English hedge and also haw / hawthorn (originally with the sense of the bush used for making hedges)
..b/ Dutch haag (= hedge)

NOTE: South-east Wales - caeau > cia

Similar sense developments to that of cae that is, the change from that which encloses to that which is enclosed, the area within the enclosure is to be seen in the following examples:

..a/ Welsh bangor (top row of woven twigs > fence > enclosure > monastery, as in the place name Bangor two examples in north Wales)

..b/ Welsh gweirglodd (hay meadow) < gweirglawdd

(gweir- penult form of gwair = grass, hay) + soft mutation + (clawdd = earth bank, stone wall)

..c/ English pale (= pole, strip of wood) > fence > enclosed area (as in The Pale, the English-occupied area in Ireland around Baile tha Cliath)


caead kei -ad verb

ETYMOLOGY: Cf. Cornish keas (= to close)


caead kei-ad masculine noun
PLURAL caeadau kei- -de
rhoi caead ar eich piser shut someone up, stop someone from talking (put a lid on his pitcher)
Dyna gaead ar ei biser! Thats shut him up! Thats put a stop to him!

caead trol tailboard of a cart
caead cert tailboard of a cart
caead wagen godi tailboard of a tipper lorry

caead Fenis Venetian shutter
rhoir caeadau lan put up the shutters
caead rhwyllog Persian blind, roller shutter outside window blind with adjustable slats

(Photography) shutter
clicied caead shutter release
cymflymder caead shutter speed

caead allan
exclusion, shut-out

(adjective) closed
pengaead closed at one end
...heol bengaead cul-de-sac
llawgaead stingy, mean (llaw = hand) + soft mutation + (caead = closed)

ETYMOLOGY: (cae- = stem of cau = to close) + (-ad, -ed suffix for forming a past participle)


Caeamrica kai-a-meri-ka
1 street name in Llanfairfechan (county of Conwy) (spelt as two words Cae America; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

ETYMOLOGY: cae Amrica (the) field (of) America
(cae = field) + (Amrica = America)


Y Caeau
KEI-ai, -e
the fields

Name of a farm north-east of the village of Pentrehelygain SJ1972 / Pentre Halkyn, county of Y Fflint

Parcycaeau / Caia Park a district of Wrecsam

(the) park (of ) Y Caeau


Caebedw kai- mor -fa
1 street name
..a/ Acre-fair (county of Wrecsam) (spelt as two words Cae Bedw; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

..b/ Caerffili (county of Caerffili) (spelt as two words Cae Bedw; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)
caer bedw (the) field (of) the birch trees
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + (bedw = birch trees)

The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae


Caebitffald kai- bit -fald
street name in Tre'r-ddl (SN6692) (county of Ceredigion) (spelt as two words Cae Bitffald; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

ETYMOLOGY: caer bitffald (the) field (of) the pound
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + soft mutation + (pitffald = pound for stray animals)


Caeblodau kai- bl -de
street name in Baecinmel (county of Dinbych) (spelt as two words Cae Blodau; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

ETYMOLOGY: caer blodau (the) field (of) the flowers
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + (blodau = flowers)
The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae


Caecastan kai- ka -stan
street name in Rhuthun (county of Dinbych) (spelt as two words Cae Castan; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

ETYMOLOGY: caer castan (the) field (of) the chestnut tree
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + soft mutation + (castan = chestnut tree)
The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae


cae chwarae kai KHWA re (masculine noun)
sports field, playing field, recreation ground, rec


Cae Crwn
kai- krun masculine noun
field name

ETYMOLOGY: y cae crwn = the round field

(cae = field) + (crwn = round)


kai- krun masculine noun
street name
..a/ Dynfant (county of Abertawe)
(spelt as two words Cae Crwn; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)
..b/ Machynlleth (county of Powys)
(spelt as two words Cae Crwn; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

ETYMOLOGY: y cae crwn = the round field. See preceding entry.


Cae Deintur kai dein-tir
1 (or Cae Dintur). Field name (lost) in Caer-dydd.
John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911), notes
"Kaye y Dyntur... A field in the Treasurers Manor of Llandaff (1535.) It was a piece of pasture ground on the highway from Llandaff to Fairwater (1649)

ETYMOLOGY: caer deintur (the) field (of) the tenter frame > cae deintur.
The linking definite article is often lost in place names.
(cae = field) + (r < yr = definite article) + (deintur = tenter frame)


Caedeintur kai dein-tir
1 street name in Dolgellau (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: As above. Street names without an element indicating street are spelt as settlement names, that is, as a single word. It seems though that the name is spelt (incorrectly) Cae Deintur officially.


Cae Delyn kai DEE-lin
1 Field name

See Caedelyn below

ETYMOLOGY: caer delyn (the) field (of) the harp / harp field > cae delyn.
The linking definite article is often lost in place names.
(cae = field) + (r < yr = definite article) + soft mutation (telyn = harp)

Fields with this name are triangular in shape, like a harp


Caedelyn kai DEE-lin
1 Farm name SN5806. East of Sardis, county of Caerfyrddin (as such on the O.S. map, Caedelyn) map

2 Street name in Caerwys SJ1272 (county of Y Fflint) (Cae Delyn)

(The convention is that street names which have no element indicating a street are spelt as habitatative names; thus Cae Delyn (field name, hwere the street or near to which the street is; or as an arbitrary name for a residential street) and Caedelyn (house or farm name) would be Caedelyn as a steet name) map

ETYMOLOGY: See preceding entry. As a field name it is Cae Delyn; as a habitative name it is a single word, Caedelyn


Y Cae-glas kai GLAAS
house name
street name in Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam)
locality in Abertawe SS6595

ETYMOLOGY: y cae glas the green field (y = definite article) + (cae = field) + (glas = green).

In names on signs, maps, etc the initial article is omitted, though it is understood, and in context it should re-emerge Mae en byw yn y Cae-glas He lives in Cae-glas, rather than *Mae en byw yn Nghae-glas


Cae-gwyn kai GWIN
house name

On a gentle ascent, on the right from Caernarvon, is Richmond Hill, so called by its late possessorRichmond Hill, on the skirts of Snowdon ! ! ! Its present possessor, J. F. Maddock, Esq. M. P, for Chester, has judiciously restored its original name, Cae Gwyn.

Beaumaris Bay: The Shores of the Menai, and the Interior of Snowdonia; Scenery Unrivalled in its Comprehensive Variety, The Interesting Objects which it includes, and the Sublime Prominence of its Features. Richard Llwyd. 1832

ETYMOLOGY: y cae gwyn the white field (y = definite article) + (cae = field) + (gwyn = white).


kai- haav masculine noun
street name in Pentrectheral (county of Y Fflint)

ETYMOLOGY: caer haf = the field of the summer


cae haidd
kai haidh masculine noun
barley field

ETYMOLOGY: (cae = field) + (haidd = barley )


kai haidh masculine noun
street name in Llanymynech (county of Powys)
(spelt as two words Cae Haidd; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

ETYMOLOGY: y cae haidd = the field (of) barley


kai- gloo masculine noun
street name
..a/ Cefn-mawr (county of Wrecsam)
(spelt as two words Cae Glo; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)
..b/ Wrecsam
(spelt as two words Cae Glo; settlement names are more correctly spelt run together)

ETYMOLOGY: caer glo = the field of the coal

The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae


Cae-go ki-goo
district west of Rhos-ddu (county of Wrecsam)

ETYMOLOGY: caer gof ((the) field (of) the smith)
(cae = field) + (yr = definite article) + (gof = smith).
The final v is often lost in the north in one-syllable words, hence gof > go.


have something done, to be the object of some action
cael torri eich gwallt get your hair cut (receive (the) cutting (of) your hair)
cael tyllu ei chlustiau have your ears pierced 'receive (the) piercing (of) her ears'
cael tynnu eich llun have your photo / picture taken ("receive (the) pulling (of) your picture")

have = eat
cael brecwast have breakfast

have, get = experience, undergo, suffer (a feeling, sensation)
cael sioc have a shock

have a (specified) type of life
cael bwyd go ddiflas have a fairly disagreeable life (e.g. after a death, separation, etc)

have (difficulty, a problem)
chefais i ddim trafferth o gwbl I didnt have any trouble at all

have = give birth to
cael plentyn = to have a child

have (a dream) cael breuddwyd

have (+ type of weather)
Gesoch chi dywydd braf yn yr eisteddfod?
Did you have good weather in the eisteddfod?

cael rhew caled (said of cold weather when water or the ground, etc is frozen hard) (have a hard frost / ice)

(indicates permission) be granted permission to, be allowed to, to be able to
cael mynd adre be allowed to go home, be allowed home
Pam nad yw pobl y wlad honno yn cl dewis u llywodreth?
Why arent the people of that country allowed to choose their government?

expressions indicating to see
cael gweld (rhywbeth) yn well
get a better view of something
cael golwg ar have a look at
mynd i gael golwg ar y dre go and have a look round town

get = receive an injury
cael crafiad ar eich llaw scratch your hand (= be scratched on the hand)

find, come across = discover by chance
Yn y gwely winwns ces
i e
I found it in the onion bed

succeed in, manage to
Chefais i gysgu fawr ddim ers nosweithiau Ive not been able to sleep much for many nights now

wyt tin eu cael nhw?
North Wales Have you gone barking mad? Have you taken leave of your senses? (are you getting them?)

get, catch (a disease)
Fe ges i ryw hen glefyd imbed (embyd) yno I caught some bloody awful disease there

cael bod...
find that, discover that, become aware of the fact that
Rhywbeth syn rhoi gwefr anhygoel i ddysgwyr yw cael eu bod yn gallu deall Cymraeg llafar tu allan ir dosbarth
Something which gives an incredible thrill to learners (of the language) is finding that they can understand spoken Welsh outside the class

(indicates the passive) get, receive;
Used to form the passive voice with periphrastic constructions. In literary Welsh a termination is added to the verb, according to the tense:
-ir = present-future,
-wyd = past,
-id = imperfect,
-asid = pluperfect,
-er = present subjunctive,
-id = imperfect subjunctive
Although forms with -wyd and sometimes -ir are to be heard in colloquial Welsh, they are far from frequent. Generally the verb cael is used along with a possessive determiner

gweld = to see,
cael eich gweld = be seen (get your seeing)
cafodd ei anfon
KAA-vodh i AN-von he was sent (he got his sending)

get = win (prize, award, trophy, honour)

get = undergo, suffer (punishment, beating)

cael gan rywun wneud rhywbeth get somebody to do something

er mwyn cael enghraifft for arguments sake

cael y gwaethaf ohoni come out of it badly

have = have sexual intercourse with
merch hawdd ei chael an easy piece, an easy lay (girl easy her getting)

(South Wales) cael eich cymal aga get into ones stride (in some task)

25 obtain
cael cyfrinach o groen rhywun prise / wheedle a secret out of somebody (get a secret from the skin of someone)

26 cael blas och ffisig eich hun have / get a taste of your own medicine

BLAS: cael blas och ffisig eich hun have / get a taste of your own medicine
CRAFIAD: cael crafiad ar eich llaw scratch your hand (= be scratched on the hand)
CYMAL: (South Wales) cael eich cymal aga get into ones stride (in some task)
GWAETHAF: cael y gwaethaf ohoni come out of it badly
GWLYCHFA: cael gwlychfa get a soaking, get soaked, get drenched
GWLYCHFA: cael gwlychfa at eich croen get soaked to the skin

Present Indicative: 1 caf, cawn; 2 cei, cewch, 3 caiff, cnt Impersonal: ceir
Imperfect Indicative: 1 cawn, caem; 2 cait, caech; 3 ci, caent; Impersonal: caed
Past Indicative: 1 cefais, cawsom; 2 cefaist,, cawsoch; 3 cafodd, cawsant; Impersonal: cafwyd, caed (colloquial: 1 ces, cawson; 2 cst,, cawsoch; 3 cath / cadd / (South Wales) cas, cawson)
Pluperfect Indicative: 1 cawswn, cawsem; 2 cawsit, cawsech; 3 cawsai, cawsent; Impersonal: cawsid
Present Subjunctive: 1 caffwn, caffem; 2 caffit, caffech; 3 caffai, caffent; Impersonal: ceffid; or the same as the Imperfect Indicative: 1 cawn, caem; 2 cait, caech; 3 ci, caent;
Imperative: 1 -, -; 2 -, -; 3 caffed / caed, caffent / caent; Impersonal: caffer, caer
In the second person there is no imperative: other verbs are used, depending on the sense; for example, dos i nl / ewch i nl (North Wales) = go and fetch; cer i moyn / ewch i moyn (South Wales) = go and fetch


cael a chael kail aa khail
a narrow squeak; touch and go
Cael a chael! Just made it!

Cael a chael yw hi Its touch and go

Cael a chael yw hi bob tro i'r 'steddfod wneud elw
Its touch and go every time for the Esiteddfod to make a profit

Cael a chael oedd hi na laddwyd mohonom ni
We were within an inch of death, it was a miracle we werent killed

Cael a chael oedd hi na laddwyd mohonom ni

We were within an inch of death

ETYMOLOGY: (get and get)
(cael = get) + (a = and) + aspirate mutation + (cael = get)


cael adferiad kail ad- ver -yad
recover ones health, get well again

Gobeithiai gael adferiad hyd y ddau ddiwrnod olaf y bu fyw
He hoped to recover from his illness (hoped to get recovery) until the last two days he was alive

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = to get) + (adferiad = recovery)


cael bachiad
kail bakh-yad
(fishing) get a bite
(North Wales) get a job

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = to get) + (bachiad = hold, bite)


cael eich cefn atoch kail əkh ke-ven a-tokh verb
recover after an illness

ETYMOLOGY: (get your back to you) (cael = to get) + (eich = your) + (cefn = back) + (atoch = to you, < at = to)


cael eich haeddiant
kail əkh heidh-yant
get what one deserves = get one's come-uppance, get one's just deserts,
get what one deserves = get one's proper due for, get recognition for
cael ei haeddiant llawn am ei syniadau get full recognition for his ideas

ETYMOLOGY: get your desert (cael = get) + (eich = your) + (haeddiant = desert, what is deserved)


cael estyniad einioes
kail e-stƏn-yad ein-yois
get a new lease of life (after a period of illness, depression, loss of vitality, etc to have a renewed vigour, health, drive, optimisim, happiness, etc) (get an extension of life)

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = to get) + (estyniad = extension) + (einoes = life)


cael ffit
kail fit verb
have a fit
Fe gaiff ffit pan glyw amdano Hell have a fit when he finds out
NOTE: (cael = have, get, receive) + (ffit = fit)


cael gwaith kail gwaith
find it hard to, find it an effort to, find it a job to
Fe gaiff e waith dal i fyny Hell have a bit of a job to catch up

Ar l ymddeol, rw-i'n cael gwaith codi cyn deg y bore
After retiring, I find it a job to get up before ten in the morning

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = get) + (gwaith = work)


cael gwared ag annwyd kail GWA red ag A nuid (phrase)
shake off a cold


cael hen ddigon ar kail dh gon ar
have just about enough of

ETYMOLOGY: (get more than enough on) (cael = get) + (hen = old; more than) + soft mutation + (digon = enough) + (ar = on)


cael hit kil hit verb
hurt oneself, give oneself a blow
cael hit ar
= knock, bang (part of the body against)


cael hwyl
kail huil verb
enjoy oneself, have fun
cael hwyl fawr have great fun

cael hwyl ar gost (rhywun) enjoy oneself at somebody's expense

Yr oedd y plant yn cael hwyl wrth symud y cadeiriau The children were enjoying themselves moving the chairs

Yr oedd nant fach ar ganol y cae a chaem ninnau hwyl yn neidio drosti There was a stream in the middle of the field and we had fun jumping over it

2 cael hwyl a hanner have a grand old time, have a really great time

3 cael hwyl am ben make fun of, mock

4 cael hwyl ar (rywbeth) enjoy (something)
cael gwell hwyl ar enjoy (something) more

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = get) + (hwyl = enjoyment)


cael lle i kail lhee ii
have reason to
cael lle i obeithio have reason to be hopeful, find grounds for optimism
cael lle i gasglu fod... have reason to suppose


cael min
kail miin
(North Wales) get an erection, have an erection

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = to have) + (min = sharpness / erection)


cael modd i fyw kail moodh ii viu
wedi cael modd i fyw be delighted, be cock a hoop, be pleased as Punch (to have received (a) means to live)

derive immense satisfaction (from the misfortune of another)

ETYMOLOGY: (to receive (a) means to live) (cael = to receive) + (modd = a means, a way, a manner) + (i = to) + soft mutation + (byw = to live)


cael oes go dda kail ois goo dhaa
live to a ripe old age
Fe gafodd oes go dda He had a long life, he lived to a ripe old age (he got a good amount of life / a fairly good life)

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = to get) + (oes = a life) + (go dda = fairly get, a good amount of (something)


cael sterics kail ste -riks
have a fit of hysterics

ETYMOLOGY: (cael = get) + (sterics = hysterics)


Cae Morfa kai- mor -fa
1 Cae Morfa Road a street name in Aberafan (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (in Welsh it would be Heol Cae Morfa)

ETYMOLOGY: caer morfa (the) field (of) the sea-fen
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + (morfa = sea-fen)
The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae


Caeo KEI o (feminine noun)
place name


Caeperson kai- per -son
1 street name
..a/ Acre-fair (county of Conwy) (Cae Person)
..b/ Llanddarog (county of Caerfyrddin) (Cae Person)

ETYMOLOGY: caer person (the) field (of) the parson
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + (person = parson)
The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae


caer KAIR (feminine noun)
fortress, castle
y gaer = the fortress

2 city

3 wall

caer y fynwent the churchyard wall

Mr. Luid observes, that in Caermarthenshire the wall of the church-yard is called Caer y Fynwent (i.e. Edward Lhuyd / Edward Llwyd 1660-1709)
The Privileges of the University of Cambridge / George Dyer / Volume II / 1824

Eseciel 38:11 A thi a ddywedi. Mi a af i fyny i wlad sydd yn preswylio yn ddiogel, gan drigo oll heb gaerau, ac heb drosolion na dorau iddynt,

Ezekiel 38:11And thou shalt say, I will go up to the land of unwalled villages; I will go to them that are at rest, that dwell safely, all of them dwelling without walls, and having neither bars nor gates,

3 with certain classical names
..a/ Caerdroea (castle / city (of) Troy) Troy

..b/ Caergystennin (castle / city (of) Constantine) Constantinople

..c/ Caersalem (city (of) Salem / peace) Jerusalem (the first portion was misunderstood as meaning cityand translated into Welsh as such; the second element was taken to be Salem or peace)


Caer kair feminine noun
Chester = city in North-west England, on the border with Wales. Full name: Caerllion Fawr.
Latin name: Deva. The English name Chester (from Latin castrum) means Roman fort. The Welsh name in full is Caerllion Fawr = Greater Caerllion (to differentiate it from Caerllion in South Wales). Caerllion means fortress of the legion.

Stryd Caer
Chester Road, (the) road (leading to) Chester. A street name in Yr Wyddgrug, county of Fflint

Swydd Gaer
the county of Chester, Cheshire. Generally Welsh counties are prefixed by sir and English counties by swydd: Both are followed by soft mutation

North Wales, colloquial Sir Gaer the county of Chester, Cheshire

ETYMOLOGY: caer = (Roman) camp
NOTE: See: Caerllion Fawr


Caer Antur kair- an -tir
town founded by the Welsh settlers in the Welsh settlement in Patagonia; In Castilian, Rawson. Now the administrative capital of the province of Chubut.
Alternative later Welsh name: Tre Rawson / Trerawson

ETYMOLOGY: (the) fort (of) (the) venture (caer = fort) + (antur = venture) (probably in imitation of numerous Welsh place names with caer as the first element, where it usually indicates a Roman fort Caer-dydd, Caerfyrddin, Caernarfon, Caer, Caerffili, etc).
According to the conventions of modern Welsh spelling it would be better spelt run together Caerantur


Caer Caradog kair ka-RAA-dog
name of various hillforts

..a/ Said to be the name marked on older maps for the hillfort at Coetgaer Gaer <KOIT-gair GAIR> [ˡkɔɪtgaɪr ˡgaɪr], SS9785, an upland east of Y Coetgae farm near Y Brynna, south-east of the ruined church of Llan Bedr ar Fynydd.

(The local name is evidently simply Y Gaer (= the hillfort), as seen from the name of the upland where it is situated, Coetgaer Gaer (= the mountain pasture by Y Gaer).


..b/ SH9647 hillfort by Cerrigydrudion, county of Conwy Caer Caradog


..c/ Caradoc Court S05527

Landscape Origins of the Wye Valley (2009-03-03) notes two forms frm the 1200s, Cayrcradoc  and Caircradoke, and suggests the name of the manor comes from the hillfort at Gaer Cop, three kilometres to the south-west Caradoc Hill


..d/ hillfort by Church Stretton, Shropshire Caer Caradoc


Caercaradog kair ka-RAA-dog
A spurious name for Salisbury (England)

Benjamin Hoadley Yn 1721, symudid Hoadley i Gaerffawydd, ac yn 1723, i Gaer Caradog, ac oddi yno i Gaerwynt (Winchester) yn 1734. Y Gwyliedydd, Llyfr 9, 1832, t. 293
Benjamin Hoadley Yn 1721, Hoadley was moved to Caerffawydd (= Hereford), and in 1723, to Caer Caradog (= Salisbury), and from there to Caerwynt (= Winchester) yn 1734.


A spurious Welsh name for Norwich (England)

(There is no Welsh name in use for Norwich).

Yr Esgob nesaf yn Mangor oedd Richard Reynolds, yr hwn a symudid i Gaer-Lwydcoed (Lincoln) yn 1723, ас ddilynid yma gan Wilum Baker, yr hwn, yn 1727, a gymmerai Esgobaeth Caer Суnan (Norwich) Y Gwyliedydd, Llyfr 9, 1832, t. 293
The next Bishop in Mangor was Richard Reynolds, who moved to Caer-Lwydcoed (Lincoln) in 1723, and was followed here by WilIAm Baker, who, in 1727, took over the Diocese of Caer Суnan (Norwich)

ETYMOLOGY: (town (of) Cynan) (caer = (Roman) town) + (Cynan = male forename)


Caer Dinam kair- dii -nam (f)
1 A folk tune name mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830).
Explained as Dinam fort, in Llanddinam parish.


Caerdroea kair- droi -a (f)
1 Troy
difrod Caerdroea, the sack of Troy

ETYMOLOGY: (caer = fort, castle) + soft mutation + ( Troea = Troy)


Caer-dydd kair-DIIDH (feminine noun)
capital of Wales (anglicised from: Cardiff) (the Roman fort by the river Taf) (standard form: Caerdydd. Technically the form without a hyphen is not correct, but it is an exception to the rule)

2 arfau Caer-dydd the coat of arms of Caer-dydd

Gwesty Arfau Caer-dydd Cardiff Arms Hotel - name of a hotel and public house in Caer-dydd Generally known as in Welsh as Gwestyr Arfau (the) hotel (of) the arms, and in English as the Cardiff Arms

Parc Arfau Caer-dydd Cardiff Arms Park a rugby stadium in Caer-dydd
Generally known in Welsh as as Parc yr Arfau (the) parc (of) the arms, and in English as the Arms Park

ETYMOLOGY: The original Welsh name was Caer-dyf

The House of Commons Journal mentions the city on 3 March 1646:
Resolved, &c. That the Town and Castle of Caerdiffe, be kept garisoned, with Two hundred Men in it.

(British History Online,

The English form Cardiff is based on the older Welsh form; later the final f [v] in the Welsh name was replaced by dd [dh], that is, (-dyf > -dydd). This change f > dd occurs colloquially in a handful of words in Welsh, such as plwyf (= parish) > plwydd, and tyfu (= to grow) > tyddu.

Mae popeth yn cymryd amser i dyddu, ishta gwetws yr ir wrth y cyw.
Everything takes time to grow, as the hen said to the chicken.
(spelling amended) Mwyar Duon / D. James (Defynnog) The Welsh Leader 25 05 1906

(In the story, this is said by the a Welshman who is a native of the vicinity of Pont-y-pridd)


pen isaf y plwyf

(delwedd 7695)

It is also to be seen in the farm name Pen-isha-plwydd SO3423 by Y Pandy in the county of Mynwy (Penishaplwydd on the Ordnance Survey map) (One might expect Penisharplwydd with the definite article, but see below), map

..a/ pen isaf y plwyf (the) lower end (of) the parish, the bottom of the parish > pen isar plwyf A final f [v] in polysyllables is lost in spoken Welsh; the definite article yr is y when it is between consonants, but reverts to yr after a vowel, and the vowels y is lost and the remaining conasonant coalesces with the preceding word (isa + yr) > (isar)

..b/ pen isar plwyf > pen ishar plwyf is South Wales an s preceded by of followed by an i is palatalised: s > sh. Hence isa > isha

..c/ pen ishar plwyf > pen ishar plwydd In South Wales, a dialect variant of plwyf is plwydd. This change of f [v] > dd [] occurs in some other words in Welsh.

See the entry f > dd, on the page for the letter F

..d/ pen ishar plwyf > pen isha plwydd In place names, the linking definite article is often dropped.


instead of Taf is explained as being a genitive form in British (*tam).

(This is similar to a Latin genitive form, since British and Latin were quite closely related languages). This final i affected the preceding vowel a.

Although a-i in British usually gives ei (with the loss of the case ending i) in modern Welsh, there are instances of y, as in alarch (= swan), with its two alternative plural forms elyrch and eleirch.

Some books explain the second element as being the name of the Roman general Didius, a governor of nearby provinces, which is etymologically impossible, and neither does it fit the pattern of Welsh names with Caer.

Analysing the name as a moden Welsh compound, we have Caer-dydd < Caer-dyf (caer = Roman fort) + soft mutation + (Tyf < British *tam-, (of the river) Taf)

SPELLING: The official spelling is Caerdydd. Although an accented final element should be preceded by a hyphen, in the recommendations for the spelling of place names some names were considered to be so well-known that they need not conform to the rule thus undermining an extremely useful feature of the guidelines!


Caereinion kai REIN yon (feminine noun)
medieval territory in the north-east (fortress of Einion)


Caerfallwch kair-VA-lhukh masculine noun
Pseudonym of Thomas Edwards (1779-1858), Welsh lexicographer, very much influenced by the eccentric lexicographer William Owen-Pughe (1759-1835). His Welsh name Caerfallwch was the name of his birthplace, in Llaneurgain, county of Y Fflint, north-east Wales.

He produced lists of neologisms especially in the fields of science and commerce, and some of these are now in general use in Welsh.

buddsoddi = to invest
cyngerdd = concert
daeareg = geology
degol = decimal
hirgrwn = oval
nwy = gas
pwyllgor = committee
safon = standard


Caerfembyr kair-VEM-bir
Spurious Welsh name for Oxford (England)

John Randolph, Esgob Caer Fembyr (Oxford). Y Gwyliedydd, Llyfr 9, 1832, t. 293
John Randolph, Bishop of Caer Fembyr (Oxford).


Caerffawydd kair-FAA-widh
Spurious Welsh name for Hereford

(the genuine Welsh name is Henffordd (old road), a reworking of the English name Hereford (army ford, army river-crossing, military crossing point).

Humphrey Humphreys, yr hwn a enid yn Mhenrhyn-deudraeth, yn Swydd Feirionydd, yn 1648. Gwneid ef yn Beriglor Llanfrothen yn 1670, a Thrawsfynydd a Llaniestyn yn 1675, ac yn Ddon Bangor yn 1680, ac yn Esgob yn 1689. Tros-glwyddid ef i Esgobaeth Caerffawydd (Hereford) yn 1701, lle y bu farw ас у cleddid ef yn 1712. Y Gwyliedydd, Llyfr 9, 1832, t. 293

Humphrey Humphreys, who was born in Penrhyndeudraeth, in the county of Meirionydd, in 1648. He was made Rector of Llanfrothen in 1670, and of Trawsfynydd and Llaniestyn in 1675, and Dean of Bangor in 1680, and Bishop in 1689. He was transferred to the Diocese of Caerffawydd (Hereford) in 1701, where he died and was buried in 1712.

ETYMOLOGY: (town (of) beech trees) (caer = (Roman) town) + (ffawydd = beech trees)


Caerfynydd kair-kə-nidh
Spurious Welsh name for Exeter (England)

Christopher Bethel, Esgob Caerfynydd (Exeter) yr hwn yn bresennol a leinw Gadair Esgobawl Bangor. Y Gwyliedydd, Llyfr 9, 1832, t. 293
Christopher Bethel, Bishop of Caerfynydd (Exeter) who at present occupies the cathedral seat of Bangor.

Caerfyrddin kai VƏR dhin (feminine noun)
city in the south-west Roman fort by Mor-din-, which was a British hillfort, = sea fort / maritime fort / fort by the sea)

2 Caerfyrddin-fach (little Caerfyrddin) SN5161 farm south of Pennant (Ceredigion)


Caer-gaint kair GAINT (feminine noun)
Canterbury (the) Roman camp (of) Kent


Caergeri kair-GEE-ri (feminine noun)
Welsh name of Cirencester, in Gloucestershire in England.

The Roman name was Corinium Dobunnorum ((the town called) Corinium (which is of the) Dobunni (people)). The English name is based on Primitive Welsh *Korin- with the addition of cester (Roman fort).

Korin- seems to be a personal name.

The name survives today in English in the form River Churn, and is the basis of the name Cerney in the village names North Cerney, South Cerney and Cerney Wick (though the river name may not be from British times, but a later back-formation from an early form of the town name Cirencester).

The Welsh name is noted by the Welsh monk Asser (d. 908/909) Cirrenceastre qui Britannice Cair Ceri nominatur. (Here the initial C undoubtedly represents G, the soft-mutated or voiced form of C.)

ETYMOLOGY: Roman town of Korin- (caer = [Roman] fortress, stronghold) + soft mutation + (Ceri < Korin-, probably a personal name)


Caer-grawnt kair GRAUNT (feminine noun)
Cambridge, England


Caer-gromlech kair grom -lekh
1 street name in Y Ffr (county of Gwynedd) (Cae'r Gromlech)

ETYMOLOGY: (cae = field) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (cromlech = cromlech) ((the) field (of) the cromlech)


Caergybi kair GƏ bi (feminine noun)
Town in the county of Ynys Mn. English name: Holyhead

ETYMOLOGY: Cybis stronghold (caer = fortress, stronghold) + soft mutation + (Cybi name of a Celtic saint)

Caerlleon kair-lh-on feminine noun
See Caerllion Fawr


Caerllion kair-lh-on feminine noun
ST3390 Town in the county of Casnewydd. (The English name is Caerleon)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) fort (of the) legion
(caer = Roman fort) + soft mutation + (llion = legion) > *Caerlion > Caerllion (soft mutation annulled, r-l)
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)
This element is < British < Latin legion- < leginis (genitive form = of the legion)


Caerllion Fawr kair-lh-on vaur feminine noun
Chester = city in the noerth-west of England, onthe border with Wales..

Also Caerllion and Caer. A variant of Caerllion is Caerlleon

Swydd Gaerllion county of Chester, Cheshire

Swydd Gaer county of Chester, Cheshire

Sir Gaer (colloquial) county of Chester, Cheshire

Penri - Addoldy y Bedyddwyr - Caerlleon (sign on a Welsh chapel in the city of Chester) (Penri (name of a Puritan martyr, John Penry 1563-1593) - church (of) the Baptists - Chester)

ETYMOLOGY: Great(er) Caerllion, Caerllion Magna to distinguish it from the place also called Caerllion which is in South-east Wales.

(Caerllion) + soft mutation + (mawr = great, big).
See the entry Caerllion above

NOTE: See Caer


Caerloyw kairloi-u feminine noun
Gloucester = city in western England. Latin name: Glevum
Swydd Gaerloyw ((the) county (of) Gloucester), Gloucestershire

ETYMOLOGY: (caer = Roman fort) + soft mutation + (Gloyw). The word gloyw means bright and was possibly the name of a stream or pool in this location an example of a place name with this element in Wales is Gloywlyn bright lake a lake in Llanbedr, Gwynedd


Caerlwytgoed kair-luit-goid feminine noun
Lichfield = city in central England (the original British / Roman settlement was at Wall, 3km south-west of the city centre)

ETYMOLOGY: the Roman camp at Llwytgoed (grey wood) .
caer (= fort) + soft mutation + (Llwytgoed)

Equivalent to modern Welsh Llwytgoed (llwyd = grey) + soft mutation + (coed = wood), with the devoicing of d - llwydgoed > llwytgoed - see t-g

British *lto-kt > early Welsh > Old English Lyccid, to which was added Old English feld (= field, open country)


Caer-lyr kair-LIIR feminine noun
Welsh name of Leicester in England

2 Caer-lyr (spelt Caerlyr) name of a house in Penmaen-mawr.
English name: nowadays Caerlyr Hall.

Built in around 1896 by James Allanson Picton, Christian minister, author and Liberal politician (Liverpool 8 August 1832 Caer-lyr, Dwygyfylchi 4 February 1910), Liberal M.P. for Leicester 1884-1894 (which is the reason for the name of his North Wales home). Having first entered parliament in 1884, he was reelected in 1885, 1886, and 1892. The eldest son of Sir James Allanson Picton and Sarah Pooley. His father championed the cause of the construction of a Liverpool Free Library, and the 'Picton Reading Room' is named in his honour. James the younger was noted for his passionate radical views and and his support for secularism in education.

Interestingly, he opposed the adoption of the name Dwgyfylchi for the houses known as Capelulo but previously as Dwygyfylchi. Dwygyfylchi was in fact the name of the parish in which they were situated.

In 1907 it was suggested at a Council Meeting that Capelulo Post Office be changed to Dwygyfylchi Post Office, but Dr. Picton of Caerlyr and twenty eight residents protested against the change and none was made.

Author not stated; from the Penmaenmawr Historical Society Booklet
1978 on the Penmaenmawr and Dwygyfylchi Website


Caernarfon kair-NAR-von feminine noun
town in Gwynedd

ETYMOLOGY: Caer yn Arfon (the place called) Caer (which is) in (the kntrev of) Arfon

Caer usually denotes a Roman fortification, and in this case it is the Roman fort of Segontium.

Arfon is the kntrev facing the island of Mn / Anglesey (opposite Mn) (ar prefix = opposite, facing) + soft mutation + (Mn = name of the island).

The structure of the name is slightly unusual, resembling ecclesiastical names with a distinguishing tag which often is the name of the district (whether a kntrev or kmmud) in which they are situated

Llanfair ym Muallt, in Powys, originally Llanfair ym Muellt, the Llanfair which is in the kntrev of Buellt

Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch lhan-rhei-adr ə nghin-meirkh, in the county of Dinbych. SJ0863 the place called Llanrhaeadr which is the kmmud of Cinmeirch (in medieval times, Ceinmeirch).

Caer does not seem to be qualified usually by district names, but by

..a/ personal names (Caereinion, Caer-sŵs, Caerffili, Caergybi),

..b/ a river name in Caer-dydd, called Cardiff by English-speakers, from Caer-dyf (caer + river Taf),

..c/ or a nearby feature Caerfyrddin (Carmarthen), (caer + Myrddin, from a British name Moridunon, sea-fort, a native hilltop fort overlooking the Tywi estuary of the time).

There is though the case of Caer-went (fort of the kingdom of Gwent), the old Roman town of Venta Silurum, market of the Silurian people.

The kingdom of Gwent takes its name from Venta Silurum Latin venta becoming Welsh
gwent. It is possible thought that it means rather Caer (at the place known as Gwent, formerly Venta).

Sometimes there are examples in the 1800s of a more etymological spelling of Caernarfon (but repsresenting a conscious effort to spell the name in full rather than any existing spoken form), that is, by spelling out the preposition
yn in full for example, p.346, Y Gwiliedydd, 1836:

Cofiant Byr am Griffith Williams, Bardd, Braichtalog, Sir Gaerynarfon.
Short Obituary of Griffith Williams, Poet, Braichtalog, county of Caernarfon, spelt as Caer yn Arfon

NOTE: Colloquial pronunciations are

Cyrnarfon kər-NAR-von,

Cynarfon kə-NAR-von,

Cnarfon KNAR-von;

and with metathesis Cnafron KNAV-ron


Caersalem kair- saa-lem

1 Jerusalem

2 name of a Calvanistic Methodist chapel in Y Fflint

ETYMOLOGY: (city (of) Salem or city (of) peace)
(caer = city) + (Salem, final element of Jerusalem, traditionally supposed to mean peace)
The first element jeru- was understood as meaning cityand translated into Welsh as such)

In Hebrew it is Yerushalyim

Whatever the true derivation of the name Jerusalem is, it was interpreted in the 1800s as being jeru (= city) and salem (= peace)

Psalm 76 calls Jerusalem Salem:

Salmau 76:1 Ir Pencerdd ar Neginoth, Salm neu Gn Asaff. Hynod yw DUW yn Jwda; mawr yw ei enw ef yn Israel. (76:2) Ei babell hefyd sydd yn Salem, ai drigfa yn Seion.
Psalms 76:1 To the chief Musician on Neginoth, A Psalm or Song of Asaph. In Judah is God known: his name is great in Israel. (76:2) In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.

An explanation of these verses in a Bible Concordance in Welsh, 1824:
SALM LXXVI. Hwyrach i'r Salm hon gael ei hysgrifenu pan waredwyd Jerusalem oddiwrth Senacherib. GREEN, HORSLEY. Adn. 1. Hynod yw Duw yn Judah, yr oedd efe yn adnabyddus yn mysg yr Iuddewon, i'r rhai yr oedd efe yn arfer ei ddatguddio ei hun yn aml. Adn. 2. Yn Salem, hen enw Jebus, a alwyd wedi hyny Jerusalem. A. CLARKE. Arwyddocad yr enw yw dinas heddwch, ac e dybiodd rhai fod yr enw hwn wedi ei roddi ar y ddinas yma am mai yma yr oedd cymmod i gael ei wneuthur trwy waed y groes. DAVIDSON, BOOTHROYD.
Esboniad ar y Beibl Sanctaidd, Owen Jones, Wyddgrug, 1840
SALM LXXVI. Maybe this Psalm was written when Jerusalem was delivered from Senacherib. GREEN, HORSLEY. Verse. 1. God was manifest in Judah, he was known among the Jews, to whom he would reveal himself frequently. Verse 2. In Salem, the old name of Jebus, which was called Jerusalem After that. A. CLARKE. The meaning of the name is city of peace, and some people thought that this name was given to since it was here that the covenant was to be made through the blood of the cross. DAVIDSON, BOOTHROYD.

On the wikipedia page for Salem it is stated: In ancient times it was the name of a locality in the Near East (Palestine), and traditionally identified with Jerusalem before the name "Jerusalem" was used
Genesis 14:18 Melchisedec hefyd, brenin Salem, a ddug allan fara a gwin; ac efe oedd offeiriad i DDUW goruchaf:
Genesis 14:18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God.

Genesis 22:14 Ac Abraham a alwodd enw y lle hwnnw JEHOFAH-jire; fel y dywedir heddiw. Ym mynydd yr ARGLWYDD y gwelir.
Genesis 22:14 And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.


Caer-wair kair WEIR (feminine noun)
A place mentioned in medieval sources and traditionally identified with Durham, England, though there are suggestions that it might refer to other places for example, Wearmouth, or Wroxeter in Shropshire.

(delwedd 7412)


Caerwedros kair WE dros (feminine noun)
place name; village in Ceredigon


Caer-went kair- went

village in the county of Mynwy, on the site of a former Roman town

ETYMOLOGY: It seems that Caer-went means

(the) caer (old Roman settlement) at the place known as Venta (in Latin and British) / Gwent (in Welsh)),

rather than

((the) (Roman-built) fort (of the kingdom of) Gwent).

It would then be of the same type as

Caerlyw (the Welsh name for Gloucester, England), (the) caer (old Roman settlement) at the place known as Glevum (Latin) / *Glevon (British), or Gloyw (in Welsh),

Caerlwytgoed (the Welsh name for Litchfield, England). (the) caer (old Roman settlement) at the place known as Letocetum (Latin) / *Letoketon (earlier *Leitokaiton) (British), or Llwytgoed (in Welsh)

(Present-day Lichfield is three miles north of the site of Letocetum. When and why the settlement moved along with its name to this different location is unknown. At the original site there is now a village called Wall SK0906.) Roman remains at Wall map

The old Roman town where Caer-went ST4690 is situated was Venta Silurum, market of the Silurian people. map, photos of Roman remains

The kingdom of Gwent takes its name from Venta Silurum Latin
venta becoming Welsh gwent.

Also of this same type (
caer + name of Romano-British town) is Caerlwytgoed, the Welsh name for Lichfield in England. (caer = Roman town) + soft mtation + (Llwytgoed)

The name comes from Leto-keto-n (Letocetum in Latin), the name of a Romano-British village at Wall, 3 miles to the south of present-day Litchfield. Llwytgoed is the modern Welsh equivalent of Leto-ket-, and which is represented by Lich- in the name Lichfield. .

NOTE: Cas-gwent, on the river Gwy, a much later name, and a shortening of Castell Gwent, certainly refers to the territory of Gwent ((Norman) castle (at the entrance to) (the kingdom of) Gwent)


Caerwrangon kair- wra -ngon
Worcester SO8454 = city in western central England

Swydd Gaerwrangon Worcestershire
saws Caerwrangon Worcester sauce

ETYMOLOGY: (caer = Roman fort) + ??


Caerwyn KEIR win (masculine noun)
mans name

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (caer = fort) + (-wyn suffix for male names, soft-mutated form of gwyn = white; fair)

Names with wyn with apparently elements from place names or geographic features: Brynwyn, Glynwyn (though this mae be based on Glyndwr in the first instance), Rhydwyn



1 street name in Ynys-hir (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (spelt as two words, Cae Siriol;
settlement names are more correctly spelt run together) pleasant field / merry field

ETYMOLOGY: y cae siriol the pleasant field / merry field
(y = definite article) + (cae = hill) + (siriol = happy / merry / cheerful / pleasant)

Settlement names and street names resembling settlement names are written together as one word, hence Cae Siriol would be the (unlikely) name of a field and Caesiriol the name of a house or street


cae tatws kae- ta -tus masculine noun
potato field

2 North Wales un yn y cae tatws ar llall yn y cae maip talk at cross-purposes; one person talking about one matter, and the other about another matter, and both believing that they are talking about the same thing; (one in the potato field and the other in the turnip field)

Mae un yn y cae tatws ar llall yn y cae maip Theyre talking at cross-purposes


kith adj
1 captive, enslaved, in servitude, controlled
Rw i'n gaeth i'r cloc y dyddiau hyn Im a slave to the clock these days

2 siaced gaeth strait-jacket = tight coat which a criminal or lunatic is made to wear to prevent or struggling or agression or escape; also gwasgod waeth

3 strict

cadw trefn gaeth ar (rywbeth) strictly control (something)
mesurau caeth, mesurau caethion strict measures in Welsh poetry
cael gorchymyn caeth i wneud rhywbeth receive strict orders to do something
Bedyddiwr Caeth Strict Baptist
rheolaeth gaeth strict control
cyfyngiad amser caeth strict time-limit

4 addicted
caeth i gyffuriau addicted to drugs
bod yn gaeth i opiwm be an opium addict
mynd yn gaeth i alcohol become an alcoholic
mynd yn gaeth ir ddiod become an alcoholic
bod yn gaeth i waith be a workaholic

5 (restricted movment) trapped, confined
bod yn gaeth ich gwely be bedridden
caeth i'r gwely confined to bed

Tra roeddwn i'n gaeth i'r gwely mi fm i'n gwrando ar y radio trwy'r dydd
While I was confined to bed I listened to the radio all day

bod yn gaeth ich tŷ be housebound; confined by illness; cooped up in the house,
not able to leave the house

caeth i'ch cartref confined to your house, housebound
bod yn gaeth ich cadair olwyn be wheelchair bound

6 ty caeth tied house, tied cottage; a house belonging to a worker's employer (usually a farmworker living in a house owned by the farmer) which must be vacated if he loses the work or retires ("captive house")

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh caeth < British *kakto- < *kapto-
From the same British root: Breton: kaezh (= poor, dear)

From the same Indoeuropean root:
Latin captus (= caught).
Compare the English words from Latin (1) captive and (2) caitiff (archaic) (= low person) < French caitif (= prisoner) < Latin captvus (= prisoner).

The Germanic word corresponding to Celtic *kapto- has given in modern German haft- : der Haft (= detention), der Hftling (= detainee, prisoner)


kaith m
PLURAL caethion keith -yon
1 (obsolete) slave, captive, serf, bondsman
Place-name element in Cricieth
(hill of the bondsmen, serfs) (crug = hill) + (caith, old plural of caeth = bondsman)

2 caeth i opiwm opium addict (m)
caethes i opiwm opium addict (f)

3 addict
caethion i gyffuriau drug addicts

ETYMOLOGY: see caeth adjective


keith es m
PLURAL caethesau keithes-ai, -e

1 female slave; female addict

ETYMOLOGY: (caeth = (male) slave) + (-es suffix for forming feminine nouns denoting people or animals)


ceith gəv -le masculine noun
(district of Dwyfor, North-west Wales) fix (eg inability to get down from a tree, cliff), predicament

bod wedi mynd i gaethgyfle end up in a blind alley, end up in a real fix

mewn caethgyfle in a fix

y caethgyfle yr oedd Ynys yr I ynddo yn ddiweddar the difficult situation that Iceland was in recently

ETYMOLOGY: (caeth = restricted) + soft mutation + ( cyfle = position, place)


caethiwed kei THI wed (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: (caethiw-, stem of caethiwo = enslave) + (-ed suffix for forming nouns)


caethiwus kei-thi-wis adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (caethiw-, stem of caethiwo = enslave) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)


caetsh, caetshus <KAICH, KAI-chis> [kaɪʧ, ˡkaɪʧɪs] (masculine noun)
caetsh adar <kaich AA-dar> [kaɪʧˡ ɑˑdar] birdcage


caewr <KEI-ur> [ˡkəɪʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL caewyr <KEI-wir> [ˡkəɪwɪr]
hedger,person who makes or maintains hedges around fields. Also plygwr, gwrychwr

2 caewr gwregys
belt fastener

ETYMOLOGY: (cae-, stem of cau = to close) + (-wr agent suffix = man)


cafall <KAA-valh> [ˡkɑˑvaɬ] masculine noun
(obsolete) horse

2 Cafall name of Arthurs dog

Cefn Carn Cafall <KEE-ven karn KAA-valh> [ˡkeˑvɛn karn ˡgɑˑvaɬ] ((the) hill (of) Carn Cafall, (the) cairn (of) Cafall)

Name of a hill in Powys (in the lower part of the county which was formerly the county of Brycheiniog).

Nowadays Carn Gafallt <karn KAA-valht> [ karn ˡgɑˑvaɬt] SN9464, where the final syllable seems to have been confused with allt (= wooded hillside), which perfectly describes its situation. Or the final t may represent an excrescent consonant occurring after final ll of which there are a few examples in Welsh dallt < deall (to understand), Gwersyllt (place name) < (older form) Gwersyll
Curiously, the same confusion has occured with the name of nearby Llanfair ym Muallt (Builth Wells), where the name of the old kntrev Buellt (= cow pasture) (
bu = cow) + soft mutation + (gwellt = grass) > buwellt > buellt, the final syllable has been misunderstood as allt. Carn Gafallt

Here is to be found one of the Marvels of Britain (Mirabilia Britanniae) according to The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) written around the year 800 and attributed to the monk Nennius.

In a stone on the summit, from the time that Arthur hunted the boar Twrch Trwyth described in the tale of Culhwch and Olwen, there is a footprint of his hound Cafall

See Ymddiriedolaeth Archaeolegol Clwyd-Powys / The Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust

ETYMOLOGY: British < Latin cbllus (= horse). (The Latin word is in fact taken from a Celtic source, said to be Galatian Celtic equus was the usual word for a horse in Latin.)


caffael 1 KAA-fail, -el verb
NOTE: nowadays this verb is in the form cael, except in some special uses, and in the traditional Welsh Bible (William Morgans 1588 translation, and the 1620 version based on this)
get, receive, find; (as a noun) finding, discovery;

Mathew 13:45 Cyffelyb yw teyrnas nefoedd i farchnatwr, yn ceisio perlau teg (13:46) Yr hwn wedi iddo gaffael un perl gwerthfawr, a aeth, ac a werthodd gymaint oll ag a feddai, ai prynodd ef
Matthew 13:45 The kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seekly goodly pearls (13:46) Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it

Gŵyl Caffael y Groes ((the) festival (of) (the) finding (of) the cross) the Invention of the Cross, a Christian festival held on May 3 to commemorate the discovery in Jerusalem in AD 326 by Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, of what was alleged to be the true cross

2 Law caffael merched i buteinio procure girls for prostitution

3 (masculine noun) acquisition, gain, take
Yr oedd yr offerynau a arferid i gloddio am aur yn gyffredin ac anhylaw iawn; ac mae yn debyg nad oeddid yn casglu hanner y mŵn or tir, o eisieu offerynau cyfaddas. Y caffael, at ei gilydd, a gyfrifid o wns i ddwy y dydd i bob dyn. (Y Traethodydd 1851, t. 351)
The tools which were used to dig for gold were very ordinary and unsuited to the task; and it is likely that half of the ore from the earth was not collected, for want of adequate tools. The take, in all, was calcuated to be between one and two ounces per day for each man


caffael 2 KAA-fail, -el participle adjective
found; plentyn caffael foundling, a child which is found abandoned and whose parents are unknown;
History ysbyty plant caffael foundling hospital, institution where foundlings are cared for

2 imiwnedd caffael acquired immunity
caffael- (= found, obtained, acquired), root of the verb-noun caffael (= get, obtain, acquire, find) In some cases in Welsh, the root and the verbnoun are identical. The root can be used as a past participle.

3 anghaffael breakdown
Fe gafodd fy nghar ryw anghaffael My car broke down
(an- = negative prefix) + nasal mutation + (caffael = acquisition, gain; to obtain, to get)


caffaelgar ka- feil -gar adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (caffael = obtain; it is an older form of modern Welsh cael) + (-gar, adjectival suffix indicating tendency)


caffaeliad ka-feil -yad masculine noun
PLURAL caffaeliadau ka-feil- y -de

2 Bible booty, captured goods

Eseia 49:24
A ddygir y caffaeliad oddi ar y cadarn? neu a waredir y rhai a garcherir yn gyfiawn?
Cf. Y Beibl Cymraeg Newydd / The New Welsh Bible 1988, where caffaeliad is not used:
A ddygir ysbail oddi ar y cadarn? A ryddheir carcharor o lawr gormeswr?)
Isaiah 49:24
Shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive delivered?

3 Bible caffaeliad golwg recovery of eyesight, restoration of eyesight

Luc 4:18
i bregethu gollyngdod ir caethion, a chaffaeliad golwg ir deillion, i ollwng y rhai ysig mewn hydd-deb
(Y Beibl Cymraeg Newydd: i gyhoeddi rhyddhad i garcharorion, ac adferiad golwg i ddeillion, i beri ir gorthrymedig gerdded yn rhydd)
Luke 4:18
to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised

4 advantage, help, gain; boon (something very useful or helpful)

bod yn gaffaeliad be an advantage, be advantageous

Buasai mynegai wedi bod yn gaffaeliad yn y llyfr bach hwn
An index would have been advantageous in this little book

bod yn gaffaeliad mawr i be a tremendous boon for...

Bu penodiad Cynan fel Cofiadur yn 1935 yn gaffaeliad mawr ir Orsedd
The appointment of Cynan as the Registrar in 1935 was a tremendous boon for the Gorsedd (assembly of bards)

bod yn gaffaeliad mawr / bod yn gryn gaffaeliad come in very handy

fe fyddair offeryn nan gaffaeliad mawr that tool will come in very handy

5 Law caffaeliad puteiniaid procurement (of girls for prostitution)

ETYMOLOGY: (caffael = obtain; a forerunner of modern Welsh cael = obtain) + (-iad)


caffaelwr ka-fei -lur masculine noun
PLURAL caffaelwyr ka- feil -wir
acquirer, obtainer, procurer

2 caffaelwr puteiniaid procurer, man who procures girls for prostitution

ETYMOLOGY: (caffael = obtain, in modern Welsh cael) + (-wr = man)


caffed KAA-fed verbs

(from cael) Imperative, third person singular.(Also caed)= let (somebody) get / have / find

Samuel-1 1:18 A hi a ddywedodd, Caffed dy lawforwyn ffafr yn dy olwg. Felly yr aeth y wraig iw thaith, ac a fwytaodd; ac ni bu athrist mwy
Samuel-1 1:18 And she said, Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad.

Caffed amynedd! Be patient!
(from the New Testament Caffed amynedd ei pherffaith waith = let patience have her perfect work)

Epistol Iago yr Apostol 1.4 Ond caffed amynedd ei pherffaith waith; fel y byddoch berffaith a chyfan, heb ddiffygio mewn dim.
Epistle of James the Apostle But let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing.


caffi m (pl caffis) ka fi, ka fis
(fom English {kfi} caf)


cafflo (verb) KAF lo

2 cafflo bola i daclo pen to rob Peter to pay Paul (deceive a belly to decorate a head, deceive the belly to adorn the head )


Cafflogion ka FLOG yon (feminine noun)
In north-east Wales, a medieval territory


g -fo verb
(Present Subjunctive: 3 singular) may he / she / it get, may he / she / it receive

Esmwyth hn a gaffo i fwrw ymaith ei flinder
May he have a peaceful sleep to cast off his fatigue; Glanffrwd (William Thomas 1843-1890) in his book entitled
Llanwynno (1888) in which he looks back on the people and events of his native parish, says this of Dafydd Edwards, buried in Llanwynno churchyard (page 57).


cafn KAA-van masculine noun
PLURAL cafnau KAV-nai, -e
trough = wooden trough, hollowed out of a tree trunk; stone trough, hollowed from a block of stone

feeding trough or drinking trough

cafn buarth farmyard trough
cafn bwyd feeding trough
cafn ceffyl horse trough
cafn dŵr drinking trough
cafn gwartheg concrid crwn ar ganol y cae a round concrete cattle trough in the middle of the field
cafn moch pig trough, trough for pigs to eat swill from

Genesis 30:38 Ac efe a osododd y gwiail y rhai a ddirisglasai efe, yn y cwterydd, o fewn y cafnau dyfroedd, lle y deuair praidd i yfed, ar gyfer y praidd; fel y cyfebrent pan ddelent hwy i yfed
Genesis 30:38 And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink.

kneading trough (for making bread)

cafn o wasgedd isel a trough of low pressure

5 wine-press, vat (wine-press = device used to extract juice from crushed grapes; a vat in which the juice from crushed grapes is collected).
cafn gwin wine press

melys gwin o gafn arall (sweet (is the) wine from (the) press (of) another (person))
stolen apples always taste sweeter

Job 24:11 Y rhai sydd yn gwneuthur olew o fewn eu parwydydd hwynt, ac sydd yn sathru eu cafnau gwin, ydynt sychedig
Job 24:11 Which make oil within their walls, and tread their winepresses, and suffer thirst.
gwingafn (m) gwingafnau
1 winevat
Marc 12:1 Ac efe a ddechreuodd ddywedyd wrthynt ar ddamhegion. Gŵr a blannodd winllan, ac a ddododd gae oi hamgylch, ac a gloddiodd le ir gwingafn, ac a adeiladodd dŵr, ac ai gosododd hi allan i lafurwyr, ac a aeth oddi cartref.
Mark 12:1 And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.
(gwin = wine) + soft mutation + (cafn = vat)

(delwedd 7036)

6 lander, gutter, rain trough (on roof of a building) = channel along eaves of a roof for taking away rainwater


cafn y felin the mill race

Yr oedd yr hen gafn yn ddefnyddiol i gario y dwfr i droi y felin, ond ei fod yn pydru wrth wneud hyny. (Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl.
Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 50)
The old race was useful for carrying water to turn the mill, but it became rotten as it did so (but it mouldered when doing that)

(obsolete) canal (nowadays camlas)

dug-out = boat hollowed out of a single piece of wood

(1) In this sense in the place name Tal-y-cafn (place opposite / facing the ferry boat) at a spot where there was formerly a boat carrying passengers across the river Conwy

(2) cafn Enlli a flat-bottomed boat which used to take travellers from the mainland across Swnt Enlli (English name: Bardsey Sound) from the Welsh mainland to Ynys Enlli (the island of Enlli) (English name: Bardsey Island)

soundboard of a harp

cafn tor
hollow of a hand, a cupped hand
yfed o gafn tor drink from the hollow of ones hand

valley of a roof, angle formed where two slopes of a roof meet
ceibren cafn valley rafter

scoop (of an elevator) = type of bucket

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic.

Compare these cognates in other languages:
(1) Latin scabere (= to scratch); from this comes Latin scabies (= scurf) > English scabies [skibiiz]

(2) English to shave < Old English sceafan; related to German schaben (= to scrape; to grate (carrots)

(3) Greek skaphe (= trough, basin, bowl, boat), skapt (= to dig)

NOTE: cafn is pronounced in the North as kavn, and as cafan kaa-van in the south.

Cf the pronunciation of cafn (= back) - kavn in the North, and cafan kaa-van in the south.


cafnaid kav -ned masculine noun
PLURAL cafneidiau kav-neid-ye

ETYMOLOGY: (cafn = trough) + (-aid noun suffix to indicate fullness)


cafnio kav -nyo verb
scoop out

dig out

hollow out


cross a river in a ferry boat

ETYMOLOGY: (cafn = trough) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


cafnog kav -nog adjective
concave, trough-shaped

gouged out

V-shaped, shaped like a V
to cafnog valley roof, one where the bottoms of two roof slopes meet

ETYMOLOGY: (cafn = trough) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)


cafnu kav -ni verb
see cafnio

ETYMOLOGY: (cafn = trough) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


cafnwr kav -nur masculine noun
PLURAL cafnwyr kavn-wir
boatman, man who operates a cafn

ETYMOLOGY: (cafn = trough; boat) + (-wr suffix = man)


Cai KAI (masculine noun)
1 mans name; Celtic saints name; name of a giant in Welsh mythology


caib kaib feminine noun
PLURAL ceibiau keib -ye
y gaib = the pickaxe

North Wales caib groes roadmenders pickaxe
to use a pickaxe

person who uses a pickaxe, labourer

gwaith caib a rhaw
(1) heavy manual labour (work (of) pickaxe and spade)
(2) spadework, groundwork = basic and fundamental part of a task

Y sector wirfoddol syn gwneud llawer or gwaith caib a rhaw wrth ddarparu gwasanaethau, cyngor a gofal i bobl Cymru the voluntary sector does a lot of the groundwork in providing services, advice and care to the people of Wales

meddw gaib
as drunk as a lord (drunk (like a) pickaxe a pickaxe stood on its head it is likely to wobble and fall)

blwyddyn y tair caib (the year of the three pickaxes) the year 1777 (from the resemblance of the figure seven to a pickaxe)

ETYMOLOGY: Origin unknown, but probably of British origin; Scottish (Gaelic) has a similar word caibe (= spade), apparently from early Welsh


caiff kaif verb
see cael; Present Indicative: third-person singular, present-future; he / she / it will get, will receive;

fei caiff hi! hes in for it! hell cop it! (said of somebody who does something risky or illegal which is bound to result in failure or punishment)


caill kailh masculine noun
PLURAL ceilliau keilh -ye

Wil wal waliog (a local name for a cormorant)
Twll tin ceiliog,
Coc dryw bach,
A cheilliau sgwarnog

(Childrens rhyme, Llan-rŵst, in Llafar Gwlad 9 Haf 1985)

Wil wal waliog (= cormorant) (Wil = William) (wal waliog meaningless words)
(the) arse hole (of a) rooster / cock
(the) cock (of a) little wren
And (the) testicles (of a) hare

ungaill having only one testicle
(un = un) + soft mutation + (caill = testicle)

ceillgwd scrotum testicle-bag
(ceill- penult form of caill = testicle) + soft mutation + ( cwd = bag)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh caill < ceill < British
From the same British root: Cornish kell (= testicle), Breton kell (= testicle)

From the same Indoeuropean root: Latin calculus (= small stone, pebble; stone used in reckoning) < (calc-, stem of calx = stone) + (-ulus diminutive suffix)


cain kain
(obsolete) ridge, back, hill

(Place-names) Cinmeirch <KIN-meirkh> [ˡkɪnməɪrx]

Cinmeirch < Cinmeirch < Ceinmirch < cein y meirch (the) ridge (of) the horses
(cein, an older form of cain = back, ridge; in modern Welsh, a monosyllable has ai instead of the older ei, but if ei occurred in a penult syllable it remained unchanged) + (y definite article) + (meirch = horses, plural of march = horse).

Cinmeirch occurs in a tag in the village name Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch SJ0863 yr eglwys / the church

((the) Llanrhaeadr (which is) in (the cwmwd / kmmud / district) (called) Cinmeirch).
4km south-east of Dinbych on the road to Rhuthun.
(Llanrhaeadr is church (by the) waterfall)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British kebno- or kemno-
Cornish kein (= back), Breton kein (= back)


Cain kain
river name

Afon Cain the river Cain

2 Mechain (the) plain (of) (the river) Cain < *Mechein < *Ma-chein
(ma = plain) + spirant mutation + (Cein, the older form of Cain river name)

The diphthong ei in the final syllable altered the vowel of the penult a > e (vowel affection)

Llanfechain a village on Afon Cain. church (of the area called) Mechain (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Mechain, division (kantrev) of the country of Powys Wenwynwyn).

but originally

Llanarmon ym Mechain (the) Llanarmon (which is) (in the kntrev of) Mechain

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

(delwedd 7509)

ETYMOLOGY: cain (= beautiful); but possibly a personal name otherwise Afon Gain would be expected, but the river name is Afon Cain, with no soft mutation.

As a saints name it occurs in Llan-gain (church and parish three miles from Caerfyrddin, on the northern bank of the river Tywi in Caerfyrddin county)


cainc, ceinciau, cangau KAINGK, KEINGK ye, KA nge (feminine noun)
1 branch
Yr oedd y blagur yn dechrau dangos ar gangau'r coed,
The blossoms were beginning to show on the branches of the trees

2 tune, melody
canu ei hoff gainc
be on his hobby horse, be going on and on about something
cainc delyn a harp melody

Cainc Llafihangel Ystrad (Cainc Llanvihangel Ystrad) The Tune of Llanvihangel Dale
Cainc y Cathreiwr
The Ox-drivers Tune
Cainc Llywelyn Llywelyns Strain
Cainc yr Aradwr
The Ploughmans Tune
Cainc Pont y Ty^ Pridd (Cainc Pont y Ty Pridd) The Bridge of Ty Pridd Tune
Cainc yr Odryddes The Milkmaids Song
Folk tune names mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830), with English translations appended as they appear in the magazine

3 a division of the Mabinogi
Pedair Cainc y Mabinogi the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, the Four Tales of the Mabinogi
yn y Bedwaredd Gainc in the fourth tale, in the fourth branch

4 ply = one of strands twisted together in making rope or yarn
y gainc = the ply

teircainc of three strands, having three strands or threads
(teir- penult form of tair = three femenine form) + (cainc = strand, feminine noun)

rhaff deircainc three-strand rope, rope made of three strands

5 (North Wales) knot in wood

6 (Electricity) a spur (in wiring)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *kank-
From the same Celtic root: Irish gag (= branch), cachta (= plough)
Castilian gancho, Portuguese gancho (= hook; originally crookd branch) are possibly of Celtic origin


cais, ceisiau KAIS, KEI she (masculine noun)
application (for a job)
gwneud cais am swydd apply for a job

try, attempt

ar gais taer rhywun at the urgent request of


cal kaal
1 southern form of cael (= to get)
Usually spelt (less correctly) cl
See aa / caal


..1 cala
ka -la masculine noun
PLURAL caliau
kal -ye
(South Wales) penis, membrum virile

cala chodiad arno erect penis ((a) penis with (a) erection on it )
blaen cala glans (top (of) penis)

(South-east Wales) calar gwcw (Arum maculatum) cuckoo pint, Lords-and-Ladies (the) penis (of) the cuckoo).

The standard name is pidyn y gog (which in fact is the northern form, with the same meaning - (the) penis (of) the cuckoo) (
pidyn = penis) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + cog (= cuckoo)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kalg- Celtic < Indoeuropean *qel

From the same British root: Cornish kal < kalgh (= penis), Breton kalch (= penis) Breton
From the same Celtic root: Irish colg (= sword, tip of sword, awn of barley)

NOTE: Also: cal


..2 cala (calaf), calafau KA la, ka LA ve (feminine noun)
stalk (of a plant)


calan k -lan masculine noun
PLURAL calannau ka-la-ne
first day of the month

Calan Mai
= the first of May, May Day. (calend (of) May). See the separate entry

Calan Gaeaf = the first of November. ("Calend (of) winter"). The colloquial form is Clyngaea kləng-gei-a or Glangaea glang-gei-a.
See the separate entry

Calan Awst
August the first, a feastday commemorating the miraculous deliverance of Peter from prison; formerly also a harvest festival.
In the centre of the town of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen there is a street called Heol Awst
(street (of) (the feastday of) (the first day of) August).
The English name is Lammas Street (lammas is loaf + (religious) mass, i.e. the harvest festival).

Y Calan
= (USA: New Years) (Englandic: New Year) (the calend)
Nos Galan New Years Eve, 31 December ((the) night (of) (the) calend)
Dydd Calan New Years Day, 1 January ((the) day (of) (the) calend)
parti Calan a New Year party
canu clychaur Calan ring in the New Year

Y Calan
(adverb) (USA: at New Years) (Englandic: on New Years Day)
In the saying about the lengthening day after the winter solstice:

Awr fawr Calan, dwy Wyl Eilian, tair Wyl Fair
big hour (on) the calend (awr fawr y Calan), two on Eilians feastday, and three on Marys feastday
that is, the day will have lengthened a full hour by New Years Day (Y Calan) on January the first, (half an hour in the morning a half an hour in the evening), two hours on Eilians feastday (Gwyl Eilian) on January the thirteenth, and three hours by Lady Day (Gwyl Fair) on February the second

fore Calan
(adverb) on the morning of New Years Day
y rhaglen fore Calan the programme on the morning of New Years Day

New-Year gift (to children as a reward for singing New-Year carols).
See the separate entry

calendar = printed sheet(s) with the year tabulated according to days, weeks and months.
See the separate entry

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin calandae, word related to calre (= proclaim).
Cf English to call


Calan Gaeaf ka-lan gei-a masculine noun
First Day of Winter in pre-Christian times (day following the first new moon of the winter season). The year was divided into two seasons, winter and summer, each lasting half a year. The first day of summer was Calan Haf, on the day following the first new moon of the summer season) (nowadays Calan Mai, celebrated on May 1)

2 This celebration (
Calan Gaeaf) was Christianised, and celebrated on 1 November. In England this is All Saints' Day (also called All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas)

3 Formerly it referred to All Saints Day Old Style, now November 12.

2 Following the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750 in the London Parliament, in September 1752 England and its colonies (but not Scotland) changed to the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar.
The reform of the calendar in 1752 by the elimination of eleven days, led to the English Calendar Riots of the same year and the cry of Give us back our eleven days! by protestors believing that there existence on earth has been shortened by that amount.
It meant in effect that October the twenty-first was now All Saints Day, the first of November. This October the twenty-first / November the first became known in English as the first of November New Style.
November the twelfth was All Saints Day Old Style, called in Welsh Hen Galan Gaeaf (= old Calan Gaeaf).
In certain areas of Wales Calan Gaeaf was celebrated according to the Old Style calendar, on the twelfth.

4 Nos Galan Gaeaf Halloween (the) night (preceding) Calan Gaeaf

(nos = night) + soft mutation + (Calan Gaeaf). There is soft mutation after nos in names of days (e.g. Gwener = Venus, nos Wener Friday night), though here nos is the night of the same day.

ETYMOLOGY: (the) calend (of) (the) (winter) (calan = calend) + (gaeaf = winter)
Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish Kalann Gwav (= Halloween), Breton kala-goav (= Halloween).

NOTE: Celtic Religion in Pre-Christian Times / Author: Edward Anwyl / Year 1903 / p.66: For the Celt the year began in November, so that its second half-year commenced with the first of May. The idea to which Csar refers, that the Gauls believed themselves descended from Dis, the god of the lower world, and began the year with the night, counting their time not by days but by nights, points in the same direction, namely that the darkness of the earth had a greater hold on the mind than the brightness of the sky. The Welsh terms for a week and a fortnight, wythnos (eight nights) and pythefnos (fifteen nights) respectively confirm Csars statement.


..a/ gaeaf colloquially is gaea (a final v in a polysyllabic word is lost in colloquial Welsh)

..b/ in the pre-pretonic syllable, colloquially there is a reduction of the sequence (c) + (vowel) + (l) though the loss of the vowel

Calan Gaeaf > Clangaea / Clangaea

There are colloquial forms which are a further development of this
..c/ Clyngaea kləng-gei-a (change of the vowel of the tonic syllable a > y) (an occasional feature in spoken Welsh)

..d/ Glangaea glang-gei-a (the soft mutation is probably the result of the influence of Nos Galan Gaeaf / Nos Glangaea, Nos Glangaea (= the eve of All Saints, Halloween)


Calan Haf KAA-lan HAAV masculine noun
First Day of Summer in pre-Christian times (day following the first new moon of the summer season). The year was divided into two seasons, winter and summer, each lasting half a year.) Equivalent to the Irish L Bealtaine, in English Beltain, which was formerly celebrated with bonfires on the hills

The first day of winter was Calan Gaeaf, on the day following the first new moon of the summer season.

2 the first of May, May Day. In this sense, usually Calan Mai (qv)


Calan Mai k-lan mai masculine noun
first of May, May Day.
Noswyl Calan Mai May Eve, Eve of May Day, Walpurgis Night (April 30)

galan Mai on May Day (adverbial phrases have soft mutation of the initial consonant of the first element if the consonant is mutable)

Galan Mai
cynhelir cystadleuaeth hynod ym mhentref Eidalaidd Portmeirion
i ddarganfod Merch Gryfaf Cymru
On May Day an unusual competition will be held in the Italiate village of Portmeirion t discover Waless Strongest Woman

Ar Galan Mai ers talwm byddai'n arferiad addurno bedwen dal a dawnsio o'i
On May Day / every May Day in the past it was the custom to decorate a tall birch tree and to dance around it

Following the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750 in the London Parliament, in September 1752 England and its colonies (but not Scotland) changed to the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar .
The reform of the calendar in 1752 by the elimination of eleven days, led to the English Calendar Riots of the same year and the cry of Give us back our eleven days! by protestors believing that there existence on earth has been shortened by that amount.
It meant in effect that April the twentieth was now May Day, the first of May. This April the twentieth / May the first became known in English as the first of May New Style.
May the twelfth was May Day Old Style, called in Welsh Hen Galan Mai (= old Calan Mai). May Day customs continued to be observed on the real Calan Mai.

first day of the Celtic summer (the six months until Calan Gaeaf, November 1); Beltane; formerly celebrated with bonfires on the hills

ETYMOLOGY: (the) calend (of) (May) (calan = calend) + (Mai = May)
Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish Kala Mae (= May Day), Breton kala-mae (= May Day)

NOTE: Celtic Religion in Pre-Christian Times / Author: Edward Anwyl / Year 1903 / p.66: For the Celt the year began in November, so that its second half-year commenced with the first of May. The idea to which Csar refers, that the Gauls believed themselves descended from Dis, the god of the lower world, and began the year with the night, counting their time not by days but by nights, points in the same direction, namely that the darkness of the earth had a greater hold on the mind than the brightness of the sky. The Welsh terms for a week and a fortnight, wythnos (eight nights) and pythefnos (fifteen nights) respectively confirm Csars statement.


Colloquial forms are based on a coalesced form Calnmai, where the accent has shifted to be on the new penultimate syllable.

..b/ in the pre-pretonic syllable, colloquially there is a reduction of the sequence (c) + (vowel) + (l) though the loss of the vowel

Calnmai > Clnmai / Clnmai

In the south hte colloquial forms are

......1 Clanmai (i.e. Clnmai) KLAN-mai .

......2 Clamai (i.e. Clmai) < Clm|mai < Cln|mai KLA-mai (the n has assimilated to the following m)

......3 Clame (i.e. Clnme) < Clmai KLA-me The identification of mai with the name of the month is lost, and the diphthong ai in the final syllable is reduced to the simple vowel e, a usual sound change in the colloquial language. If this form exists in the south-east, it is Clama (south-western final e is south-easter final -a)

In the North usually with soft mutation, possible from the adverbial use of the phrase

Glma (north-west), Glme (north-east)


calch KALKH (masculine noun)
chalk, limestone
carreg galch limestone


Calfinaidd kal VII naidh -nedh (adj)

Trefnyddion Calfinaidd Calvanistic Methodists (mainly 1800s) (abbreviation: T.C.)

The abbreviation T.C., to be seen in this photo of Tarsus, an abandoned chapel in Y Penrhyn SH8517, Gwynedd

Methodistiaid Calfinaidd Calvanistic Methodists (abbreviation: C.M.)

ETYMOLOGY: (Calfin = Calvin) + (-aidd adjectival suffix)


Calchfynydd kalch VƏ nidh
1 Welsh kingdom or sub-kingdom in what is today south-east Scotland
This is probably modern day (English) Kelso / (Scots) Kelsae / (Gidhlig) Cealsach.

2 Cadrawd Calchfynydd a ruler of the district of Calchfynydd in the 500s

(delwedd 7019) Kelso

ETYMOLOGY: chalk mountain (calch = chalk) + soft mutation + (mynydd = mountain)

NOTE: In Kelso, there is a street called Chalkheugh Terrace This is chalk hill. The Chalkheugh (locally pronounced Cawkheuch) was the name for the high ground by the river Tweed.

The Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland: A Survey of Scottish Topography, Statistical, Biographical and Historical, 1882-1885, edited by Francis H. Groome.
The Chalkheugh is described as a precipitous bank with strata of gypsum cropping to the surface

Statistical Accounts of Scotland, 1791-1799, page 584. (The Will of Colonel Stephen Bromfield)
Kelso is probably derived from the word Calx. This conjecture seems the more probable, from an eminence on the Tweed side, on which part of the town stands. This height is called the Chalk-heugh, or Calchow, one of the ancient names of the town, and contains a great quantity of Gypsum, and other calcareous matters; all which, in the Celtic language, were denominated Kelk, hence Kelkon; and the Monks denominated the seal of the ancient monastery, Sigillum Monasterii de Calco. This eminence (the Chalkheugh) also affords a delightful prospect, which, by some, is thought to eclipse that from the bridge.

The Monastic Annals of Teviotdale. Or, The History and Antiquities of the Abbeys of Jedburgh, Kelso, Melros, and Dryburgh. Edinburgh 1832. Reverend James Morton.
HISTORY OF THE TOWN AND ABBEY OF KELSO. The Town of Kelso is situated in the parish of the same name, in Roxburghshire, on the north bank of the river Tweed, opposite its junction with the Teviot, about twenty-three miles from Berwick, where that river flows into the sea. Its name is evidently derived from Chalkheugh*, the name of a remarkable cliff overhanging the Tweed, on the summit of which part of the town is built. This cliff is so called from its containing veins of gypsum, and other calcareous earths, which were visible in its sides before the year 1810, when the river, in its impetuous floods, threatening to undermine it, it was cut down into terraces and sloping gardens, and defended from the stream by a strong wall. This etymology may be distinctly traced in the various forms in which the name appears in ancient records, where it is written Kalkhow, Kelquou, Calco, Calchou, Calcheowe, and Kellesowe. The earliest mention of it is at the time of the founding of its monastery, in 1128, when it appears, from the charter of the royal founder, that there was then a church called " the church of the blessed Virgin Mary, on the bank of the river Tuede, in the place which is called Calkou."

* Locally pronounced " Cawkheucli." Calch, in the ancient British language, and Cealc, in the Anglo-Saxon, like the Latin Calx, signify chalk. How, in Anglo-Saxon and old Scots, and Heugh, in modern Scots, " a hill, or height." CHALMERS'S Caledonia.


caled KAA led (adjective)

gwargaled stubborn, stiffnecked
(gwar = nape of neck ) + soft mutation + (caled = hard)

Exodus 32:9 Yr ARGLWYDD hefyd a ddywedodd wrth Moses, Gwelais y bobl hyn; ac wele, pobl wargaled ydynt
Exodus 32:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people

(question) hard, difficult to answer
Dyna un galed i ti Heres a hard one for you

Ni thorrir asgwrn gan air caled Hard words break no bones (a bone is not broken by a hard word)

bod cyn galeted ag einion be very obstinate (as hard as an anvil)

(in names of streams) strong, swift-flowing

..a/ Cledan < Caledan (caled) + (-an diminutive suffix added to adjectives)

..b/ Cletwr < Caled-ddwr (caled + soft mutation + (dŵr = water; stream)

..c/ Ffrwd Galed strong stream
(ffrwd = hillside stream) + soft mutation + (caled = hard; strong, swift-flowing)
Ffrwdgaled street name in Tregarth, Bangor (county of Gwynedd) (Ffrwd Galed)

Tircalad This house name was noted by John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in his 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)

TIR-CALAD (the hard land.) A free tenement in the parish of Roath and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.) A ruined house and land named in the Heath Enclosure Award of 1809. In 1840 it was called Coed Tir Caled, hard-land wood.

y tir caled (y definite article) + (tir = land) + (caled = hard).
In the south-east an e in the final syllable becomes > a, hence caled > calad

llafur caled (punishment) hard labour

9 llain galed motorway hard shoulder

10 gweithion galed to work hard
ymdrechun galed try hard
This use of caled is an imitation of English. A more genuine Welsh from would be yn ddygn [n DHII-gin] (informal spelling: yn ddygyn) (earnestly, unstintingly, diligently)

ETYMOLOGY: Breton kalet (= hard)
Gaulish Caleti, Caletes
Celtic *kalet-os
Related to Latin callus (= hard skin)

caleden ka- l -den feminine noun
PLURAL caledennau ka-la- de -ne
callus skin which is thick or hard as a result of constant friction (as on the sole of the foot)
y galeden
= the callus

ETYMOLOGY: (caled = hard) + (-en suffix for forming nouns)
From the same British root: Breton kaledenn (= corn on foot)


Caledan ka- l -dan
SO5013 stream by Llaneuddogwy; also the name of a village south of Llaneuddogwy and this stream

SO5203 Rhaeadr Caledan translation of Cleddon Falls

ETYMOLOGY: (caled = hard; forceful (of flowing water)) + (-an diminutive suffix) > caledan > cledan / cledan > cledon (o replacing a).

Cf (yn) wastad (= constantly) > South Wales wastod, where o has replaced a in the final syllsable

The stream in mentioned in Llyfr Llan-daf / The Book of Llandaff c. 1125, spelt as Caletan (though the t represents the sound <d> [d] in the spelling of the time, that is, Caledan


caledffrwd ka-LET-frud [kaˡlɛtfrʊd] (f)
see caletffrwd

Caledfwlch ka- led -vulkh [kaˡlɛdvʊlx] masculine noun
(mythology) name of Arthurs sword

This Welsh name is the origin of the somewhat distorted Latin form Caliburnus, which in turn is the origin of the English name Excalibur

ETYMOLOGY: (weapon of) hard slashing / cutting, hard thruster, hard cleaver, etc
(caled = hard) + soft mutation + (bwlch = cut, gap, breach)


caledfyd ka- led -vid [kaˡlɛdvɪd] masculine noun
hardship, deprivation

ETYMOLOGY: (caled = hard) + soft mutation + (byd = world, situation, condition)


calediad ka- led -vid [kaˡlɛdvɪd] masculine noun

PLURAL calediadau
ka-led-YAA-dai -e [kalɛdˡjɑˑdaɪ -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: (caled = hard) + (-i-ad noun suffix)

1 the devoicing of a voiced consonant

2 (In reference to Y Wenhwyseg, i.e. Gwentian or South-eastern Welsh) the devoicing of a voiced consonant at the head of a final syllable, as in doti instead of dodi (= to put)


caletaf (caleta, cleta) ka LE ta [kaˡlɛtav, kaˡlɛta, ˡklɛta] (adjective)


caletach (cletach) ka LE takh (adjective)

caletffrwd ka-LET-frud [kaˡlɛtfrʊd] (f)
hillside stream with a violent flow of water

Caletffwrdd (Caledffwrdd) stream flowing through Clwt-y-bont and Brynrefail into Afon Rhythallt map

ETYMOLOGY: hard torrent (caled = hard) + (ffrwd = torrent, hillside stream) > caled-ffrwd > caletffrwd (d-ff > t-ff)


caletir ka-LE-tir [kaˡlɛtɪr] feminine noun

PLURAL caletiroedd ka-le-TII-roidh, -odh [kalɛˡtiˑrɔɪ, -ɔ]
hard stony ground

2 hardpan = a hardened soil horizon, often through the presence of a cementing material

caletir haearn iron pan = hardened soil in which the main cementing material is iron oxide

ETYMOLOGY: hard ground (caled = hard) + soft mutation + (tir = land, ground) > *caled-dir > caletir (d-d > t)


caletsen ka-LET-sen [kaˡlɛtsan] feminine noun
(South-east Wales) old crone, hard-faced old woman

ETYMOLOGY: caletsen < caledsen (caled = hard) + (-sen, suffix; in imitation of mursen = prudish woman)


caletsythder ka-let- səth -der [kalɛtˡsəθdɛr] masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (caled = hard) + (sythder = rigidity, straightness) > caled-sythder > calet-sythder / caletsythder

In compound words, a final d becomes t before s.
Compare dyletswydd = duty
(dyled = duty, swydd = function)
and other words of the type: cytsain (= consonant), cytser (= constellation)


Caletwr ka-LE-tur [kaˡlɛtʊr] masculine noun
stream / river name

..a/ Afon Caletwr river flowing into Afon Conwy north-east of Ysbyty-ifan Afon Caletwr

Pont Caletwr (the) bridge (over) (Afon) Caletwr. Name of a bridge near the confluence. On Ordnance Survey map wrongly spelt as Pont Caletwyr.


..b/ Afon Caletwr river flowing into Afon Dyfrdwy SH9735 east of Y Bala SH9735 Aber Caletwr SH9934 Afon Caletwr


c/ Afon Cletwr

name of a river by Erwyd (Powys)
Here there is a farm called Maescletwr (field by the river Cletwr) Erwyd

Crickadarn.... The river Clettwr rushes over rocks and through craggy
places until it falls into the Wye at Erwood.
The Place-Names of Wales. / Thomas Morgan (Skewen) / 1912


Rivers called Calder in England seem to be this same name:

River Calder (Cumbria). Rises at Lankrigg Moss and flows southwards and falls into the Irish Sea.

River Calder (West Yorkshire). Rises in the Pennines, and flows into the River Aire near Castleford.

River Calder (Lancashire) Rises near Fiendsdale Head and flows into the Wyre at Catterall, near Garstang.

River Calder (Lancashire) Rises by Burnley

ETYMOLOGY: (caled = hard) + soft mutation + (dw^r = water) > *caled-ddwr > caletwr (d-dd > t)
(hard water i.e., strong-flowing
stream, rushing stream, violent stream)

Also found as cletwr < cletwr < caletwr
NOTE: An (incorrect) spelling used on English-language maps is Clettwr


call kalh [kaɬ] adjective

NOTE: (South Wales) The colloquial form has a long vowel cāll kaalh [kaːɬ] (the majority of monosyllables with final ll final have a lengthened vowel in the South)

1 wise, sensible, shrewd, prudent = able to discern, to make sensible decisions; as a noun wise person, wise man, wise woman

Call pob ffl tra tawo (saying) - Fools appear wise until they speak (literally (it is) wise every fool while (he) keeps quiet)

Maer callan colli weithiau - Even the wisest make mistakes sometimes (literally the wisest lose (their judgement) sometimes);

also Maer calla weithiaun colli

Y calla dawo Enough said, Its best not to mention it (the wisest may he be silent): Usually said without the definite article: Calla dawo / Calla dawo

Tawed y calla Enough said (let the wisest be silent)

Gair i gall Enough said (a (single) word to a wise man (is sufficient))

sane = having ones full mental capacities; compos mentis, of sound mind
In negative phrases to indicate foolishness, stupidity:

(a) Dyw e ddim yn gall - Hes out of his mind (literally hes not sensible)

(b) Wyt tin gall? - Have you gone mad? (literally are you sensible?)

(c) hanner call daft (literally half sensible) In South Wales the colloquial form is narcall nar-kalh < hanercall < hanner call

(d) hanner call a dwl daft (literally half sensible and dull), or simply hanner call

yn gall
adverb sensibly, judiciously
Siarad yn gall, ddyn, neu cau dy geg - either talk sense or shut up
(literally talk sensibly, man, or shut your mouth)

call a ffl
= both the wise and the stupid
pob call o ben anybody in his right mind

wise = showing that prudence has been used, or the existence of the ability to make sensible choices

intelligent, clever
Mae en gallach or hanner nai frawd
Hes a lot more intelligent than his brother
(literally hes more intelligent from the half / by half than his brother)

sensible = that makes sense, not gibberish

8 cyfrwysgall crafty, wily, cunning
(cyfrwys = wily, cunning) + soft mutation + ( call = sensible)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British.
If not from British < Celtic, then it is British < Latin cald(us) < callidus (= astute, clever).
Cf Cornish kall (= cunning), from the same British root.


Calla dawo ka-lha dau -o
1 Best not to mention it, The least said the better, Enough said

ETYMOLOGY: calla dawo / calla dawo < y callaf a dawo (it-is) the wisest that might-keep-silent

(y definite article) + (callaf, superlative form of call = wise) + (a relative pronoun, who, that) + soft mutation + (tawo = he might keep silent, third person singular subjunctive of tewi to keep silent, to become silent)


ka -lhor masculine noun
PLURAL callorau
ka- lho -re

Hafodygallor former name in Rhiwabon; survives simply as Hafod
Probably (the) summer place (of) the cauldron
(Noted in HAFOD and HAFOTY in Welsh Place-names / Melville Richards)

ETYMOLOGY: callor < callawr < Latin caldr-ia (= hot bath; cauldron) < calidus (= warm)

Corresponding words in the other British languages:
Cornish kaltor (= kettle),
Breton kaoter (= cooking pot)

Cf English cauldron < French < Latin caldr-ium (= hot bath; hot bathing room)

NOTE: also occurs as a feminine noun: y gallor


calon, calonau KA lon, ka LO ne (feminine noun)
y galon = the heart
calon garreg a heart of stone

wrth fodd eich calon
extremely satisfying after one's own heart, exactly as desired (at the satisfaction of your heart)

gwneud gwaith sydd wrth fodd eu calon do a job which is his hearts desire

Dyn wrth fodd fy nghalon yw e Hes a man after my own heart (= hes the kind o man that I like)

agor eich calon i unbosom yourself to, unburden yourself to

bod yn biti o galon gennych dros... feel really sorry for / feel extremely sorry for

Cwn dy galon! Cheer up! (Lift-up / raise your heart)

calon afal apple core

ch holl galon wholeheartedly

Calon Drom (a) heavy heart Folk tune name mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). English name appended: Heavy Heart


calonnog ka LO nog (adjective)
yn galonnog wholeheartedly


calonogi ka lo NO gi (verb)

ETYMOLOGY: (calonog- < calonnog = hearty) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)


calonogol ka lo NO gol (adjective)

ETYMOLOGY: (calonog- < calonnog = hearty) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


calonrwygol ka-lon- rui -gol

ETYMOLOGY: (calon = heart) + soft mutation + (rhwyg- stem of rhwygo = to tear apart, to rip) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


calsiwm KALS yum (masculine noun)


calyn ka -lin verb
(North Wales)
to go out with, to date
See canlyn


cam, camau KAM, KA me (m)
pace, step

o gam i gam
o GAM i GAM step by step

ni + rhoi cam o'i le not put a foot wrong, not make a mistake ("not put a step (out) of its place")


cam, ceimion KAM, KEIM-yon (adjective)
wrong, false; twisted, bent, crookd

bwyell gam
adz (Englandic: adze) = tool for shaping wood
(bwyell = axe) + soft mutation + (cam = crookd)

2 squinting
Hen Ifan Gam A folk tune name mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). Translated as Old Squinting Evan

gwargam stooped, stooping, with head and shoulders bent forward
(gwar = nape of neck ) + soft mutation + (cam = crookd)

guir-gam crookd, bent; not vertical, slanting
(gŵyr = crookd, bent, askew, slanting) + soft mutation + (cam = crookd, bent)

adfeilion aflr yr hen wrychoedd gŵyrgeimion
the untidy remains of the old bent hedges

5 gyddfgam wrynecked, with a twisted neck
(gyddf-, penult form of gwddf = neck) + soft mutation + (cam = twisted)

aderyn gyddfgam (bird) wryneck

cymryd cam ffl do something rash (take (a) foolish step)

coesgam (obsolete) bow-legged, bandy-legged (coes = leg) + soft mutation + (cam = crookd)
bergam (obsolete) bow-legged, bandy-legged (ber = leg) + soft mutation + (cam = crookd)
bongam (obsolete) bow-legged, bandy-legged (bon = bottom) + soft mutation + (cam = crookd)

helygen gam (helyg ceimion)
(Salix matsudana) contorted willow

9 in river names
..1/ Afon Camarch (SN9250) = river in the district of Brycheiniog, county of Powys

Llangamarch (SN9347) village on this river (the) church (by the river) Camarch) yr eglwys / the church

Camarch < Camfarch ((the) winding (river / stream called) March)
(cam = winding) + soft mutation + (March = stream name, literally horse)


camadeg ka MA deg (feminine noun)
inopportune moment, bad time


camallt <KAM-alht> [ˡkamaɬt]

1 crookd hill

2 Y Gamallt A hill SN9372 in Glyn Gwy / the Wye valley near Sant Harmon map

ETYMOLOGY: crookd hill (cam = crookd) + (allt = hill)

Cf camriw

ka -markh
Afon Camarch (SN9250) = river in the district of Brycheiniog, county of Powys

Llangamarch (SN9347) village on this river (the) church (by the river) Camarch) yr eglwys / the church

ETYMOLOGY: Camarch < Camfarch ((the) winding (river / stream called) March)
(cam = winding) + soft mutation + (March = stream name, literally horse)


camddeall kam-DHII-alh (verb)
efallai 'mod i'n camddeall, cofiwch I might be wrong, mind
os nad w i'n camddeall if Im not mistaken

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = wrong, mal-) + soft mutation + (deall = understand)

kam-dhe- hong-li verb

Yr oedd e wedi camddehongli cymeriad Mrs Jones. Benyw feleisus oedd hi yn y bn
He had misinterprted the character of Mrs. Jones. When it came down to it, she was a malicious woman

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = mis-, badly) + soft mutation + ( dehonglu = interpret )


kam-dje- hongl -yad masculine noun
PLURAL camddehongliadau
kam-dhe-hongl- y -de

ETYMOLOGY: (camddehongl-, stem of camddehonglu = misinterpret) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)


cam-drin kam DRIIN (verb)
mistreat, abuse

2 (noun) abuse
cam-drin rhywiol sexual abuse


camdriniaeth kam DRIN yeth (feminine noun)
mistreatment, abuse

2 camdriniaeth rywiol sexual abuse


camel, camelod KA mel, ka MEE lod (m)

Hwnnw oedd y gwelltyn olaf ar gefn y camel this was the straw that broke the camels back, this was the last straw (this was the last straw on the back of the camel)

cmera ka -me-ra masculine noun
PLURAL cameru ka-me- rai
camera = device for producing photos

camera = device for producing TV pictures

Fe fydd y cameru teledu yn ffilmior digwyddiadau
The TV cameras will film the events

cmera teledu cylch cyfyng (CTCC) closed circuit TV camera (CCTV)

(delwedd 7360) (Gorsaf Abertawe / Swansea Station, Awst 2006)
ETYMOLOGY: English camera < Latin camera (= chamber; vault) < Greek kamara


camerw kam- e -ru feminine noun
crookd acre, crookd field (of an acre)

This is apparently the origin of the street name Y Gamer in Glynceiriog (county of Dinbych) (that is, an educated guess, without having studied the history of the name of this particular place)

In field names, where erw is a final element in a compound word, the final -w (formerly a consonant, now a vowel in such words e.g. garw, derw, marw) was often lost:

pumer < pum erw (five acres), wyther < wyth erw (eight acres), etc

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = crookd) + (erw = acre) > camerw > camer


camesbonio kam-e-spon-yo verb
explain incorrectly, give an incorrect explanation,

Pentrecythraul - Mae llawer wedi camesbonio enwr pentre hwn
Pentrecythraul - many people have incorrectly explained the name of this village

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = wrong, bad) + (esbonio = explain)


camesgoriad kam-es- for -yad masculine noun
PLURAL camesgoriadau kam-es-gor-y-de
1 miscarriage, loss of a child which a woman is bearing

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = wrong, bad) + (esgoriad = giving birth)


camfa kam -va feminine noun
PLURAL camfydd, camfu kam-veidh, kam-vi
y gamfa = the stile

dal rhywun ar y gamfa catch someone in the act, catch someone with his trousers down to surprise in some illicit action or embarrassing situation ("catch (someone) on the stile", that is, crossing the stile)

cael eich dal ar y gamfa
(get your catching on the stile, be caught going over the stile) = be caught with ones trousers down, be caught unawares, be caught in the act

fe awn ni dros y gamfa yna pan ddown ni ati
well cross that bridge when we come to it, well deal with that problem in due course (we shall go over that stile when we come to it)

South-west Wales (with a change of m > n) canfa gap-filler = stakes wattled with thorns for blocking a gap in a hedge

county of Ceredigion groyne = wooden construction extending from a shore into the sea to break he force of the waves and to prevent the sea from moving sand and pebbles

ETYMOLOGY: (cam-, stem of the verb camu = to step) + (-fa, suffix = place)

NOTE: Colloquially also v > dh - camfa > camdda
Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton,

T.H. Parry-Williams, 1913

In W[elsh], however, the interchange of f and dd is quite common, especially in the dial[ect]s

One example given of the change dd > f is camfa (a stile) > camdda


camfa dro kam-va droo feminine noun
PLURAL camfydd tro cam-veidh troo
y gamfa dro = the turnstile

ETYMOLOGY: (camfa = stile) + soft mutation + (tro = turned, stem of the verb troi = to turn, used as a past participle)


camfaethiad kam-veith-yad masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (camfaeth-, stem of camfaethu = feed badly) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)


camfaethu kam-vei-thi verb
feed badly

2 malnutrition

ETYMOLOGY: cam faethu (cam = incorrect, bad) + soft mutation + (maethu = feed, nurture)


camglasgiad kam- gas -glyad nm
PLURAL camglasgiadau kam-gas-gl -de
1 erroneous conclusion
tynnu camgasgliad oddiwrth falsely conclude from (something), draw a false conclusion

ETYMOLOGY: cam glasgiad (cam = mis-, wrong, false) + soft mutation + ( casliad = conclusion)


kam-gəd- wedh -yad masculine noun
PLURAL camgydweddiadau
kam-gəd-wedd-YAA -de
false analogy

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = mis-, badly) + soft mutation + (cydweddiad = analogy)


kam-gəv- yeith -yad masculine noun
PLURAL camgyfieithiadau
kam-gəv-yeith- y -de

ETYMOLOGY: cam gyfieithiad (camgyfieith-, stem of camgyfieithu = mistranslate) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)


kam-gəv- yei -thi
(verb with an object)

ETYMOLOGY: cam gyfieithu (cam = mis-, badly) + soft mutation + ( cyfieithu = translate)


camgymeriad kam-gə-mer-yad masculine noun
PLURAL camgymeriadau kam-gə-mer-y-de
mistake, error, bloomer (USA: goof)

camgymeriad dybryd a grave error

Cred llawer y dyddiau hyn nad ywr Beibl ai neges yn perthnasol iddynt. Camgymeriad mawr ydyw hynny
Many people believe that the Bible and its message is not relevant to them. Thats a big mistake

gwneud camgymeriad rhwng
mix up, confuse (make (a) mistake between)
Rydwin credu ei bod yn gwneud camgymeriad rhwng dau fath o nionod, y nionyn Cymreig a garlleg cnydiog
I think shes mixing up two kinds, the Welsh onion and the tree onion (croppable garlic)

mewn camgymeriad
by mistake, in error (in (an) error)

ETYMOLOGY: cam gymeriad (camgymer-, stem of camgymeryd, camgymryd = take wrongly, make a mistake) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)


camgymryd kam-gəm-rid verb
make a mistake (USA: to goof)
os nad ydw in camgymeryd if Im not mistaken, if Ive heard right

camgymeryd A am B
mistake A for B, take A for B

Ildiodd y llu Ffrengig a laniodd ym Mhen-caer, Sir Benfro yn 1797 ar l camgymeryd merched lleol yn eu sioliau cochion au hetiau duon Cymreig am filwyr Seisnig
The French contingent which landed at Pen-caer in Penfro county in 1797 after mistaking the local women in their red shawls and Welsh black hats for English soldiers

ETYMOLOGY: cam gymryd (cam = mis-, wrong) + soft mutation + (cymryd = to take).
Apparently a calque on English mistake (mis- prefix = wrongly) + (take)

NOTE: Also: camgymeryd kam-gə-m-rid


Camlan kam -lan feminine noun
SH7024 Afon Gamlan river in Meirionnydd map

2 SH8511 Camlan locality in Mallwyd, Meirionnydd map

place of Arthurs death in battle according to tradition. The battle took place around the year 539 and is mentioned in the Annales Cambriae, the Annals of Wales, of which there are three versions, the earliest being a text from around the year 1100. The annals state that Medrod and Arthur were killed in the battle, but it is not clear whether they fought together as allies or against each other as enemies.

In a triawd (triad stanza which records three events, or three observations or three sayings) which notes the three needless battles of Britain (Tri Ofergad Ynys Prydain), there appears the line
...a Chamlan a ddigwyddodd oherwydd cweryl rhwng Gwenhwyfar a Gwenhwyfach
...and Camlan which happened because of a quarrel between Gwenhwyfar and Gwenhwyfach

The location of this Camlan is not known, but it is not in Wales. Suggested locations are
..1) Ryskammel / Camelford SX1083 in Cornwall,

..2) or some location in Somerset, south-west England,

..3) or Salisbury SU1430 in Wiltshire, south-west England, suggested by the English writer Thomas Malory (1405-1471), the author or compiler of Le Morte Darthur / Le Morte dArthur.

..4) or Birdoswald NY6166 on Hadrians Wall, a defensive wall built by the Romans, which is in northern England, near the border with Scotland. The site at Birdoswald was known by the Romans as Camboglanna (in origin a British name, which would be Camlan in modern Welsh).

5) The name may be a complete invention by Chretien de Troyes

(wikipedia 2008-11-25): The castle is mentioned for the first time in Chrtien de Troyes poem Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette (Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart) dating to the 1170s, though it is not mentioned in all the manuscripts. It is mentioned in passing, and is not described:

A un jor d'une Acenssion / Fu venuz de vers Carlion / Li rois Artus et tenu ot / Cort molt riche a Camaalot / Si riche com au jor estut. [

Upon a certain Ascension Day King Arthur had come from Caerleon, and had held a very magnificent court at Camelot as was fitting on such a day.

In older Welsh the proper name Camlan was used as a common noun, camlan (= intense battle). In much the same way one might say in English it was Paschendale all over again to refer to a great battle and slaughter (from the battle fought on October 30, 1917). Or Armageddon. Or The Blitz.

Cad Gamlan
the battle of Camlan (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (Camlan). (The use of mutation in such a context is characteristic of older Welsh, and a modern phrase of the same type would not have it).

In the county of Ceredigion the expression cadgamlan is used to mean (1) noise, din; (2) noisy place.

ETYMOLOGY: The Welsh places called Camlan apparently mean curved river bank (at least the present forms suggest this meaning; earlier forms may show a different

British Camboglanna (= curved river bank)
(British kambo-) + (British glanna).

Arthurs Camlan may be this compound Camboglanna, but equally it might have been some other name similar in form which Camlan has replaced.

Analysed as a Welsh name, it would be cam lan (cam = curved) + soft mutation + (glan = river bank).


camlas KAM-las feminine or masculine noun
PLURAL camlesi, camlesydd kam-LE-si, kam-LE-sidh

y gamlas the canal

arglawdd camlas a canal embankment

arglawdd y gamlas the canal embankment

camlas longau, camlesi llongau ship canal

Camlas Longau Manceinion Manchester Ship Canal
cwch camlas, cychod camlas barge

Cwrtycamlas cwrt y camlas (the) court (of) the canal, canal court
A street name in Aberhonddu / Brecon (appears as Cwrt y Camlas)

Gerycamlas ger y camlas (the) (place) near the canal,
..1/ A place in Trefaldwyn / Montgomery (Powys) (appears as Ger y Camlas)

..2/ A house name in Trefor (county of Dinbych) (appears as Ger y Camlas)

Tŷcamlas tŷ camlas < tŷr camlas (with the loss of the linking definite article) (the) house (of) the canal, canal house
A house name in Llangollen (appears as Ty Camlas)

Coedcamlas coed camlas < coed y camlas (with the loss of the linking definite article) (the) wood (of) the canal, canal wood;
A street name in Cwm-brn (Torfaen) (appears as Coed Camlas)

Cwrt Glanycamlas (Cwrt Glan y Camlas) ((the) bank / side / edge (of) the canal) place in Llangollen (Dinbych) (appears as Glanycamlas Court)

Heol y Camlas (the) street (of) the canal, canal street
A street in Gwersyllt (Wrecsam)

Tremycamlas (the) view (of) the canal, canal view
A house name in Parcygelli, Rhisga (Caerffili)
(appears as Trem Y Camlas)

2 millstream, channel

3 (possibly) river bank, riverside meadow
Y Gamlas is the name of a meadow by the Irfon river at Y Garth, in the Brycheiniog district of Powys

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = crookd) + soft mutation + (glas = stream)


camog <KA-mog> [ˡkamɔg] feminine noun
PLURAL camogau ka- m -ge
y gamog = the felloe

Llys y Gamog court of the town of Dinbych (court of the felloe)

curvature; arc, parabola

bando stick = curved stick for playing bando (game similar to hockey)

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = crookd) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)
Cf. Irish camg (= curved stick)


..1 camp, campiau KAMP, KAMP ye (masculine noun)

pencampwr pen KAM pur champion chief doer of feats

Campau Gwyr Rhufain Gesta Romanorum


..2 camp, campiau KAMP, KAMP ye (masculine noun)


..3 camp KAMP (masculine noun)
(Patagonia) Y Camp = the desert Also: Y Paith


campfa, campfydd KAMP va, kamp VEIDH (feminine noun)
gymnasium (feat place, prowess place)
y gampfa = the gymnasium


campwaith, campweithiau KAMP waith, kamp WEITH ye masculine noun


campws, campysau KAM pus, kam PƏ se (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English < Latin (campus = field)


camriw <KAM-riu> [ˡkamrɪʊ]

1 crookd slope, crookd hill

2 Y Gamriw SN8534 A farm near Babel, county of Caerfyrddin (misspelt on the map as Gam-rhiw)

3 Y Gamriw SN8534 Hill south-west of Llanwrthwl, county of Powys

ETYMOLOGY: crookd hill (cam = crookd) + soft mutation + (rhiw = slope; hill)

Cf camallt


camu KA mi (verb)
to step

2 carreg gamu stepping stone, cerrig camu stepping stones; one of a row of stones above water level in a stream or marsh each one step distant from the other for crossing from one side to the other


camweddwr cam-w-dhur masculine noun
PLURAL camweddwyr cam-wedh-wir
delinquent, wrongdoer

ETYMOLOGY: (camwedd = wrong, injustice) + (-wr, suffix = man)


kam-ə- stim -yo verb
(verb with an object) (wood) to warp

(verb without an object) to become warped

(verb with an object) disfigure, deform, distort, twist out of shape

(verb without an object) become disfigured, become deformed, become distorted, become twisted out of shape

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = wrong) + (ystumio = to deform)


camystyr kam- ə -stir masculine noun
PLURAL camystyron kam-ə- stə -ron
erroneous meaning, false meaning

Camystyr yw hwn a roes y geiriadurwr William Owen-Pughe ir gair
This is a false meaning which the lexicographer William Owen-Pughe gave to the word

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = wrong) + (ystyr = meaning)


can kan
South-east Wales

white, bright; bara can white bread

The word alcan (= tin) shows the influence of this word

Middle English alcamy (= tin) > Welsh lcami > alcam (= tin) (loss of a post-post-tonic i occurs in some words taken from English) > alcan

masculine noun:
white flour


can garw
wheatgerm (rough flour)


can- kan
original form of the preposition gan = with (in modern Welsh, many simple prepositions are soft-mutated forms gwar > war (moden Welsh ar, with the loss of the initial w), gwrth > wrth (= by); a number still have both forms in general use - tan / dan (= under), tros / dros (over), trwy / drwy (= through))

The form can appears with aspirate mutation after the conjunction a (= and) in literary Welsh a chan... (and with)

2 prefix (non-productive) = with, after
..1/ canfod (= to perceive)
.2/ canllaw (= handrail, bannister)

..3/ canlyn (= to follow)

..4/ canmol (= to praise)

..5/ cennad (f) permission, leave. Cennad was originally cannad
cannad < *canghad (can- = with) + soft mutation + (gad- stem of gado, gadael = to leave).

The vowel change a > e shows the influence of cennad (= messenger )

..6/ cynhorthwy (= help, aid, assistance)

ETYMOLOGY: British *kant-


can, caniau KAN, KAN-yai, -e (masculine noun)
can dŵr watering can


cn, caneuon kaan, ka NEI on (feminine noun)
y gn = the song

2 cn roc, caneuon roc kaan ROK, ka NEI on ROK (feminine noun)
rock song

3 Cn yr Aderyn house name, Caernarfon (the) song (of) the bird

4 erddigan er-DHII-gan (f) (obsolete) air, melody, tune, song
(erddi- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cn = song)
The intensifier erddi is a combination of the prefixes ar + di
(ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (di- intensifying prefix) > *arddi- > erddi (vowel affection final i causes change a > e in the preceding syllable)

Erddigan Caer Waun
A folk tune in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). The English name is given as The Minstrelsy of Chirk Castle.
(Chirk is the English name for Y Waun)
caer y Waun (the) castle (of) Y Waun, Chirk Castle


cnabis ka-nə-bis masculine noun
cannabis, common hemp Cannabis sativa
ystor cnabis cannabis resin, from the dried leaves and flowers
resin cnabis cannabis resin, from the dried leaves and flowers

cyffuriau cyfreithiol fel lcohol a thybaco, a rhai anghyfreithlon fel cstasi a chanabis
legal drugs like alcohol and tobacco, and illegal ones like ecstacy and cannabis

ETYMOLOGY: English cannabis < Greek kannabis


caneri, caneris ka NE ri, ka NE ris (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: English canary


canfasio kan VA sho (verb)
to canvass

ETYMOLOGY: (canfas = English to canvass) + (-io verb suffix)

kan -vod verb
1 perceive, notice

2 see
cyn belled ag y gall y llygad ganfod i bob cyfeiriad in every direction as far as the eye can see

3 discover, find out

4 canfod tir cyffredin find common ground

5 to spot, recognise
ceiso canfod to try and recognise

6 detect, find, locate

7 see, realise, become aware of

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (can- = with) + soft mutation + (bod = being, to be) < British

From the same British root: Breton kavout (= find)

The prefix
can is from the prepostion can, in modern Welsh gan, which in common with many prepositions in the modern language are soft-mutated forms of the original word


cangarw^, cangarw^od kang ga RUU, kang ga RUU od (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: English kangaroo < an Australian aboriginal language


cangen, canghennau KA ngen, ka NGHE ne (feminine noun)

branch (tree);
y gangen = the branch
canghennaur coed the branches of the trees

branch office

3 girl, maiden
O cais fy nghangen gu O seek my dear maiden, look for my dear girl (from the folk song A Ei Di'r Deryn Du? Will you go blackbird (i.e. as a love messenger for me to my sweetheart)?)

4 (North-west Wales) unpleasant woman


angen las ka-ngen laas feminine noun
canghennau las / canghennau gleision ka-nghe-ne glaas / glei-shon
(Thymallus thymallus) grayling

ETYMOLOGY: (cangen = branch) + soft mutation + (glas = green)


canghellor, cangellorion ka NGHE lhor, ka nge LHOR yon (masculine noun)


canghen ka-ngen
nineteenth-century variant spelling of cangen, no longer in use

Plaque on former chapel SN0437 near Parrog, county of Penfro: Ty Cwrdd y Mynydd / Canghen o Ebenezer / Adeiladwyd 1875
The meeting house of the upland pasture / a branch of Ebenezer (a church in Trefdraeth / Newport) / it was built 1875 plaque


canghennau ka NGHE nai, ne
branches; plural of cangen


caniad, caniadau KAN-yad, kan-YAA-dai, -e (masculine noun)

2 song

Caniadaur Cysegr (the songs of the sacred place) hymn-singing

Caniadau y Cysegr, neu bigion o Hymnau a Salmau: о gyfansoddiad gwahanol awduron, gan bwyllgor dros Gymanfa Gynulleidfaol C. N.

(Title of a book published in Remsen, New York third edition 1866)

Songs of the sacred place, or selections of hymns and psalms, composed by (of the composition of) various authors, by a committee of the C.N. (?) Congregationalist Assembly

2 caniatgar fond of singing
caniatgar < canid-gar
(caniad = singing) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, suggesting fond of, cf caru = to love)


caniadaeth kan-YAA-daith, -eth (masculine noun)
singing, hymn-singing

Caniadaeth y Cysegr hymn-singing (of) the sacred place / the chapel or church


caniatd ka ni a TAAD (masculine noun)
rhoi caniatd (i rywun) give (somebody) permission, give permission (to somebody)
cael caniatd (gan rywun) get permission (from somebody)


caniatu ka ni a TAI (verb)
to permit


caniatgar kan- yat -gar adj
1 fond of singing

ETYMOLOGY: caniatgar < canid-gar (caniad = singing) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)

Canis lupus familiaris KAA-nis LU-pus fa-mil-i-A-ris
1 domestic dog
The Welsh word for dog is ci, PLRUAL cw^n

canllyn kan -lhin
(In the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys) and in neighbouring northern Ceredigion) accompany
See: canlyn


canlyn KAN lin (verb)
to follow

2 taflu arian da i ganlyn arian drwg throw good money after bad (throw good money to follow bad money)

4 Dyna ganpunt arall i ganlyn y gwynt (of money spent or wasted) Thats another hundred pounds spent, Thats another hundred pounds down the drain, Thats another hundred pounds Ill never see again (Theres another hundred pounds to follow the wind)

NOTE: In the north, also with the loss of the n calyn / calyn
In the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys) and in neighbouring northern Ceredigion canllyn


canlyniad, canlyniadau kan LƏN yad, kan lən YA de (masculine noun)
bod o ganlyniad i be a consequence of
cymal canlyniad consecutive clause


canmlwyddiant kan-mluidh-yant masculine noun
PLURAL canmlwyddiannau kan-mluidh-ya-ne
centenary, hundredth anniversary
Cyfrol a gyhoeddwyd yn 1991 i ddathlu canmlwyddiant geni Kate Roberts
A volume published in 1991 to celebrate the hundredth anniversary / the centenary of the birth of Kate Roberts

hanner canmlwyddiant
fiftieth anniversary

ETYMOLOGY: (canmlwydd = a hundred years of age) + (-iant = suffix)


canmol KAN mol (verb)
to praise

2 cenmyl (indicative mood, third.-person singular present-future tense) he / she / it praises

Apocrypha: Ecclesiasticus 21:15 Gw^r doeth, os clyw air doeth, a'i cenmyl, ac a chwanega ato: yr annoeth a'i clybu, ac nid oedd fodlon ganddo, eithr efe a'i trodd yn l ei gefn.
Apocrypha: Ecclesiasticus 21:15 If a skilful man hear a wise word, he will commend it, and add unto it: but as soon as one of no understanding heareth it, it displeaseth him, and he casteth it behind his back

Nid yn y bore mae canmol diwrnod teg (it-is-not in the morning that-there-is (the) praising (of) a fair day), that is, the weather in the morning may be fine and sunny, but the afternoon may bring rain.
A favourable situation may suddenly change, wait and see what happens in the long run.


canmoliaeth kan MOL yeth (feminine noun)
y ganmoliaeth = the praise


Canna ka -na
Nant Canna
stream in Caer-dydd. The stream no longer exists but the name survives
...(1) in the district name in Caer-dydd, Pontcanna (bridge over the Canna stream),
...(2) and in Treganna ST1676 ((the) farmstead (of) (the) Canna (stream)), apparently a modern name, imitating the name Pontcanna ((the) bridge (of) (the) Canna (stream)).

This name with tre is used as the Welsh form of English Canton (name of an adjoining district)

Previously the Welsh form had been Cantwn, from the English name (Canna + English tn = farmstead).

The stream flowed into the river Taf.

Nant Canna
stream in the village of Tre-os (Tre-oes) SS9478 (county of Bro Morgannwg).

Nantcanna street name in the village of Tre-os (county of Bro Morgannwg). The Ordnance Survey Street Atlas (1995) has Nant Canna as the street name and Nant Ganna as the name of the brook (on the 1880 map, marked as Llanganna Brook) which flows from Llan-gan through Tre-os and into the river Ewenni Tre-os

ETYMOLOGY: The two seem to have different origins.
(1) (Caer-dydd) Unknown. Possibly based on the adjective can (= white), as in the stream name in Merthyrtudful Cannaid (= white, bright)
(2) (Tre-os) Apparently the name of a saint (Canna), to whom the church in Llan-gan (also known as Llanganna) is dedicated


cannoedd KA nodh (plural noun)
hundreds (plural of cant = one hundred)


cannwyll, canhwyllau KA nuilh, ka NHUI lhe (feminine noun)
y gannwyll = the candle

llosgi'r gannwyll yn ei deupen burn the candle at both ends, exhaust oneself (burn the candle it its two ends)
Also: llosgi'r gannwyll yn y ddeupen (in the two ends)

llosgir gannwyll yn hwyr burn the midnight oil (burn the candle late)

cannwyll corff
ka nuilh KORF
corpse candle; eerie light at night, which was assumed to be a candle burning to forewarn of a death in the family or in the immediate neighbourhood; probably from natural combustion of decomposing material in ponds and lakes)

cannwyll dn, canhwyllau tn
ka nuilh DAAN, ka nhui lhe TAAN
Roman candle (type of firework)


cannydd ka -nidh masculine noun
PLURAL canyddion ka-nədh-yon
bleach = a chemical that removes colour or stains

ETYMOLOGY: literally whitener (cann-, stem of cannu = to bleach, to whiten) + (-ydd suffix for forming nouns)


cannyn ka-nin
1 one hundred people (obsolete)

2 Nid cyfrinach ond rhwng dau, rhwng tridyn, cannyn ai clyw tell a secret to more than one person and it becomes everybodys secret ( (it is) not a secret except between two; between three people, one hundred people will hear it)

rhin deuddyn, cyfrin yw; rhin tridyn, cannyn ai clyw (it is) (a) secret (of) two people, (it is) (a) secret that-it-is; (it is) (a) secret (of) three people, one hundred people will hear it)

ETYMOLOGY: (tri = one hundred ) + nasal mutation + (dyn = person)
cant + dyn > can nyn > cannyn


canol, canolau KA nol, ka NO le (masculine noun)
(in the South, cenol) KE nol
yn y canol union in the dead centre

bys canol middle finger (middle finger)
canolfys middle finger (middle finger)

ynghanol ə NGHA nol (preposition) in the middle of
yn y canol union
right in the middle

yng nghanol union (rhywbeth) right in the middle of (something)

yn union yn y canol right in the middle

yn union yng nghanol (rhywbeth) right in the middle of (something)

yn ei chanol hi (in the middle of it)

Ryn ni yn ei chanol hi yn peintor tŷ Were in the middle of painting the house

ar ganol
ar GA nol (preposition)
in the middle of

Canol Caer-dydd
KA nol kair DIIDH (masculine noun)
Central Caer-dydd

canol y dre
KA nol ə DREE (feminine noun)
the town centre

7 (Yr) Heol Ganol middle road / middle street. Street name in
..a/ Bryn-mawr (county of Blaenau Gwent)
..b/ Caerffili
..c/ Nant-y-moel (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..d/ Y Sarn (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

(delwedd 7503)

canolbarth ka NOL barth (masculine noun)
midland region

Canolbarth Cymru
ka NOL barth KƏM ri (masculine noun)
yng Nghanolbarth Cymru in mid-Wales

Y Canolbarth
ə ka NOL barth (masculine noun)
The Midlands; Mid-Wales

4 Canolbarth Lloegr ka NOL barth LHOI-ger (masculine noun)
The English Midlands, the Midlands of England


canolbwyntio ka nol BUINT yo (verb)
to concentrate


canolfan, canolfannau ka NOL van, ka nol VA ne (fm)
y ganolfan / y canolfan = the centre

bod ch canolfan yn... (company) be based in

3 military base
canolfan fyddin = army base
canolfan lynges = naval base

ETYMOLOGY: central place (canol = middle) + soft mutation + (man = place)


canolfan chwaraeon, canolfannau chwaraeon ka NOL van khwa REI on, ka nol VA ne khwa REI on (feminine noun)
sports centre


canolfan dydd, canolfannau dydd ka NOL van DIIDH, ka nol VA ne DIIDH (feminine noun)
day centre


canolfan hamdden, canolfannau hamdden ka NOL van HAM dhen, ka nol VA ne HAM dhen (feminine noun)
leisure centre


canolfan iechyd ka- nol-van ye -khid masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL canolfannau iechyd ka-nol- va-ne ye -khid
health centre = building where the doctors serving a particular district have their offices and consulting rooms together

ETYMOLOGY: centre (of) health (canolfan = centre) + (iechyd = health)


canolfor ka- nol-vor nm
1 y Canolfor the Mediterranean Sea
Glannaur Canolfor the Mediterranean (region) ((the) shores (of) the Mediterranean Sea)

ETYMOLOGY: middle sea (canol = middle) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)


canoliaethol ka-nol- yeith -ol adjective
centralist = favouring the exercise of power only by a central authority

ETYMOLOGY: (canoliaeth = centralism) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


canolig ka-no-lig adjective
medium, middling
o faint canolig of medium height
canolig eich maint
of medium height
mewn cerfwedd canolig
in medium relief

ETYMOLOGY: (canol = middle) + (-ig adjectival suffix)


canol-longwr ka-nol- lo -ngur masculine noun
PLURAL canol-longwyr ka-nol- long -wir
midshipman = junior officer ranking between a cadet and a sub-lieutenant

ETYMOLOGY: (canol = middle) + soft mutation + (llongwr = sailor)


canoloesol ka nol oi sol adjective
ffug-ganoloesol pseudo-medieval

ETYMOLOGY: (canoloes- < canoloesoedd = Middle Ages) + (-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)


canolog ka-NOO-log (adjective)
yr orsaf ganolog the central station

Cardiff Central Station is Caerdydd Canolog according to the signs, but there is a missing soft mutation one would expect Ganolog

Gorsaf Ganolog Caer-dydd
Cardiff Central Station

Yr Orsaf Ganolog yng Nghaer-dydd The Central Station in Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (canol = middle) + (-og, suffix for forming adjectives)


canolwr, canolwyr ka NO lur, ka NOL wir (masculine noun)
referee (middleman)


canon, canonau KA non, ka NO ne (masculine noun)
cannon = weapon
pelen canon PLURAL pelenni canon cannonball


canran kan -ran f
PLURAL canrannau kan-ra-ne
1 percentage
y ganran = the percentage

Mae canran uchel o siaradwyr Cymraeg yn y rhan hon or dre Theres a high percentage of Welsh speakers in this part of the town

ETYMOLOGY: (kan < cant = hundred ) + soft mutation + ( rhan = part)


canrif, canrifoedd KAN-riv, kan-RII-voidh, -odh (feminine noun)
century = period of a hundred years
y ganrif = the century
ganrifoedd lawer yn l many centuries ago

2 century = such a period dated after the birth of Christ
yn y ddeunawfed ganrif in the eighteenth century

yn ystod y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg in the nineteenth century
dodrefn o'r ganrif ddiwethaf furniture from the last century

dathlu ei chanrif
to celebrate her hundredth birthday
dros y canrifoedd over the centuries
erbyn tro'r ganrif by the turn of the century

trwy'r canrifoedd over the century
yn ystod treigliad y canrifoedd over the centuries (during the movement of the centuries)

ETYMOLOGY: hundred number (cant = hundred) + soft mutation + (rhif = number) > canrif


canser, canserau KAN ser, kan SE re (masculine noun)
canser y croen
KAN ser ə KROIN skin cancer


cant KANT (masculine noun)
Mae un gair cystal chant imi I can take a hint (one word is as good as a hundred to me)

(adv) gant y cant one hundred per cent
Rw in cytuno gant y cant John Evans I agree one hundred per cent with John Evans

4 cant a mil o (bethau) a hundred and one things (an arbitrary number to indicate a great quantity) (a hundred and a thousand of things)

...a chant a mil o bethau eraill ...and a hundred and one other things (e.g. when explaining the advantages of something, when they are too numerous to mention in their totality)


cant KANT (masculine noun)
PLURAL: cantau KAN-te, KAN-tai
wheel rim

2 (obsolete) circle, rim, periphery

3 the name Morgan was in early Welsh *Morgant great circle, probably meaning 'person with great influence'. The compound is from the British period (pre 400 AD)

Analysed as a modern Welsh word it would be (mor-, a form of mawr = big) + soft mutation + (cant = circle)

ETYMOLOGY: British *kant-
Cf Breton kant (= circle), Middle Irish cad (= stone column)
Latin canthus (= metal tyre, iron band around a wheel) < Greek kanthos (= felloe of a wheel).

Canthus is used in English as an anatomical term either corner of the eye, where the eyelids meet but originally applied to the entire edge of the eyelid.
French has canton (administrative district) from Occitan canton (= corner, angle) < Latin canthus

Probably Old Welsh kant
..1/ in the mountain name Pen-y-Ghent (boundary hill), in Yorkshire, on the edge of the district of Craven, an old Welsh territory; on the old boundary there is also Cant Beck.

Pennygant [NY4499] in Scotland seems to be the same name as Pen-y-Ghent;

..3/ Kant (English: Cant), in Cornwall, for example, on the north bank of the Camel estuary, is the southern edge of Trigg Hundred.

..4/ In Lanarkshire in Scotland there are the Cant Hills, north of Shotts.

..5/ On the present Lancashire and Yorkshire border, a boundary line of districts predating the counties, there is Cant Clough.



cantor kan -tor masculine noun
PLURAL cantorion kan-tor-yon

Salmau 68:25 Y cantorion a aethant or blaen, ar cerddorion ar l; yn eu mysg yr oedd y llancesau yn canu tympanau
Psalm 68:25 The singers went before, the players on instruments followed after; among them were the damsels playing with timbrels.

singer = member of a choir

(in choir names): Cantorion Teifi the singers (of the river) Teifi

(History) Cantor Formerly in the cathedral of Tyddewi, head of the cathedral chapter (administrative body of canons of a cathedral), later superseded by a deon (dean)

prif gantor
(main singer) precentor = person who leads the congregation in singing

ETYMOLOGY: from Latin cantor, first example in Welsh in the 14th century < Latin canere (= to sing)

NOTE: also in the modern period there is a form cantwr, showing the influence of the suffix -wr (= man)


cantores kan-t-res feminine noun
PLURAL cantoresau kan-to-r-se
female singer
y gantores = the singer

Pregethwyr 2:8 Mi a bentyrrais i mi hefyd arian ac aur, a thrysor pennaf brehinoedd a thaleithiau; mi a ddarperais i mi gantorion a chantoresau, a phob rhyw offer cerdd, difyrrwch meibion dynion
Ecclesiastes 2:8 I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of the provinces: I gat me men singers and women singers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts.

ETYMOLOGY: (cantor = singer) + (-es, suffix for forming feminine nouns)


cantorion kan-tor-yon
plural form of cantor = singer


cantref kan -tre masculine noun
PLURAL cantrefi kan- tr -vi
kantrev, an ancient administrative division, a hundred

Some cantref names are still in use, found as tags to village names

.....(1) Betws yn Rhos - (the) Betws (which is) in (the cantref of) Rhos. (betws = church)

.....(2) Betws Cedewain (Ordnance Survey map reference SO1296) (the) Betws (which is in the cantref of) Cedewain,

.....(3) Caernarfon (Caer yn Arfon) - Caer in (the cantref of) Arfon), etc.
.....(Caer = camp, Roman settlement)

.....(4) Castellnewydd Emlyn (Ordnance Survey map reference SO1296) (the) Castellnewydd (which is in the cantref of) Emlyn, (Castellnewydd = new castle)

.....(5) Llanfechain (Ordnance Survey map reference SJ1820) formerly Llanarmon ym Mechain ((the) Llanarmon (which is) in (the cantref of) Mechain),
.....(Llanarmon = church of Garmon)

.....(6) Llanfair Caereinion ((the) Llanfair (which is in the cantref of) Caereinion),
.....(Llanfair = church of Mary)

.....(7) Llanfair ym Muallt (anciently Llanfair ym Muellt, with e)
((the) Llanfair (which is) in (the cantref of) Buellt),
(in English Builth, an approximation of Buellt);
nowadays the full name in English is Builth Wells to indicate its status as a spa town, Wells having been added in the 1800s

.....(8) Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant, ((the) Llanrhaeadr (which is) in (the cantref of) Mochnant)

.....(9) Llan-rhos, formerly Llanfair yn Rhos ((the) Llanfair (which is) in (the cantref of) Rhos)

.....(10) Llansanffrid yn Elfael ((the) Llansanffrid (which is) in (the cantref of) Elfael
.....(Llansanffrid = church of Saint Brd)

.....(11) Llansanffrid Gwynllŵg ((the) Llansanffrid (which is) in (the cantref of) Gwynllŵg (called by the English Saint Brides Wentloog)

Pen Pumlumon Arwystli
the peak of the mountain with five peaks which is in the cantref of Arwystli (Pumlumon = five peaks)

Penrhyn Gwyr (called by the English The Gower Peninsula) ((the) peninsula (of the cantref of) Gwyr)

Other kantrev names have been revived, as in the name
Ysgol Penweddig, a Welsh-language secondary school in Aberystwyth, which was in the kantrev of Penweddig in the territory of Ceredigion

ETYMOLOGY: area containing a hundred trvs / dwellings
(can, preconsonantal form of cant = a hundred) + (tref = trv, dwelling, farm)

The forty-eight cantrefi were (in alphabetical order):
















Cantref Bychan


Cantref Mawr (Brycheiniog)


Cantref Mawr (Ystrad Tywi)


Cantref Selyf






Cemais (Dyfed)


Cemais (Gwynedd)




Dyffryn Clwyd


















Is Aeron


Is Coed
























Rhos (Dyfed)


Rhos (Gwynedd)








Swydd y Waun






Uwch Aeron


Uwch Coed


Cantref Bychan KAN tre BƏ khan (feminine noun)
the little kantrev


Cantrer Gwaelod KAN trer GWEI lod (feminine noun)
the bottom kantrev - supposed drowned region off the Ceredigion coast


Cantref Mawr KAN tre MAUR (feminine noun)
the big kantrev


Cantref Selyf KAN tre SE liv (feminine noun)
Solomons kantrev


canu KA ni (verb)
verb without an object
to sing

2 Roedd ei ben yn canu He saw stars (his head was singing)

Mae eisiau aderyn ln i ganu dont accuse others of faults which you yourself have (there is need of a clean bird to sing)

4 (bell) ring
hi + bod wedi canu ar (rywun) have had one's chips, be finished, be all over (for somebody)
Mae hi wedi canu arno fe, His number is up, He's doomed, Hes done for; His days are numbered, He's not got long to live
(literally: it (= the bell) has rung on him / has rung to his disadvantage)

Dywedir fod y ddwy garreg yn canu fel cloch pan gnt eu taro
It is said that these two stones ring (sing) like a bell when they are struck
verb with an object
5 to sing
canu emyn to sing a hymn
canu clodydd rhywun sing (somebodys) praises
Also with the sense of to make (something) sing
6 (bell) ring = make a bell ring
Mae rhywun yn canu'r gloch Someone is ringing the (door)bell
canu clychaur Calan ring in the New Year

7 to play (an instrument)
canur gitr to play the guitar


canun iach i KA nin YAAKH
say goodbye to (sing be well to)


canwr, canwyr KA nur, KAN wir (masculine noun)


cap, capiau KAP, KAP ye (masculine noun)


capel, capeli KA pel, ka PE li (masculine noun)
chapel = Nonconformist place of worship

chapel = chapel of ease, secondary church in a parish

Tywynycapel SH2578 Locality in the county of Mn
((the) sand dunes (of) the chapel)
English name: Trearddur Bay

(tywyn = sand dunes ) + (y definite article) + (capel = chapel)


capelaidd ka- pe-ledh adjective
chapel (modifier), pertaining to a chapel

ETYMOLOGY: (capel = chapel) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


capel anwes ka-pel an -wes masculine noun
PLURAL capeli anwes ka-p-li an-wes
chapel of ease = church for parishioners (often on the outskirts of a parish) for whom the parish church is too distant (usually in the centre of the parish)

ETYMOLOGY: (capel = chapel) + (anwes = indulgence)


Capel Carreg ka-pel ka-reg
name of a chapel in Steuben, New York State
In 1804 this Union Society (The First Welsh Congregational Society of the Town of Steuben) had built a log church in Steuben designed to serve also as a schoolhouse. When this burned, Christmas night, 1804, a new frame building was erected, which gave way in 1820 to a stone church, known thereafter as Capel Careg or more frequently as Capel Ucha. (The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)

name of a chapel near Remsen, New York State
The Calvinistic Methodists established the following churches. In 1828 a church was established known as Pen-y-graig on the road from Remsen to Boonville, three miles from Remsen village in the town of Steuben. In the same year, Capel Nant was built in Steuben about three miles southwest of Remsen village. In 1828 also they organized a church at French Road in Steuben township about two miles north of Pen-y-graig. They were not able here to erect a church building until 1835. Three years after these three Calvinistic Methodist churches were organized, another was formed, this in the village of Remsen in 1831, known as Capel Careg (Stone Church). (The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) chapel (of) stone, the stone chapel (capel = chapel) + (carreg = stone)


Capel Coch ə ka-pel kookh
chapel in Steuben, New York State
In these ways were the churches weakened and had we their records we might expect a constant falling-off in the membership. Many of them had to combine for strength. The Baptist Church of Remsen was the successor to that group which had left Capel Isel, the Steuben Baptist Church, and established Capel Coch...

The Baptists also were scattering their churches through this district, though not in such large numbers. Capel Isel, their first church, was built in Steuben about a mile and a half west of Remsen village. But it was super-Calvinistic and those who leaned more toward the Arminian views soon became dissatisfied, broke away from the old church and established Capel Coch (Red Church), half a mile northwest of Capel Isel. This church did not flourish, and so to reach a district not quite so well supplied with religious services, the building was moved to a site about a mile north of Remsen village. Some time later it was abandoned and a building erected in the village in its stead. In a short time another Baptist church was established at Bardwell in the town of Remsen about four miles to the east of the village. In Prospect alone, two miles south of Remsen, was built a Baptist chapel where services were held for many years.

(The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)

ETYMOLOGY: y capel coch (the) red chapel (y = definite article) + (capel = capella) + (coch = red)


Capel Coed y Mynach ka-pel koid ə mə-nakh
SO3402 village 4km northwest of Brynbuga (county of Mynwy). English name: Monkswood

ETYMOLOGY: (the) chapel (of ease) (of) Coed y Mynach (capel = chapel). Coed y Mynach is (the) wood (of) the monk.


capel Cymraeg ka-pel kəm- raig masculine noun
PLURAL capeli Cymraeg ka-p-li kəm-rig
Welsh chapel = a Nonconformist chapel where the official language is Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: (capel = chapel) + (Cymraeg = Welsh)


ka-pel deu -i
(SN6382) locality in the county of Ceredigion, 5km east of Aberystwyth

(SN4542) locality in Ceredigion, 4km northeast of Llandysul

3 (SN4720) locality in the county of Caerfyrddin, 6km east of Caerfyrddin,

ETYMOLOGY: (the) chapel-of-ease (dedicated to) (saint) David (capel = chapel) + (Dewi = David)

NOTE: Official spelling is Capel Dewi (two words), though as one word it would be more in keeping with the recommendations for the spelling of settlement names (though Rhestr Enwau Lleoedd of the University of Wales, the list of correct spellings, gives Capel Dewi)


capel gorffwys ka-pel gor-fuis masculine noun
PLURAL capeli gorffwys ka- pe li gor-fuis
chapelle ardente, funeral chapel, mortuary chapel

ETYMOLOGY: chapel (of) rest (capel = chapel) + (gorffwys = to rest)


Capel Isel ka-pel i-sel
name of a chapel and group of buildings in Steuben, New York State
The Baptists were a little behind the others in organizing their church. Beginning about 1800, Morgan Williams had preached to them occasionally in different places, and upon the arrival of Rev. Richard Jones from Philadelphia in 1806, the First Welsh Baptist Church of Steuben was formed. They soon built a log church about half a mile from the Union Church, this, like the later buildings on the same spot, was known as Capel Isel (the Low Church - it was in a hollow). (The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) low church (capel = church, chapel) + (isel = low)


Capel Nant ka-pel nant
name of a chapel near Remsen, New York State
The Calvinistic Methodists established the following churches. In 1828 a church was established known as Pen-y-graig on the road from Remsen to Boonville, three miles from Remsen village in the town of Steuben. In the same year, Capel Nant was built in Steuben about three miles southwest of Remsen village. In 1828 also they organized a church at French Road in Steuben township about two miles north of Pen-y-graig. They were not able here to erect a church building until 1835. Three years after these three Calvinistic Methodist churches were organized, another was formed, this in the village of Remsen in 1831, known as Capel Careg (Stone Church). (The Welsh in Oneida County, New York. Paul Demund Evans. M.A. Thesis, 1914, Cornell University.)

ETYMOLOGY: capel y nant (the) chapel (by) the brook
(capel = church, chapel) + (y = definite article) + (nant = brook / stream)


capel Pab ka-pel paab masculine noun
North Wales
Roman Catholic church

ETYMOLOGY: chapel (of) Pope, Popes chapel (capel = chapel) + (Pab = Pope)


caplan, caplaniaid KA plan, ka PLAN yed (masculine noun)


caplaniaeth ka PLAN yeth (feminine noun)
y gaplaniaeth = the chaplaincy


car, ceir (1) KAR, KEIR (masculine noun)

golchfa geir, golchfeydd ceir car wash

3 car cefn codi kar KE ven KO di
hatchback car (car (of) (a) back (of) lifting, car with a back which lifts up)

car heddlu, ceir heddlu
kar HEDH li, keir HEDH li police car

5 drych car car mirror = side mirror or rear-view mirror

ETYMOLOGY: English car

car, ceir (2) KAR, KEIR (masculine noun)
2 carfil dray horse (car = sled) + soft mutation + (mil = animal)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *karr-

car kaar
1 (in place names) e.g. Y Gar < Y Gaer,
southern form of caer (= fortress, hillfort)
Usually spelt (less correctly) cr
See aa
/ caar


Caradog ka RA dog (masculine noun)
1 mans name


crafan kara-van masculine noun
PLURAL carafanau, crafans ka-ra-v-ne, ka-ra-vans
caravan = a company of merchants or pilgrims travelling together for safety, camel train

caravan = gipsy house on wheels

(American: trailer) (Englandic: caravan) holiday vehicle, towed behind a car

(American: trailer) home in a trailer park, (Englandic: caravan) home in a caravan park

ETYMOLOGY: English caravan < Italian caravana < Persian krwn
NOTE: Also carafn ka-ra-van
Colloquially carifn ka-ra-van,
North Wales ciarifn kya-ra-van, ciari kya-ri


carafanio ka-ra-van-yo verb
to caravan = spend a holiday travelling with a caravan towed behind a car)

ETYMOLOGY: (crafan = caravan) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


carafanwr ka-ra-va-nur masculine noun
PLURAL carafanwyr ka-ra-van-wir
(USA: trailerist, trailerite) (Englandic: caravaner)

ETYMOLOGY: (crafan = caravan) + (-wr suffix = man)


carff ka- raf masculine noun
PLURAL caraffau ka-r-fe
carafe = glass bottle for water, wine

ETYMOLOGY: English < French < Italian < Castilian garrafa < Arab gharrfa (= drinking vessel)


carbwl car -bul adj
1 poor, clumsy, untidy

2 Cymraeg carbwl garbled Welsh, mangled Welsh
siarad Cymraeg carbwl speak bad Welsh

3 confused, convoluted
Rw in methu gwneud na phen na chynffon oi ddadl garbwl dros ddiddymur Cynulliad
I cant make head nor tail of his convoluted argument for abolishing the Welsh Assembly

ETYMOLOGY: (very blunted) carbwl < carnbwl (carn = principal ) + soft mutation + (pŵl = blunt, blunted, dull, pale, lacklustre)


crbwncl kar bun-kəl masculine noun
PLURAL carbynclau kar-bən-kle
carbuncle = rounded reddish gemstone
Spelt with a u in the 1620 Bible:

Diarhebion 31:10 Pwy a fedr gael gwraig rinweddol? gwerthfawrocach yw hi nar carbuncl
Proverbs 31:10 Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies.

carbuncle = skin infection, similar to a large boil

ETYMOLOGY: English carbuncle < Latin carbunculus < carb (= coal)


carcas kar -kas masculine noun
PLURAL carcasau kar-ka-se
carcase = the dead body of an animal

Nid oedd y cig yn cael ei rannu oddi wrth yr esgyrn ond fod y carcas cyfan yn cael ei falun fn fel bod yr esgyrn yn bowdr
The meat wasnt separated from the bones but instead the whole carcass was ground up fine so that the bones became a powder

human body (humorous or derogatory)
North Wales hel dy garcas oddi yma! = get lost! be off with you! gather your carcass


(1) Welsh carcas

< (2) English carcase and carcass

< (3) Middle French carcasse

< (4) Italian carcassa, of unknown origin.

The English forms carcase / carcass replaced an earlier form in English: carkois from Anglo-French < Old French carquois (= skeleton).

Modern French carcasse is (a) carcass (dead animal), (b) body of living person, (c) framework or skeleton or shell of a house or ship


carchar, carcharau KAR khar, kar KHA re (masculine noun)
mynd rhywun ir carchar
take someone to prison
Aed ag ef ir carchar He was taken to prison

gwneud penyd yn y carchar do a stretch in prison, serve a prison sentence

tramgwydd yn dwyn cosb o garchar imprisonable offence


carcharor kar- kha -ror masculine noun
PLURAL carcharorion kar-kha- ror -yon

Ynys y Carcharorion
island in Bae Dulas, Ynys Mn ((the) island (of) the prisoners)

cymryd yn garcharor
take prisoner (take as prisoner)
Fei cymerwyd yn garcharor gan y Japaneiaid yn Singapore
He was taken prisoner by the Japanese in Singapore

ETYMOLOGY: (carchar = prison) + (-or = suffix for forming nouns, from Latin -rius)


carcharores kar-kha- r -res masculine noun
PLURAL carcharoresau kar-kha-ro- re -se
female prisoner

ETYMOLOGY: (carcharor = prisoner) + (-es = suffix for forming feminine nouns )


carcharor rhyfel kar- kha -ror hrə-vel masculine noun
PLURAL carcharorion rhyfel kar-kha- ror -yon hrə-vel
prisoner of war, POW (pee-oh-double u)
Mae yno hen adeilad fu unwaith yn fynachlog ac ar l hynnyn wersyll i garcharorion rhyfel
There is an old building there that was once an old monastery and after that a camp for POWs, for prisoners of war


carcharu kar- kha -ri verb
imprison, lock up, lock away
masculine noun imprisonment, detention

ETYMOLOGY: (carchar = prison) + (-u = suffix for forming verbs)
cf Cornish karghara (= to imprison)


kard -bord masculine noun
1 cardboard

ETYMOLOGY: English cardboard (card) + (board)
cf Welsh hardbord (= hardboard) < English hardboard (hard) + (board)


kar -dhen feminine noun
PLURAL carddennau kar- dhe -ne

1 enclosure, fort
Y Gardden [ə gar-dhen] [ə ˡgarɛn] the fort; found as a place name in South Wales and North-east Wales

..a/ SJ0308 Name of an earthwork south of Llanerfyl map

2 In street names

..a/ Y Gardden a street in Rhiwabon (county of Wrecsam) (the form used is Gardden without the definite article)

..b/ There is a Gardden View, Rhiwabon (county of Wrecsam) which would be Tremygardden / Golwgygardden in Welsh

..a/ There is a Ffordd y Gardden, also in English as Gardden Road, in Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam) in Welsh

..b/ There is a Gardden Court, which would be Cwrt y Gardden in Welsh

..c/ There is (or was) a Bryngardden (Bryn Gardden)

..d/ Tremygardden (the) view (of) Y Gardden) is a street name in Pen-y-cae (county of Wrecsam) (spelt as Trem Y Gardden, though the rule in Welsh is to spell settlement names as a single word)

BRYNHYFRYD / Summerhill

..a/ Here there is (or was) a Garren Terrace

(delwedd 7433)



carddenu kar-dh-ni verb
(South-east) carddenu rhywun i wneud rhywbeth entice / induce / coax somebody to do something



Cardi kar -di masculine noun
PLURAL Cardis kar -dis
(nickname) person from the county of Ceredigion
Fel llawer oi gyd-Gardis... like many of his fellow Cardis

skinflint (a person from this county was seen as somebody who was very careful with money, one who was reluctant to spend money, or as one who drove a hard bargain (supposedly characteristic features of people from Ceredigion)

gwlad y Cardi
(the) land (of) the Cardi, the county of Ceredigion
Falle mar ffaith bo fi wedi cal y magu yng ngwlad y Cardi yw e
Maybe its because of the fact that I was brought up in the land of the Cardis

(obsolete) In south-east Wales, someone from the country who had come to work in the industrial valleys not necessarily from Ceredigion
Pan ddaeth Idris Howell i weithfeydd Morgannwg gyntaf erioed, nid heb deimladau go gymysglyd y dechreuodd ar ei wasanaeth fel groser yn Siop y Wlad mewn pentref bywiog yng nghyffiniau Pont-y-pridd... Daeth rhai cwsmeriaid ir siop, a theimlai beth anhawster wrth ymdrechu deall iaith ac anghenion rhai o honynt.

Cardi ych chi, sbo, ebai un o weithwyr y nos wrtho, pan ar ymweliad r siop i gael wns o ddybaco main,

Nage, nid Cardi: o shir Gar wy in dod, ebai Idris.

Ia, ia; ond Cardis yw pawb syn dod or parth na: mach iaith chi bob ifflyn yn gwed taw Cardi ych chi. Ond fe ddewch chi, machgen i, mhen spel, ishta un o honom ni. Mae popeth yn cymryd amser i dyddu, ishta gwetws yr ir wrth y cyw.

(spelling amended) Mwyar Duon / D James (Defynnog) The Welsh Leader 25 05 1906

When Idris Howell first came to the Works (industrial valleys) in Morgannwg, it wasnt without fairly mixed feelings that he began his service in the Country Shop in a lively village by Pont-y-pridd... Some customers came into the shop, and he had (he felt) some difficulty trying to understand the type of Welsh (the language) and the requirements of some of them.

Youre a Cardi, I take it, said one of the night-shift workers to him, when on a visit to the shop to buy an ounce of fine tobacco,

No, Im not a Cardi: I come from Shir Gar (= the county of Caerfyrddin), said Idris.

Yes, yes; but everyone from that part of the country is a Cardi (Cardis are everybody who comes from that area): everything about your way of speaking (your language every fragment) says that you are a Cardi. But youll become, my lad, after a while, like one of us. Everything takes time to grow, as the hen said to the chicken.

OLOGY: Cardi, shortening of Cardiganshire, until 1974 the English name of this county, when the historic Welsh name was reintroduced - Ceredigion (origin of the English name Cardigan)


cardiau KARD ye (plural noun)
cards; plural of cerdyn


crdigan, crdigans KAR di gan, KAR di ganz (masculine noun)


cardod KAR dod (masculine noun)
charity, almsgiving; alms
byw ar gardod live on charity

2 trifling amount


cardotyn, cardotwyr kar DO tin, kar DOT wir (masculine noun)


caredig ka RE dig (adjective)
kind = considerate

kind = helpful
A fyddech mor garedig llenwir ffurflen amgaedig?
Please be so good as to fill in the enclosed form?

3 Cofiwch fi yn garedig ato Give him my kind regards


caredigrwydd ka re DI gruidh (masculine noun)


carej ka-rej feminine noun
PLURAL crejis ka-re-jis
railway carriage
y garej = the carriage

ETYMOLOGY: English carriage < Old Northern French carier (= to carry) < Late Latin carricre (= carry by cart) < Latin carrus (= cart) < Celtic;

Cf Welsh car (= sled) < British < Celtic (Rhyd-y-car, place name, Merthyrtudful)


carejen ka-re-jen feminine noun
PLURAL crejis ka-re-jis
railway carriage (North Wales)
y garejen / y garejan = the carriage

ETYMOLOGY: (carej = carriage) + (-en diminutive suffix)


caren k -ren feminine noun
PLURAL carennod ka- re -nod
(North Wales) old crone
y garen = the old crone

(North Wales) carrion = dead and rotting flesh
drewi fel hen garen stink to high heaven (stink like old carrion)

(county of Caerfyrddin) animal which is skin and bone, sorry-looking animal

(county of Caerfyrddin) term of endearment for a little girl

(county of Caerfyrddin) (masculine noun) term of contempt for a rogue

ETYMOLOGY: English caren, dialect variant of carrion (= carrion) < French < Late Latin carnia < Latin