A GLOSSARY OF THE COTSWOLD (GLOUCESTERSHIRE)
ttstolfr (dlottmte&i) gmkjct,
ILLUSTRATED BY EXAMPLES FROM ANCIENT AUTHORS,
BY THE LATE
REV. RICHARD WEBSTER HUNTLEY, A.M.
OF BOXWELL COURT, GLOUCESTERSHIRE;
FORMERLY FELLOW OF ALL SOULS' COLLEGE, OXFORD;
RECTOR OF BOXWELL AND LEIGHTERTON,
AND VICAR OF ALBERBURY.
LONDON: JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36, SOHO
GLOUCESTER: EDWARD NEST, WESTGATE
This being a posthumous Work of the Author's,
great difficulty has been found in
editing it correctly; and the reader
will kindly make allowance for any remaining
DIALECT is one of , the best evidences of the
origin and descent of the people who use it; and, whenever we can trace it to its roots,
we seem to fix also the country which
supplied the first inhabitants of the
region where it is spoken- Bringing
their language with them from the cradle
whence they emigrated, every people brings also its customs, laws, and superstitions: so that a
knowledge of dialect points also
towards a knowledge of feelings,
seated (in many cases) very deeply, and of prejudices which sway the mind with much power; and
thus we gain an insight into the
genius and probable conduct of any
particular races among mankind.
Another reason, which at this present time renders dialects more worthy of remembrance, is the
universal presence of the village
schoolmaster. This personage usually
considers that he places himself on the right point of elevation above his pupils, in
proportion as he distin-
guishes his speech by classical or semi-classical expressions; while the
pastor of the parish, trained in the
schools still more deeply, is very commonly unable to speak in a language fully "
understanded of the people," and
is a stranger to the vernacular tongue of those over whom he is set so that he is daily giving
an example which may bring in a
latinized slip-slop. In addition to
this, our commercial pursuits are continually introducing American solecisms and vulgarisms. Each of
these sources of change threaten
deterioration. Many homely but
powerful and manly words in our mother tongue appear to totter on the verge of oblivion. As long,
however, as we can keep sacred our
inestimable translation of the Word of
God, to which let us add also our Prayer-book, together with that most wonderful production of the
mind of man, the works of Shakespeare,
we may hope that we possess
sheet-anchors, which will keep us from drifting very far into insignificance or vulgarity, and may
trust that the strength of the British
tongue may not be lost among the
It has, moreover, been well observed that a knowledge of dialects is very necessary to the
formation of an exact dictionary of
our language. Many words are in common
use only among our labouring classes, and accounted therefore vulgar, which are in fact nothing
less than ancient terms, usually
possessing much roundness, pathos, or
power; and, what is more, found in frequent use with our best writers of the Elizabethan period.
The works of Shakespeare abound in
examples of the Cots wold dialect, which
indeed is to be expected, as his connexions and early life are to be found in
he spent some part of his younger days in concealment in the neighbourhood of Dursley, he could
not have been better placed to mature,
in all its richness, any early
knowledge which he might have gained of our words and expressions.* This, however, is certain,
that the terms and phrases in common
use in the Cotswold dialect are very
constantly found in his dialogue; they add much strength and feeling to it; and his obscurities, in
many cases, have been only
satisfactorily elucidated by the commentators
who have been best acquainted with the dialect in question.
The Cotswold dialect is remarkable for a change of letters in many words; for the addition or
omission of letters; for frequent and
usually harsh contractions and unusual
idioms, with a copious use of pure Saxon words now obsolete, or nearly so. If these words
were merely vulgar introductions, like
the pert and ever-changing slang of the
London population, we should look upon them as undeserving of notice; but as they are
still almost all to be drawn from
undoubted and legitimate roots, as they are
found in use in the works of ancient and eminent authors, and as they are in themselves so numerous
as to render the dialect hard to be
understood by those not acquainted
with them, they become worthy of explanation: and then they bring proof of the strength and
manliness of the ancient English
tongue, and they will generally compel
us to acknowledge, that while our modern speech may possibly have gained in elegance and
exactness from the Latin or Greek, it
has lost, on the other hand, impressiveness and power.
We believe that the roots chiefly discoverable in this
* See Note at end.
dialect will be the Dutch, Saxon, and Scandinavian; bearing evidence of the
Belgic, Saxon, and Danish invasions,
which have visited the Cotswold region. Occasionally, a Welsh or Gaelic root shows itself, and is
probably a lingering word of the old aboriginal British inhabitants, who were subsequently displaced by German or
Northern irruptions. One or two words seem to be derived from the Sanscrit, which may have been obtained from
our German relations; one word from
the Hebrew may have been left among us
when the Celtic tribes were driven into Wales.
To these old words, now nearly lost in modern conversation, is to be added a
corrupted use of the Saxon grammar; whence modes of expression are produced
which at first sight are obscure, as
having never obtained admission in the
colloquy of the better informed, and as being in themselves ungrammatical.
We presume that the most ancient work now extant written in the Cotswold dialect is the
" Chronicle of Eobert of
Gloucester," who lived, according to his own statement, at the time of the battle of Evesham, ie. }
August 4, 1265. This historian and
versifier may be said to use altogether
the Cotswold tongue, and his language is that which is still faithfully spoken by all the
unlettered ploughboys in the more
retired villages of the Gloucestershire hill-country. This dialect extends
along the Cotswold, or oolitic, range,
till we have passed through Northamptonshire; and it spreads over Wilts,
Dorsetshire, northern Somersetshire,
and probably the western parts of Hampshire. In Oxfordshire the University
has considerably weakened the language
by an infusion of Latinisms; and in
Berkshire it has suffered still more by London slang and Cockneyisms.
In noticing the change of letters observable in the vernacular tongue on the
Cotswolds, we will begin at the
A. This vowel, in the first place, frequently receives reduplication; we may instance "
A-ater," for " After." The
next change which this letter admits is into the dipthong M y as in " iEle" for " Ale
f in these cases it is common to have
the letter " Y" placed before the dipthong, as "
Ysele;" sometimes so rapidly
pronounced as to sound like the word
" Yell," an outcry. " Lserk" stands for "
Lark," the bird; with similar
instances of alteration, which generally are preservations of the Saxon pronunciation.
Next, we find the letter changed into
" ai," as in " Make Maike," " Care Caire;" and where the " ai" is the
legitimate mode of spelling, there it
obtains a great elongation of sound, as "Fair" becomes
"Fai-er," "Lair" (of a beast) "Lai-er"; for
this use we have found no authority.
Next, the letter "a" frequently
becomes "o," as in " Hand Hond," " Land
Lond," " Stand Stond,"
"Man Mon;" the whole of which are pure Saxon, and are found in constant use by Eobert of
Gloucester. Finally, the dipthong "au" frequently becomes "
aa," as in " Daughter
Daater," which is unadulterated Danish;
" Draught Draat," with many other instances. This is
also the case where the letter "
a" has properly the sound of this
dipthong, as in "Call Caal," "Fall Vaal," "
Wall Waal," and suchlike words;
to these we will add "Law," which is pronounced " Laa," agreeing with
the Saxon " Lah."
B is, as we might expect, sometimes interchanged with P, as in the name of the plant
"Privet," often called "Brivet;" it is also sometimes, though not
frequently, used for W, as "
Beth-wind," for " With-wind," " Edbin" for "
Edwin;" " Bill" for "
Will," is common everywhere.
C is changed, occasionally, into G, as for " Crab Grab," "Crisp Grisp," "Christian
Gristin /' "Guckoo" for 1 '
Cuckoo" is universal,but this, like the Scotch " Gowk,"
arises, possibly, from a
misapprehension of the note of the bird.
In the word " Yonder," C usurps the place of Y, and the term becomes " Conder;" this,
however, may only be a change from G
into C, as the Saxon word is " Geonda."
E is frequently changed into the dipthong M, as " Beech Beech," "Sleep Shep,"
"Feel Vael," Saxon FaBllan,"
with many other instances. It also becomes A short, as "Peg Pag," "Keg Kag,"
" Their Thair." Next, by
abbreviation, it becomes I, as "Creep Crip," Saxon, " Crypan," " Steep
Stipe," Suio-Gothic, " Steypa." When it is in composition with A, it seems to
divide the syllable in which it so
stands, as " Beat" becomes "Be-at," "Death De-ath," Earth Ye-arth," "
Tart Te-art" as applied to the
smart of a sore place, or the sharp taste of an acid, as well as when the substantive, a
fruit-pie, is intended. "
Am" becomes " Ye-am;" but here we may observe, that this may be the Saxon " Eagm," as
" Ye-arth" may also come
from the Danish " Jord."
F, as is usual in all languages, often interchanges with V; thus " Fig" becomes "
Veg," " Feed Veed," Dutch
"Veedan;" "Fill Vill," Saxon "Villan;"
" For Vor," Dutch "
Ver." This appears to have been our use from the earliest periods. Eobert of Gloucester
gives us " Vut" for "
Foot," " Vant" for "Font," "Ver" for
"For/' "Vail" for
"Fall/' with innumerable other instances; all faithfully followed on the Cotswold range.
G interchanges with Y. This is a custom drawn immediately from the Saxon, in
which language these two letters sometimes appear to be used almost
Thus "Angel" is often pronounced " Any el,"
"Angelic Anyelic," or even
" Anyely," where the Saxon termination " lie" or " like"
sinks, as in other cases, into the modern "ly."
H is chiefly remarkable for its wrong position. It is struck off, or put in, without any
authority at the discretion, or rather
indiscretion, of the speaker; only
custom seems to have arranged unhappily, that it should appear where it ought to be absent,
and should be wanting where it ought
to be present. "Why 'op ye so, ye
'igh 'ills?" has been heard from "the priest's lip keeping knowledge."
"'Ope" stands for "Hope,"
'"Unt" for "Hunt," "Edge" for
"Hedge," "Helm" for
" Elm," " Hasp" or " Haspen," for "
Asp" or " Aspen,"
" Hexcellent" for "Excellent," " Hegg"
for "Egg," with as many
other instances as there may be opportunities for error. This also seems to have been an
ancient practice, as Eobert of
Gloucester is constantly found labouring
under this uncertainty; indeed, it would be difficult to un[der]stand
him at all unless this regularity in mistake on his part is always borne in mind. As an
example, we will give his word "
Atom." This is more than a dissyllable, it is two words, being " At om,"
contracted from " At ome,"
and by supplying the H struck off, we have the sense "At home." But we must not forget that
some of these changes are merely the
old Saxon preserved in its purity: as
in the example above, " 'Unt for Hunt," we read " Ge- untod of Angel-cynne." See "
Saxon Chronicle," Ingram,
Appendix, p. 381.
I interchanges with E, as " Drink " becomes "
Drenk," ". Bring Breng,"
both being the Saxon pronunciation; as
also "Sink Zenk," " String Strang," " Sting
Steng," " Sing Zeng;"
the instances are indeed perpetual, and may
be generally held to be derived from the Saxon. " Drive " is always " Dreeve." "
Thrive," however, never loses the
I; but, as nature abhors a vacuum, the word is ordained to step into the space which is vacated by the
word ' 'Dreeve," and it usually
becomes " Drive."
M becomes N in the word " Empty," which is pronounced " Enty," and is the only change
of the kind which we have noticed.
commonly usurps the place of A, as we have observed under that letter. It is, moreover, often changed
into " Au," as " Snow
" is pronounced " Snau," " Blow blau," " Mow Mau;" these sounds have
their origin in the Saxon tongue.
Sometimes is made into aa, as in " Croft," which is spoken " Craat " very
frequently, " Moth Maat", Saxon
Matha. Lastly, in some words this vowel changes into A, as in " North," which is
frequently pronounced " Narth."
P, as might be expected, in some cases becomes B, which we have noticed under that letter.
R is very often misplaced, as " Cruds " for " Curds."
S in like manner suffers from dislocations, thus " Hasp " is " Haps,"
" Clasp Claps," * Wasp Waps," with other examples. This letter is also very
frequently made Z, in which we agree
with the Dutch, as in " Sea," " Zee;" and this practice may be as old as the
Belgic invasion of these parts, which
is mentioned by Caesar as having taken
place before his age.
T and Th are often changed into D when before the letter R Thus " Through" becomes
"Dru," " Three Dree,"
' Trill," and " Thrill Drill," " Thrush " and
"Drush" and "Drostle," "Track" becomes
"Drack," u Tree Dree,"
"Trash Drash," " Throw Drow," which also may generally be held to be Dutch usage.
always pronounced as in the word "This," not as in "Thistle," that is, it always has
a slight sound of the D before it.
U, sounded hard, takes the place of the double O, as "Brook," which is pronounced
"Bruck," Saxon, Broc,
"Book - Buck," Saxon, Boc, "Look – Luck,” Saxon, Loc, with other instances.
W is often seated so strangely, and sometimes inserted so capriciously into the interior of words,
that, if it is held to be the
di-gamma, it might tend to justify Dr. Bentley in thrusting it, for the versé sake whenever
he wants it, into the middle of
Homer's words. We will notice it first as improperly commencing words; thus,
"Oats" becomes "Woats,"
by abbreviation "Wuts," "Oaks - Woaks - Wuks," "Home
- Whome - Whum; in the interior of
words we have "Go - Gwoa," "Going - Gwain,"
"Stone - Stwon," "Bone -
Bwone," "Kindle - Kwindle," "Such - Zwitch,"
with many other instances. If, however, this
letter usurps positions to which it is not entitled, so it loses also in some cases its natural rights, as
"Wool - Woollen" is often
made "Ool - Oollen," "Worsted - Oosted," "Wolf -
Oolf," "Wood - Ood," and thence sometimes "Hood,"
with such like instances of
deposition. This elision seems to have
a Danish character. Caprice alone appears to have dictated the erroneous insertions of the
Y claims, and obtains also, a very leading position in the same arbitrary manner. Thus "Ale"
is "Ye-ale," "Health -
Y-ealth," "Earth - Y-earth," "Am - Ye-am,"
"Head - Yead." It suffers,
however, total defeat in "Yes," which is always either "Iss " or
"Eece," according to the leisure
of the speaker.
Z, as we have said, is in constant use for S.
We will now notice some of the contractions in speech which are in constant use on the Cotswolds.
" At," " Atunt," represent, " Thou art," and
"Thou art not/' Fielding, as he
places Squire Western's residence in the north of Somersetshire, very
properly bestows on him a considerable dash
of the dialect in question, " I' ool ha' zatisvaction o'
thee," answered the squire,
" soa doff thy cloathes, at-unt half a
man," &c. Hist, of a Foundling, book VI., ch. 9.
In the same manner "Cat?" and " Cast?" stand for
"Canst thou?" and
"Cass-nt," for " Canst thou not?"
" D'wye/' imploringly, represents, "Do ye;" as
"D'wunty," "Do ye
" Thee bist," is, " Thou beest," "You are."
" Gee-wult?" " Go, will you?" is a term addressed to horses, when they are to move from the
driver; as " K'-mae-thee," M
Come hither," is the term to make them
" Oos-nt,-ootst?" is, " You would not, would you?"
" St-dzign?" is the contraction of " Do you design?"
i.e., " intend." "
St-gwain?" " Are you going?" " St-hire?" is " Do you hear?" "
St-knaw?" " Do you know?" In these and similar instances the " St"
is the termination of "Dost"
or "Beest," as the case may be, and is barely sounded.
" Hae " is, " Have," " Shat " and "
Shat-unt," are, " You
shall," and "You shall not." Squire Western
promises Blifil, " I tell thee,
shat ha' her to-morrow morning." Hist,
of a Foundling, book VII., ch. 6.
"Te-unt" means, "It is not." "Why-s-'nt?" is
"Why-oos-nt?" "Why will you not?" as
"Coos-nt" is, " Could
" 'S-like I shaU " is, " It is likely I shall." "
" Didst thou say it was thine V " Nar-on " is, " Never
a one "none. "
St-Thenk?" is, " Do you think f M E'en as 'twur " is, " Even as it
were." " Med" is, " He might " "Med, med'nt ur?" represents,
"He might, might he not?"
"Mizzomar" for "Midsummer" we should not have introduced, had it not been that we find
this contraction in Bobert of
Gloucester, which seems to give a great antiquity to these abbreviations.
Among variations from Mr. Lindley Murray's English Grammar, we will first remark that the use
of the pronoun " He " is
nearly universal. The feminine " She " is rarely admitted, and the neuter "It" is
equally excluded. " She,"
when brought into use, is mostly compelled to
submit to an appearance in the accusative case, " Her" as, by way of example, " Her y-'ent
sa' desperd bad a' 'ooman as I've a
knawed," would be very good English on
the Cotswold range. It is, however, very questionable, when the word " He " is used for
" She," whether we have
anything more than the Saxon " Heo," which is our "
She." The dominion, however, of
" He " over " It " is very undoubted, as anything
inanimate in itself is always " He"
for instance, a Spade, a Shoe, a Pond, a Gate, a Eoad, or whatever else presents itself. "
He," coming thus into constant
use, suffers from the familiarity when standing before the word " will" as a sign
of the future tense; it then sinks
into the vowel " U " pronounced hard; " u'll die," " u'll vight," " u'll stond,"
" u'll run," are, in such a case, the usual modes of pronouncing " He
" As," in this dialect, obtains very commonly the powers of "which;" thus, "The
'ooman as I married," "The beast as I
1 2 IN TROD TJCTION.
zauld," "The ru-oadas I gade," would be proper phrases in village colloquy in this district.
" Which," however, takes the place of " When," or " While " in many cases. As
" I bid the wench shou'd hauld
awpen the geat, which she slammed un to, and laughed in muv veace;" " He took his
woath as I layed the dtrap, which I
did noa sich a theng."
The plural in " es," so constantly sounded in Chaucer, is still preserved in many words in this
part of the Cotswold range. Thus " Ghosts " and " Posts "
are constantly "Ghostes" and
"Poste's;" "Beasts" are "Beasts," and sometimes " Beastesses;" "
Guests " and " Feasts " becomes " Guests," and
" Feastes:" Addison's joke upon
the songs in the opera,
" When the breezes Fan the
would not be discovered to be a satire in the villages under consideration. There can be no doubt but
this is the adherence to ancient usage; and Kemble was certainly right in considering that Shakespeare intended
" Aches " to be pronounced
"Aitches," as a dissyllable, (to which usage that great actor steadily adhered), because the
word was so sounded down to the days
of King Charles II. See Hudibras, passim.
In forming past tenses of verbs we often find words in use, which, if they ever obtained
elsewhere, are now generally obsolete.
It is impossible to give all the instances, but we will enumerate a few specimens.
" Catched" is used instead
of " Caught." " Eaught " is made the perfect tense of
" Eeach " this word will appear in the Glossary, together with Shakespeare's use
of it. That
inimitable poet supports his native dialect in the use of the word " Holp," as the past
tense of " Help." In " Much
Ado about Nothing," act iii., sc. 2., Don John says, "
I think he holds you well, and, in
dearness of heart, hath holp to effect
your marriage." This is an ancient form
of the word " Help," and kept alive by our Bible; we find it in Isaiah, xxxi., 3., " He
that is holpen shall fall down;"
in Daniel, xi., 34., " They shall be holpen with a little help f in St. Luke, i. 54., "
He hath holpen his servant
Israel," and in other passages; and let us remember that these archaisms now, accidentally but very
happily, increase our reverence for
the sacred text.
" Fot," or " Vot," are used as the past tense of "
Fetch f " Give-Gave," makes
its past tense in this district " Gived," but by abbreviation "Gied;" by a
farther contraction spoken "
Gid," though, in some cases, the labours of the schoolmaster and the
village Incumbent have advanced the
more promising pupil as far as "Guv." Instances of irregularity in the formation of the
perfect tense are, as we have said,
The double negative is very usual, and in this custom Shakespeare frequently upholds his native
district. We will adduce as instances,
Henry V., act ii., sc. 4.
" Dauphin. Though war nor no known quarrel were in question."
Next, the Two Gentlemen of Verona, act ii., sc. 4.
" Valentine. Nor to his service no such joy on earth."
Measure for Measure, act ii., sc. 1.
" Escalus. No sir nor I mean it not."
Merchant of Venice, act iv., sc. 1.
" Shy lock So I can give no reason nor I will not."
The instances of this irregularity are so frequent with
this poet, that the reader may readily discover more examples.
The double superlative also obtains a place in our dialect. " Most worst," or even "
Most worstest," would excite no
remark as an unnecessary pleonasm. Shakespeare slips also into this practice: in Henry IV., Part
II, act iii., sc. 1 we find
" King. And in the calmest and most stillest night."
This redundancy gains countenance from the words " Most Highest," as applied to
the Creator in the Prayer-book version of the Psalms.
The double comparative is also very common. Not only "more better," but "more
betterer," is usual. Shakespeare
has this phrase also in The Tempest, act i., sc. 2: Prospero says
" Nor that I am more better Than
" More braver " also is used in The Tempest, act i., sc. 2.
We constantly use the term " Worser;" and here again we gain countenance from the same poet. In
Hamlet, act iii., sc. 4, this passage
" Queen. Hamlet, thou hast cleft my heart in twain.
" Hamlet. Oh, throw away the worser part of it, And live the purer with the other
Dryden also supports us in this usage; in the Astrsea Eedux we read at the 3rd line
" And worser far Than arms, a
sullen interval of war."
In addition to the plurals in En still retained in English language, which are Oxen, Brethren,
Children, and Chicken, we have in
familiar use in our district the
INT ROD UCTION. 1 5
words u Housen " for Houses, " Peasen " for Peas, and " Wenchen " for Wenches, "
Elmen " for Elm Trees, and "
Plazen " for Places. To these instances, we presume, we ought to add " Themmen" for
Those, "Thairn " for Theirs,
" Ourn " for Ours, " Yourn " for Yours, "
Thism " for These, together with
"His'n," "Shiz'n," " Weez'n," as
masculine, feminine, and plural of
"His," "Hers," and " Ours';" with which irregularity we will close our notice
of our grammatical varieties.
Some of the phrases in frequent use in dialogue on the Cotswolds, which will appear unusual to a
stranger, are as follows:
"A copy of your countenance," means, "you are deceiving,"
" It is not yourseK." Fielding, in his Life of Jonathan Wild, at
the end of chap. 14 of Book iii, uses this
expression. " But this he afterwards confessed at Tyburn was only ' a copy of his countenance.'
" All manner/' is a phrase used in an evil sense to describe all manner
of annoyance; and is chiefly introduced
to describe the carriage of any person who intrudes himself and acts as rudely as he pleases; thus,
" He came and did all
manner," would mean, "all manner of insolence or injury." Though this idiomatic
expression is occasionally used by
persons of better condition, we still do not remember to have seen it in use
in any writings of a light or comic
" All's one for that," means, " notwithstanding your
objection, the case remains the same."
" Drap it, drap it!" that is, " Drop it." This is an
angry request that any course of
annoying remarks or practices may
cease; and it may be safely concluded, when a genuine
son of the Cotswolds uses this phrase, that his patience is just worn out.
" Gallows bad," " Gallows drunk," " a Gallows cheat
" always pronounced
"Gallus" means, "bad enough for the gallows." It is possible that this may
be a term of great antiquity, and may
draw its frequent use from the gallows-tree of the feudal lord.
" Hand over head " is a metaphor taken from the conduct of a mob in
a battle or in aggressive confusion, and is
used to express anything done in haste, ill-order, and self-impeding
perturbation. This phrase occurs in Farquhar's comedy, where Pindress, the maid-servant,
urging the Page to marry her on the
spot, exclaims, " No consideration! This business must be done hand over
head." Whereas, to do anything
" with a high hand " always implies that it was some attempt
triumphantly carried through.
" I cannot away with," is an ancient phrase, constantly found in the Bible, and still therefore in
frequent use in this simple district,
meaning, "I cannot cast away the
recollection of it," 1 cannot endure it." It is used when speaking of some misfortune or bad conduct.
See Isaiah, L, 13.
" I'll tell you what," is as much as to say, " I will
give you an unanswerable
argument;" sometimes it means, * I
will give you my fixed resolution." Shakespeare perpetually uses
this phrase; as an instance we may turn to
Henry IV., Part I., act iii., sc. 1.
" Hotspur. I'll tell you what,
He held me, but last night, at least nine hours."
" It'll come right aater a bit," means, " the difficulty
in any business is passing away."
" I can't be off it," means, " an irresistible impulse compels
me to it," " I must do it."
" Let alone," is a statement that some necessary characteristic in
any circumstance need not be taken into present calculation, as " A
broken leg is zitch a hindrance, let
alone the anguish of un!"
" May be" is continually used for " Perhaps " it is
the French " Peut-6tre."
" Month's mind," means, a mind unsettled on any particular plan, a
weak resolution. It is a term derived from
a custom observed in the obsequies of remarkable persons previous to
the Eeformation. At the end of the month
after the funeral there was a minor ceremony performed in recollection of the deceased, and which
was intended to keep him in mind. A
less procession, a less dole, and a
less religious service took place; and, as these observances were all weaker
in effect, and were necessarily of a
very evanescent character, so any poor and wavering feeling came to be compared to " the
month's mind " after a stately
funeral. Thomas Wyndesor, Esq., in his will
dated August 13, 1479, gives particular directions as to his funeral, which were designed with a view to
very considerable state and dignity, and at the end of these is the following: " Item I will that there be
one hundred children, each within the
age of sixteen years, at my month's
mind, to say our Lady's Psalter for my soul in the church of Stanwell, each of them having
iiiid. for his labour, and that before
my month's mind the candles burnt
before the rood in the said church be renewed and made at my cost; Item I will that at my month's
mind my executors provide twenty priests, besides the clerks that come to sing Placebo, Dirige, &c,
&c." Testamenta Vetusta,
p. 393, in which work this practice is often alluded to. Ii Machyn's Diary this custom is also
frequently noted; w< will extract
from it the notice of the deaths and month'
mind of the two Dukes of Suffolk, who died whil children, of the sweating-sickness. "
The xxii day ot September (1551) was
the Monyth's Mind of the ii Dukke of
Suffoke in Chambryge-shyre, with ii Standards, ii baners- grett of Amies and large, and baners rolls
of Dyver Armes with ii Elmets, ii
(swords), ii Targetts crowned, ii Cotes o
Armes, ii Crests, and ten dozen of Scochyons crowned; ant yt was grett pete of their dethe, and yt
had plesyd God of so nobull a stok
they wher, for ther ys no more of them
" Next of kin " does not mean relationship in blood, but any similarity. " Fainting "
would be " next of kin to death/'
" A Glove next of kin to the Hand;" " Fluid white-
wash" would be " next of kin
to Milk;" it means also any near
relationship in place or authority; thus, a " Justice of the Peace " would be " next of kin to
a Judge," an " Arch-deacon" to "the Bishop," a
"Lord-Lieutenant" to "the
" Overseen" and "overlooked" means
"bewitched" led astray by
evil influence, as having suffered under the
" Evil Eye" of a witch or wizard. Thus, " I was
quite overseen in that matter,"
means, " I had lost my reason by
some evil agency."
" Play the bear," or " play the very Buggan witlj you is to spoil, to harass; " Buggan
" meaning Satan or any evil
spirit " Old Bogey."
" Poke the Fire," is always used instead of " Stir the
Fire/ and rightly, as having reference
to the poker.
" Quite natural," means anything done easily, as a mattei
of course, and is spoken of proceedings which are quite artificial thus a man would be said to fly
up in a balloon " quite
" She is so/' means a female expects to become a mother; probably this delicate phrase was
originally accompanied with a position
of the hands and arms in front of the person speaking, indicative of a
"To and again," to move backwards and forwards, to go to a certain point and to return again, as
on a terrace-walk in a garden. "
To and fro " being, in fact, the same idea.
"You are such another," is a phrase used in derogation. " You are as bad as the
preceeding." We find this phrase
in Much Ado about Nothing, act. iii. sc. 4. "Margaret Yet Benedict was such another, and now he
is become a man."
" You'll meet with it," is a threat that punishment will unavoidably follow the course which is
being pursued by the person addressed;
the pronoun " it" being the abbreviation for chastisement.
" You might as well have killed yourself," is used to describe an accident which might have
produced death, meaning " You
have done enough to have killed yourself."
" You are another guess sort of a man," means " You differ from the example before us."
Probably the word " Guess"
in this phrase was originally " Guise."
" Whatever" frequently ends a sentence prematurely, the words " may happen," or
" by any means," being struck
off. It is mostly used negatively, as " I would not do it, whatever." " He would not help
himself, whatever." This phrase,
in spite of the ludicrous effect which attends it, is sometimes heard in the better walks
of life in the Cotswolds.
We hardly know whether we ought to notice slip-slop, or the mistaken use of words introduced by
the schoolmaster; we will, however, remark that the phrase " It don't argufy," " edify," or
" magnify," stands, whichever
verb is selected, for " it does not signify." And when
the honest rustic intends to be very
emphatical and dignified at the same
time he will frequently use all three errors;
and having thus enriched his vocabulary with so many synonyms for " signify," he casts
away the right word as being utterly
The habit, however, of substituting the word "Aunt" for " Grandmother," which is very
common in this district, deserves consideration, because we find this use of
the word twice in Shakespeare. In
Othello, act i. sc. 1, Iago alarms
Brabantio with the intelligence of the elopement of his daughter with the Moor, whom he styles a
" Barbary horse," and adds
" You'll have your nephews neigh to
you," meaning grandsons; so again in Richard III., act iv. sc. 1, we have the stage direction
"Enter Queen, Duchess of York, and
Marquis of Dorset, at one door; Anne Duchess
of Gloucester, leading Lady Margaret Plantagenet, Clarence's youngest daughter, at the other" The
Duchess of York addresses Lady
Margaret with the words " Who meets
us here? My Niece Plantagenet," whereas she is her granddaughter. The grandmothers sometimes
seem to take offence if they are
denominated by any more ancient appellation than " Aunt" among
The tone in which the Cotswold dialect is spoken is usually harsh, and the utterance is rapid,
so that the conversations between the natives, marked by continual
contractions, hasty delivery, and unusual words, is hardly understood by a stranger.
In presenting the reader with the Glossary which follows, we endeavour to
give the derivation of each word from
its original root, whenever we think we can suggest it with probability. In addition to this,
where we can find the use of any word
now nearly or quite lost, we have
offered the quotation. These quotations we have, in most cases, verified; where we have not done
this, we have adopted them chiefly on
the authority of the Encyclopedia Londinensis.
These extracts from ancient writers, all, more or less, of authority, will show that the old
Gloucestershire words are not mere
vulgarisms, but though now seldom or never
used, are as well, if not better founded than those in common parlance; and it will be seen, in
not a few instances, that the English language has lost rather than gained by adopting Latinisms in their
We wish farther to remark that some of the words found in the following Glossary are not,
strictly speaking, dialectical, but
only still in continual use in this district,
while they are dying rapidly in other places. As an instance, the word
" Wag" appears in the Glossary. Now
this word, in spite of the Scriptural use of it, as in the phrase " Wagging their heads,"
and in other passages, is almost
limited to the motion of a dog's tail, while on the Cotswolds its general application is still
preserved. A person who was standing
in obstruction of any necessary work,
would be addressed by the phrase " Why-'s 'nt Wag?" "why do you not move?" Such words
are inserted to prolong the memory of
terms, in themselves original and
powerful, but which appear to be endangered by the use of words, more new but weaker, and drawn
from a less efficient vocabulary.
Nothing will need an apology which may tend to throw a light on any part of the life of Shakespeare. We
will therefore without further
preface, offer the following matter, kindly supplied to us by a friend residing at Dursley. We may take
it for granted that the tradition
which states how the young poet fled before the enraged face of Sir Thomas Lucy, on account of some
illegal intrusion in the knight's park
in Warwickshire, is based on some fact. It is
surmised that he sought shelter in Dursley, a small town seated
.on the edge of a wild woodland tract.
Some passages in his writings show an
intimate acquaintance with Dursley, aud the names of its inhabitants. In the
Second Part of Henry IV., act v. sc. 1, * Gloucestershire," Davy says to
Justice Shallow "I beseech you, Sir, to countenance William Visor of
Woncot, against Clement Perkes of the Hill.''
This Woncot, as Mr. Stevens, the commentator, supposes, in a note
to another passage in the same play
(act v., sc. 3) is Woodmancot, still
pronounced by the common people "Womcot," a township in the parish of Dursley. It is also to be
observed that in Shakespeare's time a
family named Visor, the ancestors of the present family of Vizard, of Dursley, resided and held
property in Woodmancot. This township
lies at the foot of Stinchcombe Hill, still emphatically called " The Hill " in that
neighbourhood on account of the magnificent view which it commands. On this hill is the site
of a house wherein a family named
" Purchase," or " Perkis," once lived, which seems to
be identical with " Clement
Perkes of the Hill." In addition to these coincidences, we must mention the fact that
a family named Shakespeare formerly resided in Dursley, as appears by an
ancient ratebook, which family still exist, as small freeholders, in the
adjoining parish of Bagpath, and claim
kindred with the poet. A physician,
Dr. Barnett, lately residing in London, and who died at an
advanced age, was in youth apprenticed
at Dursley, and had a vivid remembrance of the tradition that Shakespeare
once dwelt there; he affirmed, that
losing his way in a ramble in the extensive woods which adjoin the town, he asked a person whom he met where
he had been, and was told that the
name of the spot which particularly attracted his attention was called "
Shakespeare's walk." In the play " King Richard 11.^ act ii. sc. 3," a description of
Berkeley Castle is given, which is so
exact that it is hardly possible to read it without considering it as if seen from Stinchcombe Hill. The scene is
"A Wild Prospect in
Gloucestershire. " Bolingbroke and Northumberland enter;
Bolingbroke opens the dialogue:
" How far is it, my lord, to Berkeley, now? North. I am a stranger here in
Gloucestershire; These high wild hills and rough uneven ways Draw out our miles, and make them wearisome." " But, I bethink me, what a weary
way From Ravenspurg to Cots wold will
be found In Ross and Willoughby
wanting your company," &c.
Enter to them Harry' Percy, whom Northumberland addresses: " How far is it to Berkeley? And what
stir Keeps good old York there, with
his men of war? Hotspur. There stands
the castle by yon tuft of trees."
Now this is the exact picture of the castle as seen from " The
Hill;" the castle having been,
from time immemorial, shut in on one side, as
viewed therefrom, by an ancient cluster of thick lofty trees. Lastly,
we would add that down to the reign of
Queen Anne the Cotswold range was an
open tract of turf and sheep-walk, which extended up into Warwickshire, and
was famous as a sporting-ground, particularly for coursing the hare with greyhounds, throughout the
whole extent. It was consequently well-known by the gentry of both counties;
and this is evidenced by their pedigrees, wherein intermarriages between the
houses of each county are frequently
found. The portion of Shakespeare's life
which has always been involved in obscurity is the interval between
his removal from Warwickshire and his
arrival in London; and this period, we
think, was probably spent in a retreat among his kindred at Dursley, in Gloucestershire
A-ATER. After, in point of time; also, according to, in
point of manner: " Aater this fashion." ABIDE. To endure, to suffer: Abidian,
"The nations shall not be able to abide his indignation." Jer. x.,
10. "The day of the Lord is great
and very terrible, and who can abide
it." Joel ii., 11.
Used in the same sense by Robert of Gloucester and Peter Langtoft.
ADRY. Thirsty: Adrigan, Saxon.
AFEARED. Frightened: Afa3ran, Saxon.
" Whether he ben a lewde" or lered,
He n'ot how sone that he may ben affered."
Chaucer, Doctor's Tale, 1. 1221. See
also Spenser's Fairy Queen.
AFORE, ATVORE. Before: Atforan, Saxon.
AGEK Opposite to, over against. This word is also used to designate any given time for the
occurrence of an event, or the
performance of a promise: Agen, contra,
" I'll be ready agen Zhip-Zhearin," or " Luk for't agen
Mi-elmas." Even agen France
stonds the contre of Chichestre,
Norwiche agen Denemarke," &c, &c. Robert of Gloucester. Hearne's Edition,
1714, Vol. I., p. 6.
ANEAL. To mollify, to shape by softening.
u Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother's hand
Of life, of crown, of queen, at once dispatched; Cut off even in the blossoms of my
sin, Unhouseled, disappointed,
Shakespeare's Hamlet, act i. sc. 4.
See also the receipt for "Anealing your Glass" when "you
would paint there." Peacham's
Compleat Gentleman, Vol. II., lib. I., p. 96.
ANEAWST, ANNEARST, ANIGSHT. Near; also, metaphorically, resembling: Near,
" Host. Will you go an-heirs?
Shallow. Have with you, mine host."
Shakespeare Merry Wives of Windsor, act ii. sc. i.
ANTJNST. Over against, opposite to: Nean, Saxon.
ARTISHREW. The shrew-mouse, an animal used in
magical charms: " Shrew," and " arte " to compel,
Sir Walter Scott writes, Scottice,
" A tiraunt would have artid him by paynes." Bootius, MS. Soc.
Antiq. 134, f. 296.
ATHEKT. Athwart, across: Thwur, Saxon.
" All athwart there came A post
from Wales, laden with heavy news."
Shakespeare, King Hen. IV.
ATTERMATH. Grass after mowing: After" and " Math," from Mathan, Saxon, to mow.
AWAY WITH. To bear with, to suffer, to endure.
" Shallow. She never could away with me
Falstaff. Never never; she would always say, she could not abide Master Shallow." Shakespeare, Henry
IV., Part II.. act iii. sc. 2.
" The new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot
away with." Isaiah i. 13.
" Moria. Of all the nymphs i' the court, I cannot away with her; 'tis the coarsest thing!" Ben Jonson,
Cynth. Revels, act iv. sc. 5.
AXE. To ask: Axian, Saxon.
" Axe" not why; for though thou ax 4 me, I woll not tellen Godde's privetee."
Chaucer's Miller's Tale, 1. 3557.
" What is this to mene, man, maiste thee axe." Deposition of
AX EN. Ashes; also in the sense, cineres: Axan, Saxon.
" Yn'ot whareof men beth so prute,
Of erthe and axen, felle and bone,
Be the soule's enis ute, A
viler carsang n'is there none." Song temp. Edw. I.
BACK-SIDE. The backfront of a house.
" He led the flock to the backside of the desert." Exodus iii. 1.
BAD. To beat husks, or skins of walnuts, or other fruits:
Battre, French. BAG. The udder of a
cow; also a sack.
BALD-EIB. The piece otherwise called the " spare-rib," because moderately furnished with meat.
BANDOEE. Violoncello or bassoon: Pandura, a similar Italian instrument.
BANGE. A gamekeeper's word, to express the basking and dusting themselves by feathered game.
Bang-a-bonk to lie lazily on a bank. Halliwell's Dictionary.
BAN-NUT. The walnut: Baund, swelling, DarasA; Thnut, Saxon.
BABKEN, BARTON. The homestead: Bairton, Goth, to guard.
" I were never af eared but once, and that ware of grandfar's
ghost, for he always hated I, and a
used to walk, poor zoul, in our barken."
Mrs. Centlivre, Chapter of Accidents, act ii. sc. 1.
BAEM. Yeast: Beorm, Saxon.
"And sometimes make the drink to bear no barm." Shakespeare, Midsum. Night's Dream, act ii. sc. 1.
BAEEOW-PIG. The hog, a gelt Pig: Barren?
BASS OR BAST. Matting used in gardens.
BASTE. To beat: Bastre, old French.
BAT-FOWLING or BAT-BIEDING. Taking birds by
night in hand-nets.
" Sebastian. We would so, and then go bat-fowling."
Shakespeare, Tempest, act ii. sc. 1.
BAULK. A bank or ridge: Bale, Saxon.
" And as the plowman, when the land he tills, Throws up the fruitful earth in rigged
hills, Between whose chevron form he
leaves a balke, So 'twixt these hills
hath nature framed this walke,'
Browne, Brit. Pastorals, i. 4.
BEASTS. Horned cattle. BEHOLDEN.
Indebted to. BELLY. A verb. To swell
out. BELLUCK. Bellow: Bellan, Saxon.
"As loud as belleth winde in hell." Chaucer, House of Fame, i 713.
BENNET, BENT. Dry, standing grass: Biendge, Teuton
" The dryvers thorowe the woode*s went
For to rees the deer, Bowmen
bickered upon the bent With their
browde arrowes clear. " Chevy Chase.
BESOM. A word of reproach, applied solely to the fair sex; as, " Thee auld besom:"
Perhaps derived from the besom on
which a witch rides; but very likely the same
word with "bison," which, in the northern dialects, means a shame or disgrace; a woman doing
penance was called a " holy
bison." See Brockett's Glossary.
BETEEM. To indulge with: Toeman, Saxo7i.
" So would I, said the Enchanter, glad and fain
Beteem to you his sword." Spenser.
" Belike for want of rain, which I could well Beteem them from the tempest of mine
Shakespeare, Midsum. Night's Dream, act i. sc. 1. " That he might not beteem the winds
of heaven Visit her face too
roughly." Shakespeare, Hamlet, act i. sc. 2.
BIDE. To stay, to dwell: Bidon, Saxon.
" Pisano. If not at court,
Then not in Britain must you bide."
Shakespeare, Cymbeline, act iii. sc. 2.
" All knees to Thee shall bow of them that bide In heaven, or earth, or under earth in
BIN. Because: contracted from " It being."
" Leon. Being that I flow in grief,
The smallest twine may lead me."
Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing, act iv. sc. i.
" La-poope. And being you have declined his means, you have increased
his malice." Beaumont and Fletcher, Honest Man's Fortune, act ii.
BITTLE. Beetle, a heavy mallet used to ram down pavements, &c.: Bitl,
" Fatstaff.li I do, fillip me with a three-man beetle."
Shakespeare, Henry IV., Part II., act
i. sc. 2.
BLATHEB. To talk indistinctly, so fast as to form bladders at the mouth.
BLIND-WOBM. A small snake, the slow-worm.
" Adder's fork and blind-worm's sting." Shakespeare, Macbeth,
act iv. sc. 1.
BLO WTHE. Blossom in orchards, bean fields; cinquefoin, &c.: Blawd, Welsh.
" Ambition and covetousness being but green and newly grown up, the seeds and effects were as yet but
potential, and in the blowth and bud.
"--Sir Walter Raleigh.
BODY, An individual; often spoken of oneself, " A body can," or " A body can't."
" Good may be drawn out of evil, and a body's life may be saved without any obligation to the
preserver." Sir Roger L'Estrange.;
BOOT. Help, defence: Bot, Saxon.
"Then list to me, St. Andrew be my boot. Pinner of Wakefield, iii. 19. See also Old Ballads, and Shakespeare,
BOTTOM. A valley.
" Dunster Toun stondithin a bottom " Leland's Itinerary. " Hot. It shall not wind with such a
deep indent, To rob me of so rich a
Shakespeare, Henry IV., Part I., act iii. sc. 1. u Pursued down into a little meadow which
lay in a bottom." Autobiography
of King James II., Vol. I., p. 213.
" On both the shores of that beautiful bottom." Addison,
Remarks on Italy, 5th Ed., p. 152.
BBAKE. A small coppice: Brwg, Welsh.
" Escalus. Some run through brakes of vice."
Shakespeare, Measure for Measure, act ii. sc. 1. " 'Tis but the fate of place, and the
rough brake That virtue must go
Id., Henry VIII., act i. sc. 2.
BRASH. Light, stony soil: Trash?
BRAVE. Healthy, strong in appearance.
11 A brave vessel,
Who had, no doubt, some noble creatures in her, Dashed all to pieces." Shakespeare,
Tempest, act i. sc. 2.
BEAY. Hay spread abroad to dry in long parallels: Breed, Saxon.
BEEEDS. The brim of a hat: Breed. Sax, as laid out flat.
BEIM, BEEM. Spoken of a sow, as also of a harlot: Bremen, Ardere desiderio, Teut.
Peter Langtoft uses this word in the sense "furious."
BRIT. Spoken of the shedding of over-ripe corn from the ear. Chaucer's word " bretful
" is probably " full to
bretting." It seems the root of "brittle."
" His wallet lay before him in his lappe
Bret-ful of pardon, come from Rome al hote."
Chaucer, Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, 1. 689. *' A mantelet upon his shoulders
hanging Bret-ful of rubies red, as
Id., The Knighte's Tales, 1. 2166.
" They blew a mort upon the bent,
They 'sembled on Sydis sheer,
To the quarry the Percy went,
To see tbe brittling of the deer." Chevy Chase. " With a face so fat As a full bladere Blowen bret-ful of breth."
Creed of Piers Plowman, 1. 443.
BEIZZ, BEEEZE. The gad-fly: Briosa, Saxon.
" The herd hath more annoyance from the breeze, Than from the tyger."
Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, act i. sc. 3.
BEOOK. To endure, to bend to opposition or evil: Brucan, Saxon.
" Heaven, the seat of bliss,
Brooks not the works of violence or war." Milton.
BEOW. The abrupt ridge of a hill: Brcew, Saxon.
" And to the brow of heaven
Pursuing, drave them out from God and bliss." Milton.
" And after he had upon the brow of the hill raised breastworks of faggots." Lord Clarendon, describing
the battle of Lansdown.
BKOW. Adjective. Brittle, liable to snap off suddenly: Brau, Welsh.
BUCKING. The foul linen of a household collected for washing: Buc, Saxon; Lagena?
" Throw foul linen upon him, as if it were going to bucking."
Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, act iii. sc. 3.
BUDGE. To move a very short distance: Bugan, Saxon; Buj, Sanscrit.
BUFF. To stammer: derived from the sound.
BULL-STAG. A bull castrated when old.
BURNE, BURDEN/ Spoken of as much hay or straw
as a man can carry: Bwrn, Welsh, a truss.
BURR. Pancreas of a calf, the sweet-bread: Bourre,
BURROW. Any shelter, especially from weather: Burh, Saxon.
BUTT Y. A comrade in labour: Bot, Saxon.
C ADDLE. To busy with trifles; to confuse; to vex: Caddler is, we believe, Old French, with
the same sense.
CADDLEMENT. A trifling occupation; confusion; vexation.
GANDER. Yonder: Geonda, Saxon.
CANDER-LUCKS. Look yonder.
CANDLE-MASS BELLS. The snowdrop.
CANDLE-TINNING. Candle-lighting; evening: Tinan, Saxon, and candle.
" Love is to myne harte gone, with one spere so kene, Night and day my blood it drynks, mine
herte doth me tene."
MS. Harl. Miscell.
" The priests with holy hands were seen to tine
The cloven wood, and pour the ruddy wine." Dryden. " Spiteful Atin, in their stubborn
mind, Coals of contention and hot
Spenser's Fairy Queen. "Kindle
the Christmas brand, and then To
sunset let it burne; Which quencht,
then lay it up agen Till Christmas
next returne." "Part must be
kept wherewith to teend The Christmas
log next yeare; And where 'tis safely
kept, the fiend Can do no mischief
CANT. To toss lightly, to cast anything a small distance.
CAEK. Care: Care, Welsh.
CESS. A word used in calling dogs to their food. Probably in monastic halls
the portions assigned to the
brotherhood were originally called cessions, and the word was jocosely transferred afterwards to
the knight's kennel: Cessio, Latin.
" The poor jade is wrung in the withers out of all cess." Here the word means " out of all
measure." Shakespeare, Hen. IV.,
Part L, act ii. sc. 1.
CHAM. To chew: Cham, Sanscrit (?) to eat.
CHAK, or CHIR. A job; hence charwoman: either
Jour, French, as hired by the day, or Cyrre, Saxon, labour.
" And when thou'st done this chare, I'll give thee leave To play till Doomsday."
Shakespeare, Anthony and Cleopatra, act v. sc. 2.
CHARM. A noise; a clamour: Cyrm, Saxon.
CHATS. The chips of wood when a tree is felled.
CHAUDRON. Entrails of a calf; metaphorically, any forced meats or stuffing put in the crops
of birds sent to table: Caul, Welsh
"Add thereto a tyger's chawdron." Shakespeare: Macbeth, act i
v. sc. 1.
" Swan with chaudron." Relation of the Island of England by an Italian, a.d. 1500, note 79.
CHAW. To chew. It may be merely the Cotswold pronunciation of chew: Chaw was
formerly written for jaw.
"I will put hookes in thy chawes." Ezekiel xxix. 4, and again xxxviii. 4, Breeches Bible.
CHAWK To gape. Spoken of apples chipped in the rind, viz., the chawn-pippin; also the
earth opening in dry weather: x avV0)
> Greek Probably of Indo- Germanic
origin, and a word in use both by the Greeks and the Teutonic tribes.
u thou all-bearing earth, Which men do
gape for, till thou cramm'st their mouths,
And choak'st their throats with dust; chaune thy breast, And let me sink into thee."
Ant. and Mell. Anc. Dr. II. 144. See Nares's Glossary.
CHILVER A ewe-lamb: Cilfer, Saxon.
CHISSOM. To bud forth. Especially applied to the first
shoots in newly cut coppice.
CHOCK-FULL. Full to choking.
CHUKK. The udder of a cow: Cirt, Saxon, benignitas, largitas, metaphorically used (?)
CLAMMY. Adhesive, sticky: This may be a metaphor drawn from the Shropshire word "
Clem," to starve; because the
skin then adheres closely to the attenuated
CLAVEY. Mantle-piece; chimney-piece: Cladde, Welsh.
CLAY- E AG. A composite stone, found in clay-pits.
CLEATS. A small wedge, commonly of wood.
CLEAVE. To cling to; also to burst hard bodies asunder by wedges: Clifian, Saxon.
"The clods cleave fast together. "Job, xxxviii. 38. " The men of Judah clave unto their
king." II. Samuel, xx. 2. "
The thin camelion, fed with air, receives
The colour of the thing to which he cleaves." Dry den. * * Like our strange garments, cleave not
to their mould, But with the aid of
" The priests with holy hands were seen to tine The cloven wood." Dry den.
OLITES. A plant, cleavers; Galium Aparine: Clate Saxon.
"A clote-lefe he had laid under his hode."
Chaucer. Chanon's Yeman's Prologue.
CLOUT. A heavy blow; Clud, Saxon; metaphorically derived from the clouded and
swelled appearance caused by a heavy
CLYP. To embrace: Clippan, Saxon.
"That Neptune's arms, who clippeth thee about, Would bear thee from the knowledge of
Shakespeare, King John, act v. sc. "2.
COLLY. Subst., Dirt, also the blackbird; Adject., black, dark; Verb, to defile: Coal (?) In Spanish
Hollin is soot.
" Brief as the lightning in the collied night." Shakespeare,
Midsum. Night's Dream, act i. sc. 1.
" Nor hast thou collied thy face enough, Stinkard!" Ben
Jonson, Poetaster, activ. sc. 5.
COLT. A landslip.
COMB. A valley with only one inlet: Comb, Saxon.
CONCEIT. To think, to believe; Subst, A strong mental impression: Concipio,
" The strong, by conceiting themselves weak," &c. Dr.
South. " One of two bad ways you
must conceit me, Either a coward or a
flatterer." Shakespeare. "A
blunt country gentleman, who understanding but little of the world, conceited the earth to be fastened
to the North and South poles by great
and massy cakes of ice." Hagiastrologia, J. Butler, b.d. 1680, p. 45.
" The same year Sir Thomas Egerton, the Lord Chancellor, died of conceit, fearing to be displaced."
Diary of Walter Yonge, Esq., 1619, p. 33.
COO-TEE. The wood pigeon's note.
COUNT. To consider; to suppose: Compter, French.
" Count not thy hand-maid for a daughter of Belial. " I.
Samuel, i. 16.
" Nor shall I count it heinous to enjoy
The public marks of honours and rewards." Milton.
COUKT-HOUSE. The manor-place, so called because the lord held his manor-court there.
CEANK. A dead branch of a tree: Krank, Dutch, sick, weakly.
CEAZY. A plant the Ranunculus Acris.
CEINCH. A morsel: Crunch, Sanscrit, to lessen, to diminish.
CEO WISHED. A pollard is said by the woodwards to be crowned, when the rind has healed over the
CUCKOLD. The seed-pod of the Burdock; as being shaped like the human head, and covered on
all sides by little horns (?)
CULL. A small fish, the miller's thumb: Callan, Sanscrit, a small fish.
DAAK. To dig up weeds: Daque, French.
D ADDLES. Said, playfully, of the hands: Tatze, German.
DADDOCKY. Said of decayed timber: Quasi, dead
DAP. To sink and rebound: Doppetan, Saxon.
DAP-CHICK. A bird, the little grebe, one of the divers.
DAY-WOMAN. Dairy-maid: Deggia, Icelandic, to give suck.
"For this damsel, I must keep her at the park; she is allowed for
the day -woman." Shakespeare,
Love's Labour Lost, acti. sc. 2.
DEADLY. A word meaning intenseness in a bad sense,
as "deadly lame," "deadly sore," "deadly
stupid," &c. DENT. An
indentation: Dens, Latin, a tooth.
DESIGHT. A blemish.
DESPEKD. Beyond measure, extremely: used in an evil sense: Desperate.
DISANNUL. To annul; a reduplication of the sense: Nullus, Latin.
" The Lord of Hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it?" Isaiah, xiv. 27.
" Wilt thou also disannul my judgment!" Job, xl. 8. "For there is verily a disannulling of
the commandment." Hebrews, vii.
18, and in other places in the Bible.
" Pope Pius the Fourth reflecting on the capricious and high answer his mad predecessor had made to her
address, sent one Parpalia to her, in
the second year of her reign, to invite her to join herself to that See, and he would disannul the sentence against
her mother's marriage." Bp.
Burnet, Hist, of the Reformation, Part II. bk. hi. p. 417, fol. ed.
1681. 11 Then I might easily disannul
the marriage. Scapin. Disannul the
Otway, Cheats of Scapin, act i. sc. 1.
DISMAL. Any evil in excess " He do cough dismal!" DOFF. To take off clothing: Do-off (?)
" He that unbuckles this, till we do please To doff't for our repose, shall bear a
Shakespeare, Anthony and Cleopatra, act iv. sc. 4.
DOLLOP. A lump; a mass of anything.
" Of barley, the finest and greenest ye find, Leave standing in dallops, till time ye do
Tusser's Husbandry, August 17.
DON. To clothe; to put on: Do-on?
" Menas, I did not think This
am'rous surfeitor would have donn'd his helm."
Shakespeare, Anthony and Cleop. act ii. sc. 1. " Then up he rose and donned his
clothes." Hamlet, act iv. sc. 5.
"Some donned a cuirass, some a corselet bright." Fairfax, Tasso, i. 72.
DOKMOUSE. Applied to the bat, because he sleeps in winter: dormio, Latin.
DOUT. To extinguish a light; to put out a candle: Do out (?)
" First, in the intellect it douts the light." Sylvester, Tobacco
DOWLE. Down on a feather; the first appearance of hair: Probably, Down, corruptly used.
" May as well Wound the loud
winds, or with be-mockt-at stabs Kill
the still-closing waters, as diminish
One dowle that's in my plume. "
Shakespeare, Tempest, act iii. sc. 3.
DRAVE, the same word as Thrave. A truss of straw; and by metaphor, a flock of animals, a
crowd: Thraf, Saxon.
" They come in thraves to frolic with him." Ben Jonson.
DRINK. Used as a term for beer; and limited to that beverage.
" And sometimes make the drink to bear no barm." Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, act iii. sc. 3.
DROXY. Spoken of decayed wood: Drogenlic, Saxon. DRUJSTGE. To embarrass, or perplex by
Throng (?) mispronounced. DTHONG.
Painful pulsation: Stang (?) Icelandic, same
DUDDLE. To stun with noise: Dyderian, Saxon.
DUDGEON. Ill-temper; also the dagger, as the result thereof.
" When civil dudgeon first grew high,
And men fell out, they knew not why." Hudibras.
DULKIN, DELKIN. A small, but dark descent; a ravine; Dell, or dale, with kin
as a diminutive.
DUMMLE. Dull, slow, stupid: Dom, Dutch.
DUNCH, DUNNY. Deaf; also imperfection in any of the faculties.
" What with the zmoke, and what with the criez, I was a'most blind, and dunch in my
MS. Ashmole, 36, f. 112. See Halliwell's Diet.
DUP. To exalt; do up (?) Possibly a metaphor from the portcullis.
DURGAN. A name found for a stocky, undersized horse, in all large teams: Dwerg, Saxon, a dwarf.
DWA-AL. To ramble in mind: Dwa-elen, Teuton.
DWAM. To faint away.
DYNT. The impression made by a heavy blow: Dynt Saxon.
EIEY. Spoken of a tall, clean-grown timber sapling Possibly, as tall enough to be chosen by
the hawk fo her eiry (?)
ELVER A small eel: El, Saxon.
ENTENNY. The main doorway of a house: Always so mispronounced.
ETTLES. Nettles: A common mispronunciation.
EYAS. A young hawk: A falconer's term, not yet lost, derived from Eye; (as next below.) See
" Hamlet," act ii. sc. 2.
EYE. A brood of pheasants: Ey, an egg, German.
" Sometimes an ey or t way. "Chaucer, The Nonnes Priest's
Tale, 1. 38.
"Unslacked lime, chalk, and gliere of an ey." Id. The Chanones Yeman's Tale, 1. 252.
" The eyren that the hue laid. "Deposition of King Richard II.
FAGGOT. A word applied in derogation to an old woman, as deserving a faggot for witchcraft
FALL of the year. Autumn: Falewe, Saxon; to grow yellow: the colour fallow.
FEND. To forbid; to defend: Defendre, French.
FILLS see also TILLS, THILLS, TILLEK-HOKSE. The
shafts of a cart: Thill, Saxon.
"If you draw backwards we'll put you in the fills.
"Shakespeare, Troil. and Ores.,
act iii. sc. 2.
FILTHY, VILTRY. Filth of any kind; weeds in cultivated land.
FLAKES, FLE-AK. A wattled hurdle.
FLAT. A common term for a low, concave surface in a field.
FLICK. Verb. To tear off the skin or felt by the smack of a whip, or the hasty snap of a greyhound
when he fails to secure the hare;
Subst., the fat between the bowels of
a slaughtered animaL
"I'll lend un a vlick." Fielding's History of a Foundling,
Squire Western passim.
FLOWSE, FLOWSING. Flowing, flaunting: Fliessen, German.
" They flirt, they yerk, they backward fluce, they fling, As if the devil in their heels had
-FLUMP. Applied to a heavy fall " he came down with
a flump:" Plump (?) FLUSH, or
FLESHY. Spoken of young birds fledged.
FORE-RIGHT. Opposite to: Foran, Saxon.
FOR- WHY. Because; on account of: For-hwe, Saxon.
"For why? The Lord our God is good." 100th Psalm, Old Version. "For why? He remembered His holy
promise." Psalm cv. 42,
FRITH. Young white thorn, used for sets in hedges: Ffrith, wood, Welsh.
" To lead the goodly routs about the rural lawns, As over holt and heath, as thorough frith
and fell. "
Drayton. " He hath both hallys
and bowrys, Frithes, fayr forests, and
Romance of Emare*. " When they
sing loud in frith or in forest." Chaucer.
FRORE, FROR. Frozen: Frieren, German.
" The parching air Barns frore,
and cold performs the part of fire." Milton. " And some from far-off regions
frore." Bishop Mant, British Months,
FROM-WARD, FROM-MARD. Opposite to Toward.
ERUM, FROOM, FRIM, FREM. Full, abundant,
flourishing: From, Saxon.
"Through the frira pastures at his leisures." Drayton.
GAITLE. To wander idly: Ge-gada, Saxon.
GAITLING, GADLING. An idler; a loiterer.
" When God was on earth and wandered wide, What was the reason why he would not
ride? Because he would have no groom
to go by his side, Nor discontented
gadling to chatter and chide. "
Old Song, Wright's House of Hanover.
GALLOW. To alarm; to frighten: Agselan, Saxon.
" The wrathful skies Gallow the
weary wanderers of the night."
Shakespeare, King Lear, act iii. sc. 2.
GALLOWED, or GALLARD. Frightened.
GALORE. An exclamation signifying abundance: Gulori, Gaelic.
Frequent in ballads. See Sibbald's, Bitson's, and Percy's Collections.
GAMUT. Sport: Gamen, Saxon; Gaman, Icelandic.
"And that never on Eldridge come
To sport, gamon, or playe."
Percy's Reliques, Sir Cauline. 112.
"All wite ye good men, hu the gamon goth." Political
Song, Wright, p. 331, 1. 180.
"There was a gamon in Engelond that dured zer and other, Erliche upon the Munday uch man bishrewed
others; So long lasted that gamon
among lered and lewed, That n'old they
never stinten, or al the world were bishrewed."
p. 340, 1. 367.
GAULY, GAUL, GALL. Sour marsh-land, metaphor
taken from " gall," a wound; which sense is also in common use: Gealla, Saxon.
GAYN", and its contradictory, UN-GAYN. Happily advantageous; lucky.
GEAR Harness; apparel: Gearwa, Saxon.
" The frauds he learned in his frantic years, Made him uneasy in his lawful gears."
GICK, GE-AK, KECK, KEXIES. Dry stalks, more
especially of the tall, umbelliferous plants; Geac, Saxon.
" And nothing teems But hateful
docks, rough thistles, kexies, burs."
Shakespeare, Henry V., act v. sc. 2.
" If I had never seen, or never tasted The goodness of this kix, I had been a made
Beaumont and Fletcher, Coxcomb, act i. sc. 2.
"With wyspes, and kexies, and rysches ther light To fetch horn their husbandes, that wer
them trouth- plight."
Bitson, Antient Songs, Tournament of Tottenham, p. 93.
GIMMALS. Hinges: Gemelli, twins, Latin.
GLOWR. To stare moodily, or with an angry aspect; Gluren, Teuton.
GLOUT. To look surly or sulky: Gloa, Suio-Gothic.
" Glouting with sullen spight, the fury shook Her clotted locks." Garth.
GLUM, GLUMP. Gloomy; displeased: Glum, Teuton.
" Whiche whilom will on folke* smile,
And glombe on hem an othir while. "
Chaucer, Bomaunt of the Bose, 1. 4356.
GODE. Past tense of To go, often softened into yode.
" As I yod on a Monday Bytweene
Wiltinden and Walle."
Bitson, Ballad on the Scottish War, 1. 1.
" In other pace than forth he yode Beturned Lord Marmion."
Sir Walter Scott, Marmion, canto iii. xxxi.
GRIP. A drain: Grsep, Saxon.
GRIT. Sandy, stony land: Gritta, Saxon.
" Pierce the obstructive grit and restive mail." Phillips.
GROANING. Parturition: metaphorically used.
" You may as safely tell a story over a groaning- cheese, as to
him." Farquhar, Love and a
Bottle, act ii.
GEOUNDS. Commonly used for fields, and those usually grass-lands.
GROUTS, GEITS. Oatmeal; also dregs: Grut, Saxon.
" King Hardicnute, 'midst Danes and Saxons stout, Caroused on nut-brown ale, and dined on
grout." King. "Sweet boney
some condense, some purge the grout." Dryden.
GULCH. A fat glutton: Gulo, Latin.
"You'll see us then, you will, gulch." Ben Jonson, Poetaster, act iii. sc. 4.
"Thou muddy gulch, darest look me in the face?" Brewer.
GULLY. A deep, narrow ravine, usually with a rill therein: Gill, North country dialect.
GUMPTION. Spirit; sense; quick observation: Gaum, Icelandic.
" Within two yer therafter some to Morgan come, And, for he of the elder soster was, bed
Robert of Gloucester, p. 38, Hearne's Ed.
"An eh, troth, Meary, I's as gaumless as a goose." Tim
Bobbin, p. 52.
GUEGINS. The coarser meal of wheat: quasi
HACKLE. A gamekeeper's word; To interlace the hind-legs of game for
convenience of carriage, by houghing
the one and slitting the film of the other limb.
HAINE. To shut up a meadow for hay: Haye, a hedge, French.
HALE, pronounced " Haul." To draw with violence, or with a team: Haa-len, Dutch.
" Lest he hale thee to the judge." St. Luke, xii. 58.
HAMES, plural HAMES-ES. The wooden supports to a horse-collar in teams; made of metal in
HANDY. Near; convenient; when applied to an individual, clever: Gehend,
HANK. A skein of any kind of thread.
HARBOUR. To abide; to frequent: Herebeorgan, Saxon.
" This night let's harbour here in York." Shakespeare. '* Let not your gentle breast Harbour one thought of oiitrage from the
HARSLET. The main entrails of a hog: Hasla, Icelandic a bundle.
"There was not a hog killed in the three parishes, whereof he had
no^ part of the harslet, or
puddings." Ozell's Rabelais, iii. 41. See Nares'fc Glossary.
HATCH. A door which only half fills the doorway. HAULM. Dead stalks: Healm, Saxon,
" In champion countries a pleasure they take
To mow up their haum, for to brew or to bake." " The haum is the straw of the wheat
or the rie."
Tusser's Husbandry, January 14, 15.
HAUNCHED. To be gored by the horns of cattle: from Haunch, where the wound would usually be
HAY-SUCK. Hedge-sparrow: Hege-sugge, Saxon.
"Thou murdrir of the heisugge on the braunche That brought thee forth."
Chaucer, Assemblie of Fowles, 1. 612.
HAYWARD. An officer appointed at the court leet, to see that cattle do not break the hedges of
enclosed lands, and to impound them
when trespassing. Hegge, Saxon.
" The Hayward heteth us harm." Political Songs, temp. Edward
I., p. 149. Wright.
HAZEK To chide; to check a dog by the voice: Haesa, Saxon, mandatum.
" Haze, perterrifacio." Ainsworth's Dictionary.
HEATHER. The top-binding of a hedge: Heder, Saxon.
" In lopping and felling save edder and stake, Thine hedges, as needeth, to mend, or to
Tusser's Husbandry, January 13.
HEEL of the hand. The part above the wrist, opposite
the thumb. HEFT. Subst, Weight,
burden; Verb, To weigh: Hceftan,
HELE. To cover: Helan, Saxon.
" Parde\ we women connen nothing hele,
Witness on Midas."
Chaucer, Wife of Bathes Tale, 1. 94.
HELIAR A thatcher.
HIC-WALL The green woodpecker: Name derived from his cry.
11 The crow is digging at his breast amain,
The sharp-nebbed hecco stabbing at his brain." Drayton. "And this same herb your hickways,
alias woodpeckers, use."- Ozell's
Kabelais, iv. 62.
HIGHST. To uplift; to hoist.
HILLAED, HILLWAED. Towards the hill or high
HILT, see Yelt.
HINGE. The liver, lungs, and heart of a sheep, hanging to the head by the windpipe: Hangan, Saxon.
HIVE. To cherish; to cover as a hen her chickens: Hife, Saxon.
" And sesith on her sete, with her softe plumes, And hoveth the eyren." Deposition of
King Rich. II.
HOG. A sheep of either sex, one year old: Owca, a sheep, Polish (?) Og, young; Gaelic (?)
HOLT. A high wood: Holt, Saxon.
u The fawkon and the fessaunt both
Among the holtes on hee."
Battle of Otterbourne, Percy's lleliques.
"Makyne went hameward blyth enough
Out owre the holtis hair." Ditto.
" Whan Zephirus eke with his sote brethe En spired hath in every holte and
hethe The tendre croppes."
Chaucer, Prol. Canterbury Tales, 1. 5.
HOOP. The bullfinch: So called from the white mark on his neck.
HOPE. A hill.
HOUSEN. Plural of houses.
HOX. To cut in an unseemly manner: From the ancient
practice of houghing cattle; sometimes, mankind. HUT, or HOT. Past tense of To hit.
1 ' A viper, smitten or hot with a reed, is astonied."
Scott's Discovery of Witchcraft, 5, 8.
INGLE* Fondling; favourite; Verb, To fondle, to cherish, to love: Ing, Saxon, patronymic;
also diminutive, used affectionately.
" Well, Tom, give me thy fist, we are friends, you shall be mine
ingle, I love you." Ford, Witch
of Edmonton, act iii. sc. 2.
"And kissed, and ingled on thy father's knee." Donne, Eleg. iv.
ININ, or INKIOK The onion.
INNARDS, INWARDS. The intestines: Innode, Saxon. INTO. Used frequently for "
except," as " All gone into
one ": Even to, contracted to " E'en to."
JARL, pronounced "YARL." The title Earl: Jarl, Norwegian.
JETTY. To protrude; to thrust out: Jut.
" O'erhang and jetty." Shakespeare, Hen IV., act iii. sc. 1.
JIGGER. To put out of joint; as, " I'll jigger thee neck."
* The exact meaning of this word has been misunderstood by Burns, and he has been followed by Sir Walter
Scott, in the interpretation given to
the word "Ingle-nook." Both these eminent poets consider v Ingle-nook" to mean the fire-place,
the hearth-stone; it really means that
seat which in wide ancient chimneys is frequently found built on either side the fire, and within the arch
of the fire-place itself, often called
also the " Sluggard's corner." This, as the warmest seat in
the hall, was given to the most
delicate and favoured of the children, and
hence was called " the Ingle-nook." See also Nares's
Glossary on this word, where the
meaning, as we have stated it, is clearly maintained, together with an undoubted, but most
unhappy, extension of it.
JOGGET. A small load of hay.
JOMETTEY. Spoken of anything self-supported in an unknown manner: Geometry.
"It hangs by Jomettry." Common phrase; geometry being considered as
JOWL. The jaw-bone: Chaule or chaw, which see.
" Of an ass he caught the chaule-bone." Baker, 33.
"Pigs' chauls are to be had at every pork-shop." See Nares's
JUNKETS. Sweetmeats, dainties.
"You know, there wants no junkets at the feast," Shakespeare, Taming the Shrew, act iii. end.
KALLENGE. Challenge; so pronounced.
KECK. To heave at the stomach: Kecken, Dutch.
" Therefore patients must not keck at them at first." Bacon's
" The faction is it not notorious?
Keck at the memory of the glorious." Swift.
KEECH. A lump of fat, congealed after melting.
" Thou obscene, greasy tallow keech." Shakespeare, Hen. IV., Part
I. act ii. sc. 4.
" I wonder, That such a keech can
with his very bulk Take up the rays of
the beneficial sun."
Hen. VIII., act i. sc. 1.
KEEE LUCKS. Look here; so spoken.
KERFE. A cutting from a hayrick: Ceorfau, Saxon.
KINCH. The young fry of fish: Kunch-ike, a fish, Sanscrit t
KIND. Promising well, prosperous, healthy: Cynne, Saxon.
" The asp is kind," " the tree grows kind," " the
sow looks kind." Common phrases.
KING-CROWN. The wild guelder rose, viburnium opulus: The flower formerly used wherewith to crown
the king of May.
KITTLE. Anything requiring nice management: Kitselen, Teut.
LAGGER. A long strip of land: Laggs, long, Gothic. LAIKING. Idling, playing truant: Quasi,
lacking service, masterless.
" And if hym list for to laike,
Thenne loke we mowen." Vis. of Piers Plowman, 1. 341.
LAMB. To beat: Perhaps the same as " lame," but it is popularly derived from the murder of Dr.
Lamb by the London mob, temp. Charles
LAND AM. To abuse with rancour: Damn through the land.
** Would I knew the villain, I would
Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, act ii. sc. i.
LAREOP. To beat, to flog: Said to be a sea term from " lee " and " rope,"
because the culprit goes to leeward to
LATTERMATH. Grass after mowing: see Atter-math.
LAYTER. The fuU amount of eggs laid by a bird.
LEE, LEW. Shelter from wind or rain: Hie, Hlie, Icelandic. LEECH. A cow doctor: Lece, Saxon.
Used for a physician by old writers, passim.
LEER. Empty, hungry: Ge-lear, Saxon.
" But at the first encounter down he lay, The horse ran leere away without the
Harrington's Ariosto, xxiv. 64.
LEESE. To glean corn: Lesan, Saxon.
" Mai I no longere lyve with my leesinge." Song of the
Husbandman, Polit. Songs, temp. Edw.
" She in harvest used to leese,
But, harvest done, to chare-work did aspire." Dryden.
LENNEK, LENOW. To soften, to assuage: Lenis, Lenior Latin (?)
LIBBET. A shred, a tatter: Perhaps from the old word
" lib " to emasculate. Shakespeare writes it " glib."
" I'm libbed in the breech already." Massinger, Renegado, act
ii.sc.2. " They are
co-heirs, And I had rather glib myself
than they Should not produce fair
Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, act ii. sc. 1.
LIFF, LIEVEE. Eather, more inclined to: Leof, Saxon. LIGHTING-STOCK. Steps to facilitate ascent
or descent when riding.
LIKE. A frequent pleonasm, as " dead-like,"
&c.: Lich, Saxon. LILL Spoken of
the tongue of a dog dropping his saliva.
" And lilled forth his bloody tongue." Spenser's Fairy Queen, i.
LIMBER. Weak, pliant, flagging: Lim, Saxon.
" Those waved their limber fans
For wings." Milton. "
You put me off with limber vows," Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, act i. sc. 2.
" Limberham," one of Dryden's comic characters; a weak person.
LIMP. Flabby, flexible: Lim, Saxon.
" The chub eats waterish; and the flesh of him is not firm, but
limp and tasteless." Isaac
LINCH. A small precipice, usually covered with grass:
Hlinc, Saxon. LINNET. Flax dressed,
but not twisted into thread: Linet,
Saxon. LISSOME. Active, nimble:
Lightsome. LITHER Light, active,
sinewy: Lith, Saxon.
" Two Talbots, winged through the lither sky, In thy despite shall 'scape
Shakespeare, Hen. VI., Part I., act iv. sc. 7. " I'll bring thy lither legs in better
frame." Look about you, 1600,
LIZZEN. A chasm in a rock: Loosen?
LIZZOKY, LEZZOEY. The Service tree.
LOATH. Unwilling; also verb, To abhor.
" Egypt shall lothe to drink of the river," Exodus, vii. 18. " Ye shall lothe yourselves for your
iniquities." Ezekiel, xxx. 3, ind
LOP. To cut growing wood: Lup, Sanscrit?
" Behold, the Lord shall lop the bough." Isaiah, x. 33.
LUG. A measure of land, a perch; also a long pole.
" And eke that ample pit, yet far renowned For the large leap which Debon did
compel Coulin to make being eight lugs
Spenser's Fairy Queen, ii. x. 11.
|LUSH. Abundant, flourishing.
" How lush and lusty the grass looks." Shakespeare, Tempest,
act ii. sc. 1.
LUSTY. Strong, in full health: Lust, Saxon.
" Where barley ye sow, after rye, or else wheat, If the land be un-lusty the crop is not
Tusser's Husbandry, October, 24.
MAIN, AMAIN, MAINLY. In an excessive degree:
MAKE. Mate, companion, lover: Maca, Saxon.
" There's no goose so grey in the lake,
That cannot find a gander for her make."
Lyly's Mother Bombie, iii. 4. "
This is no season To seek new makes
Ben Jonson, Tale of a Tub, act i. sc. 1.
" The maids and their makes,
At dances and wakes." Owls.
MAMMOCK. Subst., A shred, a tatter; verb, To tear in pieces.
" He did so set his teeth, and tear it; 0, 1 warrant, how he
mammockt it." Shakespeare,
Coriolanus, act i. sc. 3.
MAUNDER To ramble in mind, to speak uncertainly, to mutter, to grumble: Maudire, French.
" My neighbour justice maunders at me." Beaumont and Fletcher, Rule a Wife, act iii. sc. 1.
" He made me many visits, maundering, as if I had done him an
injury, in having such an
opening." Wiseman's Surgery.
MAZZAKDS. Wild cherries: Perhaps from their resem-i blance in shape to the skull; in which
latter sense the word is used by
Shakespeare and Butler.
" And knockt about the mazzard with a sexton's spade." Shakespeare,
Hamlet, act v. sc. 1.
" Where thou might'st stickle, without hazard Of outrage to thy hide or mazzard."
MERE. A strip of grass left as a boundary in open fields Mear, Saxon.
"And Hygate made the meare thereof by west." Spenser's Fairy: Queen, iii. ii. 46.
" What mound, or steady mere, is offered to my sight?" " The furious Team, that, on the
Cambrian side, Doth Shropshire, as a
mear, from Hereford divide."
Drayton's Polyolbion, i., pp. 656 and 807.
MICHE, MYCHE, MOOCHE. To idle, to play truant; t pilfer.
" This is miching mallecho, it means mischief." Shakespeare,
Hamlet, act. iii. sc. ii.
"Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a micher, and eat
blackberries?" Hen. IV., Part I., act ii. sc. 4.
" Sure she has some meaching rascal in her house." Beaumont
MTLT. The spleen: From its resemblance to the spawn j
of fish (?) MIND. To remember: Munan,
Saxon. 'MIKE. To wonder, to admire;
the first syllable cut off:
Admiror, Latin. MIKKSHET. Twilight:
" Ere twice, in merk and occidental damp, Moist Hesperus hath quencht his sleepy
Shakespeare, All's Well, &c, act ii. sc. 1.
MOIL, MYLE. To labour, to toil, to defile by labour.
The well known anagram on the name of Sir William Noy, Att. Gen. to King Charles I., is an example of this
word, " I moyl in law."
" In th' earth we moile with hunger, care, and pain." Mirr.
for Magist., p. 75, ed. 1610.
MO OK. A marsh: Moor, Teuton.
" No, Caesar; they be pathless, moorish minds, That being once made rotten with the
dung Of damned riches, ever after
sink.'' Ben Jonson.
" Along the moorish fens Sighs
the sad genius of the coming storm." Thomson.
MOOK-HEN. The water-hen, the gallinull.
MOKE. The roots of a plant: Moran, Saxon.
" Ten thousand mores of sundry scent and hew." Spenser.
MOKING-AXE. A pick-axe.
MOKT. A vast quantity: Mors, death, Latin; as enough to kill one; or Morgt, Icelandic.
"Here's a mort of merry making, eh?" Sheridan, The Rivals, act i. sc. 1.
" Nobody knows what a mort of fine things he used to say to
me." Mrs. Cowley, Belle's
Stratagem, act iii. sc. 1.
MORTAL Excessively, extremely.
MOTHEKING-SUKDAY. Midlent Sunday: when cakes
were presented to children or friends.
" I'll to thee a simnell bring
'Gainst thou goest a mothering." Herrick.
MOUND. A fence, a boundary: Mund, Saxon.
" No cold shall hinder me, with horns and hounds' To thrid the thickets, or to leap the
MUN. An affirmative interjection, probably Man: Mon, Saxon.
" Jacob. But the best fun is to come, mun!
Vane Now to the point (aside) Is your lady married?. Jacob. Noa; but she's as good; and what's
think, mun? To a lord's zun!"
Mrs. Gentlivre, Chapter of Accidents, act ii. sc. 2.
" Is it not pure? 'Tis better than lavender, mun!" Congreve, Love for Love, act ii. sc. 10.
MUST. The crushed apples or pears, when the juice is pressed out for cyder or perry: Mustum,
NAGGLE, NIGGLE. To tease, to fret; to nibble with fcto teeth: Naegel, a nail, Saxon.
NALE. An ale-house: iEle, Saxon.
NAKON. None: Never, ne'er a one.
" Nation vine weyther." Common phrase.
NEIVE. The hand: Naeve, Danish.
"I wu'-not, my good twopenny rascal, reach me thy neuf." Ben
Jon son, Poetaster, act iii. sc. 4.
" Give me thy neefe, Monsieur Mustard-seed." Shakespeare,
Midsum Night's Dream, act iv. sc. 1.
NESH. Weak, tender: Nesc, Saxon.
" Oure nesch and hard heifore, and did the Welsh-men daie."
Pet Langtoft, p. 242. Hearne's ed.
" For love his harte is tendre and nesche." Chaucer, Court of Love.
" The darker fir, light ash, and the nesh tops of the young hazel
join.' Crowe, Lewesden Hill, v. 31.
NOT, NOTTED. Applied to cattle without horns: because in such cases the brow
is thickly knotted with hair.
NUNCHEON. Vulgarly/Juncheon: Noon-chine. Some derive it from "
noon-shun," as if to refresh while avoiding the heat of midday.
" With cheese and butter-cakes enow,
On sheaves of corn were at their nunshons close."
Brown, Brit. Pastorals, p. 2, v. 8.
" Laying by their swords and truncheons,
They took their breakfasts and their nuncheons." Hudibr
(delwedd 2917 )
ODDS. Any difference between two specimens or statements. ON. The sign of the genitive case.
" One on 'em," (one of them). Common phrase.
OODLE, HOODLE, WOOD-WAIL. The nightingale:
Wald and Wala, Saxon.
" The wood-wail sung and would not cease, Sitting upon a spray, Soe loud she wakened Eobin Hood In the greene wood where he lay."
Percy's Ballads, viii. 86.
OONT or WOONT. The mole: Wand-nurre, Saxon.
" She hath the ears of a want, a mole." Lyly's Midas, act v. sc. 2.
OR Before: Ere.
" At last he drew His sword ar he
were y-wer." Robert of Gloucester.
" Or ever your pots be made hot with thorns." Ps. lviii. 8.
* Or ever they came at the bottom of the den." Daniel vi., 24. " And we, or ever he come near, are
ready to kill him." Acts of
Apost. xxiii. 15.
OETS. Chaff, any worthless matter: Nought; the first letter struck off (?)
PACE. To raise with a lever: Pesser, French.
PAEGITER A plasterer.
PAUNCH. Verb, a sporting word, To disembowel game.
" The vi. day of August was bered in Powle's Cherch-yerd on Archer, the wych was slain at Sant James fayre, in
the feld by on . . . shamfully, for he was panchyd with ys own sword."
Machyn's Diary, 1558, p. 170.
PEASEN. The plural of pea: Pois, French.
" With peasen, for pottage in Lent,
Thou sparest both oatmeal and bread to be spent."
Tusser's Husbandry, March, 26. "Count
peason or brank as a comfort to land." Tusser's Hus bandry, October, 20.
PECK. To fall forward with the motion of a bird pecking also, to fling away in the latter sense,
"You i' th' camblet, get up o' the rail, I'll peck you o'er the
pale else." Shakespeare, Hen.
VIII. , act v. sc. 5.
PELT. To throw stones or other missiles. FULL PELT, To
run with speed and force metaphor, from a shower o stones.
PICK. A hay fork: Pike, Puc, Saxon. Acicula (?)
PIDDLE. To triflle, to do light work.
" I am now going to a party of quadrille, only to piddle at a little
o it at two poor guineas a fish."
Farquhar, Journey to London, ac i. sc.
" From slashing Bentley down to piddling Tibbalds." Pope.
" Piddling at a mushroom, or the haunch of a frog." Guardian No. 34.
" He recommended that we should begin piddling with a quart o claret a day." Sir Walter Scott, Rob
PILL. The pool caused by the junction of two streams Pil, Welsh.
PIP. Verb. To break the egg in hatching; also the first bursting of a flower pod: Peep.
PIEGY. Quarrelsome, cross-grained in temper: Burgh, Saxon, any place strengthened for
PITCH. To fall down heavily; also to cast away a burden, as " pitching " or loading hay
into a waggon,
11 And tho he was y-flowe an hey, and ne cowthe not a ligte A doun mid so gret eir to the erthe he fel
Robert of Gloucester, p. 29. "
Forward he flew, and pitching on his head,
He quivered with his feet and lay for dead." Dryden.
PITH, PETH. The crumb of bread; the formation in the cavity of the elder tree: Pitha, Saxon.
PLASH. A small pool: Plasche, Teuton.
" For I have Pisa left, And am to
Padua come; as he that leaves A
shallow plash to plunge him in the deep."
Shakespeare, Taming the Shrew, act i. sc. 1.
PLEACH. To lay a hedge; to intertwine the branches of
pollards for shading a walk. PLIM. To
swell with moisture: Plyme, prnnum, Saxon I
(Metaphorically used to express any swelling containing
"The bacon plims in the pot." Grose.
PLY. To bend; Subst. A bending, a turn.
" I think not Prince Charles safe in Jersey. In God's name let him stay with thee, till it is seen what ply my
business will take." King Charles
I. to his Queen; letter dated Newcastle, May 28, 1646.
POLLAPiDS or POLTS. A mixed crop of peas and beans: Bol, Dutch, a bean, or peul, a chick-pea.
" White pollard or red, that so richly is set, For land that is heavy, is best ye can
Tusser's Husbandry, October, 16.
POSSY. A great number: The sheriff's posse comitatus. POTCH. To poke with the finger, or any
POVEY. An owl; Prom the appearance of the bird,
- puffy." POWEK. Any vast
POZY. A bunch of flowers, a nosegay: such nosegays were formerly presented to ladies with laudatory
" Be merry And drink sherry
that's my posie."
Ben Jonson, New Inn.
PEIZE. Verb, To weigh: Priser, French, to appraise, to
value. PKONG-. A large hay-fork:
" Be mindful With iron teeth of
prongs to move The crusted
earth." Dryden's Virgil. M High
o'er the hearth a chine of bacon hung;
Good old Philemon seized it with a prong."
Baucis and Philemon.
PUCK. A quantity of sheaves stacked together: Poke>, pocket.
PUCK-FOUST A fungus, the puff-ball: Puck, the fairfl and fust.
PUCK-LEDDEN. Deceived, betrayed by false ideas;1 Led by Puck, the fairy.
PUE. The udder of a cow: Piw, Welsh, a dug.
PURE. In good health, or with good success.
PUEL. To throw with violence. Quasi, hurl?
QUAE. A stone quarry: Carriere, French.
" The stwons that bwilt Gearge Bidler's oven, And thay did cwome vrom Blakeney's
Old Song in Gloucestershire. See also Drayton. " Cut from the quar Of Machiavel, a true cornelian."
Ben Jonson, Magnetic Lady, act i. sc. 7.
QUAEEEL. A square pane of glass: Carreau, French.
" A lozenge is a most beautiful figure being in his kind a
quadrangle reverst,with his point
upwards, like a quarrel of glass." Puttenham, B. II., ch. 11.
QUICK, QUICKSET. Young white-thorn for hedges: Derived from rapidity of growth.
QUILT. To swallow, to gulp, to catch breath by swallowing: derived from the
" How now, blown, Jack? How now, quilt?" Shakespeare, Hen.
IV., Parti., activ. sc. 2.
" He sat with me while I had quilted two pigeons, very handsome and good meat." Pepys's Diary, Sept. 26,
QUIST. A wood-pigeon: Cuseote, Saxon.
QUITCH, SQUITCH. Couch-grass: Cwice, Saxon.
QUOB, QUOP. To tremble, to quail, to beat strongly at the heart.
" His hearte began to quappe,
Hearing her come." Chaucer.
"My heart 'gan quop full oft." Ordinary II. 2.
" But, zealous sir, what say you to a touch at praier? How quops the spirit?" Fletcher's Poems, p. 203.
QUOMP. To subdue: Cwealm, Saxon.
BACK. A path, chiefly applied to paths mades by hares: Balka, cursitare, Sivedish; or racke, a
BAG-. To chide, to abuse: Wregan, Saxon.
" I ragged him for it." Pegge.
BAMES. Dead stalks; also a skeleton.
BAMSHACKLE. To move, with noise, in a loose, disjointed manner: Bam in
" He came in ram-shackle fashion." Common phrase.
BAMSONS. Broad-leaved garlic, allium ursinum.
" The third sort of garlic, called ramsons, hath mostly two brode blades or leaves." Lyte's Dodoeus, p.
BANGLE. To entwine, to embarrass as woodbine: Wrangle, to argue,
BASSLE. To run at the roots, and thus to form new plants: Quasi, wrestle.
BATH. Early, quick, rash: Hrseth, Saxon.
BAUGHT. The past tense of Beach: Bcehte, Saxon.
" That with his grene top the heven raught." Chaucer, The
Knights' Tale, 1. 2917.
" The moon was a month old when Adam was no more, And raught not to five weeks when he came
to five score."
Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost, act iii. sc. 2. " This staff of honour raught, there
let it stand, Where best it fits to
be. in Henry's hand."
Id. Hen. IV., Part II., act ii. sc. 3.
" The English, then supposed to be alone, came in presence of
the enemie before that intelligence
rought him." Autobiography of K. Jas.
II., Vol. ii. p. 493, fol. ed.
EAVES. The rails which surround the bed of a waggon. EAVELMENT. Entanglement. EEED. Counsel: Eced, Saxon.
" He could no better rede." Chaucer, Monk's Tale.
1 ' Himself the primrose-path of dalliance treads, And recks not his own rede."
Shakespeare, Hamlet, act i. sc. 3.
BEEN. A small stream: Ehin, Welsh.
EEEEMOUSE. The bat: Hrere-mus, Sax.on.
" Some war with rear-mice for their leathern wings."
Shakespeare, Midsum. Night's Dream,
act ii. sc. 3.
" Once a bat, and ever a bat, a reremouse and bird of twilight." Ben Jonson, New Inn, act iii. sc. 1. " Sir, I keep no shades Nor shelters, I, for either owls or
Ibid., act i. sc. 2.
EENEAGE. To renounce, to deny; but chiefly, to decline to follow suit at cards: Eenier, French.
" His captain's heart, Which in
the scuffles of great fights hath burst
The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper."
Shakespeare, Ant. and Cleopatra, act. i. sc. I.
EETCH. To strain before sickness: Hroecan, Saxon. EIDE, A rootstock in coppice: Wriden, Saxon,
germinare. EIME. Hoar-frost:
" In rime-frosts you shall find drops of dew upon the inside of
glass windows." Bacon.
EINCE, EINCE OUT. To cleanse; applied chiefly to washing drinking glasses: Hrains, Goth., to
" This last costly treaty
Swallowed so much treasure, and, like a glass, Did break in the rinsing."
Shakespeare. "They cannot boil,
nor wash, nor rinse, they say." King.
EIVE. To split asunder.
" I was about to tell thee, when my heart, As wedged with a sigh, would rive in
Shakespeare, Troil. and Cress, act i. sc. 1.
EOLLEES. Hay rolled together preparatory to loading. EONGS. Steps in a ladder: Hrugg, Goth.
This word is used for staves in Eitson's Antient Ballads.
EOUND, EUNE. Verb, To whisper: Eunian, Saxon.
"What rownest thou with our maide? Benedicite!" Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Prologue.
" They're here with me already; whispering, rounding, 1 Sicilia is a so-forth.' "
Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, act i. sc. 1.
EOUNDS. An accustomed circuit.
"Edward, with horror and alarm, beheld the animal making his rounds." Sir Walter Scott, Waverley,
EOVE. The past tense of Eive; also to wander.
EUCK. A crease in a garment, any accumulation: Hric, Saxon.
EUGGLE. Verb, to struggle; subst. A child's rattle, a bell for sheep: Hrug, Saxon, asper.
EUMPLE. To discompose linen, bedding, wearing apparel,
EUSTY, EEASTY. Spoken of rancid bacon, or salt meat.
" Through folly too beastly Much
bacon is reasty."
Tusser's Husbandry, November.
SCANTLINGS. The slabs or outsides of a tree, when sawn into boards.
SCATHE, SCEATH. Damage: Sceathe, Saxon.
" But she was some-dele defe, and that was scathe." Chaucer,
Cant. Tales, Prol., 1. 448.
"Of scathe I will me skere. Political Songs, temp. Ed. I.
" To do offence, or scathe, in Christendom." Shakespeare, K.
John, act ii. sc. 1.
SCOET. The foot-marks of horses, cattle, or deer; also the drag on a wheel; because it scores the
road: Quasi, scored, or scaera,
SCEEECH. A bird, the swift: from its cry when on the wing.
SCREECH-DROSSLE. The missel-thrush: Drossel, German, and screech, its cry
SCRUB. Shrub: Scrob, Saxon.
SCRUSE, SCRUZ. The past tense of Squeeze.
" And having scruz out of his carrion corse The hateful life." Spenser, Fairy
SCUBBLN". The fore quarter of a lamb without the shoulder.
SEEDS. A clover lay.
SEG. A clothier's word Urine used in their fabrics: Sege, Saxon, Casus?
SEGS, ZEGS. Sedges, the water plant: Secge, Saxon.
11 Segs, and bulrush, and the shepherd's reed." Drayton, Moses, p. 1582.
" I've wove a coffin, for his corse of segs, That with the wind did wave like
Cornelia, Old Plays ii. 266. See Nares's Glossary.
SEWENT. Successive, applied to a continuous rain: Sew, to follow, Cornish (?) The law word, To
" And heo of Troy siwede without eny feyntyse." Robert of
Gloucester, p. 20.
SHARD. A breach in a fence.
" And often to our comfort we shall find
The shard ed beetle in a safer hold
Than is the full-winged eagle."
Shakespeare, Cymb. act iii. sc. 3.
SHATTERS. Fragments of broken pottery, glass, or other hard but fragile substances.
SHIDE. A small plank, a piece of wood split off from timber: Scide, Saxon.
Frequent in Sibbald's Collection of Old Ballads.
SHOEE UP. To prop with timber.
\ " They undermined the wall, and, as they wrought, shored it up
with itimber. " Knowles.
SHOT, SHOT OF. To be rid of; Shittan, Saxon, to cast down or away.
"lam well shot of it." Common phrase.
SHKIM. To shiver, to shrink np with cold or terror.
Scrimman, Saxon. SHEOUD. To lop a
pollard tree. Screadan, Saxon. SIGHT.
A vast number.
11 A sight of blind volk." Cotswold phrase. " A sight of flambeaux, and a noise of
fiddles." Shad well, The
Scowrers, act, v. sc. 1.
SKAG. A rent; also a branch not primed close to the tree. SKALE. A skimming dish: Schale, idem,
Longobardic. SKELM. A long pole.
SKID. A drag to a carriage, the shoe under the wheel: Skid, idem. Icelandic.
SKIUL, SKEEL. A shallow tub wherein to cool beer: Quasi, Schale as above?
SKILLING. A cow-shed: Skiul, idem, Swedish.
SKEIKE. To shriek: Skrika, idem, Swedish.
SKUEEY. A flock in confused flight: Skare, Icelandic, whence Scare, to alarm.
SKEAWL, SCEAWLING FEOST. The slight frost which scrawls the earth in rectangular lines.
SLABS. The outsides of a tree when sawn into boards.
SLAM. To beat; especially to shut the door with violence: Slaemra, Icelandic.
SLAMMEEKIK A slut: Schlamm, dirt, German.
SLAT. Used for " slit " to split, to separate, to crack.
SLEIGHTS. Down-land, grass kept solely for pasture: Slighted.
SLEEZE. A clothier's word, to express the separation of texture in a badly woven cloth.
SLICK. Slippery: Schlicht, Teuton.
SLICKUTS. Curds and whey: " Slick" and " eat?"
SLINGE. A clothier's word, To steal wool from the pack in small quantities at a time: Slincan,
Saxon, to slink, to sneak.
SLIVER A slice of anything; used by Shakespeare as a verb: Slifan, Saxon.
" "When frost will not suffer to dike and to hedge, Then get thee a heat with thy beetle and
wedge: Once Hallowmas come, and a fire
in the hall, Such slivers do well for
to lie by the wall."
Tusser's Husbandry, December, 1.
" Slips of yew Slivered in
the moon's eclipse."
Shakespeare, Macbeth, act iv. sc. 1.
" She that herself will sliver and disbranch From her maternal sap, perforce must
King Lear, act iv. sc. 2.
SMACK. A blow with the open hand producing a noise, an audible kiss: Smitan, Saxon.
SNEAD, SNED. The handle of a scythe: Snaed, Saxon.
" This is fixed on a long snead or straight handle, and doth wonderfully
expedite the trimming of hedges." Evelyn's Silva, xiii. 2.
SNITE. To blow the nose. Snytan, Saxon.
" So looks he like a marble towards raine; And wrings, and suites, and weeps, and
Hall's Satires, vi. 1.
SNOUL. A lump, particularly of bread, cheese, or the like: Snidan, Saxon, amputare, suars.
SNUGGLE. To lie close together, as children: Snug.
SOLID. Steady, continuous progress: Solidus, Latin.
"To go solid," " a solid rain." Cotswold phrases.
SPAR A wooden bolt: Sparrian, Saxon.
" I've heard you offered, sir, to lock up smoke, And calk your windows, spar up all your
Ben Jonson, Staple of News, act ii.
" And the gates after them speed." Bobert of Brunne. " And rent adown both wall, and
sparre, and rafter." Chaucer,
Knight's Tale, 1. 132.
SPAUL. The broad wound in a timber tree by rending off a considerable branch: Spia ell,
SPAY- SPEED. Humour discharged from the eyes:
" Speed," as proceeding from, and " spay " to
geld, to render unfruitful?
SPEAR Often used to denote a rapier, a sword-stick or
spit: Ysbur, a spit, Welsh f SPEW. A
spungy piece of ground. SPIT. A spade:
rapid pronunciation. SPRACK. Lively,
vigorous: Spraeg, famosus, Swedish.
" He is a good sprag memory." Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor,
act iv. sc. 1. Here Evans uses the g for ck, as in " hig, haeg, hog," which is his Welsh pronunciation
for " hie, haec, hoc." The
ancient use of the word "sprack" is seen in the sobriquet
given to Thorgil, King of Sweden,
circa, 960, viz., " Thorgil-sprack-a-leg " i.e., Thorgil the "nimble," or
"with the handsome leg:" probably both meanings were applicable.
SPKEATHE. To have the face or hands roughened by frost.
SPUKTLE. To sprinkle with any lluid.
SQUAIL. To pelt with stones or sticks: 7pD> Hebrew idem.
SQUASH, SQUICH. The crushing any moist or tender body by a fall or blow.
SQUISH-QUASH. The walking through mud or shallow water.
SQUAT. Verb, To sit close, as a hare; subst., a bruise orj indentation.
" Him they found, Squat like a
toad close at the ear of Eve." Milton.
" Bruises, squats, and falls, which often kill others, hurt not
the temperate. ' ' Herbert
STAG, STAEG. A young ox.
STANK. A pool caused by a dam on a stream; also the dam itself: Stanc, Welsh, idem.
" Thei lighted and abided biside a water-stank." Peter Langtoft.
STEER A heifer: Stire, Saxon, vitulus.
STIVE, STIVE UP. To stifle with heat.
STOGGLE. A pollard tree: stock.
STOKM-COCK The missel thrush: because he sings with more power in stormy weather.
STOWL, STOOL. The stump left in coppice-wood after the cutting.
SWAG, SWAGGLE. To sway to and fro: Swegia, Icelandic, idem.
" The motion of the moon swaggles the whole water of the sea, and, as it returns back again westward, brings
all the whole sea, with a swaggle,
back to landward upon us." Hagiastrologia, J. Butler, B.D. 1680, p. 45.
SWALE. To waste away, as a lighted candle in the wind; also to singe: Swelan, Saxon.
" But dashed with rain from eyes, and swailed with sighs, burn
" Into his face the brondhe forst, his huge beard brent, and
swailing made a stiuk." Phaer.
SWELTER To faint with heat, to sweat: Sweltan, Saxon.
" If the sun's excessive heat
Makes our bodies swelter." Chalk-hill.
** Suich Giffarde's asoyne, icholde horn ofte come." Robert of
Gloucester, vol. II., p. 539.
" Suich was the morthre of Eivesham vor bataile it nas non." p.- 560.
" For unto swiche a worthy man as he
Accordeth nought. 1 ' Chaucer,
Prol. Cant. Tales, 1. 243, 247, 487. Et passim.
SWIG. To drink fully, to drain the cup: Swiga, Icelandic, idem.
" The lambkins swig the teat, And
find no moisture." Creech.
SWILL. To wash away: Swelan, Saxon.
" As fearfully as does the galled rock
O'erhang and jetty his confounded base, Swilled with the wild and wasteful
Shakespeare, Henry V., act iii. sc. I.
SWOP. To barter, to exchange: Suaip, Gaelic, idem.
" I would have swopped youth for old age, and all my life behind,
to have been then a momentary
TABLING-. The coping on a wall or gable.
TACK. Grazing for cattle through the shimmer.
TALLOW. Concrete stalactite found in oolitic rocks: from the appearance.
TALLUT. The hayloft.
" Thayloft Thalloft Thallet Tallut." Cotswold contractions. TED. To spread abroad new-mown grass for
hay: Teadan, Saxon. " The smell of grain, or tedded grass,
orkine." Milton. " Go, sirs,
and away, To ted and make hay."
Tusser, July's Abstract.
TEEM. To empty; spoken of a tub.
TEG. A lamb, one year old: Tyccen, Saxon.
TERRIFY. To annoy, to vex, to harass.
TESTER. A sixpence; so named from the royal head on it: Teste, Old French.
"Well, said I, Wart, thou art a good scab; hold, there's a tester for
thee. Shakespeare, Henry IV., Part
II., act iii. sc 2.
" Who throws away a tester and a mistress, loses a sixpence. Farquhar, Love and a Bottle, act i. sc. 1.
THEAVE. A ewe in the second year.
THIC, THACH. This, that.
THILLER, TILLER. The shaft-horse in a waggon; Thill Saxon.
" Thou hast got more hair on thy chin, than Dobbin, my thill-horse, has on his tail." Shakespeare,
Merchant of Venice, act ii. sc. 2.
TICE. To entice, a contraction.
TICKLE. Uncertain in temper, frail, shy, liable to accidents.
"Heo is tikel of hire tayl; talwys of hire tonge." Piers
Ploughman's Vision, Pass, iii, 1. 126.
TID. Playful, sometimes in a bad sense, mischievously frolicsome. TIDDLE. To rear up delicately: Tydd, Saxon,
id. TIDY. Neat; also, as a result of
TILE OPEN. T%set open a gate; properly, to fix it open with a stone: because the stone fittest for the
purpose is thin, like a tile.
TILT, TILT OVER. To overthrow: a word probably from the tilt-yard.
" Alternately to dash him to the pavement, and tilt him aloft
again." Burton's History of
Scotland, vol. ii. p. 274.
TINE. To kindle. See " Candle-tinning." TITTY. An epithet applied to a wren: Titje,
any small bird, Teuton.
" And of these chanting fowls, the goldfinch not behind, That hath so many sorts descending from her
kind; The titty for her notes as
delicate as they."
Drayton, Polyolb. xiii. p. 915.
TRIG. Neat, quick, ready: Tryg, Danish idem.
" You are a pimp and a trig, An
Amadis de Gaul, or a Don Quixote."
Ben Jonson, Alchemist, act iv. sc. 1.
rUD. An apple dumpling.
" As round as a tud, and as slick as a oont." Spoken of a
TUMP. Earth thrown up: Twmp, Welsh idem.
" Tump, a hillock, tumulus." Ainsworth's Diet.
TUN. That part of the chimney which stands above the roof: Tunnel, a contraction.
TUSSOCK. A thick tuft of grass: Tusw, Welsh, a wisp, a bunch.
^WAITE. A fish, of the shad kind.
rWICHILD. The childish imbecility of age: Twice and child.
bwiNK. The chaffinch: Wine, Welsh; Wirike, Austrian, all derived from the note of the bird.
IWISSLE. To turn about rapidly.
TWITCH. To touch; the W intrusive.
[YNING. An enclosure from a common field: Tynan, Saxon, to lose, because the common field
UNKAED, UNKET. Unknown, uncouth, lonely: Unceid,
Saxon. UPSHOT. The amount of a
reckoning; the result of any
train of circumstances.
VALUE, (pronounced VALLEY). Used with much the same meaning as Upshot.
"1 went the vallie of foive maile." Cotswold phrase.
VELLET or FELLET. The annual fall in coppice: T(
VENTEKSOME. Heedless; daring.
VINNEY. Mildewed, mouldy; especially spoken of bread; Finig, Saxon.
u Many of Chaucer's words are become, as it were, vinewed, and hoare. with over-long lying." T. Beaumont.
See Nare's Glossary.
VLAKE, Flake. A wattled hurdle: Vlaeck, Teuton, id.
VOSSLE, FOSSLE. To entangle; to confuse business i Fuss; fussy (?)
W. WAG, WAGGLE. To move; to vacillate:
"You may as well forbid the mountain pines Wag their high tops." Shakespeare.
WAIN-COCK. A waggon-load of hay, cocked in one mass for security against rain: Wain, an old
word for waggon.
WALLOP. To beat.
WAMBLE, WABBLE. To move awkwardly, or to and_
fro: Wemmelen, Dutch.
" When your cold salads, without salt or vinegar, Be wambling in your stomachs."
Beaumont and Fletcher.
WAP. To beat: Wapper, a whip, Teuton.
WAPPER A word expressing unusual size, as being able to beat.
WAPPERED. Fatigued; beaten.
"This it is That makes the
wappered widow wed again.
Shakespeare, Tim on of Athens, act iv. sc. 3.
" We come towards the gods,
Young, and un- wappered, not halting under crimes."
Beaumont and Fletcher, Two Noble Kinsmen,act v. sc. 4
WARND. To assure; to make certain: Contracted from Warrant.
WARP. To cast young prematurely; to miscarry: Werpen, Dutch.
WEETHY. Soft; pliant; flexible: With, the plant Vitelba.
WELT. To strengthen a door or vessel with metallic bands, usually iron.
WET. Used, as a substantive, for rain.
" Come in, out of the wet." Cotswold phrase.
WHALE. A stripe; the mark left by the lash of a whip: Wala (?) Saxon.
"Thy sacred body was stripped of thy garments, and waled with bloody stripes." Bishop Hall.
WHATTLE and DAB. A building of whattle-work and plaster.
WHEEDLE. To coax; to deceive by flatteries: Adwelian, Saxon.
"To learn the unlucky art of wheedling fools." Dry den. "They mixed threats with their
wheedles." " Some were
wheedled, and others terrifyed, to fly in the face of their benefactor." Autobiography of King
James II. vol. ii. pp. 143 and 145.
WHELM. To overthrow: Wilma, Icelandic, id.; Spoken frequently of a waggon.
" They saw them whelmed, and all their confidence Under the weight of mountains buried
WHIEFLE. To move lightly; to trifle: Gwibl, Welsh, id.
" Every whiffler in a laced coat, who frequents the chocolate
houses, shall prate of the
constitution." Dean Swift.
WHIMPER To cry; to whine as a dog.
WICKER To neigh: Whitchelen, Dutch, id.
WINCH-WELL. A whirlpool: Wince, Saxon, id.
WIJSTDEE, WINDOKE. A window: This seems to be the old derivation of the word, a door to keep
out the wind. Formerly glass was a
rarity, and foul weather was kept out
only by the shutters.
The word spelt windore is so frequent in Butler's Hudibras, that it is needless to put in examples.
70 GLOSSARY. '
WILL-GILL. An effeminate person; an hermaphrodit William and Gillian, the male and female
WITE. Blame; originally, knowledge; then the guilt knowledge of a wrong: Wite, Saxon, idem.
" And, but I do, Sirs, let me have the wite. *' Chaucer, Chanon Yeoman's Tale, 1. 398.
" My looser lays, I wot, doth sharply wite For praising love." Spenser, Fairy
WIT- WALL. The large ' black and white woodpecker, Picus major: Perhaps from its cry, quasi,
wide- wail (?)
WITH-WIND, or BETH-WIND. A creeping plant, Cle matis vitalba: With- wind, Saxon.
WIZEN. To wither with age or disease: Wisnian, Saxon, id.
WOLD. Open forest-land: Wold, Frisian.
"St. Withold footed thrice the wold." Shakespeare, King Lear, act iii. sc. 3.
" With their's do but compare the country where I lie; My hills and 'oulds will say I am the
Drayton's Polyolb. xxvi.
WONDEEMENT, 'OONDEEMENT. Anything not understood.
" When that my pen would write her titles true, It ravished is with fancy's
wonderment." Spenser. H Some
strangers, of the wiser sort, Made all
these idle wonderments their sport." Dryden.
WONT, see 'OONT; WONT, or 'OONT-WEIGGLE; The
succession of small tumuli thrown up by the mole.
WOOD-SPITE. The green woodpecker, Picus viridis:
Spect, Danish. WOEDLED. The Cotswold
pronunciation of World. WOESEN. To
11 He might see his affairs had not suffered, or worsened there, by his acting hitherto in them."
Autobiography of King James II., vol. i.
YAPPERN, Apron; YEAWS, Ewes; YARBS, Herbs;
YENT, Is-not, aint; YOUL, Howl; are a few of the very numerous instances of the erroneous
addition of the letter Y in the
YELT, ILT, HILT, A young sow, quasi, to yield progeny: Eildan, Saxon.
YEMATH. Latter-grass after mowing: Ed, Saccon, rursus,
and math. YOPPING, YOPPETING. A dog in
fuU cry after game,
or baying a stranger: Derived from the sound.
ZENNERS. Sinews. ZOG. To soak.
ZWATHE. Grass when first mowed, and in rows; the field being, as it were, swathed: Zwad,
" With tossing and raking, and setting on cocks, Grass lately in swathes is meat for an
Tusser's Husbandry, July, 2. "
And there the strawy Greeks, ripe for his edge, Fall down before him, like the mower's
Shakespeare, Troil. and Cressida, act v. sc. 5.
LONDON: PRINTED BY S. AND J. BRAWN,
PRINCES STREET, LITTLE QUEEN STREET, HOLBORN.