kimkat0393k Gramadeg O Iaith Y Cymry. A Grammar Of The Welsh Language. William Spurrell (30 Gorffennaf 1813 Caerfyrddin – Llun y Pasg, 22 Ebrill 1889 ?Caerfyrddin). Third Edition. 1870.


● kimkat0001 Yr Hafan
● ● kimkat2001k Y Fynedfa Gymraeg
● ● ● kimkat2194k Cyfeirddalen yr Adran Ramadeg
● ● ● ● kimkat0393k
Y tudalen hwn


 (delw 0003)






Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
·les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

Cywaith Siôn Prys - Testunau Cymraeg ar y We
Gramadeg O Iaith Y Cymry.
A Grammar Of The Welsh Language.

William Spurrell

(30 Gorffennaf 1813 Caerfyrddin – Llun y Pasg, 22 Ebrill 1889  Caerfyrddin).

Third Edition. 1870.

Rhan 1 o 2: tudalennau 0-99

Y Llyfr Ymwelwyr / El Llibre de Visitants / The Guestbook:


Beth sy’n newydd yn y wefan hon?


(delw 6665)





(delwedd B5505) (tudalen



Carmarti)cn w;l LI AM SP\3”“Y.\.\. %% MDCCCLXX %% SPCRRELL, PRINTER, CARMAaTRCN. %%%%%% 13 %ch %



(delwedd B5506) (tudalen2




(delwedd B5507) (tudalen3

TO THE READER. %% During the interval that elapsed between the publica- tion of the first and second editions of this Work, the Author took advantage of many opportunities of adding, not merely to the bulk of the volume, but also, he trusts, to the utility of. its contents. Many subjects slightly touched on in the first edition, were in the second discussed more in detail, and some fresh subjects were brought under notice. This was especially the case with reference to the Elementary Sounds of the Language, a subject on which little thought had been expended by Welsh grammarians in general.

The present edition has been further enlarged, by the introduction of a list of words governing the mutable initials, and of numerous additions throughout the body of the Work. The contents have also been made more accessible, by numbering the paragraphs and appending an index of subjects.

May, 1870. %%



(delwedd B5508) 4

ADVERTISEMENT TO THE FIRST EDITION. %% The Grammar now before the reader owes its publica- tion to a feeling on the part of the Author that no sufficiently simple work on the subject on which it treats had ever appeared in print.

To lay claim to great originality in the production of a Welsh Grammar would be idle, so many writers having canvassed the subject, while the principles of the language remain unaltered. Equally impossible would it be to acknowledge the various sources whence the author has derived his information, notes on the subject having been collected by him during a period of some years, without any intention of their being published, and principles elicited by examination of the structure of the language, which at last accumulated into a mass requiring method only to form into a book.

The Author trusts that the natural arrangement of the Work, and a departure from some antiquated and fanciful theories, at variance with philology, will secure, what he has mainly aimed at, the utility of his production. %%



(delwedd B5509) 5


Lettees and Sounds ..... l

The Alphabet, with the Names and Powers of the Letters 1

Analysis of the Alphabet . . . .2

Accented Letters . . . . . ■ 11

Table of Elementary Sounds . . . .12

Classification of the Sounds . . . . 14

Vowels . . . . . . .14

Diphthongs . . . . . 16

Consonants . . . . . .18

Classification of the Consonants . . . 18

Tabular Classification of the Consonants . . 20 Mutations of Consonants .... 24

Table of Mutations . . . .26

>» » »» .... **>»

Dmgram — Relationship of MutabVe ImWa”a • *”“ %%



(delwedd B5510) 6



Words ....... 2V>

Accentuation of Words . . . . .29

The Spelling of Words ..... 38

Words of Similar Pronunciation . . .41

Long and Short Monosyllables . . . 4r>

Classification qf Words . . . . .49

Nouns . . . . . . ol

Number . . . . . . r)2

Gender ...... r>7

Adjectives ...... oV)

Adjectives of Quality .... 59

Adjectives of Number and Quantity . . . 59

Demonstratives . . . . . 01

Number . . . . . . (\2

Gender ...... {')■]

Degrees of Comparison . . . . (14

Terminations of Adjectives . . . ()♦;

Pronouns . . . . . . . <;7

Personal Pronouns ..... (;?

Relative Pronouns ..... 09

Other Pronominal Words and Phrases . . 72

Verbs . . . . . . . 7.S

Roots of Verbs . . . . . 75

Moods and Tenses . . . , . 7S

Active Voice ..... 7S

Passive Voice . . . . . s:> %%



(delwedd B5511) 7

(.ON TENTH. VU. %% AN'oKDS (continued) %% fAQE. %% The Primitive Verb Bod .... 8«

The Primitive Verb Myned . . ,90

The Regular Verb Dysgu .... 92

Tables of Regular Verbs . . . .94

Tables of Irregular Verbs .... 99

Defective Verbs . . . . .104

Auxiliary Verbs ..... KKJ

Adverbs . . . . . . .110

Prepositions . . . . . . 114

Impersonal Prepositions . . . .114

Pronominal Prepositions . . . . 115

Conjunctions . . . . . .11(1

Interjections . . . . . . 117

Prefixes and Affixes . . . . .118

Prefixes . . . . . . lis

Affixes ....... 12«5

Sentences . . . . . . \'M

The Arrangement of Words . . . . 1;}4

Noun and Qualifying Word . . . . 1 ;U

The Adverb ...... VM\

Subject, Object, Verb, or, Subject. Predicate, Copula 137

The Agreement of Words . . . .140

Verb and Subject . . . . 140

The Verbs Yio” Sydd” Mae” and Oes . . . Wl

PantiagQA iJiiiritrativc of their \3;se . . • “'““ %%



(delwedd B5512) 8

Till. %% CONTENTi. %% Sentences “continued) %%PAGE %%Infinitive Mood ..... %%. 149 %%Adjective and Nouu .... %%. 150 %%The Adjective F or Fr . %%152 %%Pronoun and Noun .... %%. 154 %%Adverbs ...... %%156 %%Negatives ..... %%. 166 %%Ni and Nid ..... %%15G %%Na and Nad ..... %%. 157 %%Nis and Nas ..... %%157 %%Na, Nac, and Nag .... %%. 158 %%A and Y (or Yr) .... %%160 %%Prepositions ..... %%. 161 %%Conjunctions ...... %%172 %%Questions and Answers .... %%. 180 %%The Changes in the Initials of Words . %%182 %%Mutations of Initial Consonants . %%. 182 %%The Vocal Mutation .... %%182 %%The Nasal Mutation .... %%. 190 %%The Aspirate Mutation .... %%191 %%Assumption of the Letter H before Vowels %%. 192 %%A List of Words aflEecting the Mutable Initials %%193 %%Punctuation ..... %%. 200 %%\.PPENDTX. ...... %%202 %%Table of the English Verb and its Auxiliaries %%. 202 %% Zndex %% 'iVi\ %%



(delwedd B5513) (tudalen 001)


WITH THE NAMES AND FOWERS OF THE LETTERS. %% Characters. %%Names in English. %%A %%a %%a, in calm %%B %%b %%be %%C %%c %%ek %%Ch %%ch %%Bx (Greek) %%D %%d %%de %%Dd %%dd %%eth (vocal) %%E %%e %%a, in mare %%F %%f %%ev %%Ff %%ff %%ef %%G %%g %%eg %%Ng %%T”g %%eng %%H %%h %%hatch or he %%I %%•

1 %%e %%L %%1 %%el %%LI %%u %%BLL (Welsh) %%M %%m %%em %%N %%n %%en %%%%%%(French) %%P %%P %%pe %%Ph %%ph %%uf or fe %%Rh %%rh %%rha %%R %%r %%ar or er %%S %%s %%es %%T %%t %%te %%Th %%th %%eth (spirate) %%U %%u %%e %%W %%w %%00, in too %%Y %%r ' %%1, m fir %% Powers. %% a in palm, mat

as in English

English k

no similar English sound

d in bed

th in leather

a in mare; e in then

V, or / in of

fin for

g hard, as in beg

ng in length

h in horrid

e in me; i in thin: y in yet

as in English

no similar English sound

as in English

as in English

in fore; o in not

as in English

/ in /or

no similar English sound

r in rough

8 in say

t in to, at

th in pith

e in me; i in thin

in do; com Joot: 'vjo\s:L\»eX\.

u in far, cut ; «\!b.o “i” ““>». %%



(delwedd B5514) (tudalen 002)


2. A has two sounds: short or stopped, and long or open.' Its stopped sound is like that of the English a in pat, fat, can. Its open sound is rather less hollow than that of a in path, father, calm, and bears the same relation to the stopped sound as oo in hoot does to oo in good. A difference also exists between the short sounds of a in the two languages, as in pa/n, when, and joaw (English). The latter, at least as sometimes pronounced, approaches the short sound of e in men, and is the correlative short sound of a corrupt pronunciation of long a heard in Merioneth- shire and other parts of Wales. In construction, a is changed into e, ei, and sometimes into y and at; as gwan, weak, gwendid, weakness; hardd, a bard, heirdd, bards; afall, an apple tree, efyll, apple trees; dafad, a sheep, defaid, sheep. A in conjunction with w is changed into ; as hrawd, a brother, hrodyr, brothers.

3. B has the same power in Welsh as in English. It is one of the nine changeable initial consonants, being convertible into / and m; as, bar a, bread, dy fara” thy bread, fy mara, my bread. In a few cases it is changed into “; as, cyffelyh, like, cyffelypach, more like ; neppell (neb pell), not distant. In gwynebpryd, countenance, pobpeth, everything, it assumes the sound of p, being attracted by the p in the following syllable. B is also the vocaP muta-

* The names of the vowels and their long sounds are identical.

> Words are inserted in dictionaries in their radical forms only: a few unimportant exceptions occur.

' In the present edition the descriptive terms vocal and nasal are used for the words soft and liquid, which were in the first edition used Arbitrarily after the example of other writers on the subject, of whom scarcely any two employ the woiAb m l\ve «>«avfe ““w&e. %%



(delwedd B5515) (tudalen 003)


tion of p; as, y bont, the bridge, from pont, a bridge; pontbren, a piece of timber bridging a stream, from prm, a tree.

4. C, like English h, is never soft. It is changed into g, ngj and ch; as, cyfaill, a friend, dy gyfaill, thy friend, ft/ nghyfaill” my friend, ei chyfaill, her friend.

5. Ch, This letter has a rough guttural sound, identical, it is said, with that of the Greek p” when correctly pro* nonnced. [§65.] When beginning a word in its radical form, it is always followed by w. If not followed by «?, the word primarily begins with c, of which letter ch is the aspirate mutation. Chw is commonly pronounced in South Wales like wh in what; the words chwaer, a sister, chwareu, to play, chwerthin, to laugh, chweck, six, being usually pronounced whaer, whareu” wherthin, whech, [§59, 60,]

6. D has always the usual sound of d English. It never assumes the sound of d in the English word soldier. It has two regular changes; namely, into dd and n; as, dwm” a fist, dy ddimm, thy fist, fy mum, my fist. D is interchangeable with t; as, rkad, cheap, rhatach, cheaper; parodj ready, parotot, to make ready; gwaddod, moles, gwaddotwTj a molecatcher. It is also the vocal mutation of “; as, traed, feet, dy draed, thy feet. When immedi- ately preceding or following dd in the same word, it is separated from that letter by a hyphen; as, dad'“ddyrysu, to disentangle, ufudd-dod, obedience,

7. Dd has the power of th in this and breathe. It never begins a word in the radical form : in that position it is the vocal mutation of d; as, y ddinas, the city, from dmaSj a city. Dd and th are irregularly transmutable, hence we have gantho”ganddo, with or by him; diwethaf “.diweddaf, the last; cynnysgaethu” ci/Tini|8gaeddu”\» “\i”i3”\ chwardd, will laugh, chwerthin” to \a\igk. %% 4



(delwedd B5516) (tudalen 004)


8. E has. two sounds, that of e English in metj and the same sound lengthened, as e in there, a in mare, ea in peq”. For instance, peri, to cause, is pronounced as if written paree in English, accented on the first syllable. [§ 23.] “ is a pure vowel, identical with the French e: mer, marrow, is pronounced like the French mer, sea. It has not the diphthongal sound of the English long a in mate, which is a compound of a in mare, and ee in meet, and is pronounced as if written ai or ay; the English words pain and pane, stayed and staid, rays, raise, and rase being respectively pronounced alike. This vowel is changed into i, u, y, and ei; as, maen, a stone, meiniy stones; maes, a field, meusydd, fields; castell, a castle, cestyll, castles; nerth, strength, neirthiad, a strengthener.

9. F has the power of v, or / in of; never that of / in for. When initial, it is the vocal mutation of either h or m; as, dy far a, thy bread, from hara, bread; ei fam, his mother, from mam, a mother. F is liable to be transmuted into ff; as, coffa, memorial, from cof memory; cyffelyh, like, from the prefix cy or cyf, and fel, a mutation of mal, like, as. In coffdu (cof-hau), to commemorate, from cof, memory, the sounds fh are compressed into one (/). The affinity between v and w, to which are to be traced the English vulgarisms winegar, tvillain, vindow, Vellington, operates in a few instances in "Welsh; as, cafod, cawod, a shower; tafiu, tawlu, to cast; y dylif, y diluw, the flood; llofrudd, a murderer, from Haw, a hand, and rhudd, red ; safwyr, sawyr, savour. F is also often dropped at the end of words; as, gwaetha\ gwaetkaf, worst; hy, hyf bold; Hi, llif, flood; ne\ nef heaven; goreu, gorau, or goraf, best.

10. Ff is of the same power as / in for, ff in stiff, or j”A in p Arose, %%



(delwedd B5517)(tudalen 005)


11. G” is always pronounced like g in beg and get. Like ch [§ 5], it has an affinity for tlie labial w [\ 60], being when radical often followed by that letter; as, gwan” weak; gtvynt, wind. Words primarily beginning with this letter letter undergo two changes : they drop the g, and change it into Tig; as, gairy a word, d” air, thy word, fi/ ngatr, my word. G is interchangeable with c; as, godidog, excellent, godtdocach, more excellent, godidocaf, most excellent; brag, malt, breci, wort; gwraig, a wife, gwreica, to take a wife; teg, fair, tecach, fairer. G is also the vocal mutation of c; as, ci, a dog, corgi, a cur, dwrgi, an otter, milgi, a greyhound.

12. Ng has the same sound as ng in sing. It sometimes commences a syllable in Welsh, which it never does in English. Initial ng is the nasal mutation of g, and, with h, of c; as, fy ngalar, my grief, from galar, grief; fy nghefn, my back, from cefn, ba«k. It is never radical. [§ 3, note 2.]

13. H has the sound of h in the English words hard, high, hoarse, hurry. It is never silent. With c, p, r, and t, this character forms ch, ph, rh, and th, which re- present simple sounds, and not compounds of the sounds of c, p, r, t, and h, as the characters might lead us to suppose. The letter A when not preceded by ng, m, or n, is always followed by a vowel. When so preceded, it may be followed by I, n, or r; as, fy nghlyw, my hearing; fy mhlant, my children ; fy nhlodi, my poverty; fy nghnawd, my flesh; yng Nghred, in Christendom; ym Mhrydain, in Britain; yn Nhrefaldwyn, in Montgomery; but it is diffi- cult to determine whether the aspiration precedes or follows I, n, r. Dr. Gruffydd Koberts, in his grammar (A.D. 1567), says h should be put aitex I axv” t \w “xsiia. cases. %% b



(delwedd B5518) (tudalen 006)


14. / has the sound of i in pin, and ee in meet. The diphthongal sound of the English long e, as in spite, is nearly represented in Welsh by two letters, ei or eu; as, eilun, an image ; teulu, a family. /, when followed by a, e” 0, w, or 1/, in the same syllable, has the force of English y in yam, yet; as, ia, ice; techyd, health; lonawr, Janu- ary; luddew, Jew; iyrchyn, a roebuck. Before w it is less regular, being sometimes equal to ew in new, as others to yoo; as niwl, a mist; lluniivyd, was formed. In jse, yes, % forms a separate syllable.

15. jL has the power of the English /. L is never radical in purely Welsh words : when found at the com- mencement of a word, either it is the vocal mutation of II, or the word primarily begins with g; as, ei law, his hand, from llaw, a hand; yr wyhren las, the blue sky, from glas, blue.

16. LL This letter represents a sound erroneously said to be peculiar to the Welsh language. [§ 63.] In pro- nouncing it, the tongue assumes the same position as in forming I, and the breath is forcibly propelled on each side of the tongue, but more on one side than on the other. It is remarkable that most persons breathe more on the right than on the left in pronouncing this letter. [§ 62.} LI is subject to one mutation, being changed into Z; as Hid, wrath, ei lid, his wrath. [§ 3, note 2.]

11, M has the same power as in English. It changes regularly into /; as, mah, a son, dy fah, thy son. It is also the nasal mutation of h, and, with h, of p; as, fy mrawd, my brother, fy mhechod, my sin, from brawd, a brother, pechod, sin.

18. i\r, pronounced as in English, begins some words

which have no initial change, and is also the nasal muta-

“/on of d” and J with A, of (; as> fy nillad” xo” eVoJOsife-s*” %%



(delwedd B5519)(tudalen 007)


from dillad, clothes; fi/ nhir, my land, from tir, land. It is liable to change, for euphony, into m and ng; as am” mhur, impure, from an, negative, and pur, pure; i/n, in, yng Nghaerdydd, in Cardiff. As in other languages, n naturally takes the sound of ng before c ; as, llanc, a lad (rhyming with hank English, pronounced hangk).

19. has the short sound of o in rvot. Its long sound is that of the French o; not the diphthongal long Eng- lish 0, as in note. The difference between it and the latter is, that in pronouncing the Welsh o, the lips assume a round form before the sound is uttered; but the lips are moved while pronouncing the English o, which is a union of a in all J and oo in too. is regularly changed into y; as, com, a horn, cym, horns; aros, to wait, erys, will wait; and irregularly into a and w; as” troed, a foot, traed, feet; croen, a skin, crwyn, skins; oen, a lamb, fbyn, lambs. is a mutation of w and also of aw; as, trwm (masculine), trom (feminine), heavy; tlodion, plural of tlawd, poor; prawf, a proof, prvfi, to prove. The poets occasionally prefer aw to o; as, teimlaw or teimlo, to feel; bythawl or bythol, everlasting.

20. P has the same power in Welsh as in English. It makes three changes; namely, into b, mh, and ph; as, pen, a head, dy ben, thy head, fy mhen, my head, ei pken, her head.

21. Fh has the power of ph and / in physical force* It is used in words borrowed from other languages ; as, Phinehas, Ephesiaid; and in Welsh words whose radical initial is p, of which it is the aspirate mutation; as, d phlant, her children, from plant, children : in other cases ff is used.

22. Rh is not usually treated as oil” oi \)ti” \”\Xfcx” “\ the alphabet It should, however, \\ko ch, pK, t\\”\>“ <i*”“- %% 8



(delwedd B5520) (tudalen 008)


sidered as one letter: it represents a simple sound, and bears the same relation to r as th does to dd. It is one of the mutable consonants, having r for its vocal muta- tion, as rhaff, a rope, dwy raff, two ropes. Rh never occurs at the end of a syllable. [§ 64.]

23. R has the same power as English r or rr, in rashj rugged, hurry, pronounced strongly ; and never the softer sound of the English vocal r, as in fear, curve, in pro- ducing which the tongue is curled a little further back. The words here, more, boor, are pronounced as if written hee-ur, mo-ur, boo-ur, and they differ in sound from the Welsh words hir, long, mor, the sea, biur, strike thou, in the r only, which in the Welsh is a rough articulation, while in the English it partakes so much of the vocal character, that it is questionable whether it should not be considered a vowel. R is the vocal mutation of rh. It never begins words in their radical form. Words beginning with r (not rh) have undergone a mutation, and begin radically either with rh or with g; as rhwyd, a net, dy rwyd, thy net; gras, grace, ei ras, his grace.

24. S has the power of s in sin, ss in miss, or c in vice. In conjunction with i, it is, in South Wales, generally pronounced like sh in shall; as, siomi, to disappoint; sionc, brii”k ; this sound appears to have been borrowed from the English ; but possibly it always existed amongst the ancient Cymry. [§61.] With a diaeresis accent, s'i is pronounced see (English), and forms a separate syllable; as, s'io, to hiss. The Welsh language is destitute of the vocal sounds of s heard in the words pleasure and raise.

25. T has always the sound of the English t, as in to, at; never that of t in nature, nation. It is changed into d,

/lA, and th; as, tad, a father, ei dad, his father, fy nhad, my father, ei thad, her father. %%



(delwedd B5521) (tudalen 009)


26. Th is of the same power as th in thick, thin, pith. It is never pronounced like th in thei/, this, breathe. The Tocal spund of English th is represented in Welsh by dd. Th is the aspirate mutation of t; as, tafod, a tongue, ei thafod, her tongue. It is never radical.

27. U has sounds closely resembling those of / in this, and ee in meet. The diphthongal sound of u, as in tune, is expressed in Welsh by itv; as, gwiw, fit, meet; and nearly by uw or i/w; as, Duw, God; bi/w, living. [§ 30.]

28. W has the sounds of oo in good and boot. It is changed into o and y, and sometimes by the poets into ei; as, Z/”w”“ (masculine), Horn (feminine), bare; htvnw, that male (absent), hbno, that female (absent); dwfr, water, dyfroedd or deifr, waters. In words radically beginning in chw or gw, w has the force of w in well or u in quit; as, t(;ew, an inflection of gwen, gwyn, white, pronounced exactly like wen English. The sound represented by wh in when is not considered a genuine Welsh sound: in South Wales it takes the place of chw.

29. T. The usual or primary sounds of y are like the short u in fun, and the longer sound of the same letter in furze, but rather more guttural. In monosyllables and in the last syllable of other words, it is pronounced like the Welsh u, having nearly the power of ee in see, and that of i in thin. [§ 30.] In dy, dyd, dyt, fy, myn, syr, y, ydd, ym, yn, yr, ys, yth, it has its usual sounds. The two sounds occur in the words Cymry, Welshmen, and hyny, that (absent), pronounced very nearly like the English word honey. Some of the older writers used a character, some- thing like the Greek y, to represent the usual sounds of y, writing the word Cymry thus, Cymry. Y was change- able into y; as, dyn, a man, dymou, txi”tl” deTb-”-a” \» receive, derbyniais, I received. But 7 -s”“a XiSjX* TssaXii”'“' %% 10



(delwedd B5522) (tudalen 010)


The sound is still changed when a syllable is added. [§44.] F changes into «; as, meZyw (masculine), melen (feminine), yellow; gwyn (masculine), gwen (feminine), white. Y has two sounds in the Manx, as in Welsh.

30. The letters e, w, and y, it will be observed, have often nearly the same sound : an accurate ear is requisite to detect the difference : the sounds of u and the secondary sounds of y are identical : in pronouncing them the tongue is held a little flatter than in pronouncing i; which has a thinner sound, the passage between the tongue and the palate being more confined.

31. CA, dd, ffj ng, llj ph, rh, and th are inappropriate characters, their component parts being in other situations separate letters. They are by some called double letters ; but they represent simple sounds, perfectly distinct from that of c, dy /, &c., and are not double in the same sense as Ji, fl (equal to / t, / 0> ““ which the sounds of the separate letters are retained.

32. The combinations ngh, mk, nh, which, unlike the foregoing digraphs [§ 31], represent compound sounds, are placed in the alphabet by some grammarians. There is an obvious impropriety in this method, which to be con- sistent should also include aw, ai, and other combinations transmutable with single letters.

33. The Welsh alphabet is free from some defects found in the alphabets of many languages, no letter being ever silent, and no single letter being used to express a com- pound sound, like the diphthongal a, i, o, and w, in English, and the letter a?, which stands for ks or gz in extent and exalt y and g, which in age stands for d and s as in pleasure; hence little more than a knowledge of the names of the

)etters is necessary to enable a person to read the lan- “ia”e with propriety. %%



(delwedd B5523) (tudalen 011)

WELSH LANGUAGE. 11 %% ACCENTED LETTERS. %% 34. There is a great want of uniformity amongst Welsh writers in the use of accents to distinguish the long and short sounds of the vowels. The plan adopted by some of the best writers is to place a grave accent on the short vowels, when occurring in words which would have a diflferent signification if the vowels were long; as, tbn” a wave, tortj a tune. Others distinguish the long sound with a circumflex accent. Sometimes both long and short vowels are marked, or an accent is placed over the vowel when the word is not pronounced both long and short; as, priUj scarce. The more usual way, however, and that attended with the least inconvenience, is to mark the long vowel in monosyllables which are pronounced both long and short, and the short vowel, when a syllable is added; as, toriy a tune, tonau, tunes ; ton, a wave, tonau, waves. This practice is founded on the tendency of the language to shorten the vowel when a syllable is added; as.

Long. Short.

tdn, fire faniOj to fire

pellj far pellder, distance

Air, long hiriorij long ones

hollj all holloly altogether

Sul, Sunday Suliau, Sundays

gvrr, a man gwryw, male

rhydd, free rkyddid, liberty

35. The diaeresis accent is used to separate letters liable to be incorrectly pronounced with one impulse of the voice; as, ffden, a bean; saemiaetK, cax”eviXx” \ Io-wt” “6. thatcber. %%



(delwedd B5524) (tudalen 012)


36. The elementary sounds of tlie Welsh language, as may be gathered from the foregoing paragraphs, are thirty-nine in number, including those heard only in particular districts of the Principality. They are enu- merated below. %% No. %%Charac- ters. %%1 %%” %%2 %%ib %%3 %%6 %%4 %%b %%5 %%•d %%6 %%a %%7 %%A

e %%8 %%e %%9 %%t %%10 %%I %%11 %%{l %%12 %%u %%13 14 %%y %%15 16 %%p b %%17 %%WH %%18 %%W %%19 %%m %%20 21 22 %%/

/ th %%23 %%dd %%”4 %%/ %% Examples in Welsh. %% ““ / “ %% / %% dwfr, water, llwj an oath hwn” this, cwr, a comer hod” to be, co/*, memory and” bilt, cnoc, a knock pa” what, tad, a father. pan, when, cam, a step hen, old, peth, a thing pen, head, mellt, lightning pridd, earth, hi, she prin, scarce, dim, nothing hun, sleep, dyn,2i, man punt, a pound, tyn, tight dyj thy, fy, my yn, in, yr, the

pell, far, hv)p, a push hai, a fault, we5, nobody whech (S.W.), six gioyn, white

wa5, a son, warn, a mother ffordd, a way, cZojf, lame ei farf, his beard ei thaith, her journey €2 ddydd, his day /r”“ three, at, to “<?, “ood, rAdw;?, cheap %% Examples in English. %% 00 in mood, boot

00 in good, stood

in Tnore, ore

in 6owc?, Zoi

a in jpa”A, rather

a in “an, ca<

a in mare, ware

e in jE)ew, end '

ee in 5e€, i in machine

i in j?m, “i

ee in see "\

i in “tw f nearest

u in cwrve “ sounds

u in “ww “

j? in put, up b in but, tub wh in tf”Aew, why w in t(;ei, i”?ar m in ma”, am / in for, ff in mw/ V in vine, / in of th in <Am, j[?tYA th in “Ais, breathe t in fo/), co< \d in do, did %%



(delwedd B5525) (tudalen 013)

WELSH LANGUAGE. %% 18 %% No. %%Charac- ters. %%Examples in Welsh. %%Examples in English. %%26 27 28 29 %%S


SI 11 %%st/ch, dry, gwas, a servant nos, night, gw7/n, wMte stomij to disappoint llawn, full, callj wise %%s in SO, ss in miss n in now, fin sh in shall, rush no similar sound %%30 31 %%I

rh %%ei law, his hand, pfbl, blunt rhew, frost %%I in Ze<, ZZ in fell no similar sound %%32 33 %%r

HI %%ei ran, his part, b”r, short eu hiaithy their language %%r in rough, rr in ferry human=iYKooman %%34 35 %%I c %%iawn, right

ca£, a field, imcj not %%y in yes, yet “

c in cave, ck in lick %%36 37 %%9 ck %%gwg, a frown, gwag, empty chvjyn, weeds, moch, pigs %%g in “aw«, fta”' no similar sound %%38 %%ng %%fy ngaing, my wedge %%ng in sing, long %%39 %%h %%hardd, beautiful %%h in Aof, haste, hand %% 37. The sounds are arranged, in the foregoing table, in a natural order, e”ch series commencing with those sounds which are formed in the forepart of the mouth, and termi- nating with those formed in the throat.

38. All the characters made use of in the table, ex- cepting “ and y, represent the sounds assigned to them in the present mode of writing Welsh, the circumflex or grave accent being sometimes used, as before stated. [§34.] The letters “ and y” here used to prevent ambiguity, have in the usual orthography the sounds assigned to tl and u, in the table; sounds 13 and 14 being represented without distinction by y unaccented.

39. The sound / is sometimes represented by ph in the orthography of the language. %% 14



(delwedd B5526) (tudalen 014)


40. The elementary sounds are of two kinds: vowels and consonants.

(1) In pronouncing the vowels, the voice has free egress. The first fourteen sounds in the foregoing table are vowels.

(2) In pronouncing the consonants, the breath and voice are in their exit more or less obstructed by the organs of utterance. The twenty-four sounds numbered 15 to 38 are consonants.

(3) The letter h is the mark of a strong aspiration; its sound is nearly allied to the consonants; perhaps it would not be improperly called a pectoral, or chest, consonant.


41. Vowels are distinguishable as long or open, and short or stopped : the latter being, as it were, stopped or cut short by a succeeding consonant.

42. The vowels, with the exception of 6 and o, may be arranged in pairs of corresponding long and short sounds.

V”owds. Examples. “““““ Examples.

1” win givr, a husband “ w in hwn, this

6 in hod” to be no similar short sound

no similar long sound b o in ondj but

d a in cdn, a song a a in cant, a hundred

e e in hen, old e « in pen, the head

I i in hi, she i i in sillaf, a syllable

“ u in huriy sleep h uin punt” a pound

“ “ in d”y tbjr y j/ m yu, m %%



(delwedd B5527) (tudalen 015)


43. The vowel 6 has no similar short sound in either English or Welsh. The vowel o, on the contrary, has no corresponding long sound in Welsh; but its long sound is found in the English words bawl, all, cause, oil, north, broad, ought, which exhibit so many different ways of writing the same sound. Welshmen often mispronounce English words containing this long sound, making no distinction between the words call and coal, saw and so, laud and load, &c.

44. The letters a, e, o, and w, and the vowels repre- sented by them, are liable to mutation. / and u are not mutable. Y is mutable, when pronounced like u (sounds 11 and 12); but it is not mutable when it represents sounds 13 and 14; examples are given in the Analysis of the Alphabet. [§29.] %% DIPHTHONGS.

45. The union of two vowels in the same syllable is called a diphthong. The Welsh diphthongs are nume- rous; and as in Welsh words every letter is sounded, none of the diphthongs are improper, as those are termed which are merely simple vowels represented by two letters, as at” in caught, aw in bawl, ea in stream, ie in field, ou in should,

46. Letters representing diphthongs retain in such combinations their usual powers, with an occasional obscurity or deviation. For example, the letter e in the diphthongs ae, oe, has frequently, if not generally, the sound of i; the word oes, is, rhyming with the English word voice: and e, before i, u, and y, has the Bound of y in dy; as, ein, our, whick iYv”txv”“ ““VOtv mxv«. (English), or nearly so. %%



(delwedd B5528) (tudalen 016)

16 %% A GRAMMAR OF THR %% 47. The following is a list of the diphthongs with examples of words in which they occur: — %% ae %%maen, a stone %%■ ey %%teyrn, a king %%ai %%gair, a word %%iw %%rhiw, a declivity %%au %%gau, false %%oe %%oes, is %%aw %%naw, nine %%uw %%uwch, above %%ei %%Ueidr, a thief %%wy %%g”r, he knows %%eu %%neu, or %%yw %%byw, alive %%ew %%tew, fat %%%%

48. Oi and ow, as in ffoi, to flee, ffowch, flee you, are by some pronounced as diphthongs; by others they are considered to form separate syllables. The forms trugar-” owgrwyddy compassion, godidowgrwydd, excellence. Hid- iowgrwyddj wrath, for trugarogrwydd or tragarawgrwydd, &c., are generally rejected as vulgarisms.

49. Ay and oy are sometimes included in lists of diph- thongs, as in gwayw, a pang; hoyw, sprightly; but the orthography gwaew, hoew, is deemed preferable.

50. Ey generally forms two syllables; as porfeyddy pastures ; breyr, a baron ; gweyddion, weavers.

51. The diphthong aw, in hau, to sow, haul, the sun, aur” gold, and some other words, is pronounced by the natives of South Wales like oi or oy in the English words oily hoy. This peculiarity has probably prevailed for many centuries: it is noticed by Dr. Davies, in his grammar, published 1621.

52. The following combinations are usually but im- properly classed as diphthongs and triphthongs. Their flrst elements are the consonants i and w, equal to y in

j<{?u”k and w in water “ marked No. 34 and 18 in the “ores”oing list. [§36.] %% WEL8H LANOUAGB. %%



(delwedd B5529) (tudalen 017)

17 %%%%

Last Element Long. %%

Laat Element Short. %%

ia %%iach, healthy %%iarll, an earl %%

ie %%iechyd, health %%iesin, radiant %%

io %%Ion, the Eternal %%lonawr, January %%

iu %%

luddew, a Jew %%

iw %%Iwl, Julius %%iwrch, roebuck %%

iy %%• %%iyrchod, roebucks %%

wa %%gwas, a servant %%gwan, weak %%

we %%gwell, better %%gwellt, straw %%

wi %%gwir, true %%gwisgo, to dress %%

wo %%gwobr, a reward %%gwobrwy, a reward %%

wa %%gwuU, a floweret %%%% wy %%gwfr, men %%gwyn, white %%B %%ystyriaeth, consideration %%wae %%gwael, base %%•

I %%iaith, %%language %%wai %%gwaith, work %%a %%geiriau, wo7'ds %%wau %%gwau, to weave %%w %%iawn, %%right %%waw %%gwawd, ridicule %%1

I %%ieithoedd, languages %%wei %%gweilgi, the ocean %%a %%ieuanc, young %%weu %%gweuad, a weaving %%w %%iewaD %%, a scream %%wew %%gwewyr, pangs %%e %%einioes, life %%wiw %%gwiw, fit %%7 %%soniw %%yd, reported %%wyw %%gwyw, withered %% 63. Vowels forming diphthongs are sometimes changed, when alone. Thus, a and e are changed into e and i in jW, plural of saer” an artificer ; and a into 6, in ffeuau” oral of ffau, a cave ; cadeirydd, a president, from cadair, chair ; ieuo, to yoke, from iau, a yoke. Ei becomes a in idroUj plural of lleidr, a thief; and aw is often con- srted into o; as, brawd, a brother, brodyr, brothers; wdd, a melting, toddi, to melt; nawdd, protection, *ddfay a place of refuge; clawdd” “ dVlOa., “ V”\%”“ 7if(/io, to dig. 2 %%



(delwedd B5530) (tudalen 018)



54. The name consonant seems to have originated in the erroneous idea that these sounds cannot be pronounced without a vowel. The consonants p, 5, t, d, c, g, cannot be pronounced continuously, but they are in many words separated from vowels ; as, t in act, p in asp, k in ash All the other consonants in Welsh and English can be pronounced continuously; the action called hissing: is a continuous pronunciation of the sound s without a vowel. In English, at least, there are syllables with no vowel, as, Jle in trifie, where the e is mute.

55. Consonants are capable of four distinct classifica- tions.

(1) They may be classed according to the organs by which they are formed.

a. Those in pronouncing which the lips are used, are called labials.

The labials are capable of subdivision, into pure lahiaUj p, b, m; linguo-labials, wh, w [§ 60]; and dento-labials, ff (or ph) and /.

b. Those formed by means of the action of the tongue are called Unguals,

The linguals may be subdivided into dentals, in forming which the tongue touches or approaches the teeth ; they are th and dd; dento-palatals, t, d, s, n, and si; palatals, formed near the roof of the mouth, rh, r, II, I, hi, i; and gutturals, formed in the throat, c, g, ch, and ng,

(2) They may be distinguished as oral and nasal,

a. In pronouncing the oral consonants the breath passes through the mouth.

b. In pronouncing the nasals the breath passes through i”/te nose. They are m” n, ng; all tlie ot\ieta\iem% at«“.. %%



(delwedd B5531) (tudalen 019)


(3) They may be classed according to the manner in rhich they are pronounced.

a. Those incapable of being pronounced continuously, he breath being interrupted in its passage, may be called hut consonants. They are p, b, tj d, c” g.

h. Those which may be pronounced continuously, may >e called open or continuous consonants.

The open consonants are divisible into two sub- lasses ; those in which the oral passage is divided by the nterposition of the tongue or teeth, as, I; and those in rhich it is not so divided, as, r. They may be dis- ingnished by the terms central and lateral.

(4) They may be classed into those in pronouncing rhich the breath alone is heard, and those in which the oice or vibration in the larynx is heard. The former are pirate, the latter vocal. They are here enumerated : —

;. Spirate p wh ff th t s bi U rh hi c ch . Vocal b w m f dd d n I r i g ng

66. It will be observed that most of the above conso- lants are in pairs — p, wh, jf, th, t, II, rh, hi, and c, liffering from b, w, /, dd, d, I, r, i, and g, respectively, Q their spirate or voiceless character only. The reason, 00, for considering rh one letter becomes obvious, its onnd being simply the spirate correlative of r.

67. S, 81, and ch have no corresponding vocal sound in “iTelsh ; and m, n, and ng have no corresponding spirates ; he breath passing through the nose without the voice ronld be either inaudible or incapable of variation. In he initial mutations an attempt is made to supply spirate onnds to pair with m, n, and ng ; Wt Wift V”x”vycL “t owe exists in the compound Bounds mh, uh, ««A •kv”'Vv, %% It will be convenient [§ 69 (1)] to insert them in the following table, in which the above scheme of classifica- tion is exhibited at one view, and in which they are termed aspirated, to imply their compound character: — %%%%



(delwedd B5532) (tudalen 020)

ORAl,, %%NASAi. 1 %%%%%%o,». 1 %%Splrate. %%V«.l. %%C”nltal. %%L«er<l. %%A-Pl- %%Vocil. %%SpitBt”. %%

Si.lrnU. %%


1 %%Pare Labial %%}> %%6 %%

“L %%/ %%f %%mh %%” %%Dento-

Labial %%%% Dental %%%%%%

Ih %%dd %%%% Dento- PalatJil %%f %%d %%81 %%L %%%% ■nk %%n %%Palatal %%

IT %%rh %%r %%u %%I %%%% tJntturu,! %%cU %%CU %%%% ngh %%nfi %% 5S. The sonnde represented by the small capital letters are, with the exception of oh, fonnd in English. They require some short notice.

59. Wh is uenally regarded as not being a trae Welsh sound. It is heard in South Wales instead of ckw, in chwaer, a sister, chwech, six, chwareu, to play, and similar words, a Dimetian peciiliarity noticed by Dr. Davies as existing in hit day. It occurs in Cornish, in words cognate with Welsh words in ckw.

CO. The consonant w, which is not always easily dis- tingnished from the vowel w, may be supposed to be pro- nounced by those Welshmen who say, y wythnos, the week, while others say, yr wytktws, in which case the w is un- doabteA\j a vowel. It occurs in several of the so-called (///(Ai”Ofl”sf J52 J, and often comes t”fiftentw'i'aniwi-aa.n.ti %%



(delwedd B5533) (tudalen 021)


without forming a separate syllable, as in the monosyllables gwlad, a country, gturaig, a wife, which is not the case with any vowel. The sound w seems to possess an affinity for guttural consonants: we find it after “ in a great many Welsh words, and it invariably follows initial ch when radical, as u does q in Latin and English. This arises from the fact that the letter w represents a mixed sound, which is formed partly by the back part of the tongue and partly by the lips — a distinction it has not been thought necessary to indicate in the table.

61. The vocal consonants z and zh (z in zeal and s in pleasure) do not occur in Welsh, but both are found in the Armoric, or Celto-Breton, that branch of the Celtic which most closely resembles the Welsh. In Armoric, z, zh, SI, are represented by Zy j, ch, which characters have the same power in French. The Armoric Britons probably borrowed the sounds, as they doubtless have the charac- ters from their French neighbours; for, according to Le Gonidec, the pronunciation of z, j, and ch is not uniform, z being often pronounced like dd Welsh, while j and ch were formerly written and are still often pronounced t and 8. This supports the opinion that Welsh ai (the pronunciation of which also is not uniform) has been borrowed from the English. Carnhuanawc was of opinion that the sound si always existed amongst some of the Welsh people. Many natives of North Wales are unable to pronounce it. It is remarkable that this sound is represented in most languages by two or more characters ; by sh in English, ch in French and Portuguese, sch in German, set in Italian.

62. The sound II is generally a great stumbling-block to learners. The power of pronouncing it may be ac(\aired by observing the process followed in “«i;aOTi” ix«ai *v”“ %% 22



(delwedd B5534) (tudalen 022)


sound /, ddy z, zh, to /*, th, s, si, and imitating that process with I, when II will be produced. Thus, let the word strive be pronounced, and the last sound, v, be dwelt upon (continued, not repeated), striv-v-v, and let the sound V be changed, without pausing, into /■/■/, making the word strife. This will be effected by simply dropping the voice, and breathing a little more forcibly. In like manner wreathe may be converted into ivreath, peas into peace, or badge (bad”A) into batch (batsA). The same process, pdUUl — ll-ll-ll, would convert pal, a spade, into pall, cessation, and the Welsh II would be soimded. LI is not, however, the exact correlative of I : both are formed with the tip of the tongue; but, in sounding II, the front or upper part of the tongue is raised a little so as to contract the passage of the breath.

63. Both II and its true vocal correlative are found in the Zulu language. Camhuanawc remarks that the sound II is said to be found amongst some tribes of the Caucasus. He also suggests that the French may have had a sound similar to that of II, and that the various modes of writing some old French names, as Lothair, Clotair, Chlotar, Lhotar, may have arisen from efforts to represent it. It is sometimes said to have an equivalent in the Spanish II; this, however, is an error. The Welsh II is spirate, while the Spanish II is vocal and bears the same relation to i (y in yes), as I does to r. Thus, I and r are formed by raising the tip of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth; but in I the breath passes each side of the tongue, while in r it passes over the middle: that is, Z is lateral, and r is central. In like manner Spanish II and i are formed, not with the tip, but by pressing the front or vpper part of the tongue against the palate; both are wocalaad open; but JSpanish II is lateral, “liWe” \ \a <i«?cA?tiJL, %%



(delwedd B5535) (tudalen 023)


64. The sound rh may be produced by continuing the sound r, and dropping the voice as directed with reference to ZZ [§ 62]: thus the English word ran may be changed into the Welsh rhan, a part; r-r-r'Th-rh-rhan. This sound is found in French words ending in tre, ere, pre; as etre, to be, fiacre, a kind of carriage, propre, proper.

65. The soimd ch may be produced by pronouncing a final k, and relaxing the contact of the organs, so as to allow a rough-sounding impeded breathing: ek-k-ch-ch-ch,

66. The sounds hi (the first sound in the word humid y”oomid) and i are certainly sometimes heard in Welsh, the hi in eu hiaith, their language, and i in iaith, being, as pronounced by some Welshmen at least, equivalent to the initial sounds of human and yard. Hence some writers have y iaith, others yr iaith, the language; these treating i as a vowel, those deeming it a consonant.

67. In the bardic alphabet, Coelbren y Beirdd, there occurs a character, by the substitution of which for that equivalent to “ in the modem alphabet, the soft mutation of words radically beginning with g, was made. This suggests the inference that the Welsh formerly possessed a sound it has not now ; and analogy [§75] leads to the conclusion that the sound in question is the vocal correlative of ch, which would be naturally represented by OH, and can be easily produced by any Welshman who will take the trouble to observe the process followed in passing from the sound th to dd, and imitate that process with respect to ch. According to Edward Lhuyd, this sound is to be found in the Armoric; and the writer can corro- borate this statement, having heard it pronounced by natives of Brittany, and that too precisely in the situation analogy would induce us to expect it: cK m Kxt£iofvR.\i«vs!L% univalent to sk, the Welsh ch is Tepxe”erLt” <?h.; \sv>“V” %% 24



(delwedd B5536) (tudalen 024)


found the c'A pronounced gh in da c”halloud” thy power, from galloud, power. The sound ©h is by Lhuyd said to occur in Gaelic; it is also heard in an affected pronuncia- tion of the French, the word vraiment being offcen pro- nounced in Paris as if written vghaiment, and it is substituted for the same sound (r) by the illiterate in Northumberland and Durham, a corruption arising from the circumstance that the two sounds are produced in very nearly the same part of the mouth, while they agree in being oral, vocal, open, central, and continuous. Probably the sound existed in English words where we find the cha- racters gh silent, as in night, a guttural sound being still re- tained in this word in Scotland, as well as in the equivalent German word nachU According to continental scholars, the Hebrew r (am), considered mute by Englishmen, bore the sound gh; but Dr. Davies asserts it to be identical with ng,


68. Nine of the consonants are subject to mutation, when commencing words. Their changes constitute one of the most striking peculiarities of the Welsh language.

69. There are three groups of mutable consonants; and three classes of mutations; the vocal or soft, the nasal, and the aspirate; the term aspirate being given to ph, th, and ch,

(1) The shut spirate consonants have three changes; viz., vocal, (aspirated) nasal, and aspirate ; p into b, mh, and ph ; t into d, nh, and th ; and c into g, ngh, and ch.

(2) Words beginning with the shut vocal consonants have two changes; viz., vocal and nasal; b is changed into / and m; d into dd and 7i; and g is sometimes

omitted, and .sometimes changed into ng. %%



(delwedd B5537) (tudalen 025)


(3) Zl, rh, and m have each one change — vocal; It into I; rk into r; and m into /.

70. Ch, s, Bi, /, and n, have no change; and the re- maining congonants are never radical.

71. The follovfing table, and that given in the next page, will be convenient for reference: one presents the changes at one view before the eye; the other gives examples which will assist the reader's memory: — %% ■ %%wll]lU°iceM”UtIsnB. %%”“'i”JTZou. %%««.':::•;■;»"„.. %%1 1 %%i %%■i %%1 %%1 %%1 %%1 %%1 %%1

2 %%Hadicfll Vocal

Nasal Aspirate %%P


mh pk %%t d

nh th %%ch %%f %%dd %%"S %%' %%

f %% The dash ( — ), ia the sixth column, is used to imply the omission of g. %% ' The (oEowing ate the Armoric and CorniBh syatemB of mnta- tiona, which it may be interesting to compote with the Welsh. The letteta have the same powets as in Eogliah, escopting c'A, which is eqaivalent to ch Weleb, or sometimes to oh; z BOmctimea is also pTonooDced as dd Weleb; ch and dk=ch and dd Welsh; h >B equivalent t« ch Welsh. %% Eadicat letter HutaHona %% Badical letter Ma/aiiV'ns i %%



(delwedd B5538) (tudalen 026)

26 %% A GRAMMAR OP THE %% 72. The following table gives examples of transmuted words. Dy, fy” and cz, when followed by words beginning with the mutable consonants, require the changes made in the words over which they are placed, in the table: the initial remains unchanged after ew, their. %% Mutable Letter. %%Radical. %%Vocal. %%Nasal. %%Aspirate. %%Equiyalent


Word. %%eu, their %%dy, thy %%fj,my %%ei, her %%P

T C %%pen


calon %%ben


galon %%mhen


nghalon %%phen


chalon %%head


heart %%B D G %%buwch


gafr %%fawch


afr %%muwch


ngafr %%



goat %%LI


M %%Hong rhaff mor %%long


for %%%% ship rope sea %% 73. From comparing the foregoing tables with that exhibiting the natural classification of the sounds [§57], the following analogies may be deduced, disregarding the more minute distinctions of pure labial and dento-labial, dental and dento-palatal : — %% (1) p is %%to b %%as %%t is %%to %%d %%and as c is to “ %%p : %%mh %%

t : %%

nh %%:: c : ngh %%p : %%: ph %%

t %%

th %%:: c : ch %%b : %%■ f %%

d : %%

dd %%:: g : gh> %%b : %%: m %%

d %%

n %%:: g : ng %% and, taking each line separately, the several mutations are made in exactly similar circumstances : for instance. %% * The initial g being dropped, where analogy requires the sound %% aJT, %%



(delwedd B5539) (tudalen 027)


pen is changed into hen, when troed is changed into droed, and colon into galon.

(2) “ is to ph as 5 is to / t : th :: d : dd c : ch :: g : gh

but the mutations are not made in similar circumstances ; for pky thy ch, are the aspirate mutations of p, t, c, while f, dd, and the omission of g, form the vocal mutation of b, d, g; while we say, dy frawd, thy brother, from hrawd, brother, we say, dy hen (not dy phen), thy head, from”“, head.

(3) p1 r/j ““> «> SI, II, rh, ch,'“

is to > as < are to V respectively;

but, while ZZ and rh are changed into I and r, when j9 is changed into h, the remaining consonants are not mutable. The change of ff into /, and th into dd, might have been made; but th is never radical; s, si, and ch are radical, but the required sounds, z, zh, and gh, are not found in the language.

(4) m IB to f B,B n 18 ix> dd and as «“ is to gh;

but while m is convertible into /, the others are not mutable. The change of n to dd might have occurred; but had the sound gh existed in the language, the muta- tion of ng to gh could not take place, as ng is never radical.

74. The mutations are never heterogeneous: a labial consonant is not exchanged for a lingual, or a guttural for a dental. Spirate radicals, too, g”““ «“ Y”“i”““sswy” to aspirates, and vocal radicals are “ocq”a. %% 28 %%



(delwedd B5540) (tudalen 028)

A GRAMMAR OF THE %% 75. Bj d, and g are the vocal correlatives of “, f, and c, and they form their vocal mutation. Ph, th, and ch are the open correlatives of p, t, and c, and they form their aspirate mutation. When b, d, and g are radical, their vocal mutations are the vocal correlatives of ph, th, and ch, namely, /, dd, and (gh not existing in Welsh) the omission of the sound and character g. The following diagram will point out the natural relationship that exists between these mutable initials : — %% Radical Form. %% Spirate p {pen) Initial. %% Vocal Mutation. %% Nasal Mutation. %% Aspirate Mutation. %% b (ben) mh (mhen) ph {pken) %% Vocal J) “y”]”“ fifuwcK) m{muwcK) %% Spirate t (troed) Initial. %% d {droed) nh (nkroed) th (Jhroed) %%

Vocal “ (““fad) dd iddafad) n inafad)

Initial. %% Spirate C (calon) g (galon) ngh (nghdlon) ch (chalon)

Initial. %% Vocal g {gafr) Initial. %%

{afr) ng (ngafr) %% 76. The mutations thus far treated of are the ordinary

mutations of the consonants. There are others, equally

regular, which may be termed extraordinary mutations,

as those of b into p, d into t, g into c, which require no

especial notice here. %%



(delwedd B5541) (tudalen 029)


77. It is an almost invariable rule to accentuate Welsh words on the last syllable but one ; and in accordance with this principle, when terminations are added, the accent shifts so as to retain the position the genius of the language requires; while increasing the number of syl- lables by prefixing one or more does not disturb the position of the accent.

78. The following words will show how rigidly the rule for placing the accent is adhered to, and give some idea of the derivation of Welsh words : — %% Cym'mer, %%take (thou), accent oi %%I 1st 8 %%Cymmer'yd, %%to take, „ %%2nd %%Cymmerad'wy, %%acceptable, „ %%3rd %%Cymmeradwy o, %%to recommend, „ %%4th %%Cyrnrneradwyas ant, %%tket/ recommended, %%5th %%Gor thrwm, %%very heavy, „ %%1st %%Gorthrym u. %%to oppress, „ %%2nd %%Gorthrymed'ig, %%greatly oppressed, %%3rd %%Gorthrymedig aeth. %%oppression, „ %%4:th %%Gorthrymedigaeth au, %%, oppressions, „ %%5th %%At'tal, %%to withhold, „ %%1st %%Ymat'tal, %%to withhold one's self. %%2nd %%Cydymat'tal, %%to refrain together, %%3rd %% 71 %% 79. The lists of diphthongs and other combinations given in sections 47 and 52 will be fo\m.d\\!6»“i»N.SsiL ““'5t- miDing the situation of the accent-, ioi -”o”““ “cs\s”'“““s£”““ %%



(delwedd B5542) (tudalen 030)


come together, though in different syllables; and as the position of the accent often depends on the nature of these combinations, it is of importance that we should know, when two or more vowels occur at the end of a word, whether they form one syllable or more. Ao and oa are not diphthongs; therefore the accent is on the a in the words hoddhaol” satisfying, and caniataol, permissible; and on the o in cyffroad, agitation. Au is a diphthong, and, therefore, in the words prenau, trees, tadau, fathers, &c., the accent is on the preceding syllable. In the combina- tion awo, aw is a diphthong, and o a separate vowel; the accent, therefore, falls on the diphthong aw in the words gwrandawodd, he listened, tawodd, he held his peace. In twy and iaUj i is a consonant, and wi/ and au are diph- thongs, and that gives a reason for placing the accent on the first syllable of the words lluniwyd, was formed; ccfiwyd, was remembered; on the second syllable of dtwygiwyd, was amended; and on the first syllable of dyddiau, days.

80. When vowels usually combined in sound, are to be pronounced separately, a diseresis accent is used; as in the dissyllables ze, yes ; breu, to bleat. When t retains its vowel character before a vowel or diphthong in the last syllable of a word, it takes the accent; as gweddw, to pray, gweddiau, prayers, gweddtwyd” was prayed, which are trisyllables.

81. The following words are exceptions to the general rule, and are accented on the last syllable: — Myfi” I my- self; tydi” thou thyself; e/e, he himself; hyhi, she herself; nynij we ourselves ; chwychwiy you yourselves ; hwynUhwy, they themselves.

S2, The Bame is the case with the following: — Erioed” ever; “TvaAdn, separate ; goruwchy aSbo”e-, pryduawa” %%



(delwedd B5543) (tudalen 031)


evening; trache/n, again; ychwaith” neither; yshonc” a jerk; ystol” a stool; ystwCy a pail; ystwr” noise; ystor, a store; a circumflex accent being often used when the vowel is long. The y in the last six words, and a few like them, is often dropped.

83. Dissyllables formed with the prefixes cy, cyf, di, ym, are irregular; as, cyh”d, as long; cyfuwch, as high; didranCy endless; dtddadl, without dispute; difliriy un- tiring; dinerth, impotent; dioed, without delay; diwerth, worthless; ymddy leave; ymguddy hide; ymlddd, to kill one's self; ymwely visit; and other verbs in the future or imperative.

84. The prepositional and adverbial phrases ger bron, before, ger Haw, at hand, heb laWy besides, rhag Haw, henceforth, oddt wrthy from, oddi mevm, within, oddi- drawy from, o gylchy around, uwch ben, overhead, uwch lawj above, are often written as dissyllables, in which case they are accented on the last syllable. They are, however, better written as separate words.

85. Dissyllabic compounds of yUy when written thus, ynghydy together, ymhob, in all, ymron, almost, are exceptions to the general rule; but they also are better written as two words, yng nghydy ym mkoby ym mron.

86. TmherawdwTy emperor, iachawdwvy saviour, when written ymherawdvy iachaiodvy are accented on the last syllable.

87. The situation of the accent in words in au and ad is often indicated by the letter A, or by a diaeresis or a circumflex accent ; as, mwijnhauy to enjoy; mtvynkddy enjoy- ment; nesdUy to approach; nacddy refusal. [§96 (8).] In these terminations, two letters a are resolved into one; the formation being mwynha-aUy mwt/nha-ad, uesa-au” uaA!.a-oA.. Homo writers use both the accent and tV<i\feXX.”'c K” •ase”'wsv” %% 32



(delwedd B5544) (tudalen 032)


syllables beginning with h are not always accented; for example, deheu, south, ammheu, doubt, anhawdd, difficult."

88. In words ending in o?, the accent is not necessary, as they are all accented on the last syllable; as, crynoi or crynholy to collect. Many of these, however, have no aspiration; as, ymdroi, to turn one's self, osgoi, to turn aside, goloi, to envelope. The termination oi is often pronounced as two syllables; for this reason it is often written with a diasresis accent; thus, ymdroi, in which case the accent is regular. In gwrandewch (gwrandaw-wch), hear you, gadewch (gadaw-wch), leave you, and the like, the accent is sometimes omitted, but the letter h cannot be inserted.

89. Names of towns, villages, farms, and other descrip- • tive proper names, present frequent exceptions, which are

accented as if the words comprising them were written separately; as, Caergrawnt, the town on the Granta (Cambridge); Caerllur, Llur*s town (Leicester); Aber- gwaen, the mouth of the Gwaen (Fishguard); Penybont, the end of the bridge (Bridgend); Nantyglo, coal-brook; Llwynteg, fair grove; Mynyddmawr, great mountain; Cvmidu, black dingle; Neuaddwen, white hall. Words of this kind are often (and, when not opposed to general usage, better) written as separate words.

90. Words having w as the only vowel in the penultima present occasional exceptions to the general rule; as, meddwdod, drunkenness; marumad, an clegj-, chwerwder, bitterness; gwaewffon, a spear; which are accented on the first syllable. Some of them frequently suffer elision of the w, in which case the accentuation is regular.

91. Custom has fixed the accent on the first syllable of Saesonae(/j Seisoneg, Seisonig, English, which arc hence

often written Saesncg, Seisneg, Seisnig, %% WELSH LANaUAQB. %%



(delwedd B5545) (tudalen 033)

33 %% THE SPELLING OF WORDS. %% 92. The Eoman alphabet does not contain a sufficient number of characters to represent the sounds of the Welsh language; and different expedients have been from time to time devised to remedy the inconvenience resulting from its inadequacy. Some writers placed a dot under or over certain letters, to intimate to the reader that the characters did not bear their usual soxmds: others left the sound, when a mutation, to be discovered by the con- nection of the word in the sentence. More generally two characters were combined to represent one sound. The following are the combinations and additional characters used by three eminent Welsh scholars, Dr. John David Rhys, Dr. John Davies, and Edward Lhuyd, and those which Dr. W. Owen Pughe attempted to establish, by introducing them into the first edition of his Dictionary — an attempt he subsequently abandoned. %% Dr. Rhys's Characters. %%Dr. Davies's Characters. %%E. Lhuyd's Characters. %%Dr. Pughe's Characters. %%Present Orthography. %%c %%C %%k %%C %%C %%ch %%ch %%ch %%9 %%ch %%dh %%dd %%dh %%z %%dd %%bh %%f %%V %%V %%f %%ph %%ff %%f, ff %%f %%ff %%Ih %%»g 11 %%Ih %%ng 11 %%ng 11 %%ph rh %%ph

rh %%ph

rh %%f rh %%ph

rh %%th %%th %%th %%th %%th %%1? %%”, w %%ii, u %%”, w %%”, w %%r %%” i %%J %%y

1 %%\ \ %%7 1 %%7 1 %%7 %% 34



(delwedd B5546) (tudalen 034)


93. Dr. Khys, it will be observed, employed A as an element in all his digraphs: he wrote ngJi (the nasal mutation of c) thus, ghh. Lhuyd occasionally borrowed characters from the Greek and Saxon alphabets. Dr. Davies used y in his Grammar only. [§ 29.] With the exception of that character, and that a few writers of the present day affect the use of v, /, h, instead of f, ffy c, the characters employed by Dr. Davies are those now in universal use.

94. But notwithstanding this uniformity in the charac- ters employed, the orthography of the Welsh language is by no means settled. It has been and still is the subject of frequent controversy ; and, as is generally the case in similar circumstances, little change is effected in the opinions of the contending parties.

• 95. The opposing views may be briefly characterized thus: — According to one system, the analogies of the English language should govern the spelling of Welsh words, more particularly in doubling the consonant at the end of a syllable, when preceded by a short vowel. Dr. Davies favoured this practice. According to the other, primitive Welsh words should be spelled with the smallest number of letters that will give the sounds pronounced by the organs of speech; and derivative words with those letters only which indicate the origin of the words. This system, in which the etymological principle predominates, was advocated by Dr. Pughe. All the letters in Welsh words being pronounced, no material difference of opinion exists with regard to the vowels.

96. The prevailing systems are a compromise between the opposing opinions. The following general rules are in the main in accordance with the practice of the best Welsh writers: — %%



(delwedd B5547) (tudalen 035)


(1) Double consonants are nerer used in words of one syllable; as, earn, crooked; rAaw, apart; s”“A, stiff; cwt, a tail; hyr, short; hyll, hideous; pwff, a puff; llong, a ship ; mellt, lightning. LI, ff, ng, and the other digraphs [§31], be it remembered, are considered single letters in Welsh.

(2) Two consonants are not inserted when they are not found in the members of which the words are com- posed; as, anesmtvythj uneasy, from the negative prefix an and esmioi/th, easy; hysedd, fingers, from hys, a finger, and the termination edd : not annesmwyth and hyssedd,

a. The use of double letters to indicate a preceding short vowel is unsuited to the Welsh alphabet, and cannot be adopted without leading into inconsistency. While some letters might be doubled without inconvenience, as f», w, <, p” r, c, in cam, a step, tynu, to pull, ateh” to answer, tipyn” a little bit, tori, to cut, tecaf, fairest; others, as mvmg, a mane, sychu, to dry, toddi, to melt, cqfio, to remember, cefyl, a horse, calon, a heart, allor, an altar, could not, for obvious reasons, be written mvmgng, syckchu, toddddi, cojffio, ceffffyl, callon, allllor,

(3) When, however, the same consonant occurs at the end of one syllable and at the beginning of the next, it is retained in both syllables of the compound word; as, pennod, a chapter, from pen, a head, and nod, a note; annaturiol, unnatural, from an and naturiol, natural; mammaeth, a nurse, from mam, a mother, and maeth, nur- ture.

a. Words having the termination -rwydd, and some others, furnish occasional exceptions; as, sicrwydd, cer- tainty, from sicr, sure.

(4) In such words as pummed” “itla. (“tctccl -pumi”“ cannoedd, hnndredB (from cant)” chwmnyfiku” \” “«sa” %% 36



(delwedd B5548) (tudalen 036)


(from chwant), annoeth, unwise (an”doeth), dattodj to loosen {dad'dod)j the consonants should be repeated, as they represent those found in the words from which they are derived, having undergone a change in accordance with the idiom of the Welsh language: the p, t, and d are not omitted, but changed into w, w, and t.

a. It is not usual to retain mm or nn before a conso- nant, as they give the word an uncouth appearance; as canfedy hundredth; pumwaith, five times; not cannfedy pummwaith.

h. In cases analagous to that of chiuennt/ck, pummedy nc becomes ng (not nng or ngng)\ as, trengu, to expire (from tranc).

(5) In the euphonic changes of the negative prefix an into am and ang, the m is retained, but the ng is dis- carded; as, ammrwd, unheated (an-brwd); ammharod, . imready (an-parod) ; anghyfiawn, unjust {an-cyfiavm) ; not angnghyfiawn” which is unsightly, nor annghyfiavmy which is opposed to euphony and usage.

(6) In the case of the prefixes cym” cyn” cys, cyt, V synonymous with cyd or cy, the consonant is repeated

before m (not mk), n (not wA), s, and t; as, cymmrawd {cym-hrawd, a brother), a consociate; cymmaint (maint, size), of equal size; cynnifer, as many {nifer, number); cyssylwedd, joint substance; cytteimlo, to sympathize. But cy is preferable before mh, nh, ng, ngk, th, and f; as, cymhivys, suitable; cynhiurf, a disturbance; cyngelyn, a mutual enemy; cynghanedd, consonance; cythi*wjl, dis- turbance; cyfrad, conspiracy. In all these, the omission of one consonant seems to be a matter of convenience; the construction of cyfrad, for instance, being probably cyd'drad, c”m”mrad, cyd”frad” or cyf-frad, cyfrad, one f being omitted to avoid the Bound jf: Vn. '““ mvssaKt” %%



(delwedd B5549) (tudalen 037)


cyd-ganedd” cyng-nghanedd, cynghanedd; cyd-pwys” cym- tnhwys.

a. For the sake of distinction, n is retained in the prefix cyn, before, when preceding another n; as, cynnhorf, van; cynnhrigolion, ahorigmes -, cynnrychiol, "present,

(7) The preposition yn, in, is changeable into ym and yng; and is properly written as a separate word; as, yng nghanol nos, in the middle of the night; ym mhen awr” in an hour's time. The forms yn nghanol” yn mhen, are objectionable as uneuphonious and opposed to general usage; the forms y”mhen, ynghylch, as creating unne- cessary exceptions to the general rule of accentuation.

(8) The insertion of the letter h in some words ending in au and dd, as mwynhau, to enjoy, and mwynhdd, enjoy- ment, is, as has been before observed, a matter of dispute. Perhaps the most judicious way of spelling these words would be to insert the h when not preceded by a spirate consonant [§55 (4)], as the circumflex accent does not suggest the idea of the aspiration which exists in the ter- mination. In llyfnhau, to smooth, cwblhau, to fulfil, mwy- hauj to augment, the h is heard and should be inserted. In caniatdUj to grant, gwelldu, to improve, gwarthdu, to asperse, llesdu, to benefit, nacdu, to refuse, the accent alone is sufficient, there being no appreciable aspiration in addition to that of the spirate consonant t, U, th, s, or Cy which as it were propels the final syllable; but there does not appear to be any reason for doubling any of those letters, as the same consonant ends one syllable and begins the other. Sometimes the vocal consonant co- alesces with the h, and its spirate correlative is the result; as in coffdu, to commemorate, from cof, memory, in which the h would be superfluous. On t\iG «>2cmfe “tvbl”y"“““ c; should be snbBtitnted for the g in t”e n”ot” l\e%gau” V” %%



(delwedd B5550) (tudalen 038)


debilitate : the introduction of h into the word would be objectionable, as the vocal sound g cannot be retained between a and h; but llesgdu is the settled form. In parhau, to continue, byrhau, to shorten, sicrhau, to make sure, and the like, it should be recollected that r and h represent two sounds, the vocal r and the aspirate h, and have not the simple spirate sound of rh in rhariy a part. [§64.] It would be useful, but it is not usual, to separate them with a hyphen, for the sake of distinction, as is done for the same reason in ufudd-dod” obedience; hwynUhwy” they themselves.

(9) The words angeuol or angheuolj deadly, eangder or ehangder, spaciousness, brenines or brenhinesj a queen, cenedlaeth or cenhedlaeth, a generation, boneddig or bon- heddig, noble, synwyrau or synhtvyrau, senses, diarebion or diarhebion, proverbs, and the like, are of unfixed orthography. The aspiration is not heard in the words from which they are inmiediately formed; angeu, death; eang, spacious; brenin, a king; cenedl, a nation; bonedd, nobility; synwyr, sense; diareb, a proverb; but it is introduced with the accent, when one syllable is added. The addition of another syllable removes the accent, and the aspiration is again lost; as, boneddigaidd, noble; cenedlaethaUf generations ; boneddigion, gentlemen. Some writers discard the h in all these words ; others insert it even when not heard in the spoken word; and others, taking a middle course, use it only when the syllable is accented. The most convenient course is to omit it.

97. U and i are frequently substituted one for the

other, as terminations of verbs in the infinitive mood.

To avoid error in this particular, it should be known,

i;hat when w is the last letter but one, as in ervwtj to

name, or when o occurs in the last «»“\!L«Jo\e Wt one” %%



(delwedd B5551) (tudalen 039)


as in toddtj to melt, i is used. In other cases, u is the letter employed. Erchi, to demand, geni” to be bom, medi” to reap, peri” to cause, are exceptions; and in a few other words the orthography is unsettled.

98. U and y are also the occasion of perplexity. The following hints may be of service : —

(1) CT" occurs in the plural terminations of nouns; as, llyfrauy books, geiriau” words ; in the terminations of the pronouns minnau, I also, tithau, thou also, yntaUj he also, hithau, she also, ninnau, we also, chwitkau” you also; and in the terminations of infinitive of verbs, as seen in section 97.

(2) U, not y, follows e: except teyrn, a king, and its derivatives; dyweyd {dywedyd), to say; gumeyd (gumel- yd), to do.

(3) T occurs after w; as, wyf, I am; swydd, an office; llwyd, gray : but gwull, flowerets.

(4) Y, and not w, is an inflection of a and o, and generally of e; as, bach, bychan, little; porth, a gate, pyrthj gates; Cymro, a Welshman, Cymry, Welshmen, the Welsh; bachgen, a boy, bechgyn, boys: but maes, a field, meusydd, fields.

(6) Y, and not u, occurs in the diminutive termination yn; as, bwthyn, a small cabin, a hut.

(6) The sound of y is changeable [§ 29], but that of u is not: hence the latter may be often known by observing the sound when a termination is added to the word; as, bys, a finger, bysedd, fingers; dysg, learning, dysgu, to learn; bydd, he will be, byddaf, I shall be: but hun, hunan, self; tu, a side, tueddu, to incline; bu, he was, buom, we were.

a. Y, when followed or preceded V” ow”Ss. \”“\. “siw”:”'®* mutable in sound; as, rhyw” soTae, rhy'wwa, “oro”'“ cs”'“S %% A %%



(delwedd B5552) (tudalen 040)


mwy” more, mwyaf, most; gwyw” withered, gwywo” to fade; gwyn” white, blessed, gwynfyd” happiness; hyw, alive, bywiofff lively: but in bywyd, life, the sound of y differs from the sound y in byw.

99. Errors occasionally arise from confounding similar prefixes and terminations. The following distinctions should be observed: —

(1) Odd and ai are verbal terminations; as, teymasodd, he reigned; pwysai, weighed, would weigh. Oedd and au are terminations of plural nouns; as, teymasoedd, kingdoms; pwysau, weights.

(2) Aid is the termination of a class of nouns; as, dymaid, a .fistful; llonaid ei ddwylaw, the full of his hands. Ed is the termination of some verbs and adjec- tives; as, dymed, let him thresh; lloned ag yntau, as cheerful as he.

(3) Au being a plural termination, eu is preferable in a few cases in which usage is divided; as, ammheu, to doubt; deheu, south; geneu, a mouth; cleddeu, a sword.

(4) Di is a negative or privative prefix; as, dtflasy tasteless ; diofal, without care. Dy is an iterative prefix ; as, dyfrySy speed; dygasedd, hatred.

(5) A is an emphatic prefix ; as, athrist” sad. An is a negative prefix ; hence annedwydd, unhappy, from an and dedwydd” liappy? should not be written anedwydd,

(6) Occasional instances occur of the transposition of two or more sounds in a word. Thus, tangtiefedd, peace, was formerly written tangneddyf; gloud was sometimes used for golud, wealth. Plygain, early morn, ewythr, an uncle, are commonly pronounced in some districts pylgairiy ewyrth, Giddyl, gwymed, apedy dyerth, for gilydd, each other, ffwtfneby face, ateb” to answer, dyeiihr” strange, are

corruptions referrible to the same aoxxrc”. %%



(delwedd B5553) (tudalen 041)


100. The following words, differing in their ortho- graphy, are pronounced some nearly and some exactly alike. %% Ael, a brow Ail, second

Badd, a bath Baedd,* a boar Baidd, a challenge

Bai, a fault; pe hai, if it were Ban, a hoof

Braen, corrupt, rotten Brain, crows

Bri, dignity Bru, womb Bry, above

Badd, benefit Bydd, will be

Cae, an enclosure” a field Can, to enclose

Celi, the Deity Celu, to conceal

Ci, a dog

Cu, amiable

Cil, a corner” a retreat Cul, narrow %% Clai, clay

Clan, incessant, quick

Cod, a pocket Coed, a wood

Cos, an itching ; scratch Coes, a leg

Crig, a crack Crug, a heap Cryg, hoarse

Crud, a cradle Cryd, a fever

Cymru, Wales Cjinrj, Welshmen

Cymmnniad, a communion Cymmyniad, a hewing off

Chwaeth, taste Chwaith, neither

Chwith, sinister Chwyth, a blast

Din, a city Dyn, a man %% » The diphthong ae is often pronounced d in South Wales ; no distinction being made between badd and bttcdd,«sAQK}aJstNwa”«“ in tbe list contMuing the sounds in question. %%



(delwedd B5554) (tudalen 042)

42 %% A GRAMMAR OP THE %% Ei, his, her, its; mlt go Eu, their

Eirian, splendid Eurian, golden

Eirin, plums

Euryn, a golden trinket

Esgid, a shoe Esgud, nimble

Ewin, a nail Ewyn, foam

Ffaeth, luxuriant Ffaith, a fact

Ffarf, a form Ffyrf, steady

Gwae, woe Gwau, to weave

Gwaedd, a shout Gwaudd, a daughter-in-law

Gwaeth, worse Gwaith, work; a time

Gwain, a sheath Gwaen, a meadow

Gweli, a wound Gwely, a bed

Gwich, a squeak Gwych, smart

Owin, mne %% \ %% Gwir, truje Gw”r, men Gi”r, crooked; he knows

Gwiw, fit Gwyw, withered

GwuU, flowerets Gwyll, gloom

Haedd, merit Haidd, barley

Hael, liberal

Hail, bounty, service

Haul, the sun

Hi, she Hy, bold

Hin, weather Hun, self; sleep H”n, elder, senior

Hir, long Hur, hire

Is, under Us, chaff

Teh, to your TJch, higher Ych, an ox

IV, to his, her, its Yw, is, are

Llaes, loose Llais, a voice %% WELSH LANOUAOE. %%



(delwedd B5555) (tudalen 043)

43 %% Llaeth, milk Llaith, damp Llath, a yard

Llai, less Llau, lice

Lli, a stream Liu, a host

Llin, fiaoi Lion, form

Lliw, a colour Llyw, a rudder

Llmnan, a banner Llyman, one stark naked

Llus, whortleberries Llys, a court

Mae, is, are Mai, that” May Man, my

Mael, profit Mail, a (oz”rZ

Maen, a stone Main, slender

Maeth, nurture Maith, extensive

Melin, a mill Meljn, yellow

Mil, a thousand; an animal Mul, a mule %% I %% Neithior, a marriage feast Neithiwr, last night

Nith, a niece Nyth, a nest

Nudd, mist, fog Nydd, a spin

Peri, to cause Pery, will last

Pig, a beak Pyg, pitch

Pridd, earth, mould Prudd, sad

Prif, principal Pryf, a worm

Prin, scarce

Pryn, buy thou; will buy

RH, a chief Rhu, a roar Rhy, too

Rhith, pretence Rhuth, a breaking out

Rhiw, a slope Rhyw, a kind; some

Rhadd, red

Rhydd, will give; free

Saeth, a dart Saitli, sevea %%



(delwedd B5556) (tudalen 044)

44 %% A GRAMMAR OP THE %% Sil, issue Sul, Sunday

Sir, shire Sur, sour

Sudd, sap

Sydd, is; will sink

Sylfaen, a foundation stone Sylfan, a foundation

Taer, earnest Tair, three

Tai, houses Tau, thy %% Talaeth, a province Talaith, a diadem

Ti, thou Tu, a side Ty, a house

Tri, <Ar”e Try, i(;27Z turn

Ud, a Aoi<;Z Yd, com

Yntau, he or Am also Ynte, <Aen %% 101. Many words, differing materially from each other in their radical forms, are similar or identical in sound when inflected. In the following examples the radical word is given first. %% Aur, gold

Gair, air, a word

Ban, fan, man, a high place Man, fan, a place

Byd, fyd, myd, a world Mud, fiid, dumb

Bys, fys, mys, a finger Mis, fis, a month

Clun, glun, the hip Glin, lin, the knee, leg Llin, lin, fUtx

Dewin, uewin, a diviner Newyn, hunger %% Du, hlack Ti, di, thou Ty, dy, a house

Glew, lew, brave Llew, lew, a lion

Glyd, 1yd, glue Llid, lid, wrath

Glyn, lyn, a valley Llyn, lyn, a lake

Grudd, rudd, the cheek Khydd, rydd, free

Grug, rug, heath %% WELSH LANGUAGE. %%



(delwedd B5557) (tudalen 045)


102. The monosyllables in the following list differ from each other in the Yowels, which are long in the words in one column, and short in those in the other. Long monosyllables being more numerous than short, some writers prefer marking the short vowels with a grave accent. It is, however, more usual to mark the long vowels with a circumflex accent, when leaving them unaccented would cause ambiguity. The accent is not used to distinguish words which are not alike in their radical forms; as, dyn (long), a man, yn dyn (short), tight, tightly, from tyn” tight; bar (long), from “ar, will cause, bar (short), a bar; gvor (long), a man, gvor (short), from cwTy a comer. [§34.] %% Long Monosyllables.

At, ar, plough-land

Bar, agitation” anger

Ber, a spit

Bran, a crow

Br”n, a grudge

Can, a song

Car, a friend; love thou

Cer, tools

Cob, a cloak

Cor, a choir; a pew

Cr”, a shake

C”, dogs

O”, a circle; skin

C”ll, hazel

C”, a wedge

C\ixwpi, motion %% Short Monosyllables.

Ar, on, upon

Bar, a bar, a bolt

Ber, short; a shank, a leg

Bran, bran

Bryn, a hill

Can, as ; flour

Car, a raft

Cer, ger, by, near

Cob, a tuft

Cor, a spider

Cryn, middling; rather

Cwn, top, summit

Cwr, a comer

Cyll, will lose

Cyn, before,

Ckwyn, toeeda %% \ %% 46 %%



(delwedd B5558) (tudalen 046)

A GRAMMAR OF THE %% Long Monosyllables.

Del, will come D61, a mead or meadow Fel (mel), honey Ffer, the ankle; dense Gen, a chin, jaw Ger (cer), tools Gl&n, clean Glfn, will stick Gwal, a (harems) form Gwan, a stab Gwen, a smile Gwar, placid G”, a gown Gw”n, rage • Hel, hunt thou Hob, a measure H”, older Lien, erudition Ll”, contagious Mai, ground; will grind Man, small Od, 6d, snow Pan, down”fur Plan, a plane-tree S”=ser, stars T&i, payment ; will pay Tan, Jire Ton, a tune Tor, a mantle Tros, a croi«? 5ar Ttlr, « tower Ym, fm, we are %% Short Monosyllables.

Del, Stiffs pert

Dol (dwl), foolish

Fel (mal), like, so, as

Ffer, chillness

Gen=gan, with

Ger, 5y, w«ar to

Glan, a brink, a river side

Glyn, a valley

Gwal, a fence, a wall

Gwan, weak

Gwen, white

Gwar, the nape of the neck

Gwn, / know; a gun

Gwyn, white

Hel, to gather

Hob, a pig

Hyn, this

Lien, a curtain

Llyn, a lake

Mal, like, so, as

Man, a place

Od, 2/; oc?ci

Pan, when

Plan, joZaw” “Aom

Syr, sir

Tal, iaZZ; a forehead

Tan, MTicZ”r

Ton, a if7av«

Tor, a bulge

Tros, over

TwT, a heap

Ym (jtt), iTv %% WELSH LANGUAGE. %%



(delwedd B5559) (tudalen 047)

47 %% 103. The classification of long and short monosyllables may be thus briefly and generally* summed up: —

(1) Vowels are short in monosyllables ending in c, ng, m, p, or <, or in two or more consonants; as, cam, crooked; gwalchy a hawk. Two vowels resolved into one form exceptions; as, dnt, they will go.

(2) Other monosyllables are long, excepting the follow- ing and those enumerated as short in the preceding list. [§ 101.] %% Ban, a mountain peak

Bal, a boll or bundle

Bol, a belli/

Bral, a giddy person

Bron, a breast; a swell of

Byr, short [a hill

Byth, ever

Cen, skin, scales

Chwaflf, a gust

Chwiflf, a whiff

Cnwb, a knob

Cron, round

Crwb, a hunch

Crwn, round

Cwr, a comer

Dal, will hold

Drel, a clovm

Dry 11, a piece; a gun

Dull, a form

Dwl, dull

Dwn, a murmur; dun, dusky %% Er, notwithstanding

Ffel, wily, sly

Ffon, a staff

Ffral, a crazy one

Ffril, a trifling thing

Ffyn, staves

Gall, he can

Gan (can), by

Gar, a ham, a shank

Gyr, a drove; will drive

Hab, chance, luck

Hell, ugly

Her, a challenge

Hon, this

Hwn, this

Hyll, ugly

Hyr, a push

Llab, a stripe

Llan, a yard; a church

Ller, rye-brome grass

Llob, a dolt %% * The subject is minutely examined in Llythyraeth yr laith Gymraegy by the Rev. D. Silvan Evans, B.I)., \Xi"amae”, ““ec”“'““k”- aire treatiBe on Welak orthography thai”iBA w”“<dx”“. %%



(delwedd B5560) (tudalen 048)

48 %% A ORAmiAR OP THE %% Llol, foolish talk Lion, cheerful Men, a cart Mwl, chajf Myn, by Nan, what, yes Nen, a ceiling On, a«A


Paff, a thump Pen, a Aeo” Piff , a /w/ Pin, a pen; a pin Pren, a tree, wood Prin, scarce PwfF, a |m/ Pwn, a burden %% Rhan, a /Mir< Rhwb, a rub Sen, a taunt, censure Sill, a syllable Swb, a bundle Swl, /a/

Syll, a rtifir, a store Sjn, amazed Syth, «fijr, rt”id Trol, a cylinder Twb, a tub Twn, a fracture Tyn, %At; jim// Tyll, tnV/ pierce Tyr, MTi/Z “eoib Yn, tn; ash Yr, tA« %% (3) Many words are nnsettled in their pronunciation, being pronounced sometimes long and sometimes short; as, pwll, a pit, a pool; rhol, a roll; twll, a hole.

104. Vowels in short monosyllables retain their short soimd in words formed from them; but vowels in long monosyllables are liable to become short when placed in the penultimate by the addition of a syllable; as, gwell, better, gwella, to improve, gwelliant, amendment. This is especially the case when the affixed syllable begins with a consonant; as, —

Long. Short. Short.

Clod, jprawe clodfawr, “amows i”o”Ymf , praiseworthy

Tkn,Jire tanbaid, vehement taniad, a firing

Hir, long himos, long night hirio, to lengthen

Cudd, hidden cuddfa, a s/ielter cniddio, to hide %%



(delwedd B5561) (tudalen 049)


103. There are eight sorts of words, or parts of speech, as they are usually called : the noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.

104. A rvoun (from the Latin Twmen, a name) is a word used as the name of anything we speak of, or of which we can form an idea either by means of the external senses or by reflection: it is the name of any thing in the widest sense of the word — “whatever one can think of; as, dt/n, a man; Caerfi/rddin, Carmarthen; gioyhodaeth, knowledge; poen, pain; goleuni, light; ti/- vjyllwch, darkness. '

105. An adjective is a word used to qualify a noun, or to mark the extent of its signification; as, dyn da, a good man; poen mawr, great pain; dwy fenyw” two women; LLAWER gwaith, many times. Adjectives are so called because they are added or cast to a noun; as they make no sense when placed alone.

106. Pronouns (from the Latin word pro” for, and nomen) are words used instead of nouns, to avoid the unpleasant repetition which would be necessary if there were no such words. Thus, myfij I, is used instead of the name of the person speaking; and chwi” you, instead of the name of the person addressed*

107. No sentence can be formed without a verb. Words may be put together; but nothing can be asserted or denied, unless a verb be used. There is no meaning, for instance, in the words, Tr haul ar wledydd ereill pan nad gyda nij The sun on other countries when he not witk \3.”. But insert a verb or two, and the woxdaloecoTaft Q.QT>sv”“\fc” and intelligihle: Llewyrcha yr haul ar \oled\)dd wexW.

4 %% 50



(delwedd B5562) (tudalen 050)


pan nad YW gyda ni, The sun shines 6n other conntries when he is not with ns. The verb is called the word, which is the meaning of the term, as being the most important word in a sentence. One of its Welsh names also is gair.

108. Adverbs bear much the same relation to verbs as adjectives do to nouns: they qualify and limit their meaning; as, Atebwch unwaith, Answer once. Adverbs are joined to adjectives as well as to verbs; as, tra chaled, very hard; and one adverb sometimes qualifies another; as, Efe a lefarodd lawer gwell na ddysgwyliais, He spoke much better than I expected.

109. Preposition connect words and show the relation one thing bears to another; as, Hi a aeth o Gaerfyrddin i l/undain, mewn llong, gyda'i “rtrr, %heb i neb o'« theulu wybod AM ei hymadawiad, She went from Carmarthen to London, in a vessel, with her husband, without any of her family knowing of her departure.

110. Conjunctions are words used to connect propo- sitions together; as, Nid oes yma “a dyn na dynes, There is here neither man nor woman ; Aeth a dychwelodd, OND ni welodd hi y dyn, She went and returned, but did not see the man. Na joins the words dyn and dynes, so that the verb oes applies to both of them ; a joins the verbs aeth and dychwelodd, so that they evidently express actions of the same person; and ond directs the mind to the preceding clause, while it introduces a farther assertion.

111. An interjection is a word that expresses some sudden, deep, or lively emotion of the mind. It is so called, because it is thrown in, as it were, amongst other words, the sense of which might not be altered by its being left out, though their force would be weakened. Ha

Is an interjection in the following sentence: "Ha wraig! matifr yw dy ffydd! " " VQmau, great \s MXi” i«\tl\l"

■»- • * • - "• V

/A ■ ■ V \

.:'■•• . '• ■•><.

/. - ■ ■ .' . "V %%



(delwedd B5563) (tudalen 051)

WELSH LANGUAGE. 51 %% NOUNS. %% 112. There are two kinds of nouns ; proper and common.

(1) Proper nouns are names belonging especially to indiyidual members of a class: they distinguish any indi- vidual person or thing from all other persons or things ; as, Dafydd, David; Llundain, London; . Taith y Pereriuj The Pilgrim's Progress.

(2) Common nouns are names applicable to all members of a class : they distinguish any person, thing, or substance of one kind from all persons, things, or substances of any other kind; as, bachgen, a boy; %/r, a book; aur, gold.

ul Names of collections of persons or things of the same kind, viewed as one whole, are called collective nouns; as, Ffyddin a orchfygoddj The army conquered.

d, Names of collections of persons or things viewed as separate individuals, are called nouns of multitude; as, T BOBL a ffoisant, The people fled.

c Names of qualities, actions, or states, considered abstractedly, or without reference to the persons or things in which they are exhibited, are called abstract nouns; as, lliWj colour; piuys, weight; cerddediad, walking; ffoed- igaeth, flight; iechyd, health; gwroldeb” manliness.

d. Proper names are used poetically as common nouns ; as, " Tn Efa yrig ngolwg barddj” An Eve in a poet's eyes.

113. In the Welsh language, nouns are not subject to change to distinguish those relations which, by gram- marians, are called ccises. They, however, undergo various inflections on account of number and gender, which require notice. Proper nouns are destitute of inflection, except- ing in particular cases in which they take the plural form ; as, y Philistiaid, the Philistines*, i| Llu3\jd\a\d” “'“ lAoyds; wbicb are virtually coTmnou Ti.o\xsk&. %% 52 %%



(delwedd B5564) (tudalen 052)


114. Nouns are of two numbers, the singular and the plural.

115. The plural is generally formed from the singular; and there are three ways in which it is formed: by inflection of the vowels, by the addition of a termination, and by both inflecting the vowels and adding a termination.

(1) The nature of the inflections will be seen in the following list: — %% a into ei %%

march %%a horse %%meirch %%a ,, %%ai %%

bran %%a crow %%brain %%a yy %%y %%

bustach %%a steer %%bustych %%e „ %%y %%

cyllell %%a knife %%cyllyll %%» %%y %%

ff'on %%a staff %%fiyn %%W ,7 %%y %%

migwm %%an ankle %%migyru %%ae ,, %%ai %%

draen %%a thorn %%drain %%a & e „ %%e & %%y %%castell %%a castle %%cestyll %%a & a „ %%e & %%ai %%dafad %%a sheep %%defaid %%a & a ,, %%e& %%y %%afall %%an apple-tree %%eiyll %%a & w „ %%e & %%y %%asgwrn %%a bone %%esgyrn %% a. The following are irregular: ci, a dog, cfim, dogs; givr, a man, giu”r, men; ti/, a house, tat, houses; troed, a foot, traedj feet; croen, a skin, crwyn, skins; oen, a lamb, ibyn, lambs: they occur only in these words and their compounds; as, milgwnj greyhounds; saethwyr, archers; tlottaij poorhouses.

(2) The following table gives a list of terminations forming plural nouns, with examples of their use : —

Uyfr a hook llyfrau %% au


edd %% merch ewin %% a girl a nail %% merched c”medd %% WELSH LANGUAGB. %%



(delwedd B5565) (tudalen 053)

53 %%a. %% i %%ffenestr %%laid %%estron %%iau %%bryn %%ion %%dyn %%od %%eryr %%oedd %%mynydd %%on %%perygl %%ydd %%pont %%Yr is %%an nnus %% a window a stranger a hill CL man an eagle a mountain danger %% ffenestri








It %% occurs m %% a bridge

unusual termination. hrodyr” gwaewyr” and by inflection in cefndyr” oyfyrdyry the plural forms of hrawd, a brother, gwaewj a pang, cefnder, a cousin, cyfyrder, a second cousin.

h. Ych, an ox, makes y chain or ychen in the plural.

(3) The following are examples of the formation of plural noims, by both inflecting the vowels and adding terminations : — %% a %%into %%e %%car %%a kinsman %%ceraint %%a %%>? %%ei %%mab %%a son %%meibion %%ae %%yy %%ei %%maen %%a stone %%meini %%ae %%>> %%eu %%maes %%a field %%meusydd %%ai %%» %%ei %%nai %%a nephew %%neiaint %%%%%%braint %%a privilege %%breintiau %%ai %%» %%a %%gwraig %%a woman %%gwragedd %%an %%» %%eu %%flau %%a den %%ffeuau %%aw %%>> %%' ew %%cawr %%a giant %%cewri %%aw %%» %%%%awr %%an hour %%oriau %%%%%%yinherawdr %%an emperor %%yinherodron %%ei %%>? %%a %%deigr %%a tear %%dagrau %%%%%%neidr %%an adder %%nadroedd %%w %%79 %%y %%golwg %%a sight %%golygon %%%%%%cwmwl %%a cloud %%CYm”lexL %%a. %%ChtPoer, a %%BiBter, makes diiuiorydd %%m”'ft”“Jssix”. %% 54



(delwedd B5566) (tudalen 054)


116. There is in general a resemblance between those objects, the plural names of which are formed with the same termination ; though the similarity is not always”o defined as to admit of very distinct classification. The analogy, however, is obvious in the following examples : —

(1) Plurals in od: — hwystfilody beasts; ednod, fowls; pt/sgod, fishes; trychfilody insects; llewody lions; lltdyn- ogod, foxes; ysgyfamogod, hares; cumingod, rabbits; draenogody hedgehogs; tyrchod, hogs, moles; llygod, mice ; hyrddod, rams ; hychod, bucks ; iyrchod, roebucks ; eryrod, eagles ; llinosod, linnets ; colomenod, pigeons ; ceiliogod, cocks; morfilodj whales; llysi”od, eels.

(2) Plurals in oedd: — nefoedd, hesLYenB; bydoeddj worlds; tiroedd, lands; ynysoedd, islands; dyffrynoedd, valleys; mynyddoedd, mountains; lleoedd, places; dyfr- oedd, waters ; moroedd, seas ; gtvyntoedd, winds ; pobloeddy people; tyrfaoedd, crowds; breninoedd, kings; miloedd, thousands; canrifoedd, centuries; cannoedd, hundreds; oesoedd, ages; amseroeddj times; blynyddoedd, years; misoedd, months.

(3) Plurals in ydd: — trefydd, towns; heolydd, streets; mynwentyddj churchyards; meusydd, fields; ffosydd, ditches; nentyddj ravines; coedydd, woods; porfeydd, pastures; afonydd, rivers; pontydd, bridges; bronydd, breasts of hills ; magun/rydd, walls ; aelwydyddy hearths.

(4) Plurals in ion: — meibion, sons; trigolion, inhabi- tants; “/”“(/bZtow, parishioners ; tywysogiony”nucea; pryd- yddion, poets; cantorion, singers; angylion, angels; enw- ogiorif famous persons; carcharorion, prisoners.

(5) Plurals in edd: — ewineddy nails; danneddy teeth; byseddf fingers ; celaneddy dead bodies.

(6) The termination taid is frequently used in nouns derived from, proper names, and ans'“ict” \)0 \k” l&ii”\s.h %%



(delwedd B5567) (tudalen 055)


terminations ttes” tans, ists”&c; ss, Israeliaid, Israelites; Aiphtiaidj Egyptians; Calfiniatd, Calvinists. The last i is Jiere the characteristic of the plural, the singular being Ifraeliad, &c.

117. Names of offices or occupations, ending in ydd or og in the singular, take ion in the plural; as, llywydd, a ruler, llyioyddion, rulers ; ysgrifenydd, a secretary, ysgrif- enyddion, secretaries ; gweinidog, a minister, gtvetnidogion, ministers; marchog, a rider, a knight, warcAo”iow, riders, knights.

118. ,The plural terminations most frequently used are €LU and iau.' When the termination au follows the letter a, the sound of a is repeated or lengthened, and is re- presented hj d or.d; as, hwa, a bow, hvxiu or hwdu, bows.

119. Many words have more than one plural termina- tion, which are used indifferently; as, tref, a town, trefi and trefyddj towns; eglwys, a church, eglwysi, eglwysau, egltvysyddy churches ; gof, a smith, gqfiaid, gofaint, gofion, smiths ; amser, time, amserau and amseroedd, times ; aden, a wing, edyn and adenydd, wings; “'Gofidion angeu dim cylchynasant, a gopidiau uffem cUm daliasanJt”“ " The sor” rows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold upon me.'* Eglwysi is preferable to eglwysau and eglwysydd, the last word'signifying also a churchman.

120. There is often a doubling of plural terminations; as, ty, a house, tai and teiau, houses; bardd, a bard, beirdd and heirddion, bards; cdn, a song, canau, songs, caneuony songs of different sorts.

121. Os and ach are terminations added to plural n6uns: the former has usually a favourable sense, the latter is depreciatory; as, p/anfos, little children; wynos, lambkins; plantach, tiresome clv\ldtetv\ p”“““““-* “““ people; beni/wotach, silly women. %% 56



(delwedd B5568) (tudalen 056)


122. The plural of a few words is formed by prefixing a numeral adjective. This is frequently the case with respect to names of those parts of the animal frame of which there are pairs; as, dwylaw, the hands; dwyfron” the breasts ; deudroed” the feet ; deulin, the knees. Llaw, a hand, hron” a breast, troed, a foot, and glin” a knee, make also llatviau (rarely used), bronau, traedy and gliniauy in the plural.

123. In some cases a singular noun is formed from a plural noun, or from a collective noun, by adding the syllable yn masculine, or en feminine ; mutable vowels in the root being subject to inflection; as, gwt/hed, flies, gwyhedyn” a fly; gwenyn” bees, gwenynen, a bee; meSj acorns, mesen, an acorn; adar, birds, aderyn, a bird; plant, children, plentynj a child; daily leaves, deilen, a leaf; chwain, fleas, chwanen, a flea; graum, grains, gronyn,

. a grain; cylly hazel-trees, collen, a hazel; caws, cheese, cosyn, a cheese; haidd, barley, heiddyn, heidden, a barley- corn.

124. As in other languages, there are in Welsh many words the signification of which does not admit of a plural form; such as the names of metals, commodities, virtues, and vices. There being no plurality of idea in the things they name, no one will find it necessary to write them in the plural ; an enumeration of them is, therefore, unnecessary. Haiam, iron, makes heiym in the plural; as, gefyndu heiym, iron fetters; or as a noun, heiym, irons. Ydau, heiddiau, from yd, com, haidd, barley, are used to denote kinds, qualities, or abundance of those commodities.

125. A few words have no singular; as, ymysgaroedd, howeh; gwartheg, homed cattle; da, cattle; rhieni,

parents (related to rhiant, pL rhiaini). %%



(delwedd B5569) (tudalen 057)

WEL8H LANGUAGE. 57 %% GENDER. %% 126. The Btndy of Welsh presents the same difficulty to those who do not speak it, as is experienced in acquiring a knowledge of many other languages. The language does not recognize a distinction found in nature — the existence of objects destitute of gender. Nouns are in it distributed under the heads masculine and feminine ; and as adjectiyes and pronouns vary to correspond with the nouns to which they belong, it is of importance to know under which of these heads e.very noun used is classed.

127. With respect to those which are the names of males and females, no difficulty exists; they are either masculine or feminine in accordance with their signifi- cation; as in the following examples; —

Masculine. Feminine.

Tad, father Mam, mother

Gwr, husband Gwraig, wife

Brawd, brother Chwaer, sister

Bachgen, boy Llodes, geneth, girl

Mab, son Merch, daughter

Taid, grandfather Nain, grandmother

Ewythr, uncle Modryb, aunt

Nai, nephew Nith, niece

Tarw, bull Buwch, cow

Ceffyl, horse Caseg, mare

Baedd, boar Hwch, sow

Hwrdd, ram Dafad, ewe

Ceiliog, cock Giar, hen

128. There are also some words which indicate their gender by their construction ; as, asen (feinimxv” cil a”.-”T”““ an ass; tordd feminine, twrdd” TCi«gBC\]\\Tv”“ ““ \?Qcas»S”.\ «> %%



(delwedd B5570) (tudalen 058)


and being feminine mutations of y and w. As diminu- tives, yn is masculine, en and tg are feminine ; as, dam, a piece, dernyn, “a little bit; morwyhig, a little maid; gweniihyn or gwenithen, a grain of wheat.

129. Masculine nouns are also converted into feminine, by the addition of the termination es; as. Hew, & lion, llewes, a lioness ; llanc, a lad, llances, a young girl ; or by a change in the termination; as, llaethwr, a milkman, llaethwraig, a milkwoman, llaethferch, a milkmaid; priod' fab, a bridegroom, priodferch, a bride. A feminine termination is often added “o a masculine; as, tywysog, a prince, tywy sages, a princess; pechadur (masculine), a sinner, pechadures (feminine), a sinner; arweinydd, a conductor, arweinyddes, a conductress ; awdur, an author, awdures, an authoress.

130. The gender of the thing spoken of is sometimes denoted by the word gwryw or benyw; but it is necessary to know whether the noun is considered masculine or feminine before these words can be applied correctly with certainty ; for though we say eryr gwryw, a he-eagle, we say colomen wryw, a he-pigeon.

131. The names of inanimate objects are not so easily distinguished. Grammarians have attempted the classifi- cation of them, according to their terminations; but the exceptions to the rules they lay down are so numerous, that a reference to the dictionary appears a more ready way of acquiring the desired information.

132. Mr. Gambold's rule, that nouns with mutable initials, assuming the soft mutation when preceded by y or yr, the, are of the feminine gender, though carefully recorded by his successors, is of no practical use; for the gender must be known before the mutation is made; and

lY known, there is no necessity oi a Tu\e iox discovering it. %%



(delwedd B5571) (tudalen 059)


133. Adjectives may be divided into three classes : adjectives of quality, adjectives of number or quantity, and demonstrative adjectives.

(1) Adjectives of quality are those which denote the qualities, attributes, properties, or characteristics of the persons or things named by their nouns; as, gwr doeth, a wise man; hamwr cyfiawn, a just judge; tdn ysol, a consuming fire; da duon, black cattle.

(2) The adjectives of number or quantity are, —

a. The cardinal and ordinal numerals. They advance by scores, not by tens as in English. %% CardinaL

Un . . . 1 Dau, feminine dwy 2 Tri, /. tair . . 3 Pedwar . . .4 Pedair, / . . ,,

Pump . . .5 Chwech . . 6

Saith . . .7 Wyth . . 8 Naw ... 9 Eeg ... 10 Un ar ddeg . . 11 Eeuddeg . . 12 Tri ar ddeg . . 13 Tair ar ddeg,/. . ,, Pedwar ar ddeg . 14 Pedair ar ddeg, /. „ %% Ordinal.

Cyntaf, unfed* . laf, Ifed Deufed, /. dwyfed» . 2fed Trydydd, 3ydd,/. trydedd, 3edd Pedwerydd . . 4ydd Pedwaredd . . . 4edd Pummed. . . 5med Chwechfed or chweched 6fed Seithfed . . 7fed

Wythfed . . . 8fed Nawfed . . . 9fed

Degfed . . . lOfed Unfed» ar ddeg . llfed Deuddegfed. . . 12fed Trydydd ar ddeg . 13ydd Trydedd ar ddeg . . 13edd Pedwerydd ar ddeg . 14ydd Pedwaredd ar ddeg . 14edd %% *Aa %% * Unfed is used in compound iium\iet”. \” Wi”ii”'“'““ il or €il/edma.j m all cafiea be used in&tesA q1 deufed. ot d.u»ii«.«x. %% 60 %%



(delwedd B5572) (tudalen 060)


16 17


18 %% CardinaL

Pymtheg Un ar bymtheg . Dau ar bymtheg Dwy ar bymtheg, /. Demiaw . Tri ar bymtheg . Tair ar bymtheg, /. Pedwar ar bymtheg 19 Pedair ar bymtheg, /. „ Ugain . . 20 Un ar hugain. . 21 Dau ar hugain . 22 Dwy ar hugain, /. . „ Deg ar hugain . 30 Pymtheg ar hugain . 35 Deugain . . 40

Deg a deugain . 50 Trigain . . .60 Deg a thrigain . 70 Pedwar ugain. . 80 Deg a phed war ugain 90 Cant . . 100

Mil . . . 1000 %% Ordinal.

Pymthegfed . . 15fed Unfed ar bymtheg . 16fed Deufed ar bymtheg . 17fed Dwy fed ar bymtheg . „ Deunawfed . . 18fed Trydydd ar bymtheg . 18ydd Trydedd ar bymtheg 18edd Pedwerydd ar bymtheg 19ydd Pedwaredd ar bymtheg 19edd Ugeinfed . . . 20fed Unfed ar hugain . 21fed Deufed ar hugain. . 22fed Dwy fed ar hugain . ,,

Degfed ar hugain . . 30fed Pymthegfed ar hugain 15fed Deugeinfed . . . 40fed Degfed a deugain . 50fed Trigeinfed . . . 60fed Degfed a thrigain . 70fed Pedwar-ugeinfed . . 80fed Degfed a phedwar ugain 90fed Canfed . . lOOfed

Milfed . . . lOOOfed

b, A few words of frequent use, of which the following are the most important [§ 168] : — %% Ambell, occasional Amryw, divers, several Arall, other, pi, ereill Dim, no, not any Holl, oil, all Llall, the other of two Llawer, many %% Naill, one of two Pa, what Pob, every Rhai, some Rhyw, some Sawl, such, many %%



5(delwedd B5573) (tudalen 061)

WELSH LANGUAGE. 61 %% (3) The demonstrative adjectives are, — a. Hum, hon, hyn, and their derivatives.

Singular. %% Hwn, m. this Hon, /. this Hyn, this %% Hwna, m. that, present Hona,/. that, present Hyna, that, present

Plural, Hyn, these \ Hyna, those, present \ Hyny, those, absent %% Hwnw, m, that, absent H6no, /. that, absent Hyny, that, absent %% These words are frequently compounded with adverbs. Hwnyma, hwnyna, and humacw, are not vulgarisms, as are their corresponding English expressions, this here and that there. Hyn and its derivatives are used with nouns of either gender and of either number. [§ 163, 167.]

h. Y or yr”, commonly called the definite article.

134. There being no number and gender pertaining to the qualities or accidents of an object, variations in the form of adjectives, indicative of the number and gender of their nouns, are by no means essential to superiority in a language. Such distinctions are rather imperfections than excellences. In English, adjectives undergo no

* y or yr is generally considered as forming a class of itself, and is called the article. A reason given for this classification is tlfat it cannot be predicated of a noun, or be used without a noun following it. The same, however, may be said of amhell, holl” pa” pobf rhyWf and of the English adjectives no, and (according to modem usage) every. The corresponding English word, the, is a less emphatic form of that, with which it has a common origin. In like manner, an or a, ani/j and the numeral adjective one” are the same in origin, an being; nothing more than the unemphatic ex- pression of one, of which no is simply the negative. In French and other languages, the so-called indefinite article and the first numeral are identical in form. Confer ScotfiSa. ac, oiafe *, uae”\”““x”<5»\» any; also iUe, ilia, Ulud (Latin) ; that, \a” la, les (“YxetiOc”>,”“* %% 62 .



(delwedd B5574) (tudalen 062)


change excepting those expressive of what are termed by grammarians "degrees of comparison." In the "Welsh language, however, they are subject to inflections, to accord with the number and gender of the nouns with which they are used, as well as to mark the intensity of their signification.

135. Changes indicative of degrees of comparison are confined to adjectives which express the properties, quali- ties, or characteristics of objects ; and of these there are many, the nature of which will not admit of any such variation; as, hythol, everlasting; misol, monthly; deheu, south; gwryw, male. This is also the case with the nu- meral and demonstrative adjectives. %% NUMBER.

136. There are two ways of forming the plural of adjectives: by the mutation of their vowels; as, marw” meirWj dead; bychan, ht/chainy little; cadam, cedyrUy strong : and by adding the termination ion or on to the singular; as, rhydd, rht/ddion, free; poethj poethwn” hot; du, duon, black.

137. The addition of a termination does not prevent the inflection of vowels, which are changed as well when the termination is used as when it is not ; as, cam, ceimion, crooked; tlawd, tlodion, poor; Jirwm” trymion” heavy.

138. Many primitive adjectives have no plural form; as, dttj good; tyivyll, dark; and derivative adjectives generally are used in the singular number only, the exceptions being in poetical or elevated diction. Adjectives which have a plural form, are often used in the singular with plural nouns ; but more generally they are written in

“e same number as their nouns. %%



(delwedd B5575) (tudalen 063)


139. With a few exceptions, adjectives ending in aidj aiddy lUy llydy and ms, are never formed into plurals. Melus, sweet, makes melusion in the plural.

140. Numeral adjectives, of course, are not susceptible of change of number. The same numeral cannot be used in both numbers : it must be either always singular or always plural. They, therefore, have no plural inflection. The words miloeddj thousands, cannoedd, hundreds, ugein- iau, twenties, are nouns, like the English words score “ dozen, couple, pair; and are used in the same manner as other nouns; as, miloedd o hysgod, thousands of fishes; tywysogion ar gannoedd, rulers over hundreds. %% GENDER.

141. Gender gives occasion to two kinds of inflection of adjectives.

(1) The vowels w and y in the masculine become o and e in the feminine; as, tnvm, trom, heavy; melyn, melen, yellow; gwyn, gwen, white.

a. Cwyllt is an exception; as, ych gwyllt, a wild ox; hivyaden wyllt, a wild duck; gwellt being Welsh for straw.

h. Vowels are not inflected in derivative adjectives : the same is the case when primitive adjectives assume the plural form; as, deilen werdd, a green leaf, dail gwyrddion, green leaves.

(2) Adjectives commencing with the changeable initials undergo their vocal mutation after feminine nouns of the singular number; as, tarw cock, a red bull; buwch goch, a red cow.

142. The numerals dau, tri, pedwar, deufed, trydydd, pedwerydd, have dwy, tair, pedair” dijo'yfed” \T”d.<.A.”“ pedtvaredd for their feminines. ““ \”“ (““"“ ar\ %% 64



(delwedd B5576) (tudalen 064)



143. Degrees of comparison are variations made in adjectives, to denote the intensity of the qualities or accidents of their nouns. In English there are two such variations of the original word : in Welsh there are three. The termination ed denqtes equality, ach superiority, and af supremacy : ach and af correspond to er and est in English. The terms positive, equal, comparative, and superlative, are used to distinguish the different degrees of comparison. Example: —

Positive. Equa]. ComparatlTe. Superlative.

Pell pelled pellach pellaf

Far as far farther farthest

144. The termination ed also implies abundance of the quality; as, Hardded yw! How fair she is I

145. Positives ending in h, d, g, change those letters into p, t, c, in forming the degrees of comparison; as, —

Positive. Equal. Comparative. Superlative.

Cyffelyb like cyffelyped cyffelypach cyffelypaf Caled hard caleted caletach caletaf

Teg fair teced tecach tecaf

These changes have apparently arisen from a desire to prevent ambiguity, the terminations having another power; as, caleted, as hard, caleded, let him harden; caletaf, hardest, caledaf, I will harden.

146. Ai, aw, and w, in the positive, are sometimes in- flected into ei, o, and y; as, —

Positive. Equal. Comparative. Superlative.

Llaith moist Ueithed lleithach Ueithaf Tlawd poor tloted tlotach tlotaf

Trwm heavy trymed tx”Ttva.”“ XTcyccAS. %% WELSH LANGUAGE. %%



(delwedd B5577) (tudalen 065)

65 %% 147. The vowel » is often prefixed to the terminations for the sake of euphony; as, peraidd, delicions, pereidd' ted, pereiddiach, pereiddiaf.

148. There are many words of frequent use which are irregular or defective. The following table contains a list of the most important of them: — %% Positive. %%

Equal. %%Comparative. %%Superlative. %%Bach %%little %%Ueied %%llai %%Ueiaf %%

soon %%cynted %%cynt %%cyntaf %%Da %%good %%cystal %%gwell %%goreu %%Drwg %%had %%cynddrwg %%gwaeth %%gwaethaf %%Hawdd %%easy %%hawsed %%haws %%hawsaf %%Hen %%old %%hyned %%h” %%hj'naf %%Hir %%long %%hired %%hwy %%hwyaf %%leuanc %%young %%ieuanged %%iau %%ieuangaf %%Isel %%low %%ised %%is %%isaf %%Llawer %%many %%cynnifer %%mwy %%mwyaf %%Llydan %%broad %%lleted %%Uetach %%Uetaf %%Mawr %%great %%cymrnaint %%mwy %%mwyaf %%

near %%nesed %%nes %%nesaf %%Uchel %%high %%uched %%uwch %%uchaf %% 149. The positives of cynt, sooner, nes, nearer, are supplied by huan, soon, agos, near, which also form their degrees regularly.

150. Penaf, chief, fromj”ew, ahead, and diweddaf, last, from diwedd, the end, are defective; as also are eithafy uttermost; blaenaf, foremost; olaf, last; trech, stronger, trechaf, strongest.

151. Adjectives are also compared by mar or cyn, as; mtry, more; mivyaf, most', llai, less; Ueiaf, le&st; Q.s,mor bell or cyn belled, as far; mwy tebt/g, ■ECiox”\”«i% rnvw-vj”oj ““/ur, clearest

5 %% 66



(delwedd B5578) (tudalen 066)

A GRAMMAR OF THE %% TERMINATIONS. %% 152. The terminations of adjectives are worthy of par- ticular notice, as they afford a clue to the signification of the words of which they form a part. The following list of those of more frequent occurrence, with examples, wil. illustrate the effect: —

(1) Adwy: — “welladwy, curable; credadwy, credible; dealladwy, intelligible.

(2) Aid: — euraid, golden, gilt; arianaid, silvery.

(3) Aidd: — mahaidd, boyish, boy like; nefolaidd, heavenly; caruaidd, affectionate.

(4) Awg, iawg, or og, tog: — ysgythrog, having tusks or fangs ; goltidog, rich, having wealth ; arfog, armed, having weapons; hywiog, lively; gwlawiog, rainy.

(5) Awl, iawl, or (more usually) ol, iol: — duwioly godly; hydol, worldly, belonging to the world; nerthol, strong; dynol, human; ysbrydol, spiritual.

(6) Edig: — gumeuthuredig, made; gwynfydedig, happy. (7),Faivr (mawr, great): — clodfawr, famous.

(8) Gar {cam, to love) : — chwedleugar, fond of talk.

(9) Ig: — luddewtg, Jewish; pwysig, heavy; gwledigy rural; pellenig, distant.

(10) Laum or Ion (llawn, fall): — -ffyddlavm, faithful; creulavm, cruel; prydlawn, timely.

(11) Llyd or lyd: — gwenwynllyd, poisonous; dychryn” llyd, terrible; gwaedlyd, bloody.

(12) Us: — rhyfygus, presumptuous; haelionus, liberal.

(13) Ydd (feminine edd) and fed” are terminations of ordinal numeral adjectives. [§ 133 (2) a.]

' Eg and atn are sometimes improperly substituted for these. Tlie absurdity of the practice is obvious : 21=wn ar hugain; 2\ain is therefore un ar hugainAlS” not m/iFEiD ar huyain. %%



(delwedd B5579) (tudalen 067)


153. Words of this kind may be distinguished as personal pronouns, or those which immediately represent nouns; and relative pronouns, which refer in an indirect manner to nouns before expressed or understood, called their antecedents. Further distinctions sometimes made are of questionable propriety in Welsh. %% PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

154. These are said to be of the first person, when they stand in the place of the name of the person speak- ing; in the second person, when they represent the name of the person spoken to ; and in the third person, when used instead of the name of the person or thing spoken

of. There are three classes of pronouns of this kind.

Class I. %% Mi, fi, i, / or me Ti, di, thou or thee Ef, efe, fe, he or Aim, it Hi, she or her, it %% Ni, we or us

Chwi, you

Hwy, hwynt, they or them %% My, fy, ym, my Ty, dy, yth, thy Ei, his, its Ei, her, its

Eiddof, mine Eiddot, thine Eiddo, his Eiddi, hers %% Class II.

Ein, our Eich, your . Eu, ill, their

Class III.

Eiddom, einom, einym, ours Eiddoch, eiddych, yours Eiddynt, tfieir* “ %% 1 %% 68



(delwedd B5580) (tudalen 068)


155. Other pronouns are sometimes met, especially in the poets; as, efo, fo” o, he or it; nhw, nhwy, they; mau, my; tau, thy; but the foregoing are those in ordinary use.

156. Pronouns of the first class frequently take termi- nations, and undergo other variations to express complex ideas; as, mt”fi, I or me myself; minnau, I or me also; myfinnau, I or me myself also : so tydi, tithau, tydithau ; hyhi, hithaUj hyhitkau; nyni, ninnau, nyninnau; chipychivi, chwithau, chwychwithau ; yntau, he or him also.

157. Pronouns of the second class are usually termed possessive pronouns. They appear to be rather the pos- sessive cases of the personal pronouns. The radical forms my and ty are not used.

158. Those of the third class, also called possessive pronouns, are compos'ed of the noun eiddo” property, and the true pronoun, and include the thing possessed and the pronominal termination indicating the possessor.

159. It is worthy of remark that consonants of the same class occur in the various pronouns of the same number, as the labials m and / in mi, fi, fy, ym, eiddof.

160. In many cases there is an elision of the vowels; as,/* for fy; dm for a ym; gyda”m, for gydag ym: so aHh, aH, dn, a!ch, a'w, «'f A, o't”, &c. Ei and cw are represented by 'm;, in iw, for % ei or i eu, to his, to her, or to their.

161. The pronouns are often translated into English by those which do not exactly correspond to them; as in the following passages : —

(1) ““Dedivydd yw eich llygaid chm, am Eu bod yn gweled,”“ "Blessed are your eyes for they see." ““Pa ham yr ydych yn ceisio py lladd?”“ "Why do you seek to kill m”?'- ““Tn ewyllysio dy weled" "Desiring to see /”f/?." The literal translation of these passages, however, would be — ““ Blessed are your eyes, ioi ot oil ««:x”\3S)”» “i %%



(delwedd B5581) (tudalen 069)


their being seeing, or existing in a seeing condition." "Why are you seeking my killing, or the killing of me?”“ "Desiring thy to see, or thy seeing, or the seeing or sight of theeJ” The infinitives to be, to kill, and to see, are equivalent to nouns. It will be observed that fy lladd, my killing, does not mean my hilling another, as in English, but my being killed by another.

(2) The construction in the following sentences is remarkable, and foreign to the English idiom: " Y sawl «'m ceisiant yn fore a'M ednt,”“ " Those who seek me early shall find mc." ““Ni'm hatebir,”“ "/ am not answered."

(3) EiN dau, EiOH dau, ill dau, we two, you two, they two, are similar examples. Ill is used for two or three persons, and never refers to more th|in three. %% RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

162. The wprds which perform the fonctions of relative pronouns are, yr hvm, yr hon, yr hyn, y rhai, a, pa un, pa rai, ag, and jptuy. Yr hum refers to an antecedent of the singular number and masculine gender; yr hon, to an antecedent of the singular number and feminine gen- der; y rhai, to a plural antecedent of either gender; and yr hyn, a, and ag, to antecedents of either gender and either number.

163. These words are referrible to other parts of speech. (1) Hum, hon, hyn, are demonstrative adjectives, and

rhai, an adjective of quantity, used substantively. They may be considered either as pronouns, or as adjectives with nouns understood; as, ““Myfi yw y bara bywiol, yr hwn a ddaeth i waered oW nef,”“ " I am the living bread, which came down from heaven; " or litexaWj, '•Hlie iVal” <5kT \\v,” indicated bread “ came down {todq. \ieavekXi2” '''• lAumo”L %% 70



(delwedd B5582) (tudalen 070)


Y RHAi d vmaethoch “w haddoli,”“ " Figures which ye made to worship;" literally, ““the some ye made to worship."

a. The adjective y, the, is used with many other adjectives, demonstrative and numeral, in a similar man- ner; as, y sawl, whoso, whoever; yr ww, the one, the same. The which in English is a similar expression, a noun being allowable after which, but not after who. [§133 (3).]

(2) A seems to be identical with the adverb a, so frequently used in Welsh. In such phrases as **Fr haint A rodio yn y tywyllwchj'* "The pestilence that walketh in darkness," yr 'hwn is understood, there being an ellipsis of those words, which often happens when the a is not inserted; as, ““Hwn yw y hara [yr hwn] sydd yn dyfod i waei'td oW W6/," "This is the bread which cometh down' from heaven." Ni and y are used in the same manner as a, and are equally with a entitled to the appellation relative pronoun, which is not, however, applied to them; as, " F pethau A welir sydd dros amser, ond y pethau ni welir sydd dragwyddol”“ "The things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal." “''Y gwely y gorweddai amo," "The bed on which he lay." "F dyn A fuasai yn ddall,” "The man who had been blind." "a laddo a leddir,”' ““He who, whoso, or whoever killeth shall be killed." "iW ddysg ni wrendy,”“ " He will not learn who will not listen."

a. The relative is often omitted in such cases in Eng- lish; as, "The ship [which] he sailed in was lost."

(3) A or a”, who, which, or that, appears to be the same word as a or ag, as. It is used in reference to per- sons or things, and might be introduced into some of the examples given; as, ““Y gwely ag y gorweddai amo,”“ " The bed on which he lay." As is used in the same way in JEJnglish; as, ““Wbo hath heard auck a t\im” as “iJDL”&1" %%



(delwedd B5583) (tudalen 071)


““Pwy a glyhu y fath betk a hyn?”“ A'r sometimes occurs; aa, ''''Poh un a'r y sydd yn ei ddyrchafa ei hun, a ostyngtr,”“ '* Every one that exalteth himself shall be abased;" but a or ag is generally preferred.

(4) The English relative is often rendered into Welsh by pa un (singular), pa rat (plural); as, ““Ywlad o ba un y daeth yr estron,”“ *'The land from which the stranger came." " Y pethau hychain ar ba rai y mae llwyddiant yn ymddihynu”'* "The little things on which success de- pends." This application of the words is regarded by good authorities as an unnecessary departure from established usage, and ought rather to be avoided than imitated,

(5) Pwy” who, whose, whom, is used interrogatively and affirmatively; as, "Pwy a ddarpar”i”r gigfran ei hwyd?”“ ““Who provideth for the raven his food?" ““Diesgus tvyt ti, ddyny pwy bynag wyt yn hamu,”“ "Thou art inexcusable, man, whosoever thou art that judgest." " Teh PWY a gymmerais?”“ " Whose ox have I taken?"

a. Pvnf is often confounded with the adjective pa [§133 (2)J], which always requires after it a noun or an adjective with a noun understood; as, pa faint? how much [what quantity] ? pa nifer ? how many [what number] ? pa heth? what [what thing] ? pa rai? which [what some] ? " Pa bethau bynag oil a ewyllysioch eu gumeuthur o ddyn- ion i chmy'“ "All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you."

b. The English interrogative whose may be translated into Welsh by eiddo pwy; as, " Eiddo pwy yw y ddelw hon cHr argraff?”“ ''“ Whose is this image and superscription ? "

c. The affirmative idiomatic rendering of whose is exhibited in this example: ''•Ac yr oedd rhyw hendefig yk hwn yr oedd ei fab yn glof”“ "T\veT*i\?«kS> «. q>“\\sc«v “0«““- man whose son was sick." %% 72



(delwedd B5584) (tudalen 072)



164. Pawby everybody, all persons, is used substan- tively : it should not be confounded with the adjective pob, every, which, like pa [§163 (5) a], qualifies a noun expressed or understood; as, "Pawb a'm gadawsant,*” ““All men forsook me." "Pob dyn cUm gadawodd”“ ““ Every man forsook me."

165. Neh” nobody, everybody, and dim” nothing, any- thing, are used as adjectives and as nouns; as, "Neb rhyw greadurj” ““ No kind of animal." "iVa wna ddim gwaith" "Thou shalt do no work." " thyn neb ymaith DDIM oddi wrth eiriau Uyfr y hrophwydoliaeth hon”'* " If any man shall take away \anyihmg'\ from the words of the book of this prophecy." [§ 170.]

166. The phrases fy hun, fy hunan, myself, dy hun, dy hunan, thyself, ei hun” ei hunan, himself, herself, or itself, ein hun, etn hunatn, ourselves, eich hun” eich hunain, yourselves, eu hun, eu hwiCain, themselves, are termed reflective pronouns ; and ein gilydd, eich gilydd, eu gilydd, each other, are termed reciprocal. They may be resolved into pronouns possessive, and the nouns hun, hunan, self, and gilydd, selves reciprocally.

167. The demonstratives, like the relatives, are adjec- tives used as pronouns, or as adjectives with nouns under- stood. They are, hum, hon, hyn, this, and their compounds, singular; and rhai, with the adjective yr prefixed, plural; as, y rhai hyn or y rhai yma, these; y rhai yna, those; y rhai hyny, those (absent). [§ 163 (1), 133 (3).]

168. Many adjectives of number and quantity take the pronominal character; as, arall, another, €7”eill, others; is”/m, anjih'mgj nothing; oil, all; Hall, the other of two,

/”/. //c'l//; y smvl, whoever; llawer” maivj. %%



(delwedd B5585) (tudalen 073)



169. There are two kinds of verbs: transitive and intransitive.

170. Those verbs are called transitiv.e, which express an action passing from an actor to an object; as, " Z neb a GUDDiA bechod, sydd yn ceisio cariad; ond y neb a ADNEWYDDA fat, 8ydd yn neillduo tywysogion”“ "He that covereth a transgression seeketh love; but he that repeateth a matter separateth very friends." In this passage there is a transition in the sense from guddia to bechod, from ceisio to cariad, from adnewydda to fai, and from neillduo to tywysogion,

171. When the subject of a transitive verb is the actor, the verb is called active, or said to be in the active voice. When the subject is the sufferer or recipient of the action expressed, the verb is called passive, or said to be in the passive voice; as, ““Myfi a darawaf y biigail, cHr defaid a wasgerir," "I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scatter ed,”“ Tarawa/ is an active verb; the action passes from the subject, myfi, to the object, bugail: wasgerir is a passive verb; the subject defaid is the receiver of the action.

172. Those verbs are called intransitive, which express an action that does not pass from an actor to an object, or which affirm a state or condition in which no action is implied; as, "-MV a orweddais, ac a gysgais, ac a ddepfroais," "I laid me down, and slept, and awaked J” These verbs are also called neuter; that is, neither active nor passive; the action, if any, being confined to the actor. Neuter verbs in connection with a pre- position may take a passive form*, as, '“ Y piwuc xj '“s.'““vev a?n dafio,'* *”The subject spoken oi." %% 74



(delwedd B5586) (tudalen 074)


173. The same verb is often used both transitively and intransitively; as, "A'm rhwyd hwynt a rwygodd," "And their net hrake” ““Yna y cyfododd loh, ac a rwygodd ei fantell”'' "Then Job arose, and rent his mantle."

174. There is a class of verbs in Welsh which bears a resemblance to the reflective verbs of the French. It is fonned by the addition of the prefix ym; as, gwaredu, to deliver, ymwaredu” to deliver one's self; gosod, to place, to set, ymosod, to place, one's self; casglu, to gather, ymgasglu, to assemble.

175. Verbs are subject to modification on five several accounts; namely, to indicate their voice, mood, tense, number, and person.

(1) Transitive verbs have two voices, as before men- tioned.

(2) There are three moods: the indicative, the imper- ative, and the infinitive. The indicative states a fact, or asks a question. The imperative addresses a person, by commanding, entreating, or giving permission. The infinitive makes no reference to person, and is of in- definite application: it merely names the action, and is virtually a noun, which explains the construction of many sentences in which it occurs.

(3) There are in Welsh six tenses: the present, in a few verbs only [§180 (1)], the imperfect, perfect, plu- perfect, and first and second future. The imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect tenses refer to past time; the other tenses to present and future time, as their names imply.

(4) Like nouns, verbs have two numbers.

(5) Like pronouns, verbs have three persons in each number.

77”. These modifications are in most cases effected by “Lc addition of various terminatioua to “i\v” xoot. %%



(delwedd B5587) (tudalen 075)


177. The infinitive mood only of verbs is given in dictionaries; the following general remarks will show its relation to the root: —

(1) Infinitives ending with a consonant consist of the simple root of the verb. %% Infinitiye.







Aros %% Root. Perfect Tense.

to answer ateb atebais

to look edrych edrychais

to refuse gwrthod gwrthodais

to confess addef addefais

to gain ennill ennillais

to ask gofyn gofynais

to stay aros arosais %% / answered I looked I refused I confessed I gained I asked I stayed %% Cymhorth to assist cymhorth cymhorthais / assisted

a. Exceptions: — Those ending in aeZ, aetkj ain, eg, yd, yll, and some in ed, which are reducible to their roots by the omission of those terminations. Dwyn, to take, and its compounds make dwg (transmutable into dyg), infini- tive dygydy the termination of their roots.


Caffael to get

Marchogaeth to ride %% Root. %% Perfect Tense. %% caf cefais / got

marchog marchogais / rode %% Llefain




Cerdded %% to cry to run to move %% lief


syfl %% to stand saf to ivalk cerdd Dwyn, dygyd to take dwg

h, Gadael, to leave, makes gadav)” \\& too\,\ gade-vwax”“ UeA In caffael, fm the root is aspirated m\.c> g. W”hY”rs” %% Uefais





dygais %% / cried I ran I moved I stood I walked I took %% 76 %%



(delwedd B5588) (tudalen 076)

A GRAMMAR OF THE %% (2) Infinitives ending in a vowel may be reduced to their roots by omitting the vowel. Aw, after t, is subject to the same rule. [§ 14, 52.]

Infinitive. Root. Perfect Tense. %% Gwledda %%to feast %%gwledd %%gwleddais %%/ feasted %%Troi %%to turn %%tro %%troais %%I turned %%Cwympo %%to fall %%cwymp %%cwympais %%I fell %%Tynu %%to pull %%tyn %%tynais %%I pulled %%Caniatau %%to grant %%caniata %%caniateais %%I granted %%Ciliaw, cilio %%to recede %%cil-i %%ciliais %%I receded %% Root

cadw %% Perfect Tense.

cedwais %% I kept I shut I promised %% a. Exceptions: — Those ending in w (not having w in the penultimate), au (not du or Aaw), aw (not iaw), ae or cw, which consist of the root alone.


Cadw to keep

Cau to shut can ceuais

Addaw to promise addaw addewais

Gwarchae to besiege gwarchae gwarchaeais / besieged

Dechreu to begin dechreu dechreuaf I will begin

b. Infinitives in oi retain t in the root before termi- nations commencing with as, a being dropped. [§ 206.]

Root. Termination. Perfect Tense.

to flee fifo asant fifoisant they fled

c. Bwt/ta, to eat, retains the a, like verbs in du. [§ 205.] (3) Infinitives ending in t, with e in the penultimate,

change e into a when reduced to their roots, the e being a mutation of a, Sefyll follows the same rule.

Infinitive. Root. Perfect Tense.

Llenwi to fill Uanw Uanwodd he filled

Sefyll to stand saf safodd he stood

a, Jikewi, to h”“ZQ, berwiy to boil, enwi, to name, drewi, to stink, are exceptions; as, rhewodd, \t itoi.”. %% Infinitive.




(delwedd B5589) (tudalen 077)

77 %% (4) Verbs having a for the last vowel of their root change a into e in certain tenses, as shown in the para- digms of verbs. [§ 202, 203, 205.] This also happens when w is the only vowel after a in the root. %% Infinitiye. %%

Root. %%Perfect Tense. %%

Cam %%to love %%car %%cerais %%/ loved %%Cadw %%to keep %%cadw %%cedwais %%I kept %% (6) Infinitives having w in their last syllable, with a consonant following, change that vowel into y. Cwsg, the root of cysguy to sleep, takes the same inflection.

Infinitive. Root. Perfect Tense.

Gostwng to lower gostwng gostyngais / lowered Cysgu to sleep cwsg cysgais / slept

(6) When the root ends in I, or in r preceded by Wy and in some other instances, i is prefixed to the usual terminations; and at in the last syllable of the root is changed into ei, when any termination is added. [§ 204.] %% Infinitiye. %%

Root %%Perfect Tense. %%

Ymbil %%to beseech %%ymbil %%ymbiliais %%/ besought %%Bwrw %%to cast %%bwr %%bwriais %%I cast %%Erlid %%to pursue %%erlid %%erlidiais %%I pursued %%Erfyn %%to entreat %%erfyu %%erfyniais %%I entreated %%Cynnyg %%to offer %%cynnyg %%cynnygiais %%I offered %%Ymliw %%to reproach ymliw %%ymliwiais %%I reproached %%Arwain %%to lead %%arwain %%arweiniais %%lied . %% (7) When the root ends in w preceded by a vowel, the vowel a before s in terminations is omitted. [§ 203.]

Infinitive. Root Perfect Tense.

Addaw to promise addaw addawsain\) th-e-y -pToml”““i Of wed to hear clyw clywBaiit they h-eard. %%



(delwedd B5590) (tudalen 078)


178. The terminations of the imperative mood are wi/f, a, ed ox id, wn, wch, ant.

(1) The first person singular is of the same form as in the second future tense, and is in fact that part of the verb used in an optative sense; as, ““Marw a v”nelwyf farwolaeth yr uniawn”“ ““ Let me die the death of the righteous." It is often expressed by a periphrasis; as, gad (moeSy par, rho or dyro) i mi glywed, let me hear; *”Bydded iddo ddyfod yn gynnar,*” ““Let him corns early."

(2) The second person singular of the imperative mood is generally the root of the verb. The 'exceptions com- prise most of those verbs which in the infinitive have the terinination a, o, or u, in which case the imperative takes the termination a in addition to the root; as, lloffa, to glean, lloffa, glean thou ; cojlo, to remember, cojla, remem- ber thou; ysgrifenu, to write, ysgrifena, write thou. In some verbs it is used both with and without the termina- tion; as, ateb or ateha, answer thou; dysg or dysga” teach thou. The second person imperative is mostly the same as the third person of the first future indicative. They are not alike when the second person of the future is formed by inflection of the vowels; as, golchi, to wash, gylch, he will wash, golch, wash thou; dangos, to show, dengys, he will show, dangos, show thou. •

(3) In the plurar number, the imperative mood corre- sponds in the three persons with the first future tense. The vowel a in the root is inflected into e in the second person

plural; th us, cerwchy love you; but the inflection is some- timea neglected. %%



(delwedd B5591) (tudalen 079)


179. The terminations of the infinitive mood are very numerous, the more common being w, t, o or aw, io or iaw, and du or hau. Often the infinitive consists of the root alone. It is frequently formed from a noun or an adjec- tive; as, trefn, system, trefnu, to put in order; lies, ad- vantage, llesdu, to profit; cyfoethog, rich, cyfoethogi, to enrich. The relation of the infinitive to the root has already been noticed. [§ 177.]

180. Tenses, or inflections expressing definite ideas of time, are confined to the indicative mood of verbs.

(1) The present tense is wanting in Welsh verbs generally; the exceptions being the verbs hod, to be, gtvyhod, to know, and adwaen or adnabod, to know. Bod makes wi/f, wyt, yw, “m, ych, ynt, I am, thou art, &c.; gwyhod makes gwn, gwyddost, grbyr, gwyddom, gwyddoch, gwyddant, I know, thou knowest, &c.; and adwaen or adnabod makes adwaen, adwaenost, edwyn; adwaenom, adwaenoch, adwaenanL [§211.]

a. Present time is emphatically expressed by the present tense of the verb bod, to be, used as an auxiliary to the infinitive of the principal verb, which is then preceded by yn; as, yr wyf yn cam, I love, I am loving.

b. Present indefinite time is sometimes indicated by the first future tense;* as, caraf, I love; ““ Nid oes dyn cyfiavm ar y ddaiar, a wna ddaioni, ac na phecha," "There is not a just man upon earth, that doeih good

* It is curious that present time is expressed in "Welsh by means , of the future form of the verb, while in the English language, which has no future form, future time is expressed with the present tense and the infinitive. Present time having no definite existence, it has been contended that the absence of the \)reRervt tense is an instance of philosophical accMiae'j m \}cv” “\x\x”\>\xvi ““\ loDguage. %% 80



(delwedd B5592) (tudalen 080)


and sinneth not;" but the periphrastic form is more usual; as, **Mae yn myned zV Eglwys hob Sul,”* "He goes to Church every Sunday."

c. The English present is often represented by the Welsh second future; as, " F neb a ddyoddefo gerydd sydd gallj'“ " He that heareth reproof is wise."

(2) The terminations of the imperfect tense are tun, it, aij ew, ech, ent [§189 (1)]. The vowel a in the last syllable of the root is inflected into e in the second person singular of this tense.

a. Used indicatively, the imperfect answers to the past progressive of the English, and represents an action as going on at some time past; as, ““Pan ddaeth ir ty, Eis- TEDDWN wrih y tdn”“ "When he came to the house, I was sitting by the fire," eisteddivn being equivalent to yr oeddwn yn eistedd,

h. It is also used to describe a habit, or to express an action often repeated; as, " F cwyn ni wyddwn y chwiliwn allan,”“ "The cause which I knew not, I searched out" [not once, but habitually]. ““ Pan laddai efe hwynt, hwy a'i CEisiENT e/," "When he slew them, then they sought him" [or used to seek him]. In this case the verb is often translated by the assistance of would; as, " Ehodiai yn fynych yn y meusydd,”“ " He would often walk in the fields."

c. This tense is used also with a hypothetical or condi- tional meaning; as, "Pe bawn [byddwn] gyfiawn, nid ATEBWN, eithr ymbiliwn d”m bamwry” "Though I were righteous, I would not answer, but I would make suppli- cation to my judge." "A hwy a\ gwyliasant e/J a lAcnai efe ef ar y dydd sabbath; fel y cyhuddent f/," "And tbej watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse \i\isir %%



(delwedd B5593) (tudalen 081)


d. The verb hod has two forms of this tense: oeddtm and hyddwn. Oeddwn has for the most part the past progressive sense, hyddwn being used in the other cases.

(3) The perfect tense is formed by adding the termi- nations ais, aist, odd, asom, asoch, asant.

a. The third person singular is sometimes made to end in es, as, or is; as, rhoddes for rhoddodd, gave; "JL gyfodes a GOLLEs ei Zc," " He who has risen has lost his place."

h. Dwyn, to bring, cymmeryd, to take, and clywed, to hear, have dug or dygodd, cymmerth or cymmerodd, and clyhu or clywodd, in the third person singular.

c. Verbs with a in the last syllable of the root, change a into e in the first and second persons singular; as, lladd, to kill, lleddais, lleddaist, lladdodd; addaw, to promise, addewais, addewaist, addawodd.

d. The perfect tense is often used in contradistinction to the imperfect, to express an action viewed as complete; as, "Clywais iaith ni ddeallwn," "I heard [then] a language which I did not [habitually] understands”

e. It sometimes answers to the prior-present of the English; as, "A roddaist ti gryfdwr i farch?”“ ““Hast thou given the horse strength ? " but it does not, like that compound tense, necessarily refer to two points of time: "I have loved" is less equivocally translated by yr wyf wedi cam (literally, I am, or exist, after loving), than by the single word cerais,

f. The perfect tense may be and is often used for the imperfect; as, "Treuliodd [or treuliai] ei oriau mewn oferedd,”“ "He spent his hours in idleness;" but using the imperfect for the perfect would be representing an individual action as habitual; as, Cododd yn fore heddyw. He rose early to-day; Codai yn /ore, H.” uaed \.o t\%” earJj.

6 %% 82



(delwedd B5594) (tudalen 082)


(4) The terminations of the pluperfect tense are, asum, asitj asaij asem, asech, asent. Like the perfect, it does not invariably correspond witli tlie English pluperfect, or prior-past: "I had been" is more emphatically translated by yr oeddwn wedi hod, than by huasvm.

a. This tense has frequently a subjunctive or conditional signification; as, "Pe gwybuasai gwr y ty pa wyliadwT' iaeth y deuai y lleidr, efe a wyliasai, ac ni adawsai gloddio ei dy drwodd”“ "If the good-man of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up." The English word had is, in like manner, occasionally used for would have, or should have; as, " I had fainted, unless I had believed to see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living," " Diffygiaswn, pe na chredaswn weled daioni yr Arglwydd yn nhir y rhai hywP

(5) The first future tense is formed by adding to the root the terminations af, i, a, wn, wch, ant The vowel a in the last syllable of the root becomes e in the second person singular of this tense; as, teli, thou wilt pay, from talu, to pay. Most writers inflect the a in the second person plural also.

a. The third person singular is frequently formed with- out the termination, especially when the infinitive con- sists of the root alone; as, —

Infinitive. Root. Third Person Putiire.

Edrych to look edrych edrych will look

b. Verbs ending in a in the infinitive, or in the second person singular imperative, generally take that termi- nation in the third person singular of this tense; as is also

the case with those whose in&nitiveE eiid yq. o. %%



(delwedd B5595) (tudalen 083)

WBL8H LANGUAGE. %% 83 %% c. The vowels of the root are liable to inflection when the termination a is omitted; as, — %%%%

Infinitiye. %%

Root %%Third Person Future. %%a into a J, %%e ei %%para cadw %%to last to keep %%par cadw %%pery ceidw %%%% llenwi %%to Jill %%Uanw %%lleinw %%„ „ %%7 aw %%rhoddi


toddi %%to give to rise to melt %%rhodd cyfod todd %%rhydd cyfyd tawdd %%a-a „

a-e „ %%e-ei e-y %%gwahardd ateb %%to forbid to answer %%gwahardd ateb %%gweheirdd etyb %%a-o „ %%e-y %%aros %%to stay %%aros %%erys %% d. The attempt to render the language more regular by forming the third person by adding the termination (as, arosa for erys), instead of inflecting the vowels, tends to deprive the language of its character and elegance.

e. The following are peculiar formations :— - %% Infiiritiye. %%

Future. %%Infinitive. %%Future. %%Bwyta %%to eat %%bwyty %%Chwerthin %%to laugh chwardd %%Ceisio %%to seek %%cais %%Dwyn %%to bring dwg %%Codi %%to rise %%cwyd %%Peri %%to cause pair %%Cysgu %%to sleep %%cwsg %%Sefyll %%to stand saif %% f, Dyg is also used for dwg; both from dygyd,

g, Caffael, to get, makes caiff in the third person of this tense; but iff, often heard in other verbs, is con- demned as a corruption, though it is questionable whether it is not in some cases preferable to the hiatus it prevents.

A. This tense simply foretells when used in its future capacity; but it often stands for the indefinite present tense, which is wanting in verbs in genetal. To “ev!”o\,” “V”““ h”dda/f &c,, 18 used for wyf, &c., ih.© pxo”et Yt”““'CiX* <“1 >>o”* %% 84



(delwedd B5596) (tudalen 084)


(6) The terminations of the second future are, wyf or of; ych” ech, or ot ; o, om, och, onU

a. This tense is generally used with a conditional or subjunctive signification, and preceded by a conjunction; as, '“ Fel pan ymddangoso efe, y byddo hyder genym, ac na CHYwiLYDDiOM gev ei fron ef yn ei ddyfodiad”"* " That, when he shall appear [have appeared” we may have con- fidence, and not he ashamed before him at his coming."

h. It is frequently translated by the English present tense; as, ** Cryhwyll am danynt pan eisteddych yn dy dp, a phan gerddych ar y ffordd, a phan orweddych i lawr, a phan gyfodyoh i fyny”“ "Talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." The English second future, or prior-future, is more literally translated by a periphrasis; as, Byddaf wedi myned, I shall have gone (strictly, I shall exist after going).

(7) The infinitive mood is very frequently employed instead of the various tenses, to express present and past time; as, '“ Diau fod gwythen I'r arian”“ ** Surely there is a vein for the silver." " herwydd gwneuthur o Ddafydd yr hyn oedd uniawn”““ "Because David did that which was right." " Wedi iddynt ddwyn y llongau i dir, hwy a adawsant hob peth,”“ "When they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all." Its use is very common in conjunctive sentences; as, "iVa char gysgu, rhag dy FYNED yn dlawd,”“ "Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty."

181. In ' hypothetical sentences, or those in which a

case is stated, or a wish expressed, the reverse of which

is supposed to be the truth, the imperfect tense is used

Jn reference to present time, and the pluperfect with a

simply past signi&cation. Tlie same cwAomb. “3!a»xi”“ "Ukea %%



(delwedd B5597) (tudalen 085)


place in the corresponding English verbs. For instance, **joe buasent,”' *'if they had been," implies that they were not, not that they had not been, in the following sentence; ““ Nid OEDDYNT honom ni] canys pe buasent o honom m, hwy a arosasent gyda ni”“ "They were, not of us; if they had been of us, they would na doubt have continued with us." Again, "Pc buasit ti yma” ni fuasai farw fy mrawd”“ "If thou hadst been here, my brother had not [would not have] died" — “he had been there, but was not at the time referred to. "0 na wyddwn pa le y cawn ef!" " that I knew where I might find him! " obviously refers to present time, as appears from the reply that might be made, " Yr ydych yn gwybod" " You do know," not "you knewJ”

Passive Voice,

182. The terminations of the passive voice are the same throughout each tense. This circumstance, coupled with the fact that intransitive verbs have the so-called paSsive form, makes it questionable whether verbs of this kind should not be termed impersonal rather than passive.

(1) The infinitive mood is wanting, its place being supplied by a periphrasis, or by the infinitive active; as, bod yn garedig, to be loved. " Hyn hefyd fuasai aniviredd I'w oospi gan y barnwyr”'* "This also were an iniquity to be punished by the judges."

(2) The imperative mood corresponds with the second future tense.

(3) The present tense is wanting [§ 210] ; the imperfect ends in id; the perfect in loyd; the pluperfect in asid; the first future in ir; the second future in er,

a, Ed is used iorwyd; as, gantd fox gammjd”V”“““ horn; coed for cafwyd” it was had. %% 86



(delwedd B5598) (tudalen 086)


(4) The vowel a is inflected in the last syllable of the root in the imperfect and first future; as, cadw” to keep, eedwid, cedwir.

(5) The second future is allowed no place in the gram- matical systems of some writers, being seldom or never used.

183. There are a number of nouns and adjectives derived from verbs, which are arranged in different ways by grammarians; as, supines, gerunds, participles, &c.; but as the classification is attended with no advantage, and seems adopted in imitation of writers on Latin and Greek grammar, rather than for the purpose of simplify- ing that of the Welsh, they are omitted in the tables of conjugations.

184. The English present participle is used in four distinct capacities : as, a verb, a noun, an adjective, and as an adjectived noun.

(1) When used verbally, it may be translated by the infinitive mood of the Welsh verb, preceded by yn; as, Tr oeddvm yn mynbd, I was going, *

(2) As a noun, it is represented by the infinitive, or by a series of verbal nouns ending in ad or tad; as, tnvm ei GLYWED, hard of hearing; glanhdd, a cleansing, from glanhau, to cleanse ; addatviady a promising, from addaWy to promise.

(3) In its third capacity, it is translated by a verbal adjective; as, gwr cariadus, a loving husband; llew RHUADWY, a roaring lion; but adjectives in adioy have generally an objective signification.

(4) As an adjectived noun, it may be translated by the infinitive mood; as, gwialen hysgota, a fishing-rod; Cfivn hela, hunting-dogs; or by a noun; as, gwledd briodas, a

wedding-feast %%



(delwedd B5599) (tudalen 087)


185. The English past participle used adjectively is represented in Welsh by an adjectiye formed by adding the termination edig to the root of the corresponding Welsh verb, as caredig, loved, dysgedig” learned. In its verbal capacity, it and its auxiliary are translated by an appropriate inflection; as, Efe cCm ceisiodd, He has sought me; Ceisiwyd fi” I have been sought; or more precisely by a tense of the verb hod and an infinitive, with the assistance of the preposition gwedi, after; as, Ymae wedi fy ngheisio, He has sought me (literally. He is after my seeking, or the seeking of me). Yr wyf wedi fy ngheisio, I have been sought (I exist after the seeking of me).*

186. The primitive verbs hod, to be, and myned, to go, are important, as constituting a key to the inflections of the Welsh verbs. They are therefore given first in the paradigms exemplifying the conjugations of verbs.

(1) The verb hod has four roots of formation. The third person singular of the present tense, yw, is the root of the other persons of that tense; wyf, wyt] “w, ych, ynt, bei!ig modifications of yw fi, yw ti, yw ni (m taking the place of n), yw chwi, yw hwynt. The other tenses are formed from the third persons of the imperfect, perfect, and first future, oedd, hu, and hydd, with the addition of the proper terminations.

(2) The tenses of myned are formed from aeth, el, and a, roots of verbs obsolete in the infinitive.

187. There being no inflection of verbs to correspond with the gender of their nominatives, the masculine pro- noun only is given in the third person singular through- out the following tables.

* The Welsh idiom is exactly the reverse of the HiberiviaxsL application of the word after; e.g., ""WYiat ate 'jovji after Aovu”“V eqnal to Wliat are yon going to do f %% 88 %%



(delwedd B5600) (tudalen 088)


Bod, to he


{Let me he, be, be thouy let him he, S”c.)


Byddwyf, bwyf Bydd, bydda %% 8 Bydded, boed, bid %% Plural.

1 Byddwn

2 Byddwch

3 Byddant, boent %% INDICATIVE MOOD. Present Tense. %% 1 Wyf, ydwyf, / am

2 Wyt, ydwyt, thou art \_is

3 Yw,ydyw,mae, oes, sydd, %% 1 Ym (“), ydym, we are

2 Ych, ydych, you are

3 Ynt, ydynt, they are %% Imperfect Tense. (7 was, thou wast, he was, “c.) %% 1 Oeddwn, byddwn, bawn

2 Oeddit, byddit, bait

3 Oedd, byddai, bai %% 1 Oeddym, byddem, baem

2 Oeddycb, byddech, baech

3 Oeddynt, byddent, baent %% 1 Biim,

2 Buost, buaist

3 Bu %% Perfect Tense. (/ have been, thou hast been, he has been, SfC.)

buais 1 Buom, bnasom %% 2 Buoch, buasoch

3 Buant, buasant PLUPER>fiCT Tense. %% 1 Buaswn,./ had been

2 Buasit, thou hadst been

3 Buasai, he had been %% 1 Buasem, we had been

2 Buasecb, you had been

3 Buasent, they had been %% First Future Tense.

1 Byddaf, / shall be I 1 Byddwn, we shall be

2 Byddi, thou wilt be 2 Byddwch, you will be

3 Bydd, he will be ' 3 Byddant, they will be

Second Future Tense. (/ shall have been, thou wilt have been, he loill have been, 8fC.)

Byddwyf, byddof, bwyf 1 Byddom, bom %% j2 Bjddfcb, bjrddech jhjddot 3 Bjrddo, ho %% 2 Byddocb, boch

3 ByddoTi\., \>oTt\. %%



(delwedd B5601) (tudalen 089)


189. Besides the forms giyen in the previous page, others occur.

(1) In the imperfect, oeddym” oeddych, oeddynt, are otherwise written oedderrij oeddech, oeddent.

(2) In South Wales, buais, bues, buo, are often heard used for bum; and buodd for bu,

(3) Buesym” buesych, buesynt, are used for buasem, buas- ech, buasent, in the pluperfect.

190. Sydd” is, or it is, is used with nouns and pronouns of all persons and both numbers. Sy is used before consonants.

191. The verb bod has an impersonal, or, as it is also called, a passive form, having only one inflection for each tense.*


Bydder, be,


Present Tense . . . Ys, ydys, is Imperfect Tense %% Perfect Tense . Pluperfect Tense Future Tense . %% . Oeddid, was, continued to be

. Byddid, baid, was, used to be

. Buwyd, was, has been

. Buasid, buesid, had been

. Byddir, byddys, will be

Second Future Tense Bydder, baer, ubill have been

192. Hanfod, to exist, to proceed from, canfod, to perceive, darfod, to be ended, to happen, and gorfod, to overcome, to compel, are conjugated like those tenses of the verb bod, which are formed from the roots bu and bydd; as, canfyddaf, I shall perceive. Hanfod also takes inflections formed from the root oedd; as, han- oeddwn, I proceeded from. The preBewt iox\S!L” \ie,u\J”x>, oenyWj deryw, goryw, are obsolete. %%



(delwedd B5602) (tudalen 090)



Myned (Elu, obsolete), to go %% IMPERATIVE MOOD. Singular.

1 Awyf, elwyf, let me go

2 A, ela, dos,”o,”o”Aow

3 Aed, eled, let him go %% Plural.

1 Avm, elwn, let us go

2 Ewch, elwch, go, go you

3 Aent, elent, let them go %% INDICATIVE MOOD. Imperfect Tense. %% 1 Awn, elwn, / went

2 Ait, elit, thou wentest

3 Ai, elai, he went %% 1 Aem, elem, we went

2 Aech, elech, you went

3 Aent, elent, they went %% Perfect Tense. (7 have, thou hast, he has gone, “c.)

1 Aethym, euthym, elais 1 Aethom, euthom, elasom %% 2 Aethost, euthost, elaist

3 Aeth, iJodd %% 2 Aethoch, euthoch, elasoch

3 Aethant, euthant, elasant %% 1 Aethwn, elaswn, elswn

2 Aethit, elasit, elsit

3 Aethai, elasaif elsai %% Pluperfect Tense. (7 had, thou hadst, he had gone, jrc) %% 1 Aethem, elasem, elsem

2 Aethech, elasech, elsech

3 Aethent, elasent, elsent %% First Future Tense. %% 1 Af, elaf, / shall go

2 Ai, ei, eli, thou wilt go

3 A (a), el, ela, he will go %% 1 Awn, elwn, we shall go

2 Ewch, elwch, you mil go

3 Ani{2i.iii),e\&ntj they will go %% Second Future Tense. (7 shall have, thou wilt have, he will have gone, jrc) 1 Elwyf, elof 1 Elom

“ Elfch, eJech, elot 3 Elo %% 2 Eloch \ 3 Elont %%



(delwedd B5603) (tudalen 091)


194. Myned having no present tense, present time is expressed indefinitely by the first future, or definitely in the following periphrastic form:—

(/ go, or am gnng, S”c) Singular. Plural. %% Yr wyf yn myned Yr wyt yn myned Y mae efe yn myned %% Yr “m yn myned Yr ych yn myned Y maent yn myned %% 195. The diphthong ae is frequently inflected into eu; as, aethurrij &c, or euthvm, &c., I had gone.

196. In the perfect tense, euihym is sometimes written euthum; and the contracted forms elsom, elsoch, elsant, are used in the plural. Ethyw and eddyw were formerly used for aeth,

197. Aiff and eiff are commonly used for d in the future.

198. The following is the passive or impersonal forma- tion : —


Aer, eler, let there he a going,


Imperfect Tense . . Aid, eid, elid, there was a going Perfect Tense . . . Aethwyd, aethpwyd, aed, there was

or has been a going Plxtperfect Tense. . Aethid, elasid, elsid, there had

been a going First Future Tense . Air, eir, elir, there will be going Second Future Tense Aer, eler, there . will have been a


199. In the tables of conjugations which follow, dysgu furnishes an example of the formation of tenses by the addition of terminations only ; and caru, addaWj arwainy caniatdu, parotoi, gweddio, illustrate \o”“ m”'WsNjsa'ViL” “>kA. oHher peculiarities noticed in section YVl . %% 92 %%



(delwedd B5604) (tudalen 092)



Dysgu, to teach y to learn.


1 'Djsgwjf,l€tmeteach'[“l7S']

2 Dysg, dysga, teach {thou)

3 Dysged, let him teach %% Plural.

1 Dysgwn, let us teach

2 Dysgwch, teach, teach you

3 Dysgant, let them teach %% INDICATIVE MOOD.

[ § 208]

Impekfect Tense. %% 1 Dysgwn, / taught

2 Dysgit, thou taughtest

3 Dysgai, he taught %% 1 Dysgem, we taught

2 Dysgech, you taught

3 Dysgent, they taught %% Perfect Tense. %% 1 Dysgais, / have taught

2 Dysgaist, thou hast taught

3 Dysgodd, he has taught %% 1 Dysgasom, we have taught

2 Dysgasoch, you have, “c.

3 Dysgasant, they have, “c. %% Pluperfect Tense. %% 1 Dysgaswn, / had taught

2 Dysgasit, thou hadst taught

3 Dysgasai, he had taught %% 1 Dysgasem, we had taught

2 Dysgasech, “ow had taught

3 Dysgasent, they had taught %% First Future Tense. %% 1 Dysgaf, / shall teach

2 Dysgi, thou wilt teach

3 Dysg, dysga, he will teach %% 1 Dysgwn, we shall teach

2 Dysgwch, you vnll teach

3 Dysgant, they will teach %% Second Future Tense. %% 1 Dysgwyf, dysgof, / shall

have taught

2 Dysgych, dysgech, dysgot, “Aou wilt have taught %% 1 Dysgom, we shall have


2 Dysgoch, you will havt taught %% S Dysgo, he will have taught \ 8 DyBgout, Hie-ji vsiW” §c. %%



(delwedd B5605) (tudalen 093)


Dysger fi, let me be taught Dysger di, be thou taught Djsger ef, let him be taught %% Plaralc %% Dysger ni, let us be taught Dysger chwi, be you taught Dysger hwy, let them be, “c. %% INDICATIVE MOOD.

[§ 209] Imperfect Tense. %% Dysgid fi, / wa>s taught Dysgid di, thou wast taught Dysgid ef, he was taught %% Dysgid ni, we were taught Dysgid chwi, you were taught Dysgid hwy, they were taught %% Perfect Tense. %% Dysgwyd fi, / have been

taught Dysgwyd di, thou hast, “c. Dysgwyd ef, he has, “c. %% Dysgwyd ni, we have been

taught Dysgwyd chwi, you have, “c. Dysgwyd hwy, they have, “c. %% Pluperfect Tense. %% Dysgasid fi, / had been taught

Dysgasid di, thou hadst, “c, Dysgasid ef, he had, “c. %% Dysgasid ni, we had been

taught Dysgasid chwi, you had, “c, Dysgasid hwy, they had, “c. %% First Future Tense. %% Dysgir fi, / shall be taught Dysgir di, thou wilt be taught Dysgir ef, he will be taught %% Dysgir ni, we shall be taught Dysgir chwi, you will, “c, Dysgir hwy, they will, “c. %% Second Future Tense. %% Dysger fi, / shall have been

taught Dysger di, thou wilt, “c, DjBger ef, he will, “c. %% Dysger ni, we shall have been

taught Dysget c\im, 'you 'ujxU” ““» Dysgex la.Yrj , tKe'ij -uixU., ““« %%



(delwedd B5606) (tudalen 094)

94 %% A ORAHMAR OF THE %% Q O O   >   M   H   <   U   M   Q SB %% _ a •a «   §”   CO %% P >>»o p o o   H >H H M »H H   ce o « cs ce “   o o u u o o %% S .   Cm %%  S8S %% 9) • %% “ .T” rt (U 0) o   2 2 2 3 2 2 ra 03 OS w ra w %% u « %% H H H   (D o ra o o o %% B   o %% -d -fi %% O %% O %% o %% § %%%% a® 6” %% “.rH Hod “ o a> a>   o o %%%%%%  •”r %% rd-*” %% “ - - “ '“ " %%%% 0) %% .a 8 %%%% % X   8 %%%% 111 %% §C” CA O 09 O O O O %% Person, i-n (M co i-i (M co %%%%%%%% “ (H ,d -” tM'o a” d t>» OJ o o o o |*fe “ fe fe fe 03 n o3 w cB n "d "d "d "d "d TS "d fri fri fri 'Xi 'd %% “ n n %% 08 08 %% c8 %% «• ■♦a   “0”.-4 08 d p §   “ g “ “ “ “   cS v o3 :” :o3 cS   ns 'C "d "Ti 'CJ Ti   13 'O nd tS nzJ 13   “ R 03 03 n 08 %% d   “ rt rt   S'dTJ   frt r” rrt   OS o3 OS %% 0) O 0) 00 OQ 00   “ “ “   rt 03 “ f” "d f”   rrt frt tJ w w o8 %% 00   0) %%%% oe   “ 'O "d   Tj TlJ "d   03 Oi A %% O O 03 CO OC OQ   “ “ “   “ rt o8 f” 13 "d   frt ni "d w “ “ %%  o8 rt w rt cfl %% I-   'd %% M 4A   '“ “-d d <u d o cQ   “ “ g “ “   c3 03 :” :e8 c3   'd 'd 'd “3 '"d   "d n3 "d "d 'd   rt rt gj gj w %% O tf § 'd a. %% OQ %% e8 %% 'd   C3 %% 'd n3 c8 %% 03   'd 'd %% 1-t c<i CO I-I e” CO %% “\ %% > <u o 'n 'd '"“ d d a %% -. “ d o o o %% d d d d d d   d ''~i '"H 'iH "iH 't-t   O (U o o o o   “ “ “ “ “ “ %% “g %% 03 rt “ A %% •s %% d d d d d d   •r-< 'IH 'H •!-« •!-« •!-*   a> o o8 o <u o   “ g “ g “ “   ra q3 03 c8 A ra %% d d'“ "S   S “ '“a d o d   2 2 2 2 2 S Co n w R OS A   pH •!-( •!-« •>-* •!-« 'PH   a d d d d d   'fH '“ “rH 'rH “““ 'fH   O O O O Q> C”   “ “ “ g “ “   03 03 w 08 %% S” %% 00 "SS   C3 03 O   d d d   'PH •pH .pH   O 0) «   “ “ “   o3 08 R %% o o   §§§   d d   •P-l TH %%%% <x> %% 3 %% f-i   d %% •a   •pH %% d   'PH %% d   > %%d-” -e •M a o d %%  2 -”“ %%C3 0) (U 0) %%'d %%•d 'n %%•r” 'P” 'iH 'r-l %%'c %%d d %%d d c d %%•rt 'C? %%•p-l 'p-l T-t 't-t %%• f” %%0) 0) %%V o <o <o %%0) %%” “ %%? “ “ “ %%” %%£33 %%d OS OS 08 %%” %%• %%%% •a %%  .ti %%9\ %%  d %%TS %%  L4 %%t>» %%  3 %% “ “ § %% d d d d d   •P” .pH .pH "P” 'pH   C3 O) 0) O 0>   “ “ “ "   H “ H w A n   »H <M CO i-H <M CO %%  0} %% (U %%%% O %% tt & %% “\ %% WELSH LANOUAOB. %% 95 %% II o ill   S” O Q O Q O   08 :os q c8 08 ri   4-> >«3 -” -” -” -t”   o3 c8 o3 rt ra w %% iCi <ie8 :d :o <ej   ■♦” "tS "t* "S "2 c3 w ra n (s %% I %% “_ -,_ “r” srH "F” 'rH -fH   p a a g c   §08 4 rt 08 C8 c8 %% “TH d o o m   mill   08 A 63 c8 rt c6   • fH •«-< 'rH "1” 'i” "rH   a d d d d %% “ S S o s § %%  d d d d d d § 8 g g 3 g %% :o6 :q :” :c8 08 rt “ 06   • *H 'r” •F” 'F” WPM •!—<   d d d d d d g g g g g § %%%%%%%%  g %% “ “ “ d S   <o8 :e8 :ce :q; <o3 :o8   .” 4J “ -” -O “   08 “ c8 03 ra ra   • r” "pw •!-< 'rH "rH   d d d   g g g %% 1-t c” CO 1-I c<i eo %% O '3 0>   o %% 1”1 %% g o o o c ! o   n “ rt “ n S c3 P. q p. g g g' g %% o o %% 1 s-g? %% •H b. “ i”   w 'iH 08 “ P rt   S i2 5 ?2 iS 5   o p p o o o   w w 08 “ “ Co   gg g g.g g %% o g %% p3 d'“ "S   t> .T” rt 0) o V   CO CD OQ 00 00 00 •»— I 'i-H •(—< 'iM "Fi* *r—   BSSSSS   p o o o o o   “ n “ “ “ o3 g g g g g g %% • i-H   o   -t-9   2 g %% s-g %% o   00 %% O   m   o %% 4i3   d 08   OQ %% 43   00 OQ rrt   •pH (rH W   O O <Q O ■(J .(J “ -tJ   o p o p   ra c8 “ rt OS CO g g g g g g %% o %% d   « GJ O   12 ia 2 is -s is 000000   H H “ “ (j M   ra n 08 w 08 c8 g g g g g g %%%% o p< %% =3   i p” %% • %%%% “ %%■M %%  iS 2 %%'d %%c8   g %% fl-S %% +3 %% p p o o o   €8 C8 08 08 Q   g g gg g %% i   g %% 1-4 Cq CO i-i (M CO %%%%%%I %% .a> .0 .0 o .0 %% 'C "d 'd "d T3 'TT'   tJ n3 'd T? t3 "O   O 0) (U o 0) 0)   fe “> “ “ “   be bo bo be be be %% bo %% 'd TS ns "d "d 'd “3 “jj ntJ 'd "d nS   dj Qj Qj CJ OJ QD   be be DID bo bo bic %% -d   0)   t bo %% d e rd -t-s   c jj .rj d o d   “ .” o3 o v V   CO CO 00 m QQ “   _W ,W ,W _TO _d “W   *”“ •”“ B”“ •”“ 4”“ •'“   



(delwedd B5607) (tudalen 095)

"d "d "d "d "d "d "d "d "d "d 'd "d   o V o O V V   “ “ “ “ “ “   bo bo be be bo bo %% -d   %   bo %% d'“ "S sod %% CJ %% ■pH .rH 'O 00 OC   ,TO jd O ci “03   • ““ •”“ •'““ •”“ •'““ B”“   "d 'd "d "d "d "d "d “d "d "d "d "d a> V a> 0) 0) 0) “ “ “ “ fe “   be be bo bo bo bo %% 'd %% rfl -e %% “ .Fj iM o d %% •TZ _c8 O .« .0   ■ ““ a”“ m”“ •”“ •”“ •”“   'd "d "d "d "d "d "d "d "d "d "d "d   O QD 4) O O flJ   bo be be be be bo %%%% -d   I %% T3   'd bo %% ri-?. -” %%  'd g S c   .08 .0) “ “ e8 %%u   0) %%IrH CrH :,-( ;pH :>-i %%IpH %%'d'd 'd 'd "d %%-d %%■d "d tj 'd 'd %%'2 %%0) QJ QJ Q> %%bo bo bo bo be %%be %% I-" <M CO I-" <M CO %%%%%% S <M %% aJ CO   h   ••- o   I-   > a.   0) 0)   •a   s   C « •o *" c 2 o S o   oj •••   e.2   o "   as   “>   u «   «   5 . "• •;   ea "“   lO %% s< %% o “ %%  96 %%



(delwedd B5608) (tudalen 096)

A GRAMMAR OF THE %% 208. The present tense is sometimes supplied by the future [§180 (1)]; but more commonly by means of the present tense of the verb hod; thus: —

{I learn y or am learning , 8fc,) Singular. Plural.

Yr wyf yn dysgu Yr ydym yn dysgu %% Yr wyt yn dysgu Y mae yn dysgu %% Yr ydych yn dysgu Y mae yn dysgu %% 209. Verbal phrases of similar formation are substi- tuted for the other tenses; thus : — %% Imperfect Perfect .

Pluperfect %% Future Second Future Imperative . %% Oeddym yn dysgu, / was teaching Byddym yn dysgu, I used to he teaching Wyf wedi dysgu, / have taught Wyf wedi bod yn dysgu, / have heen

teaching Oeddwn wedi dysgu, / had taught Oeddwn wedi bod yn dysgu, / had heen

teaching Byddwnwedi dysgu, 7 wsec? to have taught Byddaf yn dysgu, I shall he teaching Byddaf wedi dysgu, I shall have taught Bydded i mi ddysgu” let me teach %% 210. All the tenses in the passive voice may be formed in five different ways, as in the following examples, which include the future used for the present : —

(1) With the proper personal pronoun of the first class after the verb, as has been already shown [§ 201] ; as, — %% Singular.

Dysgir fi,' 7 am taught Dfsgir di, thou art taught Dysgir ef, he is taught %% Plural. %% Dysgir ni, we are taught Dysgir chwi, you are tauyht Dy sgvt \i'N”'5 , tKeij arc taught %%



(delwedd B5609) (tudalen 097)


(2) With a personal prononn of the first class before the verb ; as, —

Sin!j;ular. Plural. %% Mi a ddysgir, / am taught Ti a ddysgir, thou art, “c. Efe a ddysgir, he is taught %% Ni a ddysgir, we are taught Chwi a ddysgir, you are taught Hwy a ddysgir, they are taught

a. The a is an emphatic affirmative particle [§ 230 (1)], and does not represent the auxiliary am, &c., in the English phrase.

(3) With a pronoun of the second class before the verb; as, —

Singular. Plural. %% Fe'm dysgir, I am taught Fe'th ddysgir, thou art taught Fe'i dysgir, he is taught %% Fe'n dysgir, we are taught Fe'ch dysgir, you are taught Fe'u dysgir, they are taught %% (4) By means of the impersonal inflections of the verb hod; as, —


Yr ydys yn fy nysgu, I am taught Yr ydys yn dy ddysgu, thou art taught Yr ydys yn ei ddysgu, he is taught Yr ydys yn ei dysgu, she is taught


Yr ydys yn ein dysgu, we are taught Yr ydys yn eich dysgu, you are taught Yr ydys yn eu dysgu, they are taught

a. So also in the other tenses. Imperfect, oeddid; perfect, oeddwyd, buwyd; pluperfect, huasid; future, hyddir, hyddys; imperative, hydder,

h. After pronouns of the second class, the pronouns e, diy ef, hiy ni, chwi, hwy or hwynt, may be aid!ied% “&”"F”'«\. dysgir f, or, Yr i/dys yn fy nysgu i, 1 axft-twx”Xj. 7 %%



(delwedd B5610) (tudalen 098)


(5) By means of the verb hod and the verb cael, to get; as,—


Yr wyf yn cael fy nysgu, / am taught Yr wyt yn cael dy ddysgu, thou art taught

Y mae yn cael ei ddysgu, he is taught

Y mae yn cael ei dysgu, she is taught


Yr “m yn cael ein dysgu, we are taught Yr ych yn cael eich dysgu, you are taught

Y maent yn cael eu dysgu, they are taught

a. The other tenses are supplemented in the same manner; as, —

Imperfect . Oeddwn yn cael fy nysgu, / was taught

„ . Byddwn yn cael fy nysgu, / used to he taught

Perfect. . Wyf wedi fy nysgu, wyf wedi cael fy nysgu,

/ have heen taught Pluperfect Oeddwn wedi [cael] fy nysgu, I had heen

taught . Oeddwn wedi bod yn cael fy nysgu, / had

heen getting taught , Byddwn wedi [cael] fy nysgu, / had heen taught (habitually) Future . . Byddaf yn cael fy nysgu, / shall he taught Sec. Future Byddaf wedi [cael] fy nysgu, / shall have

heen taught

211. Many verbs deviate in their inflections from the models presented in the conjugations of regular verbs. In most of these variations, however, the reader will detect the verbs hod and myned in their difl*erent tenses. The following tables exhibit the inflections of the most important of these verbs : — %% ji %% 11 %%



(delwedd B5611) (tudalen 099)

WELSH LANGUAGE. %% 9& %% o o H -< U o %% 'O g o « CO %% l«9 tig %% -d o S a “ fe o3 “ %% o 4A d C8 %% 03 d “ O'S'd %% fa c %% 'd P 'd 03 %% t 'd

 03 %% 'd 'd “- •§1 %% 'd fl fl'd %% O.JM »4 %% •si _Q 03 06 %% '“1 Sd d'd 'd 03 03 %% dS d <“ ee d %% d ,0 %% <x> 03 %% 08 “ 03 %% ■S %%%% d %% ,41 CO %% d na 08 %%%%g %% a %% d'd 'd c3 08 %% « a 0.0) %% “ 08 '““ %% ,Q c8 g g CI “ "O OS d c8 %% OS ••-I rO 08 g 3d “ d'd'd 'd 08 d c3 %% 0) “ %% a •§a - - 13 « d d “ «8 g “ S d “ “ d tJ tJ 'd 'd rt o3 08 %% rd ri O %% a> %% o %% d Q”a> S « S g d “ '5 08 08 OS %% 4a d 43 •d a o> 'd § d 08 d” "d d A %% I. d c8 %% tJ d o 08 o3 %% f3 ffi %%%%%% 43 CO O d 0) 03 I %% i d 03 'd c8 %% o d <x> 08 Ef fd 03 %% -M %% § %%.t1 %%d %%d %%S %%s %%” %%” %%'S %%-§ %%%% 'd 'd ■g %% I" 08 %% Person %% (N %% CO %% <M %% CO %%%% H Bg %% o d s “ 5 %% “ 08 g "* 5 ■$ %% / 'd'd %% 100 %%




Y Tudalen Nesaf:

Rhan 2 allan o 2 (tudalennau 100- 106)



a A / æ Æ / e E / ɛ Ɛ / i I / o O / u U / w W / y Y /
Ā / ǣ Ǣ / ē Ē / ɛ̄ Ɛ̄ / ī Ī / ō Ō / ū Ū / w̄ W̄ / ȳ Ȳ /
BREF: ă Ă / ĕ Ĕ / ĭ Ĭ / ŏ Ŏ / ŭ Ŭ / B5236:
 B5237: B5237_ash-a-bref
ˡ ɑ ɑˑ aˑ a: / æ æ: / e eˑe: / ɛ ɛ: / ɪ iˑ i: / ɔ oˑ o: / ʊ uˑ u: / ə /
ʌ /
ẅ Ẅ / ẃ Ẃ / ẁ Ẁ / ŵ Ŵ /
ŷ Ŷ / ỳ Ỳ / ý Ý /
ˡ ð ɬ ŋ ʃ ʧ θ ʒ ʤ / aɪ ɔɪ əɪ uɪ ɪʊ aʊ ɛʊ əʊ /

ә ʌ ẃ ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ ẅ ẁ Ẁ ŵ ŷ ỳ Ỳ
wikipedia, scriptsource. orgǣ


Ffynhonnell / Font / Source:
Creuwyd / Creada/ Created: 13-01-2018
Adolygiadau diweddaraf / Darreres actualitzacions / Latest updates: 13-01-2018
Delweddau / Imatges / Images:



Archwiliwch y wefan hon
Adeiladwaith y wefan
Beth sydd yn newydd?

Ble'r wyf i? Yr ych chi'n ymwéld ag un o dudalennau'r Wefan CYMRU-CATALONIA
On sóc? Esteu visitant una pàgina de la Web CYMRU-CATALONIA (= Gal·les-Catalunya)
Where am I? You are visiting a page from the CYMRU-CATALONIA (= Wales-Catalonia) Website
Weə-r äm ai? Yüu äa-r víziting ə peij fröm dhə CYMRU-CATALONIA (= Weilz-Katəlóuniə) Wébsait

Free counter and web stats Statistics for Welsh Texts Section / Ystadegau’r Adran Destunau Cymraeg