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7000_kimkat1580e.jpgA

 

7000_kimkat2709e.jpgAR

7000_kimkat1039e.jpgBA

7000_kimkat1735e.jpgBR

7000_kimkat1018e.jpgCA

7000_kimkat1071e.jpgCE

7000_kimkat1675e.jpgCI

 

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7000_kimkat1075e.jpgCY

7000_kimkat1020e.jpgDA

7000_kimkat1674e.jpgDI

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7000_kimkat1021e.jpgGA

 

7000_kimkat1042e.jpgGWA

 

7000_kimkat2902e.jpgGWI

7000_kimkat1038e.jpgH

7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K

7000_kimkat1865e.jpgL

7000_kimkat1022e.jpgMA

7000_kimkat1677e.jpgMI

 

7000_kimkat1047e.jpgN

 

7000_kimkat1600e.jpgO

7000_kimkat1023e.jpgPA

7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q

7000_kimkat1026e.jpgR

7000_kimkat1070e.jpgS

7000_kimkat1024e.jpgTA

 

7000_kimkat1076e.jpgTR

 

7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z

 

 

 

 





B, b
bee feminine noun
1
) second letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z

2
) second letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y

:_______________________________.

b and m have interchanged in certain words. This in part may be explained by the fact that both initial b and m soft-mutate to f [v], and there has been confusion about the initial consonant of the unmutated word it seems to occur generally with feminine words, where such a mutation would be frequent as it occurs after the definite article y

b < m

brawddeg (= sentence) < mrawddeg < amrawddeg
(am prefix = around) + (rhawdd = speech, talking) + (suffix eg)
(
y frawddeg = the sentence)


m < b

modfedd (= inch) < mwd-fedd < bwd-fedd (bawd = thumb) + soft mutation + (medd = measure)
(y fodfedd = the sentence)

menyw
(= woman) < benyw (cf Irish bean = woman)
(y fenyw = the woman)

In other cases, for example with certain names / titles, it is possibly the result of confusion by infants

modryb (= aunt) > bodo, bopa (= auntie)
Maredudd (Meredith) > Bedo

:_______________________________.

b
1) British b
b is f v in Welsh
abon- > afon (= river)

gob- > gof (= smith)
Sabrna > Hafren (river name)


:_______________________________.
b
In the Celtic languages, b may correspond to m in some Latin words

..1) Welsh brag < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish brag (= malt)
From the same Celtic root: Irish braich (= malt)
Cf Latin marcor (= putrefaction)

..2) Welsh bro (= country)
Latin margō, margin- (= border)
:_______________________________.

b
1) A final b, corresponding to an original p in British, is equivalent to a final c or ch in Irish (and Scottish Gaelic and Manx)

mab (< map-os) (= son), Irish mac (= son)

crib (= comb; crest, ridge), Irish croch (= boundary)

:_______________________________.

B-

In certain surnames from patronymics, ultimately from mab = son (mab > fab > ab > b-)

Bedward < ab Edward
Beavan < ab Ifan
Bellis < ab Elis
Bennion < ab Einion
Bevan < ab Efan (ab Ifan)
Bowen < ab Owen, ab Owain

:_______________________________.

baadd
baadh
1 southern form of baedd
(= boar)
Usually spelt bdd / badd
See aa
:_______________________________.

Baal
baal masculine noun
1
Baal = Semitic fertility God

2 (Bible) Baal = false god

...1 Brenhinoedd 16:32 Ac efe a
gododd allor i Baal yn nhy Baal, yr hwn a adeiladasai efe yn Samaria (16:33) Ac Ahab a wnaeth lwyn, a wnaeth fwy i ddigo Arglwydd Dduw Israel na holl frenhinoedd Israel a fuasai o'i flaen ef
...1 Kings 16:32 And he reared up an altar for Baal in the house of Baal, which he had built in Samaria (16:33) And Ahab made a grove, and Ahab did more to provoke the Lord God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel before him

3 Bryn-y-Baal SJ2664 (a village east of Bwcle / Buckley) is a poor spelling for Bryn-y-bl.

According to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (Rhan 4, Blwyddyn 1952, tudalen 250) (University of Wales Dictionary of the Welsh Language) (Part 4, Year 1952, page 250) bl is noted as occurring c. 1788 as Bl the peak, or pointed summit of a hill or mountain, in which case it would be (the) hill (of) the sharp peak, (though whether this describes a hill there I do not know!)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2664

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < Greek < Hebrew ba'al (= master)

:_______________________________.

baban
b -ban masculine noun
PLURAL babanod
ba- b -nod
1
baby
dillad baban baby clothes

2 iaith babanod baby talk

3 baby = new venture, new company
Roedd y baban newydd yn dod rhagddo'n
gampus yn ei ddwylo diogel
The new baby / the new business was thriving wonderfully in his safe hands

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh baban < maban (mab = son, child) + (-an, diminutive suffix) from the influence of the English word babe

:_______________________________.

babanaidd
ba- b -nedh adjective
1
infantile
2
childish

ETYMOLOGY: (baban = infant) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

babaneiddiwch
ba-ba-neidh-yukh masculine noun
1
childishness

ETYMOLOGY: (babanaidd = infantile) + (-i-wch suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

babanladdiad
ba-ban- ladh-yad masculine noun
PLURAL babanladdiadau
ba-ban-ladd- ya-de
1
infanticide

ETYMOLOGY: (baban = infant) + soft mutation + (lladdiad = killing)

:_______________________________.

babanleiddiad
ba-ban- leidh-yad m masculine noun
PLURAL babanladdiadau
ba-ban-leidd- ya-de
1
infanticide (person)

ETYMOLOGY: (baban = infant) + soft mutation + (lleiddiad = killer, murderer)

:_______________________________.

Babell ə ba-belh f
1
Y
Babell name of certain nonconformist chapels (= "the tabernacle")
Street names

..a/ Babell Road, Gorsedd (SJ1576), Treffynnon (county of Y Fflint)
(this would be Ffordd y
Babell in Welsh)

..b/ Babell Road, Pen-sarn (county of Caerfyrddin)
(this would be Heol y
Babell in Welsh)

2
(SJ1573) Y
Babell (= "the tabernacle") a village in the county of Fflint 4km south-west of Treffynnon; from the name of a Nonconformist chapel

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (pabell = tent; tabernacle )
Probably from pabell y cyfarfod (Exodus 29:42),
the tabernacle of the congregation prepared by Moses for the people to meet God

..a/ Exodus 2
9:42 Yn boethoffrwm gwastadol trwy eich oesoedd, wrth ddrws pabell y cyfarfod, gerbron yr ARGLWYDD; lle y cyfarfyddaf chwi, i lefaru wrthyt yno.
Exodus 29:42 This shall be a continual burnt offering throughout your generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD: where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee.

..b/ Salmau 27:3 Pe gwersyllai llu im herbyn, nid ofna fy nghalon: pe cyfodai cad im herbyn, yn hyn mi a
fyddaf hyderus. 27:44 Un peth a ddeisyfais i gan yr ARGLWYDD, hynny a geisiaf; sef caffael trigo yn nhŷ yr ARGLWYDD holl ddyddiau fy mywyd, i edrych ar brydferthwch yr ARGLWYDD, ac i ymofyn yn ei deml. (27:5) Canys yn y dydd blin ym cuddia o fewn ei babell: yn nirgelfa ei babell ym cuddia; ar graig ym cyfyd i.
Psalms 27:3 Though an host should encamp against me, my heart shall not fear: though war should rise against me, in this will I be confident. (27:4) One thing have I desired of the LORD, that will I seek after; that I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the LORD, and to inquire in his temple. (27:5) For in the time of trouble he shall hide me in his pavilion: in the secret of his tabernacle shall he hide me; he shall set me up upon a rock

:_______________________________.

y
Babell Ln ə b-belh leen feminine noun
1
(Eisteddfod) the Literature Tent, venue for readings of literature, lectures and talks on literature and authors

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (pabell = tent) + soft mutation + (lln = literature)

:_______________________________.

babi, PLURAL: babis
BA bi, BA bis (masculine noun)
1
baby

:_______________________________.

Bbilon
ba-bi-lon feminine noun
1
Babylon = ancient capital of the Chaldean empire

2
helygen Bbilon (Salix babylonica) weeping willow See: helygen wylofus

3 (SJ3260) locality 3km NE of Yr Hob (county of Y Fflint)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/134184

:_______________________________.

bacbib, PLURAL: bacbibau
BAK bib, bak BI be (feminine noun)
1
bagpipe

:_______________________________.

bacbibiwr, PLURAL: bacbibwyr
bak BIB yur, bak BIB wir (masculine noun)
1
bagpiper

:_______________________________.

bach
baakh adjective
1
small, little

2
Fach tag - after farm name, to distinguish two farms of the same name = Little (usually paired with Fawr = big)

Glan-y-nant Fawr, Glan-y-nant Fach (Big (i.e. Greater) Glan-y-nant, Little Glan-y-nant)
glan ə nant
The word fach is a soft-mutated form of bach; farm names generally are considered to be feminine (since the native word tref (= settlement, farm) is feminine, as is the word fferm (= farm) borrowed from English (the gender probably conforming to tref)

But in the North, rather than the pair Fawr / Fach in farm names, we have Fawr / Bach, as curiously Bach dies not undergo soft mutation after a feminine noun

3
Fach = little, small, minor; tag - after a name in llan- = church, indicates a daughter church (sometimes paired with Fawr = big)

Llanilltud Fawr, Llanilltud Fach (Great Llanilltud, Little Llanilltud)
lhan-ilh-tid

Llandyfaelog, Llandyfaelog Fach (Llandyfaelog, Little Llandyfaelog) lhan-də-vei-log

The word fach is a soft-mutated form of bach; church names are feminine (since the word llan (= church) is feminine

4
Fach = little, small, minor; tag - after a river name to indicate a minor branch of the main river (sometimes paired with Fawr = big)

Rhondda Fawr, Rhondda Fach (Great Rhondda, Little Rhondda)
hron-dha

The word fach is a soft-mutated form of bach; river names are feminine. The word afon (= river) is feminine (as are ffrwd = hillside stream, nant = stream)

5
(place names) in mocking names
(1) Amrica-fach (little America) district of Y Porth (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (apparently Anglicised as America Place at some point this is the name on modern English-language maps)

(2) Llundain-fach (little London)
.....(a) Place by Tal-sarn (county of Ceredigion)
.....(b) Place by Caer-sws (county of Powys)

(3) Lloegr-fach (little England) (by Abermarlais SN6929, county of Caerfyrddin)

(4) Llwydlo-fach (little Ludlow)

(5) Brysta-fach ruin in Y Creigiau (Rhondda Cynon Taf) (little Bristol)

6
(clock, watch) bys bach little hand (little finger)

7
bys bach little finger (little finger)

8 small, little = another, an imitation of
Mae e fel Iesu Grist bach (scornful) Hes a little goodie-goodie, hes a little angel (hes like a little Jesus Christ)

8
little, small = minor, not having full stautus post bach (colloquial) sub-post office, branch post office (little post (office))

9
pechod bach venial sin

10
gefel
fach nippers = small pincers
(gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (bach = small)

11
In North Wales, after a feminine noun bach remains unmutated.
Place name examples:

..a/ Eglwys-bach (= eglwys fach) (little church) SH8070 place 9km north-west of Llan-rŵst

..b/ Ffordd-las Fawr, Ffordd-las Bach SH9575 near Abergele

..c/ Garn-bach (= garn fach) (little cairn)

..d/ Rhodfa Bach (= rhodfa fach) (little walk) a street name in Niwbwrch (county of Mn)

..e/ Sarn-bach (= sarn fach) (little causeway / pavement) SH3026 place 2km south of Aber-soch

..f/ Ynys Gwylan Bach OS1824, Ynys Gwylan Fawr OS1824, two islands by Aberdaron (Gwynedd). See Ynys Gwylan (qv)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *bakk-os < Celtic
From the same Celtic root: Irish beag (= little, small), Scottish beag (= little, small)

:_______________________________.

'bach o
BAKH (masculine noun)
(South Wales)
1
a (little) bit of
< ticyn bach o [a] little bit of

:_______________________________.

bach, PLURAL: bachau
BAAKH, BA khai -e (feminine noun)
1
hook

2 colfach = hinge (col = spike, hinge ) + soft mutation + (bach = hook)

ETYMOLOGY:

Indo-European *bak (= staff, stick)

Welsh bach < British *bakk- (= stick) < Celtic

From the same British root: Cornish bagh, Breton bach

From the same Celtic root:

Irish bacn (= hinge-hook, peg in the wall),
Scottish (Gaelic) bac (= hook)

From the same Indoeuropean root:

Latin baculum (= staff, crutch, walking stick)

Greek baktron (= staff, baton, club)

English peg < Middle English pegge, probably from Low German or Dutch (modern Dutch peg)

Also:

Welsh bagt / baguette < English baguette
< French < Italian bacchetta (= little stick), (bacchio = stick) + (-etta diminutive ending), bacchio < Latin baculus

English bacillus (= rod-shaped bacterium) < New Latin bacillus (= small staff, stick, rod), diminutive form of Latin baculus, altered from baculum < *bak

:_______________________________.

bach, PLURAL: bachau BAAKH, BA khe (masculine or feminine noun)
1
(obsolete) nook

2 (obsolete) corner, bend, sharp turn

3 cilfach (f) cilfachau nook, secluded spot (cil = back) + soft mutation + (bach = nook, corner)

Bach occurs in place names

..a/ Y Fach-wen SH5761 near Llanberis white nook

(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (bach = nook, corner, secluded spot) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)

..b/ Y Fachddeiliog ə vaakh DHEIL yog ; a place in Y Bala leafy nook

(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (bach = nook, corner, secluded spot) + soft mutation + (deiliog = leafy)

Safai yr hen Wenallt mewn pantle, rhwng y fan y saif y Wenallt presenol a'r llwyn o goed a elwir Nyrs Fachddeiliog, yn ymyl hen orsaf ffordd haiarn y Bala.

Adgofion Andronicus (= John William Jones, Y Bala, 1842-1895) Cyhoeddwyd: Caernarfon 1894 t24
The old Wenallt (farmhouse) stood in a hollow, between the place where the present Wenallt stands and a wood which was called Fachddeiliog Nursery, next to the old railway station in Y Bala

ETYMOLOGY: This is the same word as bach (= hook)

:_______________________________.

bach a dolen
baa kha DO len (masculine noun)
1
hook and eye

:_______________________________.

bachan
BA khan (masculine noun)
1
fellow, bloke, chap, guy

2 lad, fellow, man

(South-east) Maen fachan trwyr tanad (Man fachan trwr tanad) Hes one of the best (he is a man through the explosion, i.e. who will rescue you in a mine disaster)

(South-east) Bachan nt yw e Hes one of the best (he is a neat man)

:_______________________________.

bachdro
BAKH-dro masculine noun
PLURAL bachigion
bakh-DROI-on
1
hairpin bend

bachdro wedi ei wneud tharw dur a bulldozed hairpin bend, a hairpin bend in a track made by a bulldozer

ETYMOLOGY: (bach = hook) + soft mutation + (tro = bend)

:_______________________________.

bachgen, PLURAL: bechgyn
BAKH gen, BEKH gin (masculine noun)
1
boy
Fachgen! Fachgen! Beth wyt tin wneud? What are you doing, lad?

:_______________________________.

bachigol
ba- kh -gol adjective
1
diminutive

ETYMOLOGY: (bachig = tiny) + (-ol, suffix); the word bachig is made up of (bach = small) + (-ig, diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

bachigyn
ba- kh-gin masculine noun
PLURAL bachigion
ba- khig-yon
1
diminutive = word based on another to indicate smallness of a thing

2 small piece

3 adjective small

ETYMOLOGY: (bachig = tiny) + (-yn, diminutive suffix); the word bachig is made up of (bach = small) + (-ig, diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

bachu
BA-khi (verb)
1
catch with a hook, to hook

2 ei bachu hi go off, go away, hook it (ei = her) + aspirate mutation + (bachu = to hook, catch with a hook) + (hi (of) it / her)

:_______________________________.

bachwy
bakh -ui masculine noun
PLURAL bachwyon
ba-khui-on
1
bay

ETYMOLOGY: Not in general use.

First instance in 1852. Created from (bach = bend) + soft mutation + (gwy, a word supposedly meaning water )
See gwy

:_______________________________.

baco
BA ko (masculine noun)
1
tabac

2 siop faco tobacconists
Also: siop dybaco

:_______________________________.

bacterleiddiad
bak-ter- leidh -yad m
PLURAL bacterleiddiadau
bak-ter- leidh-y-de
1 bactericide

ETYMOLOGY: (bacter- < bacteria = bacteria) + soft mutation + (lleiddiad = substance which kills) (

:_______________________________.

bacterleiddiol
bak-ter- leidh -yol (adj)
1 bactericidal

ETYMOLOGY: (bacter- < bacteria = bacteria) + soft mutation + (lleiddiol adjective = which kills) (

:_______________________________.

bacwn
BA kun (masculine noun)
1
bacon

:_______________________________.

bad
baad [baːd] masculinɛ noun
PLURAL badau [ˡbaːdai, ˡbaːdɛ] b -de
South Wales

1
boat

bad achub lifeboat


bad camlas canal boat, barge

bad diogelwch safety boat

bad pwmpiadwy inflatable boat

bad styllod plank boat (boat (of) planks)

bad hwylio sailing boat

ryn ni i gyd yn yr un bad
were all in the same boat, each of us is facing the same danger

dianc yn y badau take to the boats (escape in the boats)

saer badau boat builder

paid siglor bad dont rock the boat

2 ferry-boat, boat for crossing a river

llogi bad yn ymyl y bont
spend money on something that is not necessary, incur expenses that could easily be avoided (hire a ferry-boat next to the bridge)

Glan-bad locality in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf
(glan y bad (the) bank (of the river) (of) the boat (that is, where the ferry boat is moored))
(English name: Upper Boat)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh bad
[baːd] < Old English {baat} (modern English boat bout )

:_______________________________.

bad achub
baad AA khib (masculine noun)
1
life boat
(boat {of} saving)

:_______________________________.

badd
baadh
1 southern form of baedd (= boar)
Usually spelt (less correctly) bth
See aa / badd
:_______________________________.

baddon, PLURAL: baddonau
BAA dhon, ba DHOO ne (masculine noun)
1
bath

:_______________________________.

baddonau
ba DHOO ne (plural)
1
baths; swimming baths

:_______________________________.

baddondy
ba- dhon -di masculine noun
PLURAL baddondai
ba- dhon -dai
1
bath-house = a building with baths for use by the public
2
bathroom = room in a house with a bathtub or shower

ETYMOLOGY: (baddon = bath) + soft mutation + (ty = house)

:_______________________________.

bae, PLURAL: baeau
BAI, BEI e [bai] , [ˡbəiai, ˡbəiɛ] (masculine noun)
1
bay

Bae Abertawe / Swansea
Bay

Bae Caergybi /
Holyhead Bay

Bae Caer-dydd /
Cardiff Bay

Bae Caerfyrddin /
Carmarthen Bay

Bae Caernarfon /
Caernarfon Bay

Bae Ceredigion /
Cardigan Bay

Bae Conwy / Conwy Bay

Bae Lerpwl / Liverpool Bay

Bae Sain Ffred / Saint Brides Bay

Bae Tremadog /
Tremadog Bay

:_______________________________.

baedd
bidh [bai] , masculine noun
PLURAL baeddod
bei -dhod [ˡbəiɔd]
1
boar
baedd cenfaint
(qv) boar kept for breeding, herd boar, stud-boar
gofyn baedd
(sow) desire the boar

2
obsolete brave fighter, valiant warrior

3
baedd coed (qv) or baedd gwyllt (qv) wild boar; also as a symbol in heraldry

Sometimes simply baedd
Ar y sl gyfrin gwelir baedd o dan goeden

On the privy seal can be seen a boar under a tree

4
(Bible) baedd or coed = wild boar
Salmau 80.8 Mudaist winwydden or Aifft..., 80.13 Y baedd or coed ai turia, a bwystfil y maes ai pawr
Psalms 80.8 Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt... 80.13 The boar of the wood doth waste it, and the wild beast of the field doth devour it (See the Psalms on line in this website)

ETYMOLOGY: ?
NOTE: (1) An obsolete plural form is beidd
(2) In South Wales in monosyllables ae > aa. Hence baadd (usually spelt bdd or badd)

:_______________________________.

baedd cenfaint
bidh ken-vent masculine noun
PLURAL baeddod cenfaint
bei dhod ken-vent
1
boar kept for breeding, herd boar, stud-boar

ETYMOLOGY: boar (of) flock (baedd = boar) + (cenfaint = flock of swine)

:_______________________________.

baedd coed
baidh KOID masculine noun
PLURAL baeddod coed
BEIdhod KOID
1
wild boar

ETYMOLOGY: boar (of) wood (baedd = boar) + (coed = wood)

:_______________________________.

baedd gwyllt
baidh GWILHT masculine noun
PLURAL baeddod gwyllt / gwylltion
bei-dhod gwilht / gwəlht-yon
1
wild boar

ETYMOLOGY: wild boar (baedd = boar) + (gwyllt = wild)
NOTE: the literary form has a plural adjective gwylltion but there is a tendency in modern Welsh to use a singular adjective after a plural noun (gwyllt)

:_______________________________.

bg, PLURAL: bagiau
BAG, BAG ye (masculine noun)
1
bag
bg llaw
bag LHAU (masculine noun) handbag
bg ysgol
ba GƏ skol (masculine noun) school bag, satchel

:_______________________________.

bagad
BAA-gad [ˡbaˑgad] masculine noun
PLURAL bagadau
ba-GAA-dai, -e [baˡgaˑdai, baˡgaˑdɛ]
1
group, crowd; bagad o bobol a group of people

2 literary cluster, bunch (grapes, flowers, etc)

3
collection
Bagad o Ddiarhebion 'Steddfod
A collection of Eisteddfod proverbs (i.e. proverbs submitted for a competition)

4 obsolete swarm (of bees), flock (of birds), flock (of sheep), herd (of cattle) etc

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British bakta < bka = grapes, cluster of grapes
From the same British root: Cornish bagaz, Breton bagad
The Scottish (Gaelic) word bagaid = bunch (of grapes), cluster (of nuts) is taken from Welsh

NOTE: the colloquial form in South-east Wales is bacid
ba -kid

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bagt, PLURAL: bagts
ba GET, ba GETS (masculine noun)
1
baguette
:_______________________________.

bginet, PLURAL: bginets
BAA-gin-et, BAA-gin-ets (masculine noun)
1
(South Wales) bayonet

..a/ A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, (in three parts) by a Lady: to which is added a Glossary. James Frederick PALMER, Mary Palmer. 1837: The authors lists BAGINET and define it as Bayonet..

..b/ Bag'inet. s[ubstantive]. A bayonet.

Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London.

London, 1825.


NOTE: Standard Welsh has bidog (mf)

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bagl (bagal), PLURAL: baglau BA gal, BA gle (feminine noun)
1
crutch
y fagl = the crutch

Also ffon fagl (f), ffyn bagl (stick (of) crutch)

mynd wrth eich baglau go around on crutches, walk on crutches (go | supported by | your | crutches)
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baglu BA gli (verb)
1
trip up

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bai bai masculine noun
PLURAL beiau bei -e
1
blame, fault - responsibilty for something wrong

Arni hi mae'r bai
It's her fault ((it is) on her that-is the blame)

Arnat ti roedd y bai i gyd
It was all your fault

Rhaid mai'ch bai chi'ch dau yw e
It must be the fault of you two

Ar bwy mae'r bai?
Whose fault is it? (on who is the blame?)

Ar y llywodraeth mae'r bai
It's the fault of the government, it's the government's fault, the government's to blame

Y mwya'i fai, parota'i feio the most blameworthy is the quickest to blame others
(the (person) greatest his blame, readiest his blaming)

peidio gweld bai ar not blame someone (not see blame on someone)

Paid gweld bai arno fe Dont blame him

2 bod bai mawr ar (rywun) i (wneud rhybeth) be very wrong of somebody to (do something)

3 cael y bai am get the blame for

4 rhoi'r bai ar to blame, to put the blame on (am = for) (put / give the blame on)

5 bwrw'r bai ar to blame, to put the blame on (am = for) (throw the blame on)

6 bod ar fai be to blame (be on blame);
Nid fi sydd ar fai I'm not to blame, it's not my fault

7 Heb ei fai, heb ei eni Everyone has their faults, No-one is without their faults (without his fault, without his being born)

8 blame = accusation of being responsible for something that is wrong
gweld bai ar to blame (to see blame on)

9 chwilio am feiau find fault (look for faults)

10 cuddio'ch beiau rhag (rhywun) hide your faults from (someone)

11 taflu bai = shift the blame (throw blame)

12 South Wales cwympo ar eich bai, North Wales: syrthio ar eich bai admit that you are wrong, acknowledge your mistake (fall on your fault / blame)

13 defect, imperfection in a material

14 Geology fault in a rock

15 fault = error, mistake
Bai am y gair 'llawrwydd' yw 'llarwydd'
The word 'llarwydd' is a mistake for 'llawrwydd'

16 fault, shortcoming, failing, deficiency
Nid haelioni yw ei fai mawr You certainly cant accuse him of over-generosity
((it is) not generosity that-is his big fault / his big shortcoming)

17 gweld bai ar consider someone to be at fault, think it the fault of, believe the culprit to be, find fault with
y diafol yn gweld bai ar bechod Satan rebuking sin, the devil denouncing evil (the devil seeing defect on sin)

18 hyd at fai to a fault, excessively
hael hyd at fai generous to a fault

19 pigwr beiau fault finder, person who always picks faults

20 di-fai (di- = privative prefix) + (bai = fault )
..a/ blameless
Judges 15:3 And Samson said concerning them, Now I shall be more blameless than the Philistines, though I do them a displeasure
..b/ impeccable
..c/ good, fine

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh bai < bei < British

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baich, PLURAL: beichiau baikh, BEIKH-ye (masculine noun)
1
burden, load

2 diffygio dan faich stagger / collapse under a burden

3 bod dan faich trwm o waith be snowed under with work (be under a heavy burden of work)

4 Fe ywr baich rw in gorfod i ddwyn
Hes the cross I have to bear (the burden I am obliged to carry)
(said of a person or matter for which a somebody has taken responsibility even though it causes him or her many problems. A person condemned to crucifixion had to carry his or her own cross to the place of execution.)

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bal bal adjective
1
a white spot or patch on the forehead of a horse, a blaze

2
(adjective) (horse) having a white spot on the forehead
ceffyl bal horse with a white spot on its forehead

There is a well called Ffynnon y Ceffyl Bal (well of the horse with a white patch on its forehead) above Blaengwynfi (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh bal < British *bal- < Indo-european *bhel (= to shine)
from the same British root: Breton bailh (= white blaze on forehead of horse)
From the same Celtic root: Irish ball (= spot, mark)


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bl BAAL m
1 peak
According to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (Rhan 4, Blwyddyn 1952, tudalen 250) (University of Wales Dictionary of the Welsh Language) (Part 4, Year 1952, page 250) bl is noted as occurring c. 1788 as Bl the peak, or pointed summit of a hill or mountain.

2 Bryn-y-Bl
..a) SJ2664 A village east of Bwcle / Buckley (county of Y Fflint). The poor spelling Bryn-y-baal occurs on the Ordnance Survey maps, as if it is Baal, the false god of the Old Testament

...1 Brenhinoedd 16:32 Ac efe a
gododd allor i Baal yn nhy Baal, yr hwn a adeiladasai efe yn Samaria (16:33) Ac Ahab a wnaeth lwyn, a wnaeth fwy i ddigo Arglwydd Dduw Israel na holl frenhinoedd Israel a fuasai o'i flaen ef
...1 Kings 16:32 And he reared up an altar for Baal in the house of Baal, which he had built in Samaria (16:33) And Ahab made a grove, and Ahab did more to provoke the Lord God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel before him.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2664 map
The village name Bryn-y-bl is form a hill name Bryn y Bl (the) hill (of) the sharp peak

..b) By Brynffordd (Brynford), Treffynnon (Holywell) in the county of Y Fflint there is a hill called Pen y Bl (in English, Pen y Ball Top)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/30286 Pen y Bl
(the) summit (of) the sharp peak

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Y Bala ə BA la (feminine noun)
1 town in the north-east


http://www.gwead.cymru.org/uwchradd/berwyn/cymru.htm (No longer functional 2008-10-23)

ETYMOLOGY: the lake exit

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Bala Cynwyd

1
a village in southeastern Pennsylvania, in Lower Merion Township.

It was originally two separate towns, but it came to be regarded as a single community after the US Post Office used a single office called Bala Cynwyd to serve both towns. However the railway still has two separate stations, Bala and Cynwyd.

The area was settled by Quakers from Meirionydd three hundred and twenty years ago, in the 1680s. It forms part of the old Welsh Tract by the city of Philadelphia. This American Cynwyd is generally pronounced as KIN-wid, and by some as KIN-wud, as if the name were Kinwood.
(Information: wikipedia)

Location of Y Bala and Cynwyd in north-east Wales:


(dewl 7062)

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balast BAA-last (masculine noun)
1
ballast

llenwi (llong) balast to fill a ship with ballast, to ballast a ship

Y Cei Balast
SH5638 name of small island in the Glasln estuary where ships would dump ballast stones before picking up cargoes of slates. ETYMOLOGY: y cei balast the quay (of) ballast (y definite article) + (cei = quay) + (balast = ballast). On the Ordnance Survey map spelt incorrectly as Cei Ballast (the English spelling of balast), suggesting that the ll is the Welsh voiceless alveolar lateral fricative <lh> &&[ɬ]&&&

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/364696


(delwedd 7410)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH5737 map

ETYMOLOGY: English ballast < Low German. The word occurs too in Old Danish and Old Swedish as barlast, or bare load (bar = bare) + (last = load), in the sense of a load without any value



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balastio
ba-LAST-yo (v)
1
to ballast

balastio llong to fill a ship with ballast

ETYMOLOGY: (balast = ballast) + (-io verb suffix)

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balch
BALKH (adjective)
1
proud
tlawd a balch a byw mewn gobaith / clawd a balch a byw miwn gopith

South-east answer to Sut mae hi? / Shw mai?

poor and proud and living in hope

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balchder
BALKH der (masculine noun)
1
pride
Mae i falchder ei gwymp Pride comes before a fall (there-is to pride its fall, pride has its fall)

Balchder a gaiff gwymp Pride comes before a fall ((it-is) pride which gets (a) fall)

ETYMOLOGY: (balch = proud) + (-der suffix for forming abstract nouns, a soft-mutated form of -ter)

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balw^n, PLURAL: balw^ns
ba LUUN, ba LUUNS (masculine noun)
1
balloon

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ban, PLURAL: bannau
BAN, BA-ne (feminine noun)
1
peak
y fan = the peak

2 tryfan (place names) peak

Tryfan SH6659 mountain in the county of Gwynedd, between Capelcurig and Bangor
also: Mynydd Tryfan
(try- = intensifying prefix ) + soft mutation + (ban = peak)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/82098

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banadl (South Wales: bana'l)
BAA-nadl, BAA-nal (plural noun)
1
(plant) broom

See banhadlen
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banal, bana'l
BAA-nal (plural noun)
1
(South Wales) (plant) broom

See banhadlen
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banana, PLURAL: bananas ba NA na, ba NA nas (masculine noun)
1
banana

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banc, PLURAL: banciau BANGK, BANGK ye (masculine noun)
1
bank (= money house)

Stryd y Banc street name in Porthmadog (the) street (of) the bank. Name used by the English: Bank Place.

2 bank (= slope)

See also: ponc (= bank, slope)

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band, PLURAL: bandiau
BAND, BAND ye (masculine noun)
1
band

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bando
BAN-do (masculine noun)
1
bando = a kind of hurling / shinty / hockey / bandy formerly played in Wales. It was particularly popular in coastal Morgannwg, at Margam and adjoining Cynffig, which share an extensive sandy shore

2 ffon fando, ffyn bando bando stick

ETYMOLOGY: A variant of bandy (= a type of hockey)

A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, (in three parts) by a Lady: to which is added a Glossary. James Frederick PALMER, Mary Palmer. 1837: The authors lists BANDY and define it thus: A game, like that of Golf, in which the ad-

verse parties endeavour to beat a ball (generally a

knob or gnarl from the trunk of a tree,) opposite ways.

From Bendan, Sax[on], to bend ; because the stick with

which the game is played is crook'd at the end; hence

the verb to Bandy (a term at tennis), to beat to and

fro, and the compound bandy-legged for crooked-

legged.

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baner, PLURAL: baneri
BA ner, ba NE ri (feminine noun)
1
flag
2
dangos y faner show the flag = put in an appearance, make your presence noted at some event

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baneru
ba-n-ri verb
1
deck with flags

ETYMOLOGY: (baner = flag) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)
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Bangor
bang -gor
1
(SH5872) city in the county of Gwynedd
Population 13,378 (1961)
Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 64% (1961)

i Fangor = to Bangor
ym Mangor = in Bangor

2
a parish at this place

3
esgobion Bangor (Dwyfor, district in western Gwynedd) bishops (of) Bangor;
also esgobion Bangor yn eu gwenwisg bishops (of) Bangor in their surplice
large white clouds on a clear day indicating a coming storm

ETYMOLOGY: Old Welsh bangor = monastery

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banhadlen
ban-HAD-len feminine noun
PLURAL banadl
bAA-nadl
1
broom bush Cytisus scoparius



Caer banadl (Caar Banal ) (the) field (of) the gorse bushes Field name c. 1507 in ?Llangatwg Lingoed, county of Mynwy

16 April 1507
Howel ap David ap Howel and Catherine vergh Ieuan ap Griffith his wife to Richard ap Howel their son and Maud/Matilda vergh William his wife.
GRANT All lands, messuages and tenements which they hold in the parish of Llancattok Llincoid in the lordship of Bergavenny and in the parish of Llanterlow Gressenny in the fee of White Castle.... One close called Kar banall to value of 20d. p.a.;

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~llangattocklingoed/deedswills/hanbury.html#1518B Hanbury Family Papers



(delwedd 7287)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh banadl < British *banatl-

Cornish has banall (= broom bushes), and Breton banal, balan (= broom bushes);

The French word balai (= broom for sweeping, long-handled brush) is from a related Gaulish word

NOTE: (1) In South Wales banadl > banaddl > banal / banal
BAA-nal, as in Cornish and Breton
(2) and also in South Wales banal
BAA-nal > balan BAA-lan (metathesis), as in Cornish and Breton

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banhadlog
ba- nhad -log adjective
1
abounding in broom

2 (feminine noun) place with broom, broomy land
Found in place names and field names.

3 Gellifanadlog place name in Senghenydd (county of Caerffili)
From y gelli fanhadlog broomy grove (with the loss of the h)

(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (celli = wood, grove) + soft mutation + (banhadlog = broomy)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (banhadl-, penult syllable form banadl (= broom) + (-og suffix) < British *banatlk-
From the same British root: Cornish banalleg, Breton banallek < British

NOTE: (1) North Wales - colloquially banadlog
ba-NAD-log

(2) South Wales banalog - colloquially
ba-NAA-log

(3) banadlog sometimes used as a standard form in place names, omitting the h

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Bannau Brycheiniog
ba ne brə KHEIN yog (plural noun) (Ffoto / foto)

1
the peaks of the territory of Brycheiniog ('Brecon Beacons')

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bannod, PLURAL: banodau
BA nod, ba NOO de (feminine noun)
1
definite article
y fannod = the definite article

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bant (= i bant)
BANT (adverb)
1
away

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bar, PLURAL: barrau
BAR, BA re (masculine noun)
1
bar (= tavern);

2 bar = rod;

3 bar = people collectively who are qualified to practice law; barristers

4 bar = block of chocolate, soap, etc
bar sebon bar of soap ("bar (of) soap")
bar siocled a bar of chocolate

5 tu l ir barrau behind bars, in prison (behind the bars)

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bar, PLURAL: barrau
BAR, BA re (masculine noun)
1
(place names) top, peak


(delwedd 7329)

Barlwm (bare top) (bar = peak, top) + soft mutation + (llwm = bare, barren, treeless) hill name in Torfaen, now Twm Barlwm / Twyn Barlwm (the) mound (on) Barlwm

Berwyn < adjective berwyn white-peaked, snowy peaked (bar = peak, top) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white), with a change a > e in the tonic syllable through the influnce of the y in the final syllable (vowel affection)

Crug-y-bar SN6537 (mound (of) the peak, mound on the peak) village in Caerfyrddin

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/399315

Nant-y-bar ?((the) valley / stream (of) the peak) Lost industrial village in the Afan valley, south-east Wales
Mynydd Nant-y-bar SS8397 The highland / the upland pasture of Nant-y-bar farm

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/844478

Nant-y-bar SO2840 (Gwent-in-England, in present-day Herefordshire)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/178852 (farm buildings in Nant-y-bar)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/178849 (castle motte at Nant-y-bar)

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

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bara
BA ra [ˡbaˑra] (masculine noun)
1
bread
bara brith
ba ra BRIITH (masculine noun) currant bread ('speckled bread')
bara haidd
ba ra HAIDH (masculine noun) barley bread

2 fan fara plural faniau bara bread van, van for delivering bread to homes or shops

3 mor sicr bod bara mewn torth as sure as fate (as sure as there is bread in a loaf)

4 bara llwyd mouldy bread (grey bread)
Saying: Rhaid enllyn da gyda bara llwyd You need a good comapage with mouldy bread

5 enllyn bara Alternative expression for enllyn = companage, something eaten with bread (eg butter, cheese, meat), something to make plain food more palatable, (Scotland: kitchen, kitchie; tea) Enllyn bara da yw eisiau bwyd Hunger is the best sauce (= food no matter how plain becomes very appetising when you are really hungry) ((it is) (a) good companage (of) bread that-is want (of) food)

6 pobi bara (north Wales) bake bread
ffyrna bara (mid-Wales) bake bread
ffyrno bara (south Wales) bake bread
ffwrno bara (south Wales) bake bread
ffwrna bara (south-west Wales) bake bread
bara corn corn bread (USA)

7 bara mantais (county of Trefaldwyn / Montgomery) part of the loaf which has risen above the top of the baking tin (Minwel Tibbot)

NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes bara mantes::
BARA-MANTESS. hot bread, fresh from the oven. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 290 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)

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bara caws
b-ra kaus masculine noun
1
bread and cheese
2
Bedyddiwr Bara Caws (nickname) Scotch Baptist (baptist (of) bread (and) cheese)

ETYMOLOGY: (bara = bread) + (caws = cheese)
NOTE: Alternative form: bara a chaws / bara chaws bread + and + cheese


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bara croyw
b-ra kroiu masculine noun
1
unleavened bread
Gwyl y Bara Croyw the Passover, a week-long (now eight days) Jewish feast commemorating the release of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt

ETYMOLOGY: (bara = bread) + (croyw = unleavened, made without yeast)

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bara lafwr
b-ra l-vur masculine noun
1
See: bara lawr

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bara lawr
b-ra laur masculine noun
1
laver bread = a kind of seaweed fried in mutton fat, characteristic of central coastal South Wales, and sold traditionally in Abertawe and Llanelli markets

ETYMOLOGY: (bara = bread) + (lawr = type of seaweed).
The word lawr was originally lafwr < English laver = Porphyra umbilicalis - type of seaweed of the genus Porphyra with edible fronds < Latin laver, species of water plant.
The dropping of a medial f is seen in other words in Welsh, such as

a) cas (South Wales - he, she, it got / received) < cafas

b) codi (= to lift up, to get up), originally cyfodi

c) dŵr (= water), originally dwfr

NOTE: (Really a comment on a mistake in English) As the English spoken in Wales is on the whole a variety of standard English, it is of a non-rhotic variety, and so a final r in a word is not pronounced unless it is followed by a vowel.

(This non-rhotic English is to be found too of course in the USA, in New England and in some of the southern States).

There is a tendency in Wales among some English speakers to insist that the English name of the food is lava bread, as if it were a kind of magma from a volcano. Reference to the Welsh form (even though it is originally from English!) would show that there is a final r, and so lava bread cannot be right.

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bara menyn
ba ra ME nin (masculine noun)
1
bread and butter

(In Y Wladfa, the Welsh settlement in the Chubut valley in Patagonia, this is a phrase known to many people of non-Welsh origin. If asked if they know any Welsh, they reply bara menyn. It seems that the local Tehuelche Indians would come to the houses of the Welsh pioneers whrn they had no food, and having had friendly contact with the pioneers, knew some words of Welsh)

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barber
bar -ber masculine noun
PLURAL barbariaid
bar-bar -yed
1
barber
2
cot barber barber's coat, dust coat

ETYMOLOGY: English barber < French 1400- barbeor < barbe (= beard) < Latin barba (= beard)
There is also a 'more Welsh' form - barbwr (qv)

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Barbus barbus
1 barfogyn (m), barfogiaid barbel



(delwedd 7411)

:_______________________________.

barbwr, PLURAL: barbwyr
BAR bur, BARB wir (masculine noun)
1
barber

:_______________________________.

barclod
<BAR-klod> [ˡbarklɔd] masculine noun
PLURAL barclodiau
<bar-KLOD-yai, -ye> [barˡklɔdjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
apron

2 wedi ei gadw ormod wrth farclod ei fam
(said of a spoilt child) too attached to his mother's apron strings
(after his keeping + too much + attached to the apron of his mother)

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English barmcloth < Old English bosom cloth (barm = bosom) + (clth = cloth)

It would seem that the English word had a final t (clot) rather than th

Cf English clout (= piece of cloth)

Joshua 9:5 (King James Bible) And old shoes and clouted upon their feet, and old garments upon them; (= old patched sandals)

Northern English: dishclout (= dishcloth)

A final t in words of English origin became d in many words in earlier Welsh: poced (= pocket), siaced (= jacket), bwled (= bullet).
:_______________________________.

barclodaid
<bar-KLOO-daid, -ded> [barˡkloˑdaɪd, -ɛd] masculine noun
PLURAL barclodeidiau
<bar-klo-DEID-yai, -e> [barklɔˡdəɪdjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
apronful

2 in the names of certain places where there are burial cairns, to explain the profusion of stones through reference to a mythical being; See Barclodiad y Gawres

ETYMOLOGY: (barclod = apron) + (-aid = suffix to denote capacity).

In the north-west, the suffix -i-aid is used instead of aid, hence barclodiaid

In the north-west, in a final diphthong a final e becomes a, and this applies too to the diphthongs ei, ai, au which in most of Wales become e in the final syllable.

Hence barclodiaid > (barclodied) > barclodiad

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barclodiad
<bar-KLOD-yad> [barˡklɔdjad] masculine noun
PLURAL barclodiaid
<bar-KLOD-yaid, -yed> [barˡklɔdjaɪd, -ɛd]
1
North-west Wales apronful; see barclodaid

:_______________________________.

Barclodiad y Gawres
<bar-KLOD-yad ə GAU-res> [barˡklɔdjad ə ˡgaʊrɛs]
1 SH3270 name of a burial chamber 3km north-west of Aberffraw, county of Mn, north-west Wales.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH3270 map

2 SH3645 Locality on the Eifl mountain, near Trefor, north-west Wales.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH3645 map

From: Y Brython (= the Briton, the Welshman), 1859, pages 428-9
Cilmin Droettu - Yr oedd Cilmin yn cyfaneddu ym mysg ellyllon a gwŷr cyfarwydd... Daeth ryw dro ar ddamwain yn gyfeillgar ag un o'r rhai olaf hyn. Gwyddai y cyfarwydd holl ddirgel gyfrinion anian yn drwyadl oddi gerth un... hysbyswyd ef gan ei frodyr cyfarwydd, fod y cyfryw gyfrin wedi ei ysgrifo ar blagawd teg, gan ryw law heb fod yn eiddo dyn, yng nghudd ger llaw coryn un o binaclau pigfain yr Eifl, a bod yno ellyll cuchiog yn ei wylio... Cilmin, yr hwn ni wybuasai erioed pa beth oedd ofn, a ebrwydd gynnygiodd ei wasanaeth, i wneud cais am y trysor... Ymaith Chilmin tua Mynydd y Gefeilliaid Mawr (dyma enw arall ar yr Eifl), ac ar l brwd deithio am hir amser, daeth o'r diwedd at Nant Gwrtheyrn, yr hwn gwm sydd wedi ei furiaw o gwmpas wal ddiadlam o greigiau ysgrynyglyd... Ymgripiodd o'r Nant, a dyfod a wnaeth nes y cyrhaeddodd Dre'r Ceiri, neu Dref y Caerau, cadarnle milwraidd ar goryn y big bellaf oddi wrth y mr o'r tri mynydd. Yr oedd pob ysgafell a chafell a chell yn y fan, y pryd yr aeth Cilmin yno, yn cael eu cyfaneddu gan ellyllon, a phob un o'r ellyllon yn barod ar yr awgrym lleiaf i ddyfod allan i amddiffyn iawnderau eu prif lywydd, yr hwn a drefai ar gopa'r graig uwch eu penau; a mawr y dinystr a'r direidi a fynych gyflawnid ganddynt ar hyd a lled y wlad... Ger llaw hefyd, yn Moel Carn y Wrach, yr arosai Cawres... ar yr adeg yr oedd Cilmin yn cyflawni ei gampwaith rhyfygus yr oedd y Gawres yn dyfod llonaid ei ffedog o geryg... gan fwriadu ei gwynias boethi yn nhn ufelfar yr ellyll, a'u taflu wedyn yn do difaol i'r meusydd cyfagos. Pan ganfu hi Cilmin yn dyfod mor ffwdanllyd, dychrynu a wnaeth, a gollwng y geryg i lawr ar lethr y Foel a enwyd, ac y maent yno fyth, a gelwir hwy Barclodaid y Gawres. Ar l hyn bu byd chwith rhwng y Gawres, Yr Ellyll a Chilmin.

TRANSLATION: Cilmin Droetu (Cilmin of the black foot). Cilmin lived among elves and men of knowledge - by chance he once became friendly with one of the latter. The man of knowledge knew all the hidden secrets of nature thoroughly except for one... he was informed by his fellow men of knowledge, that this secret was written on a fair parchment, by a hand which was not human, hidden near the peak of one of the tapering pinnacles of the Eifl, and there angry elves watched over it... Cilmin, who had never known the meaning of fear, quickly offered his service, to attempt to obtain the treasure... Off went Cilmin towards Mynydd y Gefeilliaid Mawr (the mountain of the big twins) - that is another name for the Eifl - and after travelling zealously for a long time, he at last came to Nant Gwrthyrn, which valley is walled around with a wall of sharp rocks which once crossed over there is no return. He crept up from the Nant, and came until he reached Tre'r Ceiri ('hamlet of the giants') or Tref y Caerau ('hamlet of the forts'), a military stronghold on the top of the peak of the three mountains furthest from the sea. Each ledge and nook and cranny in the place, when Cilmin went there, was occupied by elves, and each elf was ready at the least indication to come out to defend the rights of their main leader, who lived on the top of the rock above their heads; and great was the destruction and mischief often done by them the length and breadth of the contry... Nearby too, in Moel Carn y Wrach ('bare top of the crag of the witch') there lived a Giantess... at the time Cilmin was carrying out his daring deed the Giantess was coming with her apron full of stones... intendung to make them white hot in the (?unknown word - 'ufelfar') fire of the elves, and throw them afterwards as a destructive covering into the neighbouring fields. When she saw Cilmin coming towards her in such a bustle, she took fright, and dropped the stones down on the slope of the Moel mountain earlier mentioned, and there they are to this day, and they are called Barclodaid y Gawres (the apronful of the giantess). After this things were bad between the Giantess, the Elves and Cilmin.

ETYM
OLOGY: ((the) apronful (of stones) (of) the giantess) (barclodiad = apronful) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (cawres = giantess). The profusion of stones at these places was explained by the actions of mythical figures.

:_______________________________.

bar coffi
<bar KOO-fi> [bar ˡkoˑfɪ] masculine noun
1
coffee bar = small caf for coffee and cakes

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English coffee bar

:_______________________________.

barcty
<BARK-ti> [ˡbarktɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL barctai
<BARK-tai> [ˡbarktaɪ]
1
tannery

ETYMOLOGY: (barc- stem of barcio = to tan hides) + soft mutation + (-ty = house, building) > brc-dy > barcty

:_______________________________.

barcud
<BAR-kid> [ˡbarkɪd] (masculine noun
PLURAL barcudiaid
<bar-KID-yaid, -yed> [barˡkɪdjaɪd, -ɛd]


(delwedd 7006)

1
Milvus milvus red kite


(delwedd 7007)

2
In North Wales barcud traditionally refers to Buteo buteo, the buzzard, as do the the Cornish (bargos) and Breton (barged), cognates of this name. The standard name for the buzzard in Welsh is bwncath.

3 disgyn fel barcud ar swoop down on (fall like a red kite on)
Byddai'n disgyn fel barcud ar bob bargen yn y ffair he'd swoop down on every bargain in the fair

ETYMOLOGY: (1) From the same British root: as in North Wales,

Cornish bargos (= buzzard) (as in the place name Ros Bargos hill of the buzzard), and Karn Bargos (Carn Bargas) at An Woen-wenn (Whitemoor), in Nanpyghan (Nanpean)

Breton barged (= buzzard)

(2) Welsh barcud is a word based on a British element *barg, which also gave rise to the now obsolete Welsh word bery (= bird of prey, kite).

(3) On the basis of the Cornish and Breton forms one might expect Welsh *bargod.

(4) The final syllable in Welsh barcud has a different origin to the Cornish and Breton forms, namely cud (= kite), from Old English cŷta (= kite), related to Middle High German word kze (= owl).

(5) The structure seems to be in Old Welsh (bargh = bird of prey, kite) + soft mutation + (cud = kite). This would have given *bargh-gud, and the combination gh-g would have produced c, hence barcud.

(6) Another example of gh-g becoming c is helcyd (= to chase) < helgh-gyd, apparently Old Welsh helgh- (= to hunt) + cyd (= common, united)

NOTE: Also barcut, (apparently barcut < barcud, the 't' possibly being in imitation of the final 't' in English 'kite') From this the diminutive forms barcutyn, barcutan.

:_______________________________.

barcut
<BAR-kit> [ˡbarkɪt] masculine noun
1
Milvus milvus = red kite; see barcud

:_______________________________.

barcutan
<bar-KI-tan> [barˡkɪtan] masculine noun
1
Milvus milvus = red kite; see barcud

:_______________________________.

barcutyn
<bar-KI-tin> [barˡkɪtɪn] masculine noun
1
Milvus milvus = red kite; see barcud

:_______________________________.

Barcutyn llwyd o'r coed
A ffwlbart wedi drewi
A winci naw mlynedd oed

<bar-KI-tin LHUID or KOID, a FUL-bart WEE-di DREU-i, a WING-ki NAU-mluidh OID>

[barˡkɪtɪn ˡɬʊɪd ɔr ˡkɔɪd, a ˡfʊlbart ˡweˑdɪ ˡdrɛʊɪ, a ˡwɪŋkɪ ˡnaʊ mlʊɪ ˡɔɪd]
county of Ceredigion
1
humorous answer to the question Beth sydd i ginio? What's for dinner?
(a little grey (or mouldy) red kite from the woods, and a polecat which has let off a stink, and a weasel nine years old)

:_______________________________.

bardd
<BARDH> [bar] masculine noun
PLURAL beirdd
<BEIRDH> [bəɪr]
1
bard = poet; the poets formed part of the leading classes among the Celts

2 poet = person who writes poetry
bardd a llenor oedd Rhisiart Puw Rhisiart Puw was a poet and a writer
talwrn y beirdd competition amongst poets, poetry contest

3 cynfardd, early poet, Welsh poet from the early period (500s to 1100)
(cyn- = previous) + soft mutation + (bardd = poet)

gogynfardd Welsh poet from the 100s to the 1300s
(go- prefix, quite) + soft mutation + (cynfardd = early poet)
quite early poet (i.e. not the earliest poet)


4 Gorsedd y Beirdd (qv) congress of bards;
a development of the sense gorsedd = court of law, tribunal
(the modern sense of gorsedd is throne)

5 gwynfardd (literally blessed bard) druid = highest order in Congress of Bards (Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydein)
(gwyn-
<ə> [ə], penult form of gwyn <i> [ɪ] ) + soft mutation + (bardd = bard, poet)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *bard- < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish bardh (= poet), Breton barzh (= poet)
From the same Celtic root: Irish bard (= poet), Scottish bard (= poet)

:_______________________________.

barddas
<BAR-dhas> [ˡbaras] masculine noun
1
poetry (= the art of poetry), bardism

ETYMOLOGY: (bardd = poet) + (-as = suffix)

:_______________________________.

barddol
<BAR-dhol> [ˡbarɔl] feminine noun
1
of a poet
enw barddol bardic name, pseudonym used by a bard
cadair farddol bardic chair, chair awarded in an eisteddfod for a winning 'awdl' (strict metre poem)

ETYMOLOGY: (bardd = poet) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

barddoniadur
<bar-dhon-YAA-dir> [barɔnˡjɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL barddoniaduron
<bar-dhon-ya-DII-ron> [barɔnjaˡdiˑrɔn]
1
guide for poets
William Williams (1814-1869), Creuddynfab, from Creuddyn, Llandudno (county of Conwy), published Y Barddoniadur Cymmreig (= Y Barddoniadur Cymreig the Welsh poetry guide) in 1855

ETYMOLOGY: (barddon-, stem of barddoniaeth = poetry) + (-i-adur noun-forming suffix, indicating a book)

:_______________________________.

barddoniaeth
<bar-DHON-yaith, -yeth> [barˡɔnjaɪθ, -ɛθ] (feminine noun)
1
poetry
2 Barddoniaeth Poetry (subject label in a dictionary)
Abbreviation: Brdd.


:_______________________________.

bardd talcen slip
<bardh TAL-ken SLIP> [bar ˡtalkɛn ˡslɪp] (masculine noun)
1
doggerel poet (poet of receding forehead)

:_______________________________.

barf
<BARV> [barv] feminine noun
PLURAL barfau
<BAR-vai, -e> [ˡbarvaɪ, -ɛ]
1
beard = hair on lower part of a man's face

barf osod PLURAL barfau gosod false beard (beard (of) placing)
glasu barf start growing a beard
tyfu bardd grow a beard

2 beard = a similar growth in some animals
barf yr afr felen (name of a plant) (Tragopogon pratensis) goats beard ((the) beard (of )the yellow goat)
barf yr hen ŵr (Clematis vitalbi) travellers joy / old mans beard (Clematis vitalbi) ((the) beard (of )the old man)

gwisgo barf have a beard (wear (a) beard)

3 mould (resembling a beard)

ETYMOLOGY: British < Latin barba (= beard)
From the same British root: Cornish barv (= beard), Breton barv (= beard)
cf Old English / modern English beard, German der Bart (= beard)

NOTE: colloquially also baraf
<BAAR-av> [ˡbɑˑrav] (Ceredigion)

:_______________________________.

barfog
<BAR-vog> [ˡbarvɔg] adjective
1
bearded
dyn barfog a bearded man

2 corswennol farfog (f) corswenoliaid barfog (Chlidonias hybrida) whiskered tern

3 barfog (m) barfogiaid
<bar-VOG-yaid, -yed> [barˡvɔgjaɪd, -ɛd] bearded man

ETYMOLOGY: (barf = beard) (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

barfogyn
<bar-VOO-gin> [barˡvoˑgɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL barfogiaid
<bar-VOG-yaid, -yed> [barˡvɔgjaɪd, -ɛd]
1
(Barbus barbus) barbel



(delwedd 7411)

ETYMOLOGY: bearded [fish] (barfog = bearded) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns or adjectives to form nouns)

:_______________________________.

barforwyn, PLURAL: barforwynion
<bar-VOO-ruin,-bar-vo-RUIN-yon> [barˡvoˑrʊɪn, barvɔˡrʊɪnjɔn] (feminine noun)
1
barmaid

ETYMOLOGY: an imitation of the English word bar + maid

(bar = bar) + soft mutation + (morwyn = maid)
:_______________________________.

bargen, PLURAL: bargeinion
<BAR-gen, bar-GEIN-yon> [ˡbargɛn, barˡgəɪnjɔn] (feminine noun)
1
bargain = something with an advantageous price

2 bargain, deal (= transaction or agreement)
taro bargen strike a deal, strike a bargain

Ni thrawyd mor fargen The deal didnt come off, The deal fell through (not + has been struck + not-of-the + deal)

:_______________________________.

Bargen yw bargen, serch colli
<BAR-gen iu BAR-gen, serkh KO-lhi> [ˡbargɛn ɪʊ ˡbargɛn, sɛrx ˡkɔɬɪ] saying
1
A deal's a deal (even if you lose out) ("a bargain's a bargain, in spite of losing); if you agree to buy something at a price which you think is very favourable, and you pay and find that you could have paid less somewhere else, you can't undo a deal already agreed; you cant back out once youve given your word

:_______________________________.

bargod
<BAR-god> [ˡbargɔd] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL bargodion
<bar-GOD-yon> [barˡgɔdjɔn]
1
eaves; overhang of a roof

2 county of Dinbych edge of a wood

3 (obsolete) borderland, territorial boundary, border zone, frontier.
Nant y Bargod boundary stream

.....(3.1) The cwmwd (commote, division) of Senghennydd was located in the area between the rivers Taf and Rhymni in South-east Wales. Here there are two streams called Nant y Bargod which both rise on the highland between the towns of Rhymni and Merthytudful. One flows towards the east and eventually joins the river Rhymni, and the other to the west, joining the river Taf.

They are distinguished by the addition of the names of these rivers - Nant Bargod Rhymni ((the) stream (of) (the) border area (which flows into the river) Rhymni), and Nant Bargod Taf ((the) stream (of) (the) border area (which flows into the river) Taf).

Nant Bargod Rhymni:

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/625490


(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

The eastern stream flows from near the village of Fochriw, down past the village of Y Deri, and into the river Rhymni in Aberbargod ((the) confluence (of the) Bargod (stream) (and the Rhymni)).

The town of Y Bargod (qv) overlooks the confluence from the hill above on the western side.

The western stream flows from near Pownd Ras Las. It rises at Blaen Bargod ((the) source (of) (the) Bargod (stream)). It goes towards Bedlinog, past a farm called Cwmbargod (the) valley (of) (the) Bargod (stream).

The map indicates that below the farm this is the name of the valley - Cwm Bargod. Between Bedlinog and Trelewis there is Craig Fargod (the cliff overlooking the Bargod stream) from which two farms take their names - Craigfargod, and Pencraigfargod ((the) end (of) Craig Fargod, the place by Craig Fargod).

It continues through Trelewis into the Taf at Mynwentycrynwyr. In Trelewis there is a Heol Glyn Bargod (street (of) (the) valley (of the) Bargod (stream)) (in English as Glyn Bargoed Road)

Some of these names are misspelt with Bargoed instead of Bargod. In the south it is usual in spoken Welsh for a final 'oe' diphthong to become simplifed as 'o'.

For example, 'cyfoeth' (riches) would become 'cyfoth'.

Names with 'coed' as the last element would undergo the same change: Glasgoed (green wood) > Glasgod, Trawsgoed (across + wood) > Trawsgod, Hirgoed (long wood) > Hirgod. An example by Aber-dr is Llwytgoed (grey wood) > Llwytgod (though in fact there were further transformations in the local dialect and it became Llycod).

Although the word bargod is still in use with the sense of 'eaves' it seems that it was assumed that the final syllable was a reduction of 'coed', and as place names are normally spelt in literary Welsh rather than according to the local pronunciation it was respelt as Bargoed and explained as the wood on the summit, summit wood (bar = summit) + soft mutation of a noun preceded by a qualifying element + (coed = wood). A plausible explanation, but wrong!

.....(3.2) Blaenbargod name of a farm 5km south of Llangeler SN3739 (county of Caerfyrddin)

SN7840 Nant Bargod, a tributary of Afon Brn, by Cynghordy (Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/367724

SN7840 Cwmbargod (Cwmbargoed) a farm here, near Cynghordy, Caerfyrddin

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/367713

4 overhang of a cliff, river bank

5 edrych dan fargod eich llaw shade one's eyes with one's hand (to keep out a strong light; by placing the thumb edge of the hand between the eyebrows, and the thumb on the temple) (look under the eave of your hand)

6 gwennol y fargod ((the) swallow (of) the eaves) Delichon urbicas = house martin .
Alternative name of gwennol y bondo (also meaning (the) swallow (of) the eaves)

7 dŵr bargod drippings from roof (water (of) eaves)
diferion y bargod eavesdrip, drops of water from the eaves

ETYMOLOGY: bargod < bargawd (bar = top) + soft mutation + (cawd, unknown element, possibly = side)

:_______________________________.

Y Bargod
<ə BAR-god> [ə ˡbargɔd] feminine noun
ST 1499
1
town in the county of Caerffili, South-east Wales; the local form is Y Byrgod
<ə BƏR-god> [ə ˡbərgɔd]
Population (1961): 8.835; proportion of Welsh-speakers (1961): 10%
Population (1971): 8.700; proportion of Welsh-speakers (1971): 6%

NOTE: The local form Bargod
[ˡbargɔd] > Byrgod [ˡbərgɔd] shows the usual reduction in South Wales of the final 'oe' to 'o', and the unusual reduction of 'a' in the tonic syllable to the obscure vowel 'y' (though in south-east Wales a number of words do show this feature).

Nowadays the erroneous form Bargoed (though apparently dating from the 1600s at least) seems to have become the usual form in Welsh. See bargod above.

:_______________________________.

bargodiad
<bar-GOD-yad> [barˡgɔdjad] masculine noun
PLURAL bargodiadau
<bar-god-YAA-dai, -e> [bargɔdˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
overhang of a cliff, river bank

ETYMOLOGY: (bargod-, stem of the verb bargodi = project) + (-iad suffix)

:_______________________________.

bar gwin
<bar GWIIN> [bar ˡgwiːn] (masculine noun)
1
wine bar

:_______________________________.

bargyfreithiwr, PLURAL: bargyfreithwyr
<bar-gə-VREITH-yur, bar-gə-VREITH-wir> [bargəˡvrəɪθjʊr, bargəˡvrəɪθwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
barrister

:_______________________________.

barlys
<BAR-lis> [ˡbarlɪs] (plural noun)
1
barley

:_______________________________.

barlysyn
<bar-LƏ-sin> [barˡləsɪn] (masculine noun)
1
barleycorn

:_______________________________.

barman, PLURAL: barmyn
<BAR-man, BAR-min> [ˡbarman, ˡbarmɪn] (masculine noun)
1
barman

:_______________________________.

barn, PLURAL: barnau
<BARN, BAR-nai, -e> [barn, ˡbarnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
opinion
y farn = the opinion

2 y farn day of judgement, the final judgement
cyn sicred 'r farn as sure as fate (as certain as the final judgement)
mor siwred 'r farn as sure as fate (as certain as the final judgement)

3 mynegi barn ar (rywbeth) voice an opinion about (something)
traethu barn ar (rywbeth) voice an opinion about (something)
datgan barn ar (rywbeth) voice an opinion about (something)

4 cytundeb barn consensus, general agreement
cael cytundeb barn ar y mater reach a consensus on the issue

:_______________________________.

barnu
<BAR-ni> [ˡbarnɪ] (verb)
1
to judge

2 barnu (rhywun) ar ei olwg judge (somebody) by his appearance (judge (somebody) on his appearance)
barnu (rhywun) ar yr olwg allanol judge (somebody) by his appearance (judge (somebody) on the external appearance)
barnu (rhywun) yn l ei olwg judge (somebody) by his appearance (judge (somebody) according to his appearance)

:_______________________________.

barnwr, PLURAL: barnwyr
<BAR-nur,-BARN-wir> [ˡbarnʊr, ˡbarnwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
judge

:_______________________________.

Barselona <bar-se-LOO-na> [barsɛˡloˑna] (feminine noun)
1
Barcelona

:_______________________________.

barugog <ba-RII-gog> [baˡriˑgɔg] adj
1
(North Wales) frosted over

2 gwydr barugog frosted glass = glass with raised nodules which allows in light but prevents visibility, as in toilet windows

ETYMOLOGY: (barug- < barrug = frost) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

bas
<BAAS> [ˡbɑːs] (adjective)
1
shallow

:_______________________________.

basa
<BA-sa> [ˡbasa] (verb)
1
(North-west) he / she / it would be

:_______________________________.

basach
<BA-sakh> [ˡbasax] (verb)
1
(North-west)you would be

:_______________________________.

basach chi
<BA-sa-khi> [ˡbasaxɪ] (verb)
1
(North-west) you would be

:_______________________________.

basa chi = basach chi
<BA-sa-khi> [ˡbasaxɪ] (verb)
1
(North-west) you would be

:_______________________________.

basa fo
<BA-sa-vo> [ˡbasavɔ] (verb)
1
(North-west) he would be

:_______________________________.

basan
<BA-san> [ˡbasan] (verb) (North-west)
1
answer form - yes, they would be

:_______________________________.

basan
<BA-san> [ˡbasan] (verb)
1
(North-west) answer form - yes, we would be

:_______________________________.

basan nhw
<BA-sa-nu> [ˡbasanʊ] (verb)
1
(North-west) they would be

:_______________________________.

basan ni
<BA-sa-ni> [ˡbasanɪ] (verb)
1
(North-west) we would be

:_______________________________.

basat
<BA-sat> [ˡbasat] (verb)
1
(North-west) you would be

:_______________________________.

basat ti
<BA-sa-ti> [ˡbasatɪ] (verb)
1
(North-west) you would be

:_______________________________.

base
<BA-se> [ˡbasɛ] (verb)
1
(North-east) yes, he / she / it would be

:_______________________________.

basech
<BA-sekh> [ˡbasɛx] (verb)
1
(North-east), you would be

:_______________________________.

basech chi
<BA-se-khi> [ˡbasɛxɪ] (verb)
1
(North-east), you would be

:_______________________________.

base fo
<BA-se-vo> [ˡbasɛvɔ] (verb)
1
(North-east), he would be

:_______________________________.

base hi
<BA-se-hi> [ˡbasɛhɪ] (verb)
1
(North-east), she would be

:_______________________________.

basen
<BA-sen> [ˡbasɛn] (verb)
1
(North-east), yes, they would be

:_______________________________.

basen
<BA-sen> [ˡbasɛn] (verb)
1
(North-east), yes, we would be

:_______________________________.

basen nhw
<BA-se-nu> [ˡbasɛnʊ] (verb)
1
(North-east) they would be

:_______________________________.

basen ni
<BA-se-ni> [ˡbasɛnɪ] (verb)
1
(North-east) we would be

:_______________________________.

baset
<BA-set> [ˡbasɛt] (verb)
1
(North-east) yes, you would be

:_______________________________.

baset ti
<BA-se-ti> [ˡbasɛtɪ] (verb)
1
(North-east)would be

:_______________________________.

Basg, PLURAL: Basgiaid
<BASK, BASK-yaid, -yed> [basg, ˡbasgjaɪd, -ɛd] (masculine noun)
1
Basque (= man from the Basque Country)

:_______________________________.

Basg
<BASK> [basg]
1
soft-mutated form of Pasg = Easter
ysgol Basg Easter school, Easter conference

:_______________________________.

basged, PLURAL: basgedi
<BA-sked, ba-SKEE-di> [ˡbasgɛd, baˡsgeˑdɪ] (verb)
1
basket

:_______________________________.

Basgeg
<BA-skeg> [ˡbasgɛg] feminine noun
1
Basque = language, euskara

ETYMOLOGY: (Basg = Basque person) + (-eg suffix for forming a noun or adjective indicating a language)

:_______________________________.

basgrwth
<BAS-kruth> [ˡbasgrʊθ] masculine noun
PLURAL basgrythau
<bas-KRƏ-thai, -e> [basˡgrəθaɪ, -ɛ]
1
double bass
Also: dwbl bas

ETYMOLOGY: (bas = bass) + soft mutation + (crwth = violin)

:_______________________________.

basle
<BAS-le> [ˡbaslɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL basleoedd
<bas-LEE-oidh, -odh> [basˡleˑɔɪ, -ɔ]
1
shallow, shallows = a stretch of shallow water

Basle ym mhlwyf Llangynfelyn, Ceredigion, yw Traeth Maelgwn
Traeth Maelgwn (the shore of Maelgwn) is a shallow in the parish of Llangynfelyn (in the county of) Ceredigion

ETYMOLOGY: (bas = shallow) + soft mutation + (lle = place)

:_______________________________.

basn, PLURAL: basnau
<BA-san, BA-snai, -e> [ˡbasan, ˡbasnaɪ, -ɛ] (verb)
1
basin

:_______________________________.

baswn
<BA-sun> [ˡbasʊn] (verb)
1
(North) yes (I would be)

:_______________________________.

baswn i
<BA-su-ni> [ˡbasʊnɪ] (verb)
1
(North) I would be

:_______________________________.

bataliwn, PLURAL: bataliynau
<ba-TAL-yun, ba-tal-YƏ-nai, -e> [baˡtaljʊn, batalˡjənaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

1 battalion

:_______________________________.

batelu
<ba-TEE-li> [baˡteˑlɪ] verb
1
to battle

ETYMOLOGY: (batel = battle) + (-u = suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: also batlo
<BAT-lo> [ˡbatlɔ]

:_______________________________.

bth, PLURAL: bths
<BATH, BATHS> [baθ, baθs] (masculine noun)
1
bath

:_______________________________.

bth adar
<bath AA-dar> [baθ ˡɑˑdar] (masculine noun)
1
bird bath

:_______________________________.

bathdy
<BATH-di> [ˡbaθdɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL bathdai
<BATH-dai> [ˡbaθdaɪ]
1
mint, place for minting coins

Un lle sy byth yn brin o arian yw bathdy Llantrisant ger Caer-dydd
One place which is never short of money is Llantrisant Mint near Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (bath-, stem of bathu = to coin) + soft mutation + (ty = house)

:_______________________________.

bathiad
<BATH-yad> [ˡbaθjad] masculine noun
PLURAL bathiadau
<bath-YAA-dai, -e> [baθˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
coining, production of coins

2 coining = invention of a word

Roedd llawer yn amau doethineb bathiadau newydd Tomos Edwards, Caerfallwch, megis buddsoddi, nwy, daeareg, degol, cyngerdd ayyb ayyb
Many people were doubtful of (doubted the wisdom of) the new coinings of Tomos Edwards, Caerfallwch, such as buddsoddi (to invest), nwy (gas), daeareg (geology), degol (decimal), cyngerdd (concert) etc etc
3
drwgfathiad counterfeit (drwg = bad)

ETYMOLOGY: (bath-, stem of bathu = to coin) + (-i-ad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

bathrwm
<BATH-rum> [ˡbaθrʊm] feminine noun
PLURAL bathrwms
<BATH-rumz> [ˡbaθrʊmz]
1
(colloquial) bathroom

ETYMOLOGY: English bathroom
NOTE: The standard word is ystafell ymolchi (room (of) washing oneself); sometimes ystafell faddon (room (of) bath) is used

:_______________________________.

batlo
<BAT-lo> [ˡbatlɔ] verb
1
battle, be at battle
Dal i fatlo... ein gohebydd yn holi cyn-filwyr y mae eu bywyd yn dal yn faes y gad iddynt
Still at battle - our correspondent talks to ex-soldiers whose lives continue to be a battlefield for them

ETYMOLOGY: (batl = battle) + (-o = suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: also batelu
<ba-TEE-li> [baˡteˑlɪ]

:_______________________________.

Batus
<BA-tis> [ˡbatɪs] masculine noun
PLURAL Batus
<BA-tis> [ˡbatɪs]
(North Wales)
1
(colloquial) baptist

Batus Bach
Scotch Baptist

Y Batus Bach nickname for David Lloyd George (1863-1945, prime minister of the English state 1916-1922)

Does dim amheuaeth... yn l... erthygl bryfoclyd Lloyd George yn y Daily Express fod y Batus Bach wedi swyno gan garisma Hitler (Golwg 10 03 94)
There is no doubt... according to... an incisive article by Lloyd George in the Daily Express that the Batus Bach had been captivated by Hitlers charisma

2 (colloquial) y Batus (plural) = the Baptists

ETYMOLOGY: from English baptist

:_______________________________.

baw
<BAU> [baʊ] masculine noun
1 dirt, filth
bod yn faw i gyd be covered in muck (be all mud)
Baw o ddyn yw e Hes vermin ((it is) dirt of a man that-he-is)

2 excrement, faeces, shit

baw ci dogdirt, dogshit (from one dog) (Amercian: also dog hockey) (dirt (of a) dog)
baw cŵn dogdirt, dogshit (from many dogs) (dirt (of) dogs)

3 rhad fel baw dirt cheap
bod yn rhad fel baw be dirt cheap
cheap like dirt / shit (rhad = cheap) + (fel = like) + (baw dirt / shit)

4 baw isa'r domen < baw isaf y domen the lowest of the low, the scum of the earth
((the) lowest excrement (of) the dungheap)

5 ar eich baw (on your dirt / shit)
gadael (rhywun) ar ei faw to leave (somebody) in the lurch
gadael (rhywun) yn y baw leave (someone) in the lurch, let (somebody) down, leave (someone) to fend for himself (leave someone in the dirt)
bod wedich gadael yn y baw be left in the lurch

:_______________________________.

bawcoed
<BAU-koɪd> [ˡbaʊkɔɪd] masculine noun
(South Wales)
1
bawcod
<BAU-kod> [ˡbaʊkɔd] fallen twigs and branches, especially after a storm (used for a fire)

ETYMOLOGY: rubbish of trees (baw = rubbish, dung, dirt) + (coed = wood, trees) > baw-ced > bw-coed

:_______________________________.

bawd
<BAUD> [baʊd] masculine noun
PLURAL bodiau
<BOD-yai, -e> [ˡbɔdjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
thumb = short thick inner finger. Also bys bawd
troi eich bodiau
twiddle your thumbs

2 thumb = corresponding digit in other animals

3 thumb = part of a glove covering the thumb

4 bawd y troed big toe; plural bodiau'r traed. When the context is obvious, simply bawd.

5
l bawd thumbprint

6 in expressing clumsiness with the hands:

bod yn fodiau i gyd be all fingers and thumbs, be very clumsy in handling things or performing handiwork (be thumbs all)

Mae hwnnw yn fodiau i gyd His fingers are all thumbs (that person (that we are talking about but not present) is thumbs all)

Mae pob bys yn fawd ganddo Hes clumsy with his fingers (every finger is a thumb with him)

7 modfedd inch. Literally thumb measure - (mawd = thumb) + soft mutation + (medd = measure)

8 modrwy ring. Literally thumb-binding - (mawd = thumb) + soft mutation + (rhwy, apparently linked to rhwymo = to bind)

9 Nid ei di byth uwch bawd na sawdl Youll never get anywhere, Youll never make it, Youre doomed to failure (you wont go higher than a toe or a heel)
10
bodio BOD yo (verb) to thumb it, to hitchhike
ETYMOLOGY: (bawd = thumb) + (-io verb suffix) > bawdio > bodio (reduction of the diphthong aw in the penult to the simple vowel o, a usual feature in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh bawd < mawd < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton: meud;
NOTE: the confusion m > b is seen in other Welsh words

(a) maban = little child > baban,
(b) Maredudd = man's name > Bedo
(c) modryb = aunt, bodo = auntie (in South-east Wales, bopa)

There is also the reverse process b > m
(a) abwydyn = worm > bwydyn > mwydyn (diminutive form),
(b) benyw = woman > menyw
The plural form bodiau < bawdiau
(reduction of the diphthong aw in the penult to the simple vowel o, a usual feature in Welsh)
:_______________________________.

bawddyn
<BAW-dhin> [ˡbawɪn] masculine noun
1 vile person
Pawb ai cenfydd, o bydd bai,
A bawddyn, er na byddai.

Everyone will perceive it, if there is a fault,
And a vile person
(will find one) even though there isnt (one)
(Goronwy Owen 1722 - 1769)

ETYMOLOGY: (baw = dirt) + soft mutation + (dyn = man)
:_______________________________.

Beca
<BE-ka> [ˡbɛka] (feminine noun)
1
womans name, shortened form of Welsh Rebeca (= English Rebecca)

2 Y Beca The Rebecca Riots (1840s; protests against tolls on roads)
Also helyntion Rebeca = The Rebecca Riots, terfysg Beca = The Rebecca Riots

:_______________________________.

bechan
<BEE-khan> [ˡbeˑxan] adjective
1
feminine form of bychan (= small, little, lesser)

Usually in the form fechan (with soft mutation
<b> [b] > <v> [v] ; soft mutation occurs to the first consonant if it is mutable of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)

(a) Graigfechan (the) little rock (village SJ1454 in the county of Dinbych);

(b) Llanfair Fechan (the) little Llanfair (= church of saint Mary). Village SH6874 in the county of Conwy

(c) Nedd Fechan (the) lesser Nedd, a tributary of the Nedd river in south-east Wales

:_______________________________.

bechan
<BEE-khan> [ˡbeˑxan] feminine noun
1
little girl

Roedd y taid yn chwarae pip-po efoi wyres ieuangaf. Cuddiai ei wyneb y tu l i bapur newydd a gofyn 'Lle mae Taid?' Pan fyddain symud y papur ac yn dweud, 'Dyma fo', byddair fechan yn chwerthin nes bydd hi'n wan
The grandfather was playing peep-bo with his youngest granddaughter. He hid his face behind a newspaper and asked Wheres Granpop? When he moved the paper and said Here he is! the little girl laughed until she was weak (from laughing)

2
mechan i my little one, my little darling, sweetheart
(a) to a litle girl; (b) to a lover / spouse
= fy mechan i, fy (= my) + nasal mutation + (bechan) + (i = (of) me)

ETYMOLOGY: use of the adjective bechan as a noun. Feminine form of bychan (= small, little).

:_______________________________.

Bechan
<BEE-khan> [ˡbeˑxan] feminine noun
1
Afon Bechan = river in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys) SO0798

ETYMOLOGY: (the) river (called) Bechan; apparently bechan, feminine form of bychan (= small, little, lesser). If it were the little river we would expect (yr) Afon Fechan

:_______________________________.

bechgyn (plural of bachgen)
<BEKH-gin> [ˡbɛxgɪn]
1
boys; see bachgen

:_______________________________.

bechdan
<BEKH-dan> [ˡbɛxdan] feminine noun
PLURAL bechdanau
<bekh-DAA-nai, -ne> [bɛxˡdɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
form of the word brechdan; slice of bread and butter, (Northern England: butty) (Scotland: piece)
bechdan jam bread and jam (bread and butter with jam)

:_______________________________.

be-chi'n-galw, bechingalw
BEE-khin-GAA-lu [ˡbeˑxɪn ˡgɑˑlʊ] pronoun
1
a what-d'y'-call-it, whatchamacallit, doodah (USA: hickey) (refrerring to something the name of which is unknown or momentarily forgotten)

2 what's-it (to avoid a word considered rude)

3 (South Wales) vagina, cunt

ETYMOLOGY: (pa) beth (yr) (ych) chi yn (ei) galw what do you call it / her
(pa = which ) + soft mutation + (peth = thing) + (yr linking particle) + (ych chi you are) + (yn linking particle) + (ei = its, her) + (galw = call)


:_______________________________.

becso
<BEK-so> [ˡbɛksɔ] (verb)
1
to worry (from English 'to vex')
2
(South-west) becsoch enaid be worried out of your mind (worry your soul)

:_______________________________.

bedd, PLURAL: beddau
<BEEDH, BE-dhai, -dhe> [ˡbeː, ˡbeˑaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
grave

2 ysbeiliwr beddau grave robber

3 mynd fel y bedd go dead silent

Fe aeth hi fel y bedd You could have heard a pin drop, it went dead quiet (it went like the grave) (go like the grave) (mynd = to go) + (fel = like) + (y = the) + (bedd = grave)

4 cyn ddistawed r bedd as silent as the grave
mor ddistaw 'r bedd as silent as the grave

5 carreg fedd gravestone, tombstone (carreg = stone) + soft mutation + (bedd = tomb, grave)

6 codi corff o fedd exhume a body (raise a body from a grave)

7 yr ochr yma ir bedd during ones lifetime, here on earth, before going to heaven (on this side of the grave)

:_______________________________.

beddargraff
<bedh-AR-graf> [bɛˡargraf] masculine noun
PLURAL beddargraffiadau
<be-dhar-graf-YAA-dai, -de> [bɛargrafˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
epitaph, inscription (on gravestone)

ETYMOLOGY: (bedd = grave) + (argraff = inscription)

:_______________________________.

Bedd Arthur
<beedh AR-thir> [beː ˡarθɪr] masculine noun
1
SN1332 gravesite 5km west of Crymych (county of Penfro)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/301098 Bedd Arthur


(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) grave (of) Arthur; Arthur's Tomb / Grave (bedd = grave) + (Arthur = Arthur)

:_______________________________.

Y Beddau
<ə BEE-dhai, -dhe> [ə ˡbeˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
ST0585 locality in the county de Rhondda-Cynon-Taf

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/357651
Sgwr y Beddau / Beddau Square

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)


2 ST1487 name of a farm in Heol Trecennydd in the county of Caerffili

Heol y Beddau ST1586 name of a street in Caerffili near Gorsaf yr Aber / Aber Station

(the) street (of) Y Beddau

ETYMOLOGY: y beddau = the graves (plural of bedd = grave)
NOTE: in the south-east Beddau > Bedda
<BEE-dha> [ˡbeˑa]

:_______________________________.

beddrod
<BEDH-rod> [ˡbɛrɔd] masculine noun
PLURAL beddrodau
<bedh-ROO-dai, -de> [bɛˡroˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
tomb
Y Beddrod Sanctaidd The Holy Sepulchre, the grave where the body of Jesus Christ was placed after the Crucifixion

2 North-west Wales, obsolete bedrog = charnel house, building where bones or corpses are deposited (?could this be the influence of the place name Llanbedrog SH3231 6km south-west of Pwllheli, in the county of Gwynedd in north-west Wales. The change of final d > g is otherwise very unusual)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh beddrod < beddrawd; (bedd = grave) + soft mutation + (rhawd = course, route) < British *bedo-rt-
From the same British root: Breton bered = grave, < bezred

:_______________________________.

Bedd Taliesin
<BEEDH ta-li-E-sin> [ˡbeː talɪˡɛsɪn] masculine noun
SN6791
1
locality in the county of Ceredigion ((the) grave (of) Taliesin)

:_______________________________.

bedd wedi ei wyngalchu
<BEEDH WE-di ɛi / i wən-GAL-khi> [ˡbeː ˡwɛdɪ əɪ / ɪ wənˡgalxɪ] masculine noun
1
a hypocritical person (literally whitewashed tomb, whited sepulchre) = a person whose outward behaviour conceals the person's innate badness; expression from the Bible (Matthew 23:27) (beddau wedi eu gwyngalchu = whited sepulchres)

2 something pleasing to see from the outside but inside corrupt

ETYMOLOGY: a grave after its whitewashing (bedd = grave) + (wedi = after) + (ei = its) + soft mutation + (gwyngalchu = whitewashing, to whitewash)

:_______________________________.

Bedd y Ci Du
<BEEDH ə KII DII> [ˡbeː ə ˡkiː ˡdiː]
1 ((the) grave (of) the black dog)

Lost field name in Y Rhath, Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (the) grave (of) the black dog
(bedd = grave) + (y = definite article) + (ci = dog) + (du = black)

:_______________________________.

Bedd y Cawr
<BEEDH ə KAUR> [ˡbeː ə ˡkaʊr] 1 (SJ0172) locality in the county of Dinbych (North-east Wales) ((the) grave (of) the giant)

:_______________________________.

be 'di
<BEE di> [ˡbeˑdɪ]
1
North Wales (pa beth ydyw > beth ydi > be 'di, sometimes written as bedi) what is...?

:_______________________________.

bedi
<BEE di> [ˡbeˑdɪ]
See be 'di

:_______________________________.

bedlam
<BED-lam> [ˡbɛdlam]

1 feminine noun; obsolete bedlam = a madhouse

Mae hi fel bedlam yma
It's bedlam here, it's like a madhouse in here (said of activity accompanied by great confusion or noise)

2 feminine noun; bedlam = uproar;
bod yn fedlam wyllt be bedlam, be complete uproar (be wild bedlam)

3 masculine noun; obsolete beggar, tramp; see bedlem

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English bedlam = madhouse, a corruption of 'Bethlehem', from the name of a hospital (Bethlehem Royal Hospital) by Bishopsgate, in London. This was originally a priory called Saint Mary of Bethlehem, founded in 1247 by the Sheriff of London, Simon FitzMary. In the late 1300s it began to admit mental patients, becoming an official lunatic asylum in the 1500s.

:_______________________________.

bedlan
<BED-lan> [ˡbɛdlan] masculine noun
1
North-west Wales ar hyd y bedlan continually, all along, all the time

ETYMOLOGY: probably from English peddling = travelling as a pedlar

:_______________________________.

bedlem
<BED-lem> [ˡbɛdlɛm] masculine noun
PLURAL bedlemod, bedlemiaid
<bed-LE-mod, bed-LEM-yaid, -ed> [bɛdˡlɛmɔd, bɛdˡlɛmjaɪd, -ɛd]
1
obsolete beggar, tramp (male); originally someone from a madhouse with a permit for begging

2 Anodd rhyngu bodd bedlemod Beggars are hard to please (because they think that a donation given them could be more or better) ((it is) hard pleasing beggars)

ETYMOLOGY: form of bedlam = beggar

:_______________________________.

bedlemes
<bed-LE-mes> [bɛdˡlɛmɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL bedlemesau
<bed-le-ME-se> [bɛdlɛˡmɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
1
obsolete beggar, tramp (female); see bedlem
y fedlemes = the female tramp

ETYMOLOGY: (bedlem = beggar) + (-es)

:_______________________________.

bedlema
<bed-LE-ma> [bɛdˡlɛma] verb
1 wander about
Lle buost ti'n bedlema c'yd? Where've you been all this time? (someone who takes longer than expected to do an errand) (Where have you been wandering about all this time?)

ETYMOLOGY: wander about < wander about begging (bedlem = beggar) + (-a)

:_______________________________.

Bedlinog
<bed-LII-nog> [bɛdˡliˑnɔg] feminine noun
SO0901
1
locality in the county of Merthyrtudful

Population: (1961) 3,992 (26% Welsh speakers)
Population: (1971) 4,050 (13% Welsh speakers)

NOTE: A fanciful name for the village is Beddllwynog / Bedd Llwynog, from a belief that the name Bedlinog represents bedd y llwynog, (the) grave (of) the fox

:_______________________________.

bedlwyn
<BED-luin> [ˡbɛdlʊɪn] masculine noun
1
birch grove. See bedwlwyn

:_______________________________.

Bedo
<BEE-do> [ˡbeˑdɔ] masculine noun
1
man's name (pet form of Maredudd)

2 patronymic = son of Bedo, originally (before circa 1600) ap Bedo

3
fixed surname (descendant of the son of Bedo) English form: Beddoe, Beddoes

ETYMOLOGY: diminutive of Maredudd, probably from child language (spoken by or to small children); -o = diminitive suffix, the change of the initial consonant m > b occurs in other words in Welsh. See baban = infant, benyw = woman

:_______________________________.

bedol
<BEE-dol> [ˡbeˑdɔl] f
1
soft mutated form of pedol = horseshoe
y bedol = the horseshoe

:_______________________________.

Bedr
<BEE-der> [ˡbeˑdɛr] masculine noun
1
soft-mutated form of Pedr = Peter

Llanbedr / Llambed
<LHAN-bedr,-LHAM-bed> [ˡɬanbɛdr, ˡɬambɛd] (the) church (dedicated to) Peter, Peter Church
Gw^yl Bedr Saint Peters Day, June the twenty-ninth ((the) feastday (of) Peter)
Ffynnon Bedr Peter Well, ((the) well (of) Peter)

:_______________________________.

bedw
<BEE-du> [ˡbeˑdʊ]
collective noun
1
(plural of bedwen) birches

feminine noun
2
birch grove, birch wood;
(a) Tynyfedw the smallholding by the birch grove
(b) Cefn y Fedw
hill of the birch trees / of the birch wood Place by Rhiwabon. Called by the English Ruabon Mountain

adjective
3
made of birch
gwialen fedw birch rod (for corporal punishment)

:_______________________________.

Bedw
<BEE-du> [ˡbeˑdʊ] feminine noun
1
SN3550 Afon Bedw = river in Ceredigion

:_______________________________.

Bedw
<BEE-du> [ˡbeˑdʊ] feminine noun
1
birch grove, birch trees
Y Fedw the birch grove

2 Cefn y Fedw place by Rhiwabon. Called by the English Ruabon Mountain

:_______________________________.

bedwan
<BED-wan> [ˡbɛdwan] feminine noun
1
South-east Wales form of bedwan = birch tree

:_______________________________.

Bedward
<BED-ward> [ˡbɛdward] masculine noun
1
telescoped form of ab Edward = (the) son (of) Edward; used as a surname

:_______________________________.

Bedwas
<BED-was> [ˡbɛdwas] feminine noun
ST 1789
1
locality in Caerffili county, south-east Wales; population (1961) c. 3000; proportion of Welsh-speakers (1961) 8%
2
parish

ETYMOLOGY: Bedwas < Bedwes (1566: Bedwes) < bedwos = small birch trees (bedw = birches) + (-os = diminitive suffix added to plural nouns)

:_______________________________.

bedwen
<BED-wen> [ˡbɛdwɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL bedw, bedwenni
<BEE-du> [ˡbeˑdʊ] <bed-WE-ni> [bɛdˡwɛnɪ]
1
Betula pendula birch tree
Betula pendula
is also called bedwen arian, as in English silver birch

2
bedwen lwyd plural bedw llwydion Betula pubescens downy birch (literally grey birch)
Betula pubescens is also called bedwen gyffredin plural bedw cyffredin (common birch)

3
corfedwen; plural corfedw Betula nana dwarf birch

4
Bedwen / bedw is a common element in place names
..1/ Bedwarian street in Bryntirion, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

..2/ Glynbedw street name, Llanbradach (county of Caerffili)
glyn y bedw = valley (of) birches

..3/ Heol y Bedw (the) street (of) the birches, or (the) street (of) (the house called) Y Bedw
....a/ Heol Bedw street name, Y Porth (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

..4/ Heol y Bedwhirion street name, Bedwellte (county of Caerffili) (tall birches)

..5/ Penrhiwfedwen pen rhiw y fedwen = the top of the slope with the birch tree
(Census, Llangynfelyn 1851: Troedrhiwfedwen / Thomas Jones / Born in Llanfihangel Genaur Glyn / Head of Household / Married / Age 78 / Pauper, farrier)
twyn y bedw = hill of the birch trees

..6/ Twynbedw street name in Y Porth (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

..7/ Y Fedwenarian (Y Fedwen Arian) (= the silver birch) street name in Penymynydd (SJ3062) (county of Y Fflint)

5
bdwlwyn, or bedlwyn birch grove, birch wood
Heol y Bedlwyn street in Tredegar Newydd (county of Caerffili) (Bedlwyn Road)

6
llwyn bedw birch grove, birch wood
Llwynbedw
.....(a) street name, Pen-coed, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr county
.....(b) street name, Fforest-fach, Abertawe county

7
bedwos small birch trees
Bedwas village in Caerffili county < bedwos. The change of a final o to a in the south is to be seen in the word ofn = fear; this becomes a bisyllable colloquially ofon
, and in many places has in turn become ofan <OO-van> [ˡoˑvan]

8
Penbedw headland of birch trees Welsh name for Birkenhead, Wirral Peninsula, England

9
(feminine noun) birch grove, birch wood;
Y Fedw the birch grove, the birch wood;
Tynyfedw the smallholding by the birch grove

10
bedwen haf maypole (birch tree (of) summer)
dawns y fedwen haf maypole dance

11
bedw (qualifier) birch = made from birch
gwialen fedw birch rod (for corporal punishment)

12 bedwenni (qv) birch trees

ETYMOLOGY: (bedw = birch trees) + (-en suffix for forming singulative nouns); bedw < British *betw- < Celtic < Indoeuropean *gwet-

From the same British root:
Cornish bedhow (= birch trees),
Breton bezv (= birch trees),

From the same Hibernian root:
Irish: beith, plural beitheanna (= birch tree, birch trees),
Scottish beith, plural beithean (= birch tree, birch trees)

Cf Latin

(1) betula (= birch tree) (in English as betula
<BE-chə-lə> [ˡbɛʧələ] for the name of an example of a birch species). Another related word in Latin is
(2) bitmen (= tar) from which come English bitumen and French bton (= concrete)

NOTE: South-east Wales: bedwan, bedwin

:_______________________________.

bedwenni
<bed-WE-ni> [bɛdˡwɛnɪ]

1 birch trees

2 Bodwenni mansion by Llandderfel. The original name was Bedwenni (
Merionethshire Court of Quarter Sessions, 21 November 1781... Robert Evans of Bedwenni...)

3 Y Bedwenni
(the birch trees) title of a poem in Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin / The Black Book of Carmarthen c.1250

ETYMOLOGY: (bedwenn- < bedwen = birch tree, singulative form of bedw = birch trees) + (-i plural suffix)

:_______________________________.

Bedwyr
<BED-wir> [ˡbɛdwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
man's name

:_______________________________.

bedydd
<BEE-didh> [ˡbeˑdɪ] (masculine noun)
1
baptism

2 mam fedydd, mamau bedydd godmother
tad a mam bedydd godfather and godmother, godparents (no soft mutation, as it does not refer solely to the mother

3
tad bedydd, tadau bedydd godfather
tad a mam bedydd
godfather and godmother, godparents (no soft mutation, as it does not refer solely to the mother)

:_______________________________.

bedyddfaen
<be-DƏDH-vain> [bɛˡdəvaɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL bedyddfeini
<be-dədh-VEI-ni> [bɛdəˡvəɪnɪ]
1 baptismal font = stone vessel for holding baptismal water in a church

ETYMOLOGY: (bedydd- root of bedyddio = to baptise) + soft mutation + (maen = stone)
:_______________________________.

bedyddiad
<be-DƏDH-yad> [bɛˡdəjad] masculine noun
PLURAL bedyddiadau
<be-dodh-YAA-dai, -de> [bɛdɔˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 baptism

ETYMOLOGY: (bedydd- root of bedyddio = to baptise) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

bedyddio
<be-DƏDH-yo> [bɛˡdəjɔ] (verb)
1
to baptise

:_______________________________.

bedyddiol
<be-DƏDH-yol> [bɛˡdəjɔl] adjective
1
baptismal

2 baptised
neb byw bedyddiol not a soul, not a living soul (nobody living (and) baptised)
ni + yr un creadur byw bedyddiol not a living soul (not... the one baptised living creature)

Doedd yno'r un creadur byw bedyddiol
There wasnt a soul in the place, there was absolutely nobody there

ETYMOLOGY: (bedydd-, stem of the verb bedyddio = to baptise) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

bedyddiwr
<BE-DƏDH-YUR> [bɛˡdəjʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL bedyddwyr
<BE-DƏDH-WIR> [bɛˡdəwɪr]
1
baptist = a person who baptises
Ioan Fedyddiwr John the Baptist, the name given to the Jesuss disciple John

2 Bedyddiwr Baptist = member of a non-conformist Protestant church
Addoldyr Bedyddwyr (the) Baptist Chapel
Bedyddiwr yr Alban Scotch Baptist
Bedyddiwr Bara Caws (nickname) Scotch Baptist (baptist (of) bread (and) cheese)

3 Bedyddiwr Caeth Strict Baptist

ETYMOLOGY: (bedydd-i-, stem of bedyddiwr = to baptise) + (-i-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

Bedyddwyr
<be-DƏDH-wir> [bɛˡdəwɪr]
1
Baptists; plural of Bedyddiwr (qv)

:_______________________________.

beirdd
<beirdh> [bəɪr]
1
poets; plural of bardd = poet
talwrn y beirdd competition amongst poets

:_______________________________.

Befan
<BEE-van> [ˡbeˑvan]
1
Surname. English spelling: Bevan

ETYMOLOGY: son of John or son of Evan Befan < ab Efan (ab = son) + (Efan, variant of Ifan = John)

:_______________________________.

Begw
BEE-gu [ˡbeˑgʊ] (feminine noun)
1
woman's name; diminutive of Marged (Margaret)

:_______________________________.

begwn
<BEE-gun> [ˡbeˑgʊn] masculine noun
PLURAL begynau, begwns
<be-Gə-nai, -ne, BEE-gunz> [bɛˡgənai, -ɛ, ˡbeˑgʊnz]

1 beacon = hilltop

2 beacon = hilltop bonfire as a warning sign

3 ST2289 Y Begwns (the beacons) local name for Bannau Brycheiniog ((the) peaks (of) (the territory of) Brycheiniog), also known as Y Bannau (the peaks)
English name: Brecon Beacons, The Beacons

4 Pen y Begwn SO2436 (677m) mountain 6km south of Y Gelligandryll
((the) summit (of) the beacon)

(pen = peak, top) + (y = definite article) + (begwn = hill, beacon hill)
English name: Hay Bluff

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/14642

ETYMOLOGY: English beacon < Old English beacen (= sign)

NOTE: there is also a variant pegwn, with p instead of b

:_______________________________.

beibl (beibil)
<BEIBL, BEI-bil> [bəɪbl, ˡbəɪbɪl] masculine noun
PLURAL beiblau
<BEI-blai, -e> [ˡbəɪblaɪ, -ɛ]
1
bible = a book with the sacred writings of a religion

2 y Beibl the Bible = the sacred texts of the Christian religion;
the Protestant Bible consists of the Old Testament and the New Testament;
the Roman Catholic Church has in addition to these the Apocrypha.

Note on the Bible in Welsh:

a) The New Testament was first translated, mainly from the Greek,
by William Salesbury (c1529-95); it appeared in 1567 (when he was aged c36/37).

b) It served as the basis for a complete edition of the Bible which
appeared 21 years later, in 1588, the work of Richard Morgan (c1547-1604) (when aged c40/41), the Bishop of Llanelwy.

Based on the Greek and Hebrew Bible, with reference also to the Latin Vulgate, the Latin version of Sanctes Pagninus and the English Geneva Bible (a version produced by English exiles in this city in the year 1560)

c) Richard Parry (1560-1623), his successor as Bishop of Llanelwy,
published a revised version thirty-two years later, in 1620 (when aged 60).
He was probably assisted by his chaplain, John Davies (1570-1644).

This was the Bible in general use until the publication of the
Beibl Cymraeg Newydd (the New Welsh-language Bible) in 1988, and has had a profound influence on the Welsh language (idioms, personal and place names, the literary language).

The Hebraisms of Richard Morgan were rejected by Parry, who seems to have
attempted to make his revised version conform to the King James's
English Bible, the so-called Authorised Version, which had appeared
nine years earlier, in 1611.

3
y Beibl Cysegr-ln the Holy Bible, Holy Writ (sacred-pure, pure and holy)

4 tyngu (rhywbeth) ar y Beibl swear (something) on the Bible

5 bod yn olau yn eich Beibl be well-versed in one's Bible (be light / enlightened in your Bible)

6
iaith y Beibl Bible Welsh, the Welsh used in the Bible regarded as a literary standard ((the) language (of) the Bible)

7
bible = an authoritative book
beibl y pysgotwr the fisherman's bible .

8 Beibl teuluol
BEI bil tei LII ol family Bible

ETYMOLOGY: beibl < English bible
< 1200+ Old French
< medieval Latin biblia (= books, the sacred books)
< Greek biblia, plural of biblion (= book), diminutive form of biblos (= papyrus)
< Byblos
(Βύβλος) the Greek name of the port in Phonecia from which the Greeks brought papyrus that came from Egypt.

In Phonecian the city was called
Gebal (earlier Gubla).

Today it is within Lebanon, and in Arabic is Jbeil (جبيل Ǧubayl): it was known as Gibelet during the time of the Crusades.

In the Welsh Bible there is a reference to builders from the port city who worked on Solomons Temple

Brenhinoedd-1, 5:18,
(17) A'r brenin a orchmynnodd ddwyn ohonynt hwy feini mawr, a meini costus, a meini nadd, i sylfaenu y ty^. (18) Felly seiri Solomon, a seiri Hiram, a'r Gibliaid, a naddasant, ac a ddar-parasant goed a cherrig i adeiladu'r ty^

Kings-1 5:18
(17) And the king commanded, and they brought great stones, costly stones, and hewed stones, to lay the foundation of the house.
(18) And Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders did hew them, and the stonesquarers: so they prepared timber and stones to build the house.

NOTE: Beibil, colloquial spelling

:_______________________________.

Beiblaidd
<BEI-blaidh, -bledh> [ˡbəɪblaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
1
biblical = of the Bible

Bu cyfnod yn ddiweddar pan nad oedd bri ar alw plant wrth enwau Beiblaidd
There was a period of late when it wasn't fashionable to give children Biblical names

Enillwyr rowndiau terfynol Cwis Beiblaidd Cymru a gynhaliwyd yn Aberystwyth yn ddiweddar
The winners of the final rounds of the Bible Quiz of Wales held recently in Aberystwyth

Roedd ganddo ddosbarth Beiblaidd yn y capel
He had a Bible class in the chapel

Yr oedd iaith Feiblaidd ln ar ei wefus bob gair
He spoke elegant Biblical Welsh (there was pure Biblical language on his lip every word)

ETYMOLOGY: (Beibl = Bible) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)



:_______________________________.

beic, PLURAL: beiciau
BEIK, BEIK ye (masculine noun)
1
bike

ETYMOLOGY: English bike, an altered clipped form of bicycle

:_______________________________.

beichiogrwydd
bei-khi-o-gruidh masculine noun
1
pregnancy = period in which a female is pregnant
2
gwisg beichiogrwydd maternity dress

ETYMOLOGY: (beichiog = pregnant) + (-rwydd = suffix)

:_______________________________.

beic modur
beik MO dir (masculine noun)
1
motor bike

:_______________________________.

beidr
bei -dir feminine noun
1
(in Sir Benfro and Godre Ceredigion, i.e. the southern portion of the county of Ceredigion) lane, farm drive
y feidr = the lane

Pen-feidr SN1750 pen y feidr (the) top (of) the lane, or farm drive (farm name, Y Ferwig - Ceredigion)



(delwedd 7499)

ETYMOLOGY: from Irish (from an older form of modern Irish bthar = road, originally with the sense of cow track; Irish b = cow)

NOTE: there is a variant with m replacing b, namely meidr. This occurs in other words the confusion results because both b and m have a soft-muated form with
v feidr, and the wrong radical consonant becomes general

(1) bainc > mainc (= bench)
(2) bath > math (= type)
(3) benyw > menyw (= woman)
(4) Banon > Manon (womans name)

:_______________________________.

beili
bei li> masculine noun

PLURAL: beilau <bei-LII-ai, -e
1
(South-east Wales) courtyard, forecourt of a house surrounded by a low wall

Y Beili SO0460 name of a farm south-west of Llandrindod, Powys (Beili)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1049851

Y Beili-mawr SO1263 (the great forecourt) name of farm south-east of Pen-y-bont and north-east of Llandrindod, Powys (Bailey Mawr)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO1263

Beili-einon SO0761 (Bailey Einon) ((the) forecourt (of) Einion / Einon)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0761 name of farm east of Llandrindod, Powys (Beili)

2 bailey = outermost wall of a castle

Y Beila
ə bei-li-a - the name of the castle walls of Llantrisant (South-east Wales). In the south-east au in a final syllable is pronounced as a.

3 ward, bailey; = open space within the walls of a castle

mwnt a beili (mound and bailey / walled courtyard) - motte and bailey (type of castle construction typical of the norman invaders - on top of a mound was constructed a keep (the innermost and strongest building in a castle) surrounded by a bailey (= courtyard) within a surrounding wall)

4 Yr Hen Feili The Old Bailey, the Central Criminal Court in London, so called because it was built in the ancient bailey between the city gates of Ludgate and Newgate

ETYMOLOGY: English bailey < French 1300- baille (= enclosed yard), from the verb bailler (= to enclose) < baile (= stake, fortification) < Latin baculum (= stick)

NOTE: Used in Cambrian English (a form of English used in Wales with influences from the Welsh language) Go and wash the back beili down (= Go and clean the back yard).

Example from The Valley Phrasebook from a website dedicated to Cwm Sirhywi. (http://www.geocities.com/jenks436)

:_______________________________.

beili
bei li> masculine noun

PLURAL: beilaid <bei-LII-aid, -ed

1 bailiff = landowner's steward

2 bailiff = a sheriff's officer who serves summons and writs, and has the power of arrest (Scotland: sheriff officer)

fel beili mewn sesiwn like a bailiff in a court session
mor fusnesus beili mewn sesiwn as meddlesome / prying as a bailiff in a court session

bod yn brynnach na gras mewn beili be scarcer than [good] grace in a bailiff

Cwynfan Tafarn-wraig. Richard Parry.
Blodeugerdd y Cymry, gan Amryw Awdurwyr. Trydydd argraffiad. (Treffynnon, 1823)

Yna dae 'r Baili boliog,
Мог wirion yr un warrog,
A hen lwynog yn ei lid:
Myn'd a'm Prs a'm Efydd,
A'm dysglau pewter newydd,
Hyll ddigwilydd oll i gyd.

Ymddiddan Rhwng Hwn Wr a Mebyn. Dafydd Thomas. Blodeugerdd y Cymry, gan Amryw Awdurwyr. Trydydd argraffiad. (Treffynnon, 1823)

Goreu mawredd i ti ymeiriach,
Rhag tynnu melldith ar a feddach ;
Fe fydd pob baili hyll drwy'r hollwlad,
Yn mhob cweryl heb ddim cariad.


(::a)ETYMOLOGY: English bailie, a variant of bailiff.

Middle English baillie < Old French bailli c. 1300, a variant of baillif.

Modern French has (though no longer in general use) bailli (= bailiff, magistrate, judge)

English bailiff < Middle English baillif. Anglo-French (baille = custody) + (suffix -if). Old Fench baille from the verb baillier (= take, seize, transfer, take care of something) < Latin bāiulāre (= carry on the back or in the arms) < bāiulus (= a porter, a carrier).

NOTE: also beiliff, beliff; and the spelling baili = beili.

NOTE: London, 1825. Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. by James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London. Glossary of words commonly used in the County of Somerset; but which are not accepted as legitimate words of the English language ; or words which, although once used generally, are now become provincial.

Baily. s. A bailiff; a superintendant of an estate.

:_______________________________.

beic mynydd
beik MƏ nidh (masculine noun)
1
mountain bike

:_______________________________.

beio
BEI-o (verb)
1
(verb with an object) to blame
Peidiwch ch beioch hunan Dont blame ourself

:_______________________________.

beirdd
BEIRDH (plural)
1
poets; see bardd

:_______________________________.

beirniad
beirn-yad masculine noun
PLURAL beirniaid
beirn-yed
1
critic

2 adjudicator, judge = person who decides the winner in a contest

3 obsolete = person presiding a court who decides or announces a verdict

4 Y Beirniad monthly magazine of which 82 issues appeared in the twenty years between 1859 and 1879

5 Y Beirniad quarterly magazine under the editorship of John Morris-Jones which appeared in the nine years between 1911 and 1920

ETYMOLOGY: (barn = opinion) + (-iad, suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

beirniadaeth
beirn-y-deth feminine noun
PLURAL beirniadaethau
beirn-ya-dei-the
1
criticism = expression of disapproval
y feirniadaeth = the critcism

Un llym ei feirniadaeth ar genedlaetholdeb oedd, a bu ganddo ryw gasineb rhyfedd tuag at yr iaith Gymraeg, yr unig iaith a siaradai yn blentyn
He was very critical of nationalism and bore some strange hatred towards the Welsh language, the only language he spoke when he was a child

2 criticism = evaluation
beirniadaeth lenyddol literary criticism

3 adjudication = act of delivering the verdict of a panel of adjudicators; especially the adjudication after a performance in an eisteddfod

Canodd cr arall, ac yna cafwyd y feirniadaeth
Another choir sang, and then the adjudication was delivered / given

ETYMOLOGY: (beirniad = adjudicator) + (-iaeth suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

beirniadol
beirn-y-dol adjective
1
critical
bod yn feirniadol o = be critical of

ETYMOLOGY: (beiniad- stem of the verb beriniadu = to criticise) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

beirniadu
beirn YA di (verb)
1
to criticise

:_______________________________.

beiro, PLURAL: beiros
BEI ro, BEI ros (masculine noun)
1
biro

:_______________________________.

beisicl, PLURAL: beisicls
BEI si kəl, BEI si kəls (masculine noun)
1
bicycle

:_______________________________.

bele
be-le masculine noun
PLURAL beleod
be-l-od
1
marten = animal of the genus Martes, agile, with a slender body and a bushy tail.

2
beler coed
(Martes martes) pine marten. Has dark brown fur and a yellowish patch on the throat

3
blew bele sable, skin of a marten

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celt < bhelewo- < bhel (= white, shining).

Related word: English feline (= pertaining to cats) < Latin flnus < fls (= cat, marten)

:_______________________________.

Belg
BELG masculine noun
PLURAL Belgiaid
BELG-yaid, -yed
1
Belg, a member of the Belgae people living in northern Gaul in the first century BC and in southern Britain (Venta Belgarum, the market place of the Belgs, the Roman name for Winchester). The Belgae seem to have been of Germanic origin, but had adopted Gaulish as their language after settling east of the Rhine river.

Gwlad Belg Belgium


gwlad Belg < gwlad y Belg
(Belg-land, (the) country (of) the Belg) (though probably based on Belg- first syllable of the English / Latin name Belgium < Belg member of the Gaulish tribe called Belgae in Latin)

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly from Proto-Celtic *belo (= bright)

:_______________________________.

Belgiad BELG-yad masculine noun
PLURAL Belgiaid BELG-yaid, -yed
1
Belgian

Rhodfar Belgiaid
(the) walk / promenade (of) the Belgians. A promenade in Porthaethwy (Ynys Mn) built by Belgian refugees in World War 1.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/381413 Rhodfar Belgiaid

ETYMOLOGY: (Belg, from the name of the Celtic inhabitants of the area, Belgae in Latin; though the name is more likely an adaptation of the English name Belgium:

(Belg- first syllable of the English / Latin name Belgium) + (-i-ad noun suffix indicating nationality)

Cf Dutch
Belgi, French Belgique

:_______________________________.

Beljan bel-jan masculine noun
PLURAL Beljans bel-jans
1
Belgian. A colloquial form; in the standard language it is Belgiad belg-yad

ETYMOLOGY: English Belgian

:_______________________________.

bellach BE lhakh (adverb)
1
now

:_______________________________.

bellaf be-lhav adverb
1
furthest
Pwy syn gallu cyrraedd bellaf? Who can reach the furthest? Who has the longest reach?

:_______________________________.

belman bel-man masculine noun
1
(obsolete) town crier, official who makes public announcements, attracting the attention of the public by ringing a bell
Standard form: crwr tref

ETYMOLOGY: English bellman (bell) + (man)

:_______________________________.

belongio be-long-yo verb
(South Wales)
1
blongid i belong = be a possession of
2
blongid i (member of a family) be related to

ETYMOLOGY: English belong < (be- intensifying prefix) + (long- = great in length) to reach. Cf German belangan (= to sue, to prosecute)
NOTE: (1) Colloquially blongo, blongid, blonged
(2) Also: Transactions of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society Part 5; t125 M H Jones April 1906
Dimetian Dialect blyngad = belong

:_______________________________.

bm beem masculine noun
PLURAL bemau, bemydd be-me, be-midh
South-west Wales (Ceredigion, Caerfyrddin)
1
beam = long piece of wood, originally a tree trunk, used in construction; long piece of metal used in construction

ETYMOLOGY: English beam, now biim , but the Welsh word preserves the older English pronunciation with a long e, < Old English beam (= tree), cf German der Baum (= tree)

:_______________________________.

ben ben feminine noun
PLURAL benni be-ni
1
cart
y fen = the cart

2
place names:
(1) Pont-rhyd-y-fen (Glyn-nedd ac Aberafan) ((the) bridge (by the ford called) Rhyd y Fen.) Rhyd y Fen is (the) ford (of) the cart.
(2) Pantybenni (by Llangurig, Powys) (hollow of the carts)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ben < British benn- (= cart).
In Gaulish the corresponding word is benna (= vehicle; woven basket), the origin of modern French banne (= cart). and benne (= cart).
The Indo-European root is *bhend (= to bind)

NOTE: There is a variant men (= cart) (qv) with the initial consonant b confused with m

:_______________________________.

benbaladr ben-pa-la-dər adjective
1
soft mutation of penbaladr all, the whole, from end to end

Usually in the expression Cymru benbaladr all Wales

Glasenwau Gogleisiol o Gymru Benbaladr Amusing Nicknames from all over Wales
Article in Llafar Gwlad (=speech (of) country, oral tradition), Gwanwyn (= Spring) 1985

drwyr wlad benbaladr all over the country, throughout the country

:_______________________________.

ben bore ben b-re adverb
1
first thing in the morning, very early in the morning ((at) (the) beginnng (of) (the) morning)

:_______________________________.

benbwygilydd ben-bui-g-lidh adjective
1
soft mutation of penbwygilydd (qv) from one end to the other
Cymru benbwygilydd all Wales, the whole of Wales


:_______________________________.

bendigedig ben di GE dig (adjective)
1
fantastic, wonderful

O gopar bryn yr oedd golygfa fendigedig From the top of the hill there was a splendid view

:_______________________________.

bendith, PLURAL: bendithion BEN dith, ben DITH yon (masculine noun)
1
blessing

drwy fendith Duw with the blessing of God, with Gods blessing

dan fendith Duw with the blessing of God, with Gods blessing

dymuno pob bendith i rywun wish somebody every blessing

dymuno pob bendith i rywun ir dyfodol wish somebody every blessing for the future, for the times ahead

dymunwn bob bendith iddo ar ei ymddeoliad we wish him every blessing on the occasion of his retirement

Mae Mr Evans yn gwella'n weddol ar l cyfnod hir o waeledd. Pob bendith iddo. Mr. Evans is making a fair recovery after a long period of illness. We wish him every blessing (every blessing to him)

Duw ath fendithio may God bless you

bendith Duw arnat
may God bless you ((the) blessing (of) God on you)

llawn bendithion full of blessing

byw bywyd llawn bendithion live a life full of blessing

2 blessing, grace = short prayer before a meal asking that the food be blessed and expressing thanks
gofyn bendith to ask a blessing
rhoir fendith to give the blessing
dweud bendith say a blessing
dweud y fendith say the blessing, to give the blessing

3 bendith gudd, bendithion cudd a blessing in disguise

cyfrich bendithion count your blessings

4 dyna fendith... what a blessing..., how fortunate... (theres a blessing that... )

dyna fendith na fu rhaid i chi fynd yno how fortunate that you didnt have to go there

5 rhoddi sl bendith i rywbeth
give something the seal of approval

:_______________________________.

bendithio ben DITH yo (verb)
1
to bless

:_______________________________.

Bengaleg ben GAA leg (f)
1
Bengali (the language)
yr iaith Fengaleg the Bengali language
y Fengaleg the Bengali language

:_______________________________.

benfelen ben- v-len adjective
1
soft mutation of penfelen, feminine form of penfelyn (= yellow-head, yellow-haired)
Elen Benfelen a'r Tair Arth Goldilocks and the Three Bears

:_______________________________.

Bengrych ben-grikh adjective
1
epithet = curly-haired
2
surname of the Welsh borderland, especially in the counties on the English side; anglicised as Bengry

ETYMOLOGY: bengrych < pengrych (= curly-haired). The soft mutation of the initial consonant is typical of adjectives used as epithets after a name for example, *Ieuan Pengrych > Ieuan Bengrych (curly-haired John)

:_______________________________.

Y Benllech ə ben-lhekh feminine noun
1
SH5182 locality in the county of Mn (North Wales).
The local form is Benllach
yn y Benllech in Y Benllech

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (penllech = flat stone, flat slab).

penllech = top stone (pen = top) + soft mutation + (llech = slab, stone) > *penlech > penllech
(soft mutation n-l generally becomes unmutated n-ll)

The stone referred to is the cromlech in the centre of the village
NOTE: See also the place name Penllech

:_______________________________.

benthyca ben THƏ ka (verb)
1
to borrow, to lend

:_______________________________.

benthyg BEN thig (masculine noun)
1
loan

:_______________________________.

benwan ben-wan adjective
1
soft-mutated form of penwan (= idiotic, foolish)
Siarl Benwan Charles the Simple
:_______________________________.

benyw, PLURAL: benywod BE niu, be NIU od (feminine noun)
1
woman
y fenyw = the woman

:_______________________________.

ber ber feminine or masculine noun
PLURAL berrau be-re
1
(obsolete) leg; survives in certain fixed expressions e.g.

Mae wedi estyn y fer Hes dead and buried, hes six foot under, hes pushing up the daisies
(He has extended the leg)

Wedi ir elor gerbyd gyrraedd ar gyfer hen annedd Janet Williams, safodd y ceffylau yn sydyn. ... Safai y ddau geffyl fel pe wedi eu hoelio wrth y ddaear heb symud ber
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910) t161
After the hearse arrived opposite Janet Williamss old house, the horses stopped suddenly.. the two horses stood as if nailed to the ground without moving a leg

2 bergam (obsolete) bow-legged, bandy-legged
(ber = leg) + soft mutation + (cam = crooked)

ETYMOLOGY: ??

:_______________________________.

*ber ber
1
Celtic and British element (= to carry) found in various words in modern Welsh.
In Irish and Scottish it occurs as a verb beir (= carry).
Also in non-Celtic languages, from the same Indo-European root as the word in Celtic:
English to bear,
Greek pherein = (to bring, as in the English word of Greek origin paraphernalia)

Welsh words with the element *ber (in some still a recognisable element, though with soft mutation > fer):
..1/ aber = confluence, estuary
..2/ adfer = restore
..3/ arfer = practise
..4/ cymer = confluence
..5/ diabred = withheld, held back, refused
..6/ diferu = to drip
..7/ gofer = ditch, stream
..8/ possibly also llifeiriant (= flow, flowing) (llif = flow, flowing, + *ber, + suffix -iant)

:_______________________________.

y Berch ə berkh feminine noun
1
(SH3936) local name of Aber-erch (county of Gwynedd)
Probably Aber-rch > Abrrch > Abrch > Ybrch > Y Brch / Y Berch

:_______________________________.

berf, PLURAL: berfau BERV, BER ve (feminine noun)
1
verb

:_______________________________.

berfa, PLURAL: berfu BER va, ber VAI (feminine noun)
1
wheelbarrow
2
cario mwg mewn berfa (carry smoke in a wheelbarrow) try to do the impossible
Also: cario mwg mewn hwilber (carry smoke in a wheelbarrow)


:_______________________________.

berfedd gaeaf ber-vedh gei-a adverb
1
in the depths of winter

ETYMOLOGY: middle (of) winter (perfedd = middle, centre) + (gaeaf = winter). Adverbial phrases in Welsh are indicated by the soft mutation of the first consonant of the first word, thus perfedd > berfedd

:_______________________________.

berfeddion y nos ber-vedh-yon noos adverb
1
in the middle of the night

ETYMOLOGY: middles (of) night (perfeddion, plural de perfedd = middle, centre) + (nos = night). Adverbial phrases in Welsh are indicated by the soft mutation of the first consonant of the first word, thus perfeddion > berfeddion

:_______________________________.

Y Berfeddwlad ə ber-vedh-wlad feminine noun
1
medieval territory situated between the countries of Powys and Gwynedd; later it became known as Gwynedd Is Conwy. It was made up of the four cantreds (cantrefi) of Dyffryn Clwyd, Rhos, Rhufoniog, Tegeingl.

:_______________________________.

Y Berfeddwlad
ə ber-vedh-wlad feminine noun
1
medieval territory situated between the countries of Pow
ys and Gwynedd; later it became known as Gwynedd Is Conwy. It was made up of the four kntrevs (cantrefi) of Dyffryn Clwyd, Rhos, Rhufoniog, Tegeingl. Y Berfeddwlad (middle territory) was so called because it lay between the territories of Gwynedd and Powys.


(delwedd 7539)

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (perfeddwlad = middle territory, buffer country);

perfeddwlad is (perfedd = middle) + soft mutation + (gwlad = country)

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (perfeddwlad = middle territory, buffer country); (perfedd = middle) + soft mutation + (gwlad = country)

:_______________________________.

bergam ber-gam adjective
1
(obsolete) bow-legged, bandy-legged

2 (Query can anybody provide information?) Does the street name Vergam Terrace in Aber-gwaun / Fishguard, county of Penfro, have any connection with this word?

ETYMOLOGY: (ber = leg) + soft mutation + (cam = crooked)

:_______________________________.

Y Bermo ə ber-mo feminine noun
1
town in the county of Gwynedd; The standard form is Abermaw a-ber-mau
Population: 2,104 (1961); proportion of Welsh-speakers: 58% (1961)
2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: Y Bermo < Abrmo < Abrmaw < Aber-mw a-ber-mau < Aber-mwdd a-ber-maudh estuary (of the river) Mawdd

(1) The present name of the river is Mawddach, with a suffix ach

(2) Maw < Mawdd;

The loss of a final dh is seen in other words in Welsh
....(a) Dewi = David, anciently Dewydd,
....(b) ohono = from him, in Middle Welsh ohonodd;

(3) shift of accent - Abrmaw a-ber-mau < Aber-maw a-ber-mau . A similar case is Abr-ffraw < Aber-ffrw

(4) Abrmo < Abrmaw Colloquially a final diphthong au is simplified to become the vowel o . Also in the case of Abrffro < Abrffraw

(5) Y Bermo < Abrmo. The first vowel a loses its quality, and becomes neutral, and is confused with the definite article y. Also in the case of Y Berffro < Abrffro (name of a place in Ynys Mn)

NOTE: The English name is Barmouth, a reworking of Y Bermo to make something English-sounding.

(1) Coincidentally the final element mo suggests 'mouth', which is the meaning of 'aber'.

(2) Bar may be because in English the name had been pronounced barmo (-er- in English words has in general become -ar- in England, if not in the USA. Hence Derby, clerk, Berk(e)ley, etc, all pronounced -ar- in Englandic).

(3) 'Bar' also suggests 'sandbar', which is easily associated with the idea of 'river mouth'.

(4) In Modern Place-names in Great Britain and Ireland (Adrian Room, 1983) the author quotes Lewis (1849) who explains that the English name had been adopted 81 years earlier, in 1768 at a meeting of the masters of the vessels belonging to the port, when, in consideration of the increase in shipping, it was deemed expedient to have an English name inscribed upon the sterns of the vessels.

BUT: Y Cymmrodor. Vol. XXXVIII. 1927. Merioneth Notes.

By T. P. ELLIS, I.C.S. (retired), M.A., F.R.Hist.S., Author of "Welsh Tribal Law and Custom"

These maps are of some interest also with regard to the name Barmouth. Some years ago a note appeared in "Byegones to the effect that in 1768 the web-merchants of the neighbourhood met in conclave and decided on changing the existing name of Abermawe to Barmouth, as more pronounceable than the original. The story is ben trovato, but inaccurate. The map of

1578 contains the name Barmouth. The change probably occurred about the time of Henry VII's activities.

:_______________________________.

beriau ber-yai feminine noun
PLURAL berieuau ber-yei-e
1
(obsolete) short yoke

ETYMOLOGY: (ber, feminine form of byr = short) + (iau (feminine noun) = yoke)

:_______________________________.

berieuus ber- yei -is adjective
1
(obsolete) short-yoked, having a short yoke

2 There is a possible instance of the use of the adjective berieuus as a plural noun with plural suffix -au > berieuusau (= the short-yoked ones, the short-yoked oxen) in a (lost) Caer-dydd field name.
John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911) notes as a field name in the year 1709 in Llan-daf
Dwy Erw yr Byriousa.

He interprets this as Dwy Erwr Berieuusau (which he writes dwy-erw-y byrieuwysau) and translates as the two acres of the short-yoked oxen.

ETYMOLOGY: (beriau = short yoke) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)
NOTE: The local south-eastern form could conceivably be Byriousa as in the 1709 form
...(a) Loss of a syllable through contraction of eu-u be-ri-ei- i -se > be-ri- ei -se
...(b) final -au > south-eastern -a,
...(c) penult -eu > southern -ou- oi ,
...(d) the obscuring of a vowel in a pretonic first syllable is also a southern feature (resulting in y ə )

:_______________________________.

Rhos-y-bers hroos ə BERS
1
farm (Rhos-berse) south of Coed-poeth (Wrecsam)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2850

ETYMOLOGY: (the) moor (of) Y Bers / Bersham

:_______________________________.

berth berth adjective
1
(obsolete) fair, beautiful
Magent hi yn anwyl, anwyl,
Fel rhodd ferth o ddwylaw Duw

(Tanybryn, poem by Twynog (1912))
They raised her lovingly
As a beautiful gift from God

ETYMOLOGY: from the IE root *bherəg- (= bright), from which comes also English bright; also in Welsh in the compound prydferth (= beautiful)
(pryd = aspect) + soft mutation + (berth)

NOTE: also occurs as merth (= fair, beautiful) showing the change b > m, which also occurs in other words in Welsh. The confusion occurs with feminine nouns and with adjectives because the mutation of both b and m is v f;
..a/ benyw (= woman), also menyw;
..b/ ben (= cart), also men, etc

:_______________________________.

Y Berthen-gron ber-then GRON masculine noun
1 Farm SJ2849, by Y Coed-poeth, Wrecsam

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/208635 Y Berthen-gron

ETYMOLOGY: the round bush (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (perthen = bush) + soft mutation + (cron, feminine form of crwn = round)

:_______________________________.

berwad ber-wad masculine noun
PLURAL berwadau ver-w-de
1
boiling = act of putting to the boil, leaving on the boil
2
liquid that has been boiled

ETYMOLOGY: (berw- stem of the verb berw = to boil) + (-ad suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

berwedd-dy ber-wedh-di masculine noun
PLURAL berwedd-dai ber-wedh-dai
1
(South-east Wales) brewery

ETYMOLOGY: (berwedd-, stem of berweddu = to brew) + soft mutation + (ty = house)
NOTE: Also brywedd-dy; see vegeu bryweddu

:_______________________________.

berweddu ber-w-dhi verb
1
(South-east Wales) brew (beer)
berman berweddu brewers yeast
Job sydd yn breweddui hunan Job brews his own beer
(Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl.
Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 105; from a local ballad mentioning the tavernkeeper in Llanwynno)

ETYMOLOGY: berweddu < *byrweddu < bryweddu < briweddu (briw < English brew) + (-eddu, apparently a termination in imitation of cordeddu = to twist);
briweddu > *bryweddu (obscuration of the pretonic vowel, a common feature in south-eastern Welsh) > byrweddu (metathesis) > berweddu (possibly the influence of berwi = to boil)

NOTE: Also bryweddu, and breweddu (e instead of y)

:_______________________________.

berwi BER wi (verb)
1
to boil

:_______________________________.

Berwyn BER win (masculine noun)
1
mountain ('white peak'), north-east Wales

2 village north-west of Llangollen SJ1942

Plas Berwyn SJ1843 a mansion here

Twnnel Berwyn Berwyn (Railway) Tunnel
:_______________________________.

bet bet feminine noun
PLURAL betiau bet ye
1
bet = money gambled
rhoi bet ar put a bet on

ETYMOLOGY: English bet (Origin in English uncertain; possibly from better, comparative form of good)

:_______________________________.

beth BEETH (interr)
1
what?

2 (Caernarfon, north-west Wales) Bsantsho? = Pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisiau? What do you need / require / want?
Let them see how in their spoken Welsh the accent turns a sentence of many words into a single word of one or two syllables... e.g. pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisieu? has become bsantsho
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

:_______________________________.

Bethan BE than (feminine noun)
1
girl's name (Beth + -an; 'little Elizabeth')

:_______________________________.

beth bynnag beeth BƏ nag (adverb)
1
whatever

2 beth bynnag foi werth for what its worth , although it is probably not of any importance
whatever it may be worth

beth bynnag fo gwerth hynny for what its worth

Dyna fy marn innau, beth bynnag foi werth Thats my view, for what its worth

:_______________________________.

Bethcar beth-kar
1
(Old Testament) place west of Mizpeh to where the Israelites pursued the Philistines

...1-Samuel 7:11 A gwyr Mizpah a aethant o Mispa, ac erlidiasant y Philistiaid, ac au trawsant hyd oni ddaethant dan Bethcar
...Samuel-1 7:11 And the men of Israel went out of Mizpeh, and pursued the Philistines, and smote them, until they came under Bethcar.

There is a Heol Bethcar (official name: Bethcar Street) in Glynebwy, county of Blaenau Gwent


ETYMOLOGY: Hebrew (= house of the lamb)

:_______________________________.

Bethesda be-THES-da
1
chapel name

2 village SH6266 in Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6266

3 SH4646 village in Gwynedd south-east of Llanwnda (also called Bethesda Bach be-THES-da BAAKH, to distinguish it from the other nearby Bethesda)



(delwedd 7536)

:_______________________________.

beth sydd... beeth siidh
Aslo as beth sy (loss of final dd)

1
what is (+ prepositional phrase)
Beth sydd gennych yn ateb? Whats your answer?
((it-is) / what-thing / which-is / with-you / as / answer)

2 what is (+ simple adverb)
Beth sydd acw? Whats over there?

:_______________________________.

Beth sy'n bod beeth sin BOOD
1
What's up? What's the matter?

:_______________________________.

Beth yw'ch oed chi? beeth iukh OID khi
1
How old are you?
((it-is) / what-thing / which-is / your / age / of-you)

:_______________________________.

Beti BE ti (feminine noun)
1
Betty (diminutive form of Elizabeth)

:_______________________________.

betio bet-to verb
1
bet

ETYMOLOGY: (bet = bet) + (verb suffix -io);
The Welsh word bet is from English bet, which is possibly from better, the comaparative form of good

:_______________________________.

Betsan BET san (feminine noun)
1
Betty (diminutive form of Elizabeth)

:_______________________________.

betws BE tus (masculine noun)
1
church (in place names and certain fixed expressions).

Occurs in many place names, either with a distinguishing tag, or simply as Y Betws (probably replacing a longer name, but the distinguishing tag has been lost)

Betwsgarmon (Gwynedd)

Betws yn Rhos (Conwy)

Betws-y-coed (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

ETYMOLOGY: From English {beed huus}, 'bead-house', = house of prayer

:_______________________________.

Betws Rhyd y Crwyn <BE-tus hriid ə KRUIN> [ˡbɛtʊs hriːd ə ˡkrʊɪn]
1
See Betws y Crwyn
:_______________________________.

Betws y Crwyn <BE-tus ə KRUIN> [ˡbɛtʊs ə ˡkrʊɪn]
1
SO2081 Village in Sir Amwythig / Shropshire, England

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/215190 Eglwys Fair / St.Marys Church

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: The name as it stands means ((the) church (of) the animal skins / animal hides)
(betws = church) + (y = definite article) + (crwyn = animal skins, animal hides)

But it is a reduction of Betws Rhyd y Crwyn ((the) (place called) Betws (which is by) Rhyd y Crwyn).

Rhyd y Crwyn is ((the) ford (of) the animal skins / animal hides)

(rhyd = ford) + (y = definite article) + (crwyn = animal skins, animal hides). Maybe animal hides were tanned near here.

:_______________________________.

Betws-y-grog <BE-tus ə GROOG> [ˡbɛtʊs ə ˡgroːg]
1
Old name of Ceirchiog SH3676 (by Llechylched SH3476) in Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/999251 Betws Y Grog / Holy Rood Church

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/999225 Betws Y Grog / Holy Rood Church

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/976941 Betws Y Grog / Holy Rood Church

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/109273 Betws Y Grog / Holy Rood Church

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

According to Melville Richards (Enwau Tir a Gwlad, 1998), mae crog yn cyfeirio at sgrin yn yr eglwys. Yr enw Saesneg oedd Holy Rood Church. (= crog refers to a screen in the church. The English name was Holy Rood Church)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) church (of) the cross)

(betws = church) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (crog = cross, gallows)
:_______________________________.

Betws yn Rhos <BE-tus ən HROOS> [ˡbɛtʊs ən ˡhroːs]

1
Village in the county of Conwy

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/55781

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) Betws (which is in the kntrev of) Rhos (in the country of Y Berfeddwlad) (betws = church) + (yn preposition = in) + (Rhos name of a kntrev; = upland)

:_______________________________.

beudy, PLURAL: beudai / beudi <BEI-di, BEI-dai / bei-DAI> [ˡbəɪdɪ, ˡbəɪdaɪ, bəɪˡdaɪ] (masculine noun)
1
cowhouse

:_______________________________.

Beuno <BEI-no> [ˡbəɪnɔ] masculine noun
1
man's name
Saint associated with Clynnog Fawr, north-west Wales; Feast day 21 April. Said to have been born on the banks of the river Hafren in the territory of Powys, educated in the territory of Gwent at Caer-went.

Llanfeuno SO3031 (village in Gwent-within-England). In the valley of the river Olchon above the town of Y Fenni. English name: Llanveynoe.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/713232

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

Gwyl Feuno ((the) feastday (of) Beuno). April 21

ETYMOLOGY: ??

:_______________________________.

beunydd <BEI-nidh> [ˡbəɪnɪ] (adverb)
1
every day

:_______________________________.

biau <BI-ai, -e> [ˡbɪaɪ, -ɛ] (verb)
1
'is the person who owns'
Fi biau ef - It's mine

:_______________________________.

bb <BIB> [ˡbɪb] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL bibiau <BIB-yai, -e> [ˡbɪbjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
bib = napkin to cover a childs front placed under the chin when the child is being fed
2
bib = upper part of dungarees covering the chest

ETYMOLOGY: English bib < Middle English bibben (= to drink), probably from Latin bibere (= to drink)

:_______________________________.

bicer <BI-ker> [ˡbɪkɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL biceri <bi-KEE-ri> [bɪˡkeˑrɪ]
1
(Englandic: beaker = a large cup, usually plastic, in the shape of a long wide cylinder with no handles)

2 Chemistry beaker = glas flat-bottomed container with a lip for pouring out a liquid

3 llond bicer beakerful = contents of a beaker
llond bicer o ddŵr a beakerful of water

biceraid beakerful = contents of a beaker

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English beaker < Scandinavian; cf German der Becher (= beaker), mug; Greek bikos (= earthernware jug)

:_______________________________.

bicini <bi-KII-ni> [bɪˡkiˑnɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL bicinis <bi-KII-nzi> [bɪˡkiˑnɪz]
1
bikini - woman's scanty two-piece swimming costume

ETYMOLOGY: English bikini, from the name Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in the North Pacific, where the USA carried out an atomic bomb test. The bathing costume was so called because its effect on men seeing a woman wearing one was supposedly devastating.

:_______________________________.

bid <BIID> [biːd] feminine noun
PLURAL bidiau, bidau <BID-yai, -e, BII-dai, -e> [ˡbɪdj aɪ, -ɛ, ˡbiˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
South-east Wales
1
quickset hedge (English quick = alive, living, set = put, plant), quick hedge, plash; a hedge of hawthorn

..1/ Caer Fid Foel <kair viid VOIL> [kaɪr viːd ˡvɔɪl] Lost field name in Caer-dydd. ((the) field (of) the bare hedge)
According to John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911), it occurs as the name of a house in the chapelry of Yr Eglwysnewydd, Caer-dydd:
CAE'R VID VOL... In the parish of Saint John Baptist, on the road leading to Cathays (1749)

1749... We Arthur Williams and George Watkins Esquires two of his Majesty's Justices of the peace for the Town of Cardiffe in the said County of Glamorgan Do Humbly Certifye unto your Lordshipps that we Have viewed the Causeway in the common Highway in the parish of St John the Baptist leading from the gate of a certain close called Cae'r Vid Vol, to a certain place called Cat Hays which stands presented in this Court to be ruinous and out of repair and the Cart road or highway on the Eastern Side of the said causeway which stands presented to be in a ruinous and dangerous Condition
(cae = field) + (yr definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = hedge) + soft mutation + (moel = bare)

The local form would be
Cǣr Fīd Fōl kr viid VOOL [kːr viːd ˡvoːl]

....a/ cae > southern caa > south-eastern c;
....b/ moel > southern mool

..2/ Heol y Fid-las heul ə viid LAAS [ˌhɛʊl ə viːd ˡlɑːs] ((the) road (of) the green hedge)

Road in Caer-dydd, between Rhydypennau and Llanishen.

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = hedge) + soft mutation + (glas = green - when referring to vegetation otherwise blue)

..3/ bid ffawydd beech hedge
Twyn y Fid Ffawydd tuin ə viid FAU-idh [ˌtʊɪn ə viːd ˡfaʊɪ]

((the) hill (of) the hedge (of) beech) hill in Deri (county of Caerffili)

(twyn = hill) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = hedge) + (ffawydd noun: beech trees, adj: beech, made up of beech)

..4/ Y Fidgelyn ə viid GEE-lin [ə viːd ˡgeˑlɪn] farm on the road between Cilfynydd and Llanfabon (county of Caerffili)
y fid gelyn = the hedge (of) holly, holly hedge;

(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = hedge) + soft mutation + (celyn = (adjective) holly)

..5/ the place marked Gelli-fud by Glyn-llan / Melin-ifan-ddu in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr is probably Gelli-fid < Gellir-fid ge-lhir-VIID [gɛɬɪr ˡviːd] (the grove of the hedge) (though I have not seen any earlier forms of the name to be able to substantiate this)

(gelli = grove a soft-mutated form of celli used as a radical form) + (yr definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = hedge)

..6/ In Aberbargoed (county of Caerffili) there is a road called Pant-y-fid Road) (In Welsh, this would be Heol Pant-y-fid) heul pant ə VIID [ˌhɛʊl pant ə ˡviːd]
pant y fid = (the) hollow (of) the quickset hedge

(pant = hollow) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = hedge)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British (*bit- = cut) < Celtic

See: bidog (= bayonet), Gelli'r-fid (place name), gwyddfid (= honeysuckle)

:_______________________________.

bid <BIID> [ˡbiːd] verb
1
let there be, let him be, let her be, let it be (third-person present imperative form of bod = be)

:_______________________________.

bid <BIID> [ˡbiːd] masculine noun
PLURAL bidiau <BID-yai, -e> [ˡbɪdjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
stanzas in Llyfr Coch Hergest (collection of manuscripts from between 1382 and 1410) beginning with the word bid = let there be, etc

:_______________________________.

bid a fo am hynny <BIID a VOO am HƏ-ni> [ˡbiːd a ˡvoː am ˡhənɪ]
1
(in concluding in a discourse) however it may be, whatever the facts may be

(bid = let it be, a fo = the thing that it may be, am hynny = about that)

:_______________________________.

bidio 1 <BID-YO> [ˡbɪdjɔ] verb
South Wales
1
bidio clawdd or bidio perth work on (trim, or make) a quickset hedge; plash a hedge

ETYMOLOGY: (bid = hedge) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: The colloquial form is bido b-do in general, the suffix -io lacks the semi-consonant i- in the south (-io > -o)

:_______________________________.

bidio 2 <BID-YO> [ˡbɪdjɔ] verb
1
bid, offer to buy something at an auction

Wn i ddim beth wnaeth imi ddechrau bidio am y gadair
I don't know why I started bidding for the chair

Yn sydyn dyma hi'n fidio gwyllt am y llun
Suddenly there was wild bidding for the picture

ETYMOLOGY: (bd = bid) + (-io suffix for forming verbs) < English bid < Old English bidd-

:_______________________________.

Bidno <BID-no> [ˡbɪdnɔ] feminine noun
1
Afon Bidno river in the district of Maldwyn, county of Powys SN8683
2
Pont Bidno bridge over the river Bidno on the Llangurig - Aberystwyth road

ETYMOLOGY: ??

:_______________________________.

bidog <BII-dog> [ˡbiˑdɔg] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL bidogau <bi-DOO-gai, -e> [bɪˡdoˑgaɪ, -ɛ]
1
obsolete dagger = kind of knfe with a pointed blade for stabbing

2 (Typography) dagger or obelisk = a cross-like character usually indicating a footnote



(delwedd 7442)

3 bayonet
rhoi blas y bidog ir gelyn give the enemy a taste of cold steel (give the taste of the bayonet to the enemy)

gosod bidog to fix a bayonet

Gosodwch eich bidogau! Fix bayonets!

gyda'u bidogau wedi'u gosod with their bayonets fixed

ETYMOLOGY: (bid, element = cut) + (-og)

NOTE: Can also be a masculine noun
See also bginet
:_______________________________.

bl, PLURAL: biliau <BIL,-BIL-yai, -e> [bɪl, ˡbɪljaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
bill

:_______________________________.

bilibala <BII-li-BAA-la> [ˡbiˑlɪ ˡbɑˑla] masculine noun
South Wales
1
form of pilipala = butterfly

:_______________________________.

bili-ffŵl <BII UUL> [ˡbiˑlɪ ˡfuːl] masculine noun
1
chwarae bili-ffŵl play the fool, act the fool

ETYMOLOGY: Billy (the) fool (bili < Bili < English Billy. pet form of William) + (ffŵl = fool)

:_______________________________.

bn, PLURAL: biniau <BIN,-BIN-yai, -e> [bɪn, ˡbɪnjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
bin

:_______________________________.

bn sbwriel <bin BUR-yel> [bɪn sbʊrjɛl] masculine noun
PLURAL biniau sbwriel <BIN-yai, -e, SBUR-yel> [ˡbɪnjaɪ, -ɛ ˡsbʊrjɛl]
1
(USA: ashcan, garbage can) (Englandic: rubbish bin, dustbin)

ETYMOLOGY: (bn = bin) + (sbwriel / ysbwriel = rubbish)
NOTE: full form: bin ysbwriel

:_______________________________.

Bioleg <bi-OO-leg> [bɪˡoˑlɛg] feminine noun)
1
biology

:_______________________________.

bisgeden, PLURAL: bisgedi <bi-SKEE-den,-bi-SKEE-di> [bɪˡskeˑdɛn,bɪˡskeˑdɪ] (feminine noun)
1
biscuit

:_______________________________.

bisgen, PLURAL: bisgis <bi-SKII-en, BI-skiz> [bɪˡskiˑɛn, ˡbɪskɪz] (feminine noun)
1
biscuit (South Wales)

ETYMOLOGY: (bisgi = south-western English bisky biscuit) + (-en diminutive suffix)

London, 1825. Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London.

Bisky. s[ubstantive]. A biscuit. It would be scarcely worth while to notice this difference in the word biscuit (twice baked), were it not that its pronunciation approaches nearly to the sound given by the French to cuit, the latter portion of the word the t being entirely omitted in the Somersetshire delivery.

:_______________________________.

bisgen wenith trwyddo <bi-SKII-en WEE-nith TRUI-dho> [bɪˡskiˑɛn ˡweˑnɪθ ˡtrʊɪɔ] PLURAL: bisgis gwenith trwyddo <BI-skiz GWEE-nith TRUI-dho> [ˡbɪskɪz ˡgweˑnɪθ ˡtrʊɪɔ]] (feminine noun)
1 wholemeal biscuit

:_______________________________.

bisgisen,
PLURAL: bisgis <bi-SKI-sen> [bɪˡskɪsɛn] (feminine noun)
1
biscuit (South-west)

:_______________________________.

biswail <BIS-wail, -wel> [ˡbɪswaɪl, ˡbɪswɛl] masculine noun
1
cattle dung, cow dung

Exodus 29:14 Ond cig y bustach, a'i groen, a'i fiswail, a losgi mewn tn, o'r tu allan i'r gwersyll; aberth dros bechod yw
Exodus 29:14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp: it is a sin offering.

2 In Llaneirwg (county of Caer-dydd)
..a/ Pwllybiswail farm name (pool of the dung) (Pwll-y-Biswael, Kellys Directory of Monmouthshire, 1901)
..b/ Plasybiswail street name (Plas y Biswail)
literally: (the) mansion (of) the cowdung, cowdung mansion

3
maer y biswail
in the medieval period, the agent of the local ruler in charge of the land; a land bailiff;
Cf the use of maer in maerdref (= land worked by unfree tenants to provide court with food) steward of the (cattle) dung

ETYMOLOGY: The first syllable is probably bu- (= cow). Cf Cornish busel (= cattle dung)

:_______________________________.

bita <BI-ta> [ˡbɪta] verb
1
a variant spelling of buta = to eat

:_______________________________.

Biwmares <byu-MAA-res> [bjʊˡmɑˑrɛs] feminine noun
1
SH6076 locality in the county of Mn
local form: Biwmaras, Bliwmaras, short form: y Bliw
2
a parish in this place

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < French beau marais (= fair marsh) (the castle and the town were built by the Norman conquerors)

:_______________________________.

bwrocrat <BYU-ro-krat> [ˡbjʊrɔkrat] masculine noun
PLURAL biwrocratiaid <byu-ro-KRAT-yed> [bjʊrɔˡkratjaɪd, -ɛd]
1
bureaucrat

ETYMOLOGY: English bureaucrat < French

:_______________________________.

biwrocrataidd <biu-ro-KRAT-aidh, -edh> [bɪʊrɔˡkrataɪ, -ɛ] adj
1
bureaucratic

corff biwrocrataidd a bureacratic body
creu corff biwrocrataidd enfawr gyda swyddog ar gyflog mawr
create an enormous bureaucratic body with an official on a high salary

trafferthion biwrocrataidd bureacratic problems, problems with bureaucracy

Maer drefn newydd yn llawer mwy hyblyg a llai biwrocrataidd nar hen drefn
The new system is much more flexible and less bureaucratic than the old system

ETYMOLOGY: (bwrocrat = bureaucrat) + (-aidd, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

biwrocratiaeth <biu-ro-KRAT-yaith, -yeth> [bɪʊrɔˡkratjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
1
bureaucracy

Biwrocratiaeth yn rhedeg yn rhemp yw hi
It's bureacracy gone mad

ETYMOLOGY: (bwrocrat = bureaucrat) + (-i-aeth, suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

biwso <BIU-so> [ˡbɪʊsɔ] verb
1
abuse = vilify, insult
Wna i ddim aros i gael fy miwso fel hyn
I'm not going to stay to be abused like this

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh biwso < abiwso < English abuse < French < Latin (ab = away from) + (utor, uti, usus = to use, make use of)

:_______________________________.

Biwt <BIUt> [ˡbɪʊt] verb
1
Welsh spelling of Bute [byuut], a Scottish place name (Scottish Gaelic Bd / Eilean Bhid)
Tre-biwt district of Caer-dydd (= Butetown)
Parc Biwt name of a park in Caer-dydd (= Bute Park)
Ardalydd Biwt the Marquess of Bute
:_______________________________.

bln <BLN> [blːn]
1 south-eastern form of blaen (= tip, end)
Usually spelt bln / bln
See aa / blaan

:_______________________________.

blaan <BLAAN> [blɑːn]
1 southern form of blaen (= tip, end)
Usually spelt bln / blan
See aa

:_______________________________.

blacmel <BLAK-mel> [ˡblakmɛl] masculine noun
1
blackmail

ETYMOLOGY: English blackmail black tribute
Cf Lowlandic (language of the lowlands of Scotland) mail = tribute; payment, rent; < Old English ml < Old Norse ml = speech, agreement)

Cf Norwegian ML (= speech, talking), BOKML = standard Norwegian (book language)

:_______________________________.

blacmelio <blak-MEL-yo> [blakˡmɛljɔ] verb
1
blackmail

ETYMOLOGY: (blacmel = blackmail) + (-io, suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: South Wales blacmelo (with -o, a typical southern feature, instead of io)

:_______________________________.

blacmeliwr <blak-MEL-yur> [blakˡmɛljʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL blacmelwyr <blak-MEL-wir> [blakˡmɛlwɪr]
1
blackmailer

ETYMOLOGY: (blacml = blackmail) + (-i-wr suffix, = agent)
NOTE: South Wales blacmelwr (with loss of the <y> [j] at the beginning of the final syllable, typical of the language of the south)

:_______________________________.

blacowt <BLAK-out> [ˡblakɔʊt] masculine noun
PLURAL blacowts <BLAK-outs> [ˡblakɔʊts]
1
blackout = complete darkness as a defensive measure in wartime by extinguishing all lights or preventing lights in a building from being visible from the outside

Doedd yna ddim blacowt yn y dre y pryd hynny
At the time there was no blackout in the town

2 blackout = a period of time in which such measures are taken

3 (colloquial) blackout = loss of consciousness; the formal word is llewyg

ETYMOLOGY: English blackout (black + out)

:_______________________________.

blaen <BLAIN> [ˡblaɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL blaenau <BLEI-nai, -ne> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
end
..1/ blaen bys finger tip, tapering extremity of a finger;
......ar flaenauch bysedd at the tips of your fingers, at your fingertips

..2/ blaen cadwyn end of a chain

..3/ blaen hidlo filter tip of a cigarette

..4/ blaen rhaff end of a rope

..5/ blaen sigart end of a cigarette (containing tobacco and which is lit)
Gwasgodd flaen ei sigart rhwng bawd a bys
He squashed the end of his cigarette between his thumb and finger

..6/ tip = end of a toe
ar flaenau ei draed on tiptoes

2
tip, point (needle, pin; knife-blade, sword-blade; spear, spike; twig, etc)

..1/ blaen cala glans (top (of) penis)

..2/ blaen cleddyf <KLEE-dhiv> [ˡkleˑɪv] = tip of a sword

..3/ blaen cyllell <KƏ-lhelh> [ˡkəɬɛɬ] = tip of a knife
......blaen y gyllell the thin end of the wedge, a small beginning of a process which will lead to worse things (the tip of the knife)

..4/ blaen draenen <DREI-nen> [ˡdrəɪnɛn] = point of a thorn

..5/ blaen nodwydd = tip of a needle

..6/ blaen tafod tip of the tongue
.......Fe gaiff e glywed blaen dy nhafod i Ill give him a telling off (he will get to hear the tip of my tongue)

3
top, head; end-part attached to form an implement, etc;
blaen saeth <SAITH> [saɪθ] arrow head

4
top
blaen ysgub <ə-skib> [ˡəskɪb] = top of a sheaf of corn

5
front (of a page), upper side (of a page)
blaen tudalen front (of a page),

6
(afon = river) source; (this sense in many place names)
Blaenbargod name of a farm 5km south of Llangeler SN3739 (county of Caerfyrddin)
Blaendulais <blain-DII-lais, -les> [blaɪnˡdiˑlaɪs, -lɛs] (source of the Dulais stream)
Blaen-y-nant (place name) stream source

7
blaenau = top end of a valley, place of the sources of streams
ym mlaenau Dyffryn Tywi <ə-MLEI-nai, -ne, Də-frin Tə-wi> [ə ˡmləɪnaɪ -ɛ ˡdəfrɪn ˡtəwɪ]
at the top of the valley of the river Tywi

8
blaenau highland part of a district.
Common in toponyms. Sometimes a district has a corresponding name for the lowland part (bro = lowland)
..1/ Blaenau Ffestiniog (qv) <BLEI-ne fe-STIN-yog> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ, fɛˡstɪnjɔg]

..2/ Blaenau Gwent (qv) <BLEI-nai, -ne, GWENT> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ, ˡgwɛnt] upper reaches of the land of Gwent

..3/ Blaenau Morgannwg (qv) <BLEI-nai, -ne, mor-GA-nug> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ, mɔrˡganʊg] . The highland (of the region of) Morgannwg, the Morgannwg uplands.
Morgannwg is Morgans Land, (Morgan, combining form Morgann-) + (suffix wg denoting territory). It is called Glamorgan in English, from an alternative Welsh name Gwlad Forgan
, Morgans land.

The coastal area is Bro Morgannwg <BROO-mor GA-nug> [ˡbroː mɔrˡganʊg] (qv) the lowland of Morgannwg;

..4/ The parish of Llanwenog, in the county of Ceredigion, South Wales is divided into Blaenau Llanwenog <BROO lhan-WEE-nog> [ˡbroː ɬanˡweˑnɔg] the highland part of the parish of Llanwenog and Bro Llanwenog the lowland part of the parish of Llanwenog;

9
front part

ar flaen at the head of, at the front of, leading, in the forefront of
ar flaen y gad (at the head of the battle) in the vanguard of the army; metaphorically in the lead
milwyr ar flaen y gad front-line soldiers

Dros y blynyddoedd maer brifysgol wedi fod ar flaen y gad ym maes geneteg planhigion
Over the years the university has been in the forefront in the field of plant genetics

ar flaen yr orymdaith at the head of the procession

ar flaen y golofn leading the column

ar y blaen in the lead, ahead
bod ar y blaen be in the lead, be ahead
bod ymhll ar y blaen be well in the lead, be well ahead

10
(hair) blaen hollt <blain HOLHT> [blaɪn ˡhɔɬt]
split end

11
(North Wales) blaen troed kick

12
blaen troed esgid tip of shoe, front of shoe

13
(North Wales) initiative
Does dim blaen ynddo fo <dois dim BLAIN əN-dho vo> [dɔɪs dɪm ˡblaɪn ˡənɔvɔ]
He has no initiative

14
leading figure, prominent figure, active person in some sphere
Mae hi'n dipyn o flaen gyda phethau yn y pentre <mai hin DI-pin o VLAIN gə-da FEE-thai, -e, ən ə PEN-tre> [maɪ hɪn ˡdɪpɪn ɔ ˡvlaɪn ˡgəda ˡfeˑθaɪ, -ɛ, ən ə ˡpɛntrɛ]
She is prominent in many things in the village

15
(modifier) front = at the front;
dannedd blaen front teeth
sedd flaen front seat

16
front, fore-
bys blaen forefinger, index finger (finger (of) front)

17
o flaen <o-VLAIN> [ɔ ˡvlaɪn] (qv) (preposici) in front of

18
ymlen (qv) <ə-MLAIN> [ə ˡmlaɪn] (adverb) forward

19
the noun blaen, can also be used as a postnominal adjective, is one of the few of this type qhich can take the superlative termination af

blaenaf, blaena' (qv) <BLEI-na> [ˡbləɪna] foremost
cerbydau blaenaf a cherbydau olaf y trn the front carriages and the end carriages of the train

20
go = energy, iniatitive
(North Wales) Does dim cyrraedd ynddo Hes got no go in him

21
(Bblia 1620) y rhai blaenaf (qv) the ones in front

Mathew 19:30 Ond llawer o'r rhai blaenaf a fyddant yn olaf, a'r rhai olaf yn flaenaf
<ond LHAU-er or hrai BLEI-nav a VƏ-dhant ən OO-lav, ar HRAI OO-lav ən VLEI-nav> [ɔnd ˡɬaʊɛr ɔr hraɪ ˡbləɪnav a ˡvəant ən ˡoˑlav, ar hraɪ ˡoˑlav ən ˡvləɪnav]
Matthew 19:30 But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be the first

22 leading position

cael y blaen ar beat someone to it, arrive before another person

Os cewch chir blaen arna i, arhoswch nes dof innau hefyd If you get there before me, wait till I come too

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh blaen < British < Celtic *blakn-

In the other British languages: Cornish bleyn (= tip, top part), Breton blein (= peak); these words are from a variant *blekn- < *blakn-

From the same Celtic source in the Hibernian languages: Irish blin (= groin; cavity; cove)

NOTE: (South Wales) written bln, blan, in this dictionary as blaan).

In the south-east (written bln, in this dictionary as bln)

:_______________________________.

blaenaeddfedrwydd <blein-eidh-VED-ruidh> [bləɪnəɪˡvɛdrʊɪ] (m)
1
puberty

ETYMOLOGY: pre-maturity (blaen = front, top; pre-) + (aeddfedrwydd = maturity)

:_______________________________.

blaenaf <BLEI-nav, BLEI-na> [ˡbləɪnav, ˡbləɪna] (adjective)
1
foremost
2
or radd flaenaf top-notch, top-quality

:_______________________________.

Blaenafon <blain AA-von> [blaɪn ˡɑˑvɔn]
1
town (south-east) (source of the river)

:_______________________________.

Blaenaman <blain-A-man> [blaɪnˡaman]
1
village (south-west) (source of the Aman stream)

:_______________________________.

Blaenannerch <blain-A-nerkh> [blaɪnˡanɛrx]
1
village (South-west)

:_______________________________.

Y Blaenau, PLURAL: <ə-BLEI-nai, -e> [ə ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
village (South-east)

:_______________________________.

Blaenau Ffestiniog <BLEIN-ai, -e, fe-STIN-yog> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ, fɛˡstɪnjɔg] feminine noun
1
SH7045 locality in Gwynedd

ETYMOLOGY: the upland of the parish of Ffestiniog (blaenau = upland) + (Ffestiniog, parish name)

:_______________________________.

Blaenau Gwent <BLEI-nai, -e, GWENT> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ, gwɛnt]
1
county in the south-east

:_______________________________.

Blaenau-gwent <BLEI-nai, -e, GWENT> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ, gwɛnt]
1
village in the south-east (uplands of the territory of Gwent)

:_______________________________.

Blaenau Morgannwg <BLEI-ne mor-GA-nug> [ˡbləɪnaɪ, -ɛ, mɔrˡganʊg]
1
the Morgannwg highland - more or less the highland area south of Ffordd Blaenau'r Cymoedd (Heads of the Valleys Road) from Castell-nedd to Merthyrtudful

ETYMOLOGY: (the) highlands / uplands / stream sources (of) Morgannwg (blaenau = highland, upland, stream sources) + (Morgannwg, region in the south-east, old kingdom)

NOTE: Bro Morgannwg is the lowland area by the coast; (the) lowland (of) Morgannwg

:_______________________________.

blaenbost <BLEIN-bost> [ˡbləɪnbɔst]
masculine noun
PLURAL blaenbyst <BLEIN-bist> [ˡbləɪnbɪst]
North Wales
1
gatepost

ETYMOLOGY: fore-post (blaen = fore, front) + soft mutation + (post = post)

:_______________________________.

blaen bys <blain BIIS> [blaɪn ˡbiːs] (masculine noun)
1
finger tip
:_______________________________.

Blaen-cwm <blain-KUM> [blaɪnˡkʊm]
1
SN8913 Name of a ruined farmhouse 4km from Ystradfellte, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1329869

ETYMOLOGY: blaen y cwm (the) top (of) the valley (blaen = top) + (y definite article) + (cwm = valley)

In place names, the linking definite article is often lost.

See also Blaen-y-cwm

:_______________________________.

blaendoriad <blein-DOR-yad> [bləɪnˡdɔrjad] masculine noun
PLURAL blaendoriadau <blein-dor-YAA-dai, -e> [bləɪndɔrˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]

1 apheresis = the loss of a syllable at the beginning of a word (which could be a vowel, or a single consonant + vowel, or consonant cluster + vowel).
The phenomenon is common in Welsh. Examples are:

redig < aredig (= to plough),

Feidiog < Defeidiog (= sheepwalk)

2
blaendoriad llafariad (front-cutting (of) vowel) aphesis = the disappearance of a vowel at the beginning of a word

See Apheresis in the a section of this dictionary for examples of this process in Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: (blaendorr-, stem of blaendorri = truncate, cut off the front part) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

Blaendulais <blain-DII-lais, -les> [blaɪnˡdiˑlaɪs, -lɛs]
1
(SN8108) locality in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan
English name: Seven Sisters
Population and proportion of Welsh-speakers:
(1961) 2,042 25%
(1971) 1,720 12%

ETYMOLOGY: (the) source (of the river) Dulais (blaen = source) + (Dulais = river name, black stream)

NOTE: A general southern pronunciation would be Blandulas <blaan-DII-les> [blaːnˡdiˑlɛs]
The expected local pronunciation (south-eastern) would be Blndulas <bln DII-las> [blːn ˡdiˑlas]

:_______________________________.

Blaen-ffos <blain-FOOS> [blaɪnˡfoːs]
1
See Blaen-y-ffos

:_______________________________.

blaenffrwyth <BLEIN-fruith> [ˡbləɪnfrʊɪθ]
1
first fruits

(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:8 Gogonedda Dduw llygad da, ac na phrinha flaenffrwyth dy ddwylo.
(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:8 Give the Lord his honour with a good eye, and diminish not the firstfruits of thine hands.

:_______________________________.

blaengroen <BLAIN-groin> [ˡblaɪngrɔɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL blaengrwyn <BLAIN-gruin> [ˡblaɪngrʊɪn]
1 foreskin

Samuel-1 18:25 A dywedodd Saul, Fel hyn y dywedwch wrth Dafydd; Nid yw y brenin yn ewyllysio cynnysgaeth, ond cael cant o flaengrwyn y Philistiaid, i ddial ar elynion y brenin. Ond Saul oedd yn meddwl peri lladd Dafydd trwy law y Philistiaid.
Samuel-1 18:25 And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.

ETYMOLOGY: (blaen = front; fore) + soft mutation + (croen = skin)

:_______________________________.

Blaenieithon <blain-YEI-thon> [blaɪnˡjəɪθɔn]
1
(SO1084) locality in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) source (of) (the river) Ieithon) (blaen = front; source of river) + (Ieithon)

:_______________________________.

blaenor <BLEI-nor> [ˡbləɪnɔr] masculine noun
PLURAL blaenoriaid <blei-NOR-yaid, -yed> [bləɪˡnɔrjaɪd, -ɛd]

1 deacon in a Nonconformist chapel, elder

Mae'r blaenoriaid yn y st fawr yn mynd ar eu glinie weithie
The deacons in the Big Seat sometimes kneel down

2 person at the front

Wrth i ni redeg i lawr y bryn i'r ysgol, os byddai i un o'r blaenoriaid faglu, fe fyddai pawb yn syrthio yn bentwr yn bendramwnwgwl ar y ffordd
As we ran down the hill to the school, if one of the people in front tripped, everybody would tumble head over heels into a pile on the road

:_______________________________.

Blaen-plwyf <blain-PLUIV> [blaɪnˡplʊɪv]
1
farm SN2151 in Ceredigion county, west of Aber-porth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/sn2151

2 village SN5775 in Ceredigion county south of Aberystwyth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5775

3 farm SH8409 east of Aberangell, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH8409

ETYMOLOGY: blaen plwyf < blaen y plwyf (the) top / end (of) the parish

(blaen = top, tip, point) + (y = the) + (plwyf = parish).

In place names, this linking definite article is often lost.



:_______________________________.

blaen saeth <blain SAITH> [blaɪn ˡsaɪθ] (masculine noun)
1
arrow head

:_______________________________.

Blaen-waun <blain WAIN> [blaɪn ˡwaɪn]
1
(SN3953) locality in Ceredigion county
2
(SN3427) locality in Caerfyrddin county, 17km north-west-west of the town of Caerfyrddin

ETYMOLOGY: blaen y waun (the) top (of) the moorfield

(blaen = top, tip, point) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (gwaun = moor, moorfield, heath).

In place names, this linking definite article is often lost.

:_______________________________.

blaenwr, PLURAL: blaenwyr <BLEI-nur,-BLEIN-wir> [ˡbləɪnʊr, ˡbləɪnwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
(rugby) forward

:_______________________________.

Blaen-y-cae <blain ə KAI> [blaɪn ə ˡkaɪ]
1
place name

2 Occurs in the USA in Blaen Y Cae Cemetery, Randolph, Columbia County, Wisconsin (north-east of Madison and west of Beaver Dam) 433642N 0890043W

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) the field (blaen = top) + (y = the) + (cae = field)

:_______________________________.

Blaen-y-coed <blain ə KOID> [blaɪn ə ˡkɔɪd]
1
(SN3427) locality in Caerfyrddin county, 10km north-west of the town of Caerfyrddin

2
street name in Y Radur, Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) the wood (blaen = top) + (y = the) + (coed = wood)

:_______________________________.

Blaen-y-cwm <blain ə KUM> [blaɪn ə ˡkʊm]
1
street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

(spelt as Blaen y Cwm)

ETYMOLOGY: blaen y cwm (the) head (of) the valley (blaen = front; head of a valley) + (y definite article) + (cwm = valley).

See also Blaen-cwm

:_______________________________.

Blaen-y-ffos <blain ə FOOS> [blaɪn ə ˡfoːs]
1
(SN1937) locality in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) the ditch, the boundary ditch
(blaen = top) + (y = the) + (ffos = ditch, boundary ditch)

NOTE: The name is also found as Blaen-ffos. In place names, the linking definite article is often lost.

:_______________________________.

Blaen-y-fro blain-ə- vroo
1
street name in Pen-coed, county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) Y Fro, that is, above the lowland of Morgannwg
(blaen = top) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (bro = lowland).

Y Fro (the lowland) is the popular name for Bro Morgannwg (the lowland of Morgannwg).

The village of Pen-coed is situated on the highland side of the Morgannwg highland-lowland boundary

:_______________________________.

Blaen-y-llyn blain-ə- lhin
1
street name in the village of Y Ddraenen-wen, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf

ETYMOLOGY: (the) top (of) the pool
(blaen = top) + (y = the) + (llyn = pool, lake)

:_______________________________.

blaguryn, PLURAL: blagur bla GII rin, BLAA gir (masculine noun)
1
bud (flower)

:_______________________________.

blaidd blaidh m
PLURAL bleiddiau, bleiddiaid bleidh-ye, bleidh-yed
1 (Canis lupis) wolf (western USA: also lobo)

2 in certain names from the British period; Arthflaidd arth-vlaidh , Bleiddfan bleidh-van , Bleiddgi bleidh-gi , Bleiddig blei-dhig , Bleiddri bleidh-ri , Bleiddudd blei-dhidh , Cynflaidd kən-vlaidh

3 mor ddibarch 'r blaidd as disrespectful as the wolf

4 gweiddi blaidd! to cry wolf = demand help unnecessarily

5 y Blaidd constellation Lupus

6 cipio cneuen o wl y blaidd beard (= oppose) the lion in his den; confront someone (take (a) hazelnut (from) (the) den (of ) the wolf)
7 wolf = cruel rapacious person

8 blaidd mewn croen dafad a sheep in wolf's clothing (a menace in disguise, a malicious person who acts as if he or she means well) (a wolf in a sheepskin)
bod yn flaidd mewn croen dafad be a sheep in wolf's clothing

Mathew 7:15 Ymogelwch rhag gau broffwydi, y rhai a ddeuant atoch yng ngwisgoedd defaid, ond oddi mewn bleiddiaid rheibus ydynt hwy
Matthew 7:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh blaidd < bleidd < British < Celtic *bled-i
From the same British root: Cornish bleydh (= wolf), Breton bleiz (= wolf)

:_______________________________.

blaidd mewn croen defaid blaidh meun kroin DEE ved (masculine noun)
1
wolf in sheep's clothing

:_______________________________.

blan blaan
1 southern form of blaen (= tip, end)
Usually spelt (less correctly) bln
See aa / blaan

:_______________________________.

blas BLAAS (masculine noun)
1
taste
Mae blas sebon ar y bara the bread tastes of soap
(there is (the) taste (of) soap on the bread)

Mae blas rhyfedd ar y te ma This tea tastes strange, This tea has a funny taste (theres a strange taste on this tea)

2 blesyn taste

(blas = taste) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns)
(a > e due to the influence of the final y vowel affection)

Cymerwch flesyn i weld Taste it and see (take a taste to see)

3
cael blas ar kail BLAAS ar (a) have a taste of; (b) enjoy

Chafodd e fawr o flas erioed ar chwarae rygbi
He never really enjoyed palying rugby

4 rhinflas (food) essence = oily substance to give flavour
(rhin = essence) + soft mutation + (blas = taste)

5 cael blas och ffisig eich hun have / get a taste of your own medicine
trio blas och ffisig eich hun have / get a taste of your own medicine
rhoi ichi flas och ffisig eich hun give you a taste your own medicine

:_______________________________.

blasbwynt BLA spwint (masculine noun)
1
taste bud

:_______________________________.

blasu BLA si (verb)
1
to taste

:_______________________________.

blasus BLA sis (masculine noun) t
1
tasty, delicious

:_______________________________.

blawd (1) BLAUD (masculine noun)
1 flour

blawd barlys blaud BAR lis (masculine noun) barley flour
blawd can blaud KAN (masculine noun) white flour
blawd ceirch blaud KEIRKH (masculine noun) oat flour
blawd codi blaud KO di (masculine noun) self-raising flour
blawd gwenith blaud GWE nith (masculine noun) wheat flour
blawd gwyn blaud GWIN (masculine noun) white flour
blawd india-corn cornmeal, cornflour
blawd llif blaud LHIIV (masculine noun) sawdust (flour of saw)
blawd plaen blaud PLAIN (masculine noun) plain flour
blawd reis ground rice, rice flour
blawd rhyg blaud RHIIG (masculine noun) rye flour

2 dal blawd wyneb put on a bold face (hold flour (of) face)

3 cist flawd flour chest (Scotland: meal-ark)
(chest (of) flour) (cist = coffer) + soft mutation + (blawd = farina)

4 Anodd pobi heb flawd (it is) difficult baking without flour No bricks without straw, Even the Israelites could not make bricks without straw, you cant make bricks without straw

E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898. To attempt to do something without having the necessary material supplied. The allusion is to the Israelites in Egypt, who were commanded by their taskmasters so to do. (Exodus v. 7.)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British blt- < Common Celtic mlt-i-, Indo-European mel(h) (= to crush, to grind) (also the origin of English meal (= flour; food), and via Latin, to maul, molar (tooth) and mallet).

Indo-European
bhl-t- < bhl- (= a leaf, a flower)

From this same I.E: root are English
bloom, and Latin fls, floris (= a flower)

Breton bleud (= flour), Cornish bleuz (= flour)

Irish blith (= literary word; smooth, delicate)< mlith

:_______________________________.

blawd (2) BLAUD (masculine noun)
1 (obsolete) flower

With the addition of the plural suffix au:

blawdau > blodau (= flowers; also [obsolete] used as a singular noun, = flower)

From the plural form blodau, a singulative suffix yn was added > blodeuyn (= a flower)

The more usual form in modern Welsh however is blodyn (= flower)

(blawd = flower) + (yn a singulative suffix) > blawd-yn > blodyn

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British blt < Common Celtic blt-

Indo-European
bhl-t- < bhl- (= a leaf, a flower)

From this same I.E: root are English
bloom, and Latin fls, floris (= a flower)

Breton bleuvenn (= flour), Cornish bleujenn (= flower)

Irish blth (= blossom, flower; blossoms, flowers)

It occurs
in Gaulish place names as blt- (= flower), though there is the possibility that blt < mlt- (= to grind, to crush), and so is equivalent to Welsh blawd (= flour)

The name of the town of Blond in France is from Gaulish Blt-o-mg-os

This is flower field or corresponding to modern Welsh blawd (= flower), or blod- < blawd (= flower) in blodyn (= flower), and (ma = plain, < Old Welsh magh = plain); or else grain field if from mlt- (= to grind, to crush)

Mg-os occurs as the first element of maes (= field; plain), and as ma (= plain) in place names (Machynlleth, plain of someone called Cynllaith, Mechain < Mechein < Ma Chein plain of the river Cein, noawadays Cain, Mathafarn plain of the tavern), and as the suffix fa (= place).

The equivalent form of Blat-o-mag-os in modern Welsh would be Blodfa.



(delwedd 7226)

:_______________________________.

ble BLEE (interr)
1
where

Ewch ble mynnoch Go wherever you want, Go where you please

tocyn ewch-ble-mynnoch runabout ticket, explorer ticket (ticket on a bus or train allowing the user to travel at will on a network in a stipulated area during a stipulated period)

2 ble? where?

Before a verb, with the linking particle y / yr (Ble y... / ble yr-...) but his is generally omitted colloquially
Ble y cefaist ti... > Ble cst ti dy eni? Where were you born?

:_______________________________.

Bleddyn BLE dhin (masculine noun)
1
man's name

ETYMOLOGY: = little wolf, wolf cub bleddyn < bleiddyn (bleidd- < blaidd = wolf) + (-yn diminutive suffix)
:_______________________________.

blerio bler -yo verb
(North Wales)
1
untidy, make a mess, throw into disorder, mess up, leave (something) in a mess, disarrange

2 do (something) inefficiently

ETYMOLOGY: (blr- = untidy, disordered) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: also bleru

:_______________________________.

bleru
ble -ru verb
(North Wales)
1
untidy, make a mess, throw into disorder, mess up, leave (something) in a mess, disarrange

2 do (something) inefficiently

ETYMOLOGY: (blr- = untidy, disordered) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: also blerio

:_______________________________.

blesyn masculine noun
1
taste
Cymerwch flesyn i weld Taste it and see (take a taste to see)

ETYMOLOGY: (blas = taste) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns)
(vowel affection a > e due to the influence of the final y)

:_______________________________.

blewog BLEU og (adjective)
1
hairy

2 llaw flewog thief (hairy hand)
Mae en llaw flewog Hes a thief

3
dwylo blewog (hairy hands)
Mae ganddo ddwylo blewog Hes a thief (he has hairy hands)
y bobl dwylo blewog the thieving fraternity, people prone to steal things

4 mn-flewog fluffy
(mn = small, fine ) + soft mutation + (blewog = hairy)

ETYMOLOGY: (blew = hair) + (-og adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

blewyn, PLURAL: blew BLEU in, BLEU (masculine noun)
1
hair

2 straw, blade of grass

(South Wales) tynnu blewyn cwta am (rywbeth) draw the short straw for (to choose someone out of two or more people blades of straw are held in the hand, apparently all the same length but one is shorter than the other or others, and whoever draws this is chosen)

Tynnwyd blewyn cwta am y baich ysgafnach The lightest load was allotted by drawing straws
( a short straw was drawn for the lightest load)

3 (fish) blewyn fishbone, small bone of a fish

4 trwch blewyn a hairs breadth
thickness (of) hair (trwch = thickness) + (blewyn = hair)

crac trwch blewyn hairline crack
o drwch blewyn by a hairs breadth
dod o fewn trwch blewyn o come to within a hairs breadth of
Fe ddaeth e o fewn trwch blewyn o gael ei ethol yn gynghorwr sir dros bentref ei enedigaeth
He came to within a hairs breadth of being elected as a county councillor representing the village of his birth

5 indicates the least possible amount (not a single drop of..., not an ounce of..., etc:

dim blewyn not even the smallest amount (not (a) hair)

chawson ni ddim blewyn o law ym mis Mai we didnt get a single drop of rain in May

does dim blewyn o wahaniaeth rhwng y ddau theres not an ounce of difference between the two

ETYMOLOGY: blewyn is (blew = hair) + (-yn singulative noun suffix)
:_______________________________.

blewyn amrant, PLURAL: blew amrant bleu in AM rant, bleu Am rant (masculine noun)
1
eyelash

ETYMOLOGY: hair (of) eyelid (blewyn = hair) + (amrant = eyelid)
:_______________________________.

Blicca bjoerkna
1 merfog gwyn (m), merfogiaid gwyn / gwynion silver bream

:_______________________________.

blin BLIIN (adjective)
1
sorry
Mae'n flin gennyf
main VLIIN ge ni (phrase) I'm sorry

2 tired

3 angry
:_______________________________.

blinder BLIN der (masculine noun)
1
tiredness, fatigue

2 bwrw blinder rest, relax
bwrwch blinder rest, relax (throw (off) your tiredness)

:_______________________________.

blinedig bli-NEE-dig (adjective)
1
tired

:_______________________________.

blinfyd blin-vid masculine noun
1
adversity, tribulation
Diarhebion 31:7 Yfed efe, fel yr anghofio ei dlodi; ac ac un na feddylio am ei flinfyd mwy.
Proverbs 31:7 Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more.

ETYMOLOGY: (blin = tedious) + soft mutation + (byd = world, situation)

:_______________________________.

blingo BLI ngo (verb)
1
to skin
2 blingor gath ir gynffon spend wildly (skin the cat to the tail)

:_______________________________.

blino BLII-no (verb)
1
to tire, to (make someone) tired

2 to become tired, to get tired out
Mae golwg wedi blino arni She looks tired

:_______________________________.

blinwaith blin-waith masculine noun
1
tedious work

Y mae y gwaith o olchi aur yn flinwaith ir eithaf; yn llafur anhyfryd, afiach, ac anghysurus. (Y Traethodydd 1851 t353)
The task of washing gold is an extremely tedious task; an unpleasant, unhealthy and uncomfortable job

ETYMOLOGY: (blin = tedious) + soft mutation + (gwaith = work)

:_______________________________.

blith
bliith adjective
PLURAL blithion
blith -yon
1 milch = giving milk

buwch flith
milch cow, dairy cow, cow kept for giving milk
(buwch = cow) + soft mutation + (blith = milch = giving milk)

da blithion milch cows, cows giving milk
gwartheg blithion milch cows

2 (m) milk; dairy produce; profit, advantage

3 (North Wales) llefrith milk
llefrith < lleflith < ll-flith < llf-flith (*llef = weak, soft, tepid) + soft mutation + (blith = milk)
Note the change l > r

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh blith < British *blikt- < Celtic *mlikt-
From the same Celtic root: Irish bleacht (= milk)
From the same Indoeuropean root:
..a/ Catalan munyir (= to milk) < Latin mungere < mulgere (M-L-G. Compare the series of consonants in Celtic M-L-K)
..b/ English milk (cf the series of consonants in Celtic M-L-K)

:_______________________________.

blodau (1) BLOO-dai, -e
1
flowers; plural form of blodyn = flower

:_______________________________.

blodau (2) BLOO-de
1
(obsolete) flower

2 the flower = the prime, the best [of all], the choicest, the sublimest

..a/ the best people or things

blodaur ffair the pride of the fair, the best of the fair; the pick of the bunch

Ar lan y mr mae cerrig gleision,
Ar lan y mr mae blodau'r meibion.

(Folk Song, Ar Lan y Mr)
[Down] by the sea there are grey stones / blue stones,
[Down] by the sea there are the best young men [of all]

blodeugerdd
anthology
(blodeu-, blodau = the flower [of something], the best [of something]) + soft mutation + (cerdd = song, poem) > best song, best poem > anthology, collection of the best poems

..b/ the best place

Cofiant Matthews, Ewenni, John James Morgan, 1922, p397
Meddwyn yn y trn nos Sadwrn yn methu agor ond cil un llygad, yn bloeddion barhaus, Blodaur byd ywr Pil a Chefancribwr.
A drunk on the train one Saturday night, with one eye half open (unable to open but the corner of one eye), shouting out constantly, Y Pl and Cefncribwr are the best places on earth.

..c/ the prime = the best period

blodau ieuenctid the bloom of youth

blodau ei hoedran her prime of life, the flower of her age

7:36 Corinthiaid-1 Ond os yw neb yn tybied ei fod y anweddaidd tuag at ei wyry, od hi dros flodau ei hoedran, a bod yn rhaid gwneuthur felly; gwnaed a fynno, nid yw yn pechu: priodant.
Corinthians-1 7:36 But if any man think that he behaveth himself uncomely toward his virgin, if she pass the flower of her age, and need so require, let him do what he will, he sinneth not: let them marry.

yn ei flodau floruit; in his prime

blodau ei oes prime of life

ym mlodau ei oes in the prime of his life, in the prime of life

Bu farw ym mlodau ei oes heb briodi He died, unmarried, in the prime of his life

4 bod yn ei blodau
be having her period

mae hi yn ei blodau shes having her period

:_______________________________.

blodeufa, blodeufydd blo-DEI-va, blo-dei-VEIDH (f)
1
parterre = an ornamental garden with flower beds of different shapes and sizes and gravel paths or turf paths between the beds

ETYMOLOGY: (blodeu-, blodau = flowers) + (-fa suffix = place)
:_______________________________.

blodeugerdd, blodeugerddi blo-DEI-gerdh, blo-dei-GER-dhi (f)
1
anthology

ETYMOLOGY: (blodeu-, blodau = the flower [of something], the best [of something]) + soft mutation + (cerdd = song, poem) > best song, best poem > anthology, collection of the best poems

:_______________________________.

blodeuo blo DEI o (verb)
1
to flower

2 have a period

mae hin blodeuo shes having her period

ETYMOLOGY: (blodeu-, blodau = flowers) + (-o = verbal suffix)
:_______________________________.

blodeuog blo DEI og (feminine noun)
1
flowery

2 blossoming

helygen flodeuog (helyg blodeuog) (Chilopsis linearis) desert willow
See: helygen yr anialwch

3 flourishing, thriving, growing apace

ETYMOLOGY: (blodeu-, blodau = flowers) + (-og = adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

Blodeuwedd blo-DEI-wedh (feminine noun)
1
mythical personage

ETYMOLOGY: (one who has) (the) appearance (of) flowers, flowers-appearance

(blodeu-, blodau = flowers) + soft mutation + (
gwedd = aspect, appearance, look)

:_______________________________.

blodeuyn, blodau blo-DEI-in, BLOO-dai, -e (m)
1
flower

The more usual word nowadays is blodyn

ETYMOLOGY: (blodeu-, blodau = flowers) + (-yn = singulative suffix) > blodeuyn

:_______________________________.

Blodwen BLOD wen (feminine noun)
1
woman's name

ETYMOLOGY: flower, Flora (blod-, stem of blodyn = flower) + (-wen suffix for creating female names; = white, fair, beautiful)
:_______________________________.

blodyn (blodeuyn) BLO din, blo DEI in (masculine noun)
1
flower; blossom on a tree
blodaur drain the hawthorn blossoms

2
Sul y Blodau Palm Sunday (Sunday (of) the flowers) = the Sunday before Easter commemorating Jesuss entry into Jerusalem

3 Caeblodau street name, Baecinmel (county of Dinbych)

(appears as Cae Blodau) (in theory, street names which mimic habitative names would be spelt as a single word)

The original form would be caer blodau (the) field (of) the flowers
(cae = field) + (r definite article) + (blodau = flowers)
The linking definite article y / yr / r is frequently omitted in place names

4 bod fel blodaur graban (South) said of a numerous family, theyre all over the place, you find them everywhere, you just cant avoid them
graban Chrysanthemum segetum; corn marigold

5 endearment: 'mlodyn i my flower

ETYMOLOGY: (blawd = flowers) + (-yn = singulative suffix) > blawd-yn > blodyn
:_______________________________.

bloedd blidh feminine noun
PLURAL bloeddiau, bloeddiadau bloidh-ye, bloidh-y-de
1
shout
bloeddiadau gwerthwyr y papurau newyddion
the shouts of the newspaper sellers

2
shout of command
Nid oedd eisiau chwip na bloedd i yrru y ceffylau am y gwyddent y ffordd yn dda
There was no need of a whip or a shout to drive along the horses as they knew the road well

3
literary cadfloedd war cry

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic; cf Irish bladhair (= to shout)

NOTE: In the south bloedd > blodd, bloodd. The change oe [oi] > oo [o:] in monosyllables is a regular feature of Southern Welsh.

:_______________________________.

bloeddio bloidh -yo verb
1
shout
2
m shouting

ETYMOLOGY: (bloedd = shout) + (-io verbal suffix)

:_______________________________.

bloeddiwr blidh-yur masculine noun
PLURAL bloeddwyr bloidh-wir
1
shouter

ETYMOLOGY: (bloedd- stem of bloeddio = to shout) + (-i-wr agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

bloesg BLOISK (adjective)
1
indistinct
2
siarad yn floesg
SHAA rad ən VLOISG speak indistinctly

:_______________________________.

bloneg BLOO neg masculine noun
1
fat, lard
bod gormod o floneg ar be too flabby (be too-much of fat on)

:_______________________________.

blonged blo -nged verb
(South Wales)

1
blonged i belong = be a possession of

2
blonged i (member of a family) be related to

ETYMOLOGY: English belong. See belongio
NOTE: Also: blongo, blongid. The standard form is perthyn

:_______________________________.

blongid blo -ngid verb
(South Wales)

1
blongid i belong = be a possession of

2
blongid i (member of a family) be related to

ETYMOLOGY: English belong. See belongio
NOTE: Also: blongo, blonged. The standard form is perthyn

:_______________________________.

blongo blo ngo verb
(South Wales)

1
blongo i belong = be a possession of

2
blongo i (member of a family) be related to

ETYMOLOGY: English belong. See belongio
NOTE: Also: blonged, blongid. The standard form is perthyn

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blows, PLURAL: blowsiau BLOUS, VLOUS ye (feminine noun)
1
blouse

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blwch llwch bluukh lhuukh masculine noun
PLURAL blychau llwch blə-khe lhuukh
1
ashtray (box (of) ash)

Taflwch y Blwch Llwch
Throw away the ashtray (name of a campaign for smokers to give up their habit, Wales, January 2001)

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blwch penseli bluukh pen SEE li (masculine noun)
1
pencil box

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blwydd BLUIDH (feminine noun)
1
year of age

blwydd oed one year old

tair blwydd oed three years old

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blwyddyn BLUI dhin (feminine noun)

PLURAL: blynyddoedd ble NDH oidh, -odh

Another plural form used colloquially is blynyddau ble NDH ai, -e

1 year

NOTE: a year of age is blwydd (qv)

flynyddoedd yn l years ago, many years ago

2
blwyddyn naid
leap year, year having an intercalary day, an extra day inserted in the calendar

3 -Blwyddyn newydd dda ichi! -Run fath i chithe! (= in the literary language Yr un fath i chwithau!)
-A happy New Year to you! -The same to you!

4
or naill ben ir flwyddyn ir llall from one end of the year to the other, from years end to years end

5
mil o flynyddoedd
a thousand years

y mil o flynyddoedd (Christianity) the milennium, the period of one thousand years when Christ will reign the Earth

Datguddiad 20:3 Ac a'i bwriodd ef i'r pydew diwaelod, ac a gaeodd arno, ac a seliodd arno ef, fel na thwyllai efe'r cenhedloedd mwyach, nes cyflawni'r mil o flynyddoedd: ac ar l hynny rhaid yw ei ollwng ef yn rhydd dros ychydig amser. (20:4) Ac mi a welais orseddfeinciau, a hwy a eisteddasant amynt, a barn a roed iddynt hwy: ac mi a welais eneidiau'r rhai a dorrwyd eu pennau am dystiolaeth Iesu, ac am air Duw, a'r rhai nid addolasent y bwystfil na'i ddelw ef, ac ni dderbyniasent ei nod ef ar eu talcennau, neu ar eu dwylo; a hwy a fuant fyw ac a deyrnasasant gyda Christ fil o flynyddoedd.
Revelation 20:3 And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season. (20:4) And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.

6
wyneb blwyddyn spring ((the) face (of) year)
Colloquially also gwyneb blwyddyn

Bernir y bydd yma ugeiniau o anifeiliaid wedi marw eisiau bwyd cyn gwyneb blwyddyn.
It is thought that scores of animals here will have starved to death before spring
(Letter from G.R. Roberts, Scott County, Tennessee in November 1863; Cofiant y Tri Brawd / E Pan Jones / 1892 / tudalen 105)

7 ddeng mlynedd yn diweddarach ten years later, ten years after
ryw flwyddyn neu ddwy ar l hyn a year or two after this

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blwyddyn dreth blui dhin DREETH (feminine noun)
1
tax year

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blymonj, PLURAL: blymonjus blə MONJ, blə MON jəs (masculine noun)
1
blancmange

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blynedd BLƏ nedh (plural noun)
1
years

An old plural form; used in modern Welsh after numbers. In modern Welsh the singular noun is used after a numeral, but in old Welsh it seems a plural form was used. This has continued in the case of blwyddyn / blynedd, with a separate plural form blwydd in use when year of ones age is meant ddwy flynedd yn l (= two years ago), pum mlwydd oed (= five years old)

dwy flynedd two years
tair blynedd three years
pedair blynedd four years
pum mlynedd five years
chwe blynedd six years
saith mlynedd seven years
wyth mlynedd eight years
naw mlynedd nine years
deng mlynedd ten years
un mlynedd ar ddeg eleven years
deuddeng mlynedd twelve years

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blyngad blə -ngad verb
(South-west Wales)
1
blyngad i belong = be a possession of
2
blyngad i (member of a family) be related to

ETYMOLOGY: English belong. See belongio

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blynyddoedd blə NƏ dhodh (plural noun)
1
years. See blwyddyn
flynyddoedd lawer yn l
many years ago

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bnafyd BNAA-vid verb
1
(North Wales) to hurt

ETYMOLOGY: ??

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bo BOO (verb)
1
it be (subjunctive)

2
da bo chi (= goodbye) < da bo i chi may it be good to you
(da = good) + (bo = may it be) + (i = to) + (chi = you)

da bo ti
(= goodbye) < da bo i ti may it be good to you
(da = good) + (bo = may it be) + (i = to) + (ti = you)