kimkat0367e Tafodieithoedd Lloegr. An Attempt at a Glossary Of Some Words Used in Cheshire. 1826. Roger Wilbraham (1743-1829). From the Archologia Vol. XIX.


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An Attempt at a Glossary Of Some Words Used in Cheshire. 1826. From the Archologia Vol. XIX.

Roger Wilbraham (ganwyd Yr Heledd-wen / Nantwich 1743; bu farw Llundain 1829).

Y Llyfr Ymwelwyr / El Llibre de Visitants / The Guestbook:

a-7000_kimkat1356kBeth syn newydd yn y wefan hon?


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llythrennau cochion = testun heb ei gywiro

llythrennau duon = testun wedi ei gywiro





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An Attempt at a Glossary Of Some Words Used in Cheshire.

Roger Wilbraham. 1826, From the Archologia Vol. XIX.






IN 'ro












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Read before the Society of Antiquaries, 8th May, 1817.


ALTHOUGH a Glossary of the words peculiar to
each County of England seems as reasonable an
object of curiosity as its History, Antiquities, Climate, and various Productions, yet it has been
generally omitted by those persons who have undertaken to write the Histories of our different
Counties. Now each of these counties has words,
if not exclusively peculiar to that county, yet certainly so to that part of the kingdom where it is
situated, and some of those words are highly




(delwedd B2748)

An Attempt at a Glossary

beautiful and expressive ; many of their phrases,
adages, and proverbs are well worth recording,
and have occupied the attention and engaged the
pens of men distinguished for talents and learning:
among whom the name of Ray will naturally occur
to every Englishman at all conversant with his
mother-tongue, his work on Proverbs and on the
different Dialects of England being one of the most
popular ones in our language. But there is a still
more important benefit to be derived from this
custom, were it practised to its full extent in a
publication comprising all the provincial Dialects
of England, as they would, when united all together, form the only true and solid foundation
for a work much wanted, a General Dictionary of
the English Language*.

Far be it. from me to attempt in the least to depreciate the wonderful powers displayed by Dr.
Johnson in his Dictionary, although it is now pretty well ascertained that he was himself much dissatisfied with it ; but as an Etymological Dictionary, it certainly has no claim whatever to praise ;

* This deficiency no longer exists; as the new edition of
Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, by the Rev. H. J. Todd, now
forms a most comprehensive and satisfactory vocabulary of
the English language. So that the author of this little provincial Glossary may truly say, in the words of the great
poet of Italy, " Poca favilla gran fiamma seconda."




(delwedd B2749)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 3

for the learning of Dr. Johnson, extensive as it
was, yet did not embrace a knowledge of the
Gothic, Teutonic, or Anglo-Saxon languages, nor
of the other various Northern sources of our language ; and moreover, he seems to have had very
little acquaintance with the old French or Norman languages. By following the traces of Junius
and of Skinner, he has indeed, though not very
successfully, attempted to supply the former deficiency ; but to remedy the latter, namely, his
ignorance of the old French language, was not so
easy a task ; his own labour and industry in that
branch of learning being absolutely necessary, as
there is scarcely a single Lexicographer of the
English tongue, who, though aiming at Etymology, seems to have possessed a competent knowledge of the old French language.

Had life, health, and the avocations of politics
afforded to another gentleman, one of the most
acute grammarians, and of the most profound
etymologists that ever adorned this or possibly
any other country (I mean, the late Mr. Home
Tooke), sufficient leisure to accomplish his great
plan of a general Etymological Dictionary of the
English language, we should certainly have at
this time a clearer view into the origin of our mother-tongue than we have at present.

Most of the leading terms in all our provincial




(delwedd B2750)

An Attempt at a Glossary

Dialects, omitting those which are maimed and
distorted by a coarse or vicious pronunciation, are
not only Provincialisms but Archaisms also, and
are to be found in our old English authors of various descriptions ; but those terms are now no
longer in general use, and are only to be heard in
some remote province, where they have lingered,
though actually dead to the language in general.

Ut silvee foliis pronos mutantur in annos

Prima cadunt, ita verborum vetus interit aetas. HOT.

The truth of this observation of the poet is fully
illustrated by an example taken from this very
Cheshire Dialect ; there being several words recorded by Ray as belonging to it, which are even
now no longer in use, at least as far as it could
be ascertained by the investigations made by the
writer of this ; so that they have actually perished
since the time of Ray.

Provincial words, accompanied by an explanation of the sense in which each of them still continues to be iised in the districts to which they
belong, would be of essential service in explaining many obscure terms in our early poets, the true
meaning of which, although it may have puzzled
and bewildered the most acute and learned of our
commentators, would perhaps be perfectly intelligible to a Devonshire, Norfolk, or Cheshire clown.




(delwedd B2751)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 5

Some of our provincial Dialects, as the NorthDevon, Lancashire, and a few others, are already
in print, though in a very imperfect state ; but by
far the greatest number of them, either have not
yet been collected, or, if they have, exist solely in

To bring these all together, as well those which
have already been published, as what might be
collected from different MS. copies, as well as
from individuals now living, is a most desirable
object, and would, when accomplished, form a
work eminently useful to any English philologist
who might have the courage to undertake and the
perseverance to accomplish a General Dictionary
of the English language.

In a letter I formerly received from the late
Jonathan Boucher, vicar of Epsom, (a gentleman
who, had he lived to execute his plan of a General
English Dictionary, would probably have rendered the observations here made quite superfluous,)
he mentions the great similarity in many instances
between the Dialects of Norfolk and of Cheshire,
though the same similarity does not subsist between either of them and those of the interjacent
counties, and expresses his wish to have some
reason given for this circumstance. His observation I knew at that time to be well-founded, but
I professed myself unable to explain it ; however,




(delwedd B2752)

An Attempt at a Glossary

having since that time reflected a good deal upon
this singular circumstance, I will endeavour at
least in some measure to account for it.

The truth of the observation made by the
same learned gentleman, that all Provincialisms
are also Archaisms, to those who are well acquainted with our old English authors, is too evident to stand in need of an illustration. Now the
county palatine of Chester, having been in great
measure a separate jurisdiction till the days of
Queen Elizabeth, had very little intercourse with
the neighbouring counties ; the principal families
of the county, and much more those in a middle
station of life, for the most part intermarried
among each other, and rarely made connections
out of the county, a practice which is recommended in an old Cheshire adage* : so that the
original customs and manners as well as the old
language of the county have received less changes
and innovations than those of most other parts of

The inhabitants of Norfolk too, living in an almost secluded part of England, surrounded on
three sides of it by the sea, having little intercourse with the adjoining counties, have consequently retained in great measure their ancient

* It is better to marry over the mixen than over the moor :
i. e. your neighbour's daughter rather than a stranger.




(delwedd B2753)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 7

customs, manners, and language, unchanged by a
mixture with those of their neighbours. Even
at this day in Norfolk a person born out of the
county is called a Shireman or rather Sheerman,
i. e. one born in ?ome of the shires or counties of
England ; not without some little expression of
contempt on that very account. So that the two
languages of Cheshire and of Norfolk, having suffered less innovation from a mixture with others,
have also retained more of their originality, and
consequently must bear a closer resemblance to
each other than what is observable between most
of the other Provincial Dialects of England.

Dr. Ash in his English Dictionary has admitted
many words which belong to the Cheshire Dialect ;
these he has evidently taken from Ray's Proverbs :
others he marks as obsolete, or as local. With regard to those called by him obsolete, it is apprehended, that, if they are still in use in any part of
England, the term obsolete is improper. Of those
which he calls local he does not specify their precise locality, so that the reader is left at liberty to
assign them to whatever district of England he
pleases. He has some Cheshire words also to
which he has attributed a different meaning from
what they now bear in the county. These three
last descriptions of words, namely those Dr. Ash
marks as local, those called by him obsolete, and
those to which he has given a different sense from




(delwedd B2754)

An Attempt at a Glossary

what they now convey, have all a place in this
imperfect Glossary.

A few words are likewise admitted on the sole
authority of Ray, though some of them never occurred to the compiler of this catalogue, whose
communications in different parts of the county
have since his early days been very slight, and
merely occasional.

The Reader will observe many words, particularly in the Appendix, which may be found in Mr.
Todd's edition of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary : these
Mr. Todd speaks of as northern words, and not
in common use, except in the northern counties ;
but as they are so in Cheshire, I thought the admission of them here perfectly justifiable. To
words of this description the name of Todd is
generally subjoined. This, however, is not so
much the case in the first list of words, which was
sent to the Antiquarian Society before Mr. Todd's
Dictionary was completed.

The very great resemblance of the Dialects of
Cheshire and of Lancashire may be observed by
the frequent repetition of the abbreviation Lan. in
this Glossary.

One peculiarity in the English language is to
change, if I am not permitted to say soften, the
pronunciation of many words in the middle of




(delwedd B2755)

of some- Words used in Cheshire. 9

which is the letter L preceded by either of the
consonants A or O. Thus in common discourse
we pronounce Bawk for Balk, Caaf for Calf,
Haaf for Half, Wawk for Walk, Tawk for Talk,
Poke for Folk, Stawk for Stalk, and St. Awbans
for St. Albans ; but in the Cheshire Dialect, as in
all the other Northern ones, this custom, and the
practice of substituting the o for the a and the
double ee for the igh, prevail in a still greater degree : thus we call

All aw

Always awways

Alsager -\ /- Auger

Altrincham > names of places < Autrincham
Alvanley J >-Awvanley

Bold bowd

Calf cauf

Call caw

Can con

Cold cowd

Colt cowt

Fold fowd

Gold gowd

False fause

Foul, dirty, ugly fow

Fool foo

Full foo

Fine . , . foin





(delwedd B2756)

An Attempt at a Glossary

Hold howd

Holt howt

Half hauf

Halfpenny hawpenny

Hall haw

Long lung

Man mon

Many mony

Manner monner

Might meet

Mold mowd

Pull poo

Soft saft

Bright breet

Scald scawd

Stool stoo

Right reet

Twine twoin

Flight . . . , fleet

Lane loan or lone

Mol mal

Sight see

Sit sect

Such sich

The following abbreviations have been adopted :

Lancashire Lan.

Junius, Etymologicon Anglicanum , . . Jun.




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of some Words used in Cheshire. 1 1

Skinner, Etymologicon Ling. Angl. . Skin.
Wachter, Glossarium Germanicum . . Wach.
Ihre, Glossarium Suio-Gothicum . . . Ihre.
Kilian, Etymologicon Linguae Teotiscae.Kil.
Somneri Dictionarium Saxo-Latino

Jamieson, Scotch Dictionary Jam.

Law Latin Dictionary L. L. D.

Nyerup, Glossarium Linguae Teotiscae. Nye.
PromptoriumParvulorumClericorum. P. P. C.

Ortus Vocabulorum Ort. Voc.

Ray's Proverbs Ray.

Grose's Provincial Glossary G. P. Gl.

Ash's Dictionary Ash.

Palsgrave, L'Ecclaircissement de la *

Langue Fra^aise J

Hormanni Vulgaria H. V.

Littleton's Dictionary Litt. D.

Benson's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary . . Ben.

Shakespeare Shak.

Old Word O. W.

Scherzius, Glossarium Germanicum

Medii^vi jScherz.

Haldersoni Lexicon Islandicum .... Hald.
Randle Holme's Academy of Ar- Acad. of

moury J Arm.

Wolf's Danish Dictionary W T olf.




(delwedd B2758)


ACHORN, or rather Aitchorn, s. to go altchorning
is to go gathering Acorns. The pigs are gone
o' aitchorning.

ACKERSPRIT, part, said of potatoes, when the roots
have germinated before the time of gathering
them, and consequently are of little value. Corn,
and particularly barley, which has germinated
before it is malted, is said by the maltsters in
the eastern counties of England to be acrespired
or eagerspired, i. e. early grown. Bailey's Diet.
Skinner derives this word from the A.S. ^Ecer,
seges, satum, and nostro spire, spica.

ACKERSPYRE, v. to sprout, to germinate. Jam.

AFFRODILE, s. a daffodil.

AFTCRINGS, s. the last milk that can be drawn
from a cow : the same as STROKINGS.

AcaTE, adverbial expression, means not only a
person up and recovered from a sick-bed, but
also one that is employed ; " he is agate marling" or "ploughing." A convalescent is said
to be on his legs again. Agate is also used in
the sense of, employed with, or setting about a





(delwedd B2759)

An Attempt at a Glossary

work. I have been agate a woman, directing
her in the road. I am agate a new cart, I am
making a new cart.

AGO, or EGG, v. to incite or provoke, from the
Danish word Egger, to provoke. Wolf. part.
Agging, Egging.

AITCH, AITCHES, s. so pronounced ; ache, aches,
pain, pains. It is also used for a paroxysm in
an intermitting disorder. This seems to be the
same word in an extended sense. Hot aitches
are flushings in the face. A.S. Ace, dolor; pain,
ach. Som.

ALL ALONG, adv. or, when abbreviated, aw long,
wholly owing to, aw long of such a one I could
not do what I intended.

ANENST, or ANAINST, prep, opposite, over against.
Anent. O. W. Chaucer. B. Jonson uses Anenst.

ANEEND, adv. upright, not lying down, on one
end ; when applied to a four-footed animal it
means rearing, or what the heralds call rampant. It is always pronounced aneeml, and
possibly should be written on eend. Aneend
means also perpetually, evermore.

AXTRIMS, s. whims, vagaries, peevishness ; the
same as Tanterums or Anticks. Anticks however is common.

ASTER, s. Easter.

Ax AFTER, adv. afterwards.




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of some Words used in Cheshire. 15


BACCO, s. tobacco. Lan.

BADGER, s. a dealer in corn, from the A.S. bycgean, emere.

BAGGiNG-Time, s. Lan. the time of the afternoon

BAITH, adj. both. In Hearne's Glossary to Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle we have bathe
used for both ; Beithe, is the same thing.

BAIN, adj. near, convenient ; common in the
North. Jamieson derives it from the Islandic
beina, expedire.

BALLOW, v. to select or claim. It is used by boys
at play, when they select a goal or a companion
of their game. I ballow, or ballow me that situation, or that person. Ihre has walja, or valjan, eligere, and wal, electio ; the w is often
changed into the y, and the v and the b are also
convertible letters. " Walja mig," choose me
that situation. Fris.

BALKS, .v. the hay-loft is so called, I suppose, from
its being divided into different compartments
by Balks or Beams. Balk in the old Northern
languages is a separation or division, and Balk
is used for Capita, or Chapters in the titles of
the old Swedish laws ; see Ihre, Glossarium
Suio-Oothicum, in voce Balk.




(delwedd B2761)

An Attempt at a Glossary

BALLY of pigs, i. e. a bellyful, is a litter of pigs.

BANDY-Hewit, s. a little bandy-legged dog, a turnspit. Of Hewit I can make nothing, unless it be
a corruption of Keout, which itself is probably
derived from Skout. See in voce Keout, Lan.
where a different explanation of it is given.

BARST, perfect tense of the verb to burst ; barsten,
is the participle.

BATCH, s. besides the common sense of a general
baking, implies the whole of the wheat flour
which is used for making common household
bread, after the bran alone has been separated
from it.

BATT, v. to wink or move the eyelids up and
down : to bate is a term of falconry, when die
falcon beats his wings in this manner.

BAWM, v . to prepare, dress, or adorn. At Appleton in Cheshire it was the custom at the time of
the wake to clip and adorn an old hawthorn
which till very lately stood in the middle of the
town. This ceremony is called the Bawming
of Appleton Thorn. Bo, Boa, is the Suio-Got.
for to prepare : Ihre. Bua, is Islandic for the
same. To Bawm is common for to dress or
adorn; it is also a good O. W. used in Nychodemus' Gospell, 4<to, 1532. "And than this
" mayde Syndonia washed and bawmed her."

BAWSON, or BAWSIN, adj. great, large, swelled.




(delwedd B2762)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 1 7

Bailey. In Andrew Boord's Breviary of Health,
p. 35, we meet with a balson ele, for a very
large eel.

BAWSON, or BAWSIN, s. a badger. Skinner derives it fantastically enough from Beau Sein,
&c. &c. Bawsand, Bassant, or Bawsint, in Jam.
is a term applied to a horse or cow having a
white spot in the forehead or face, which is exactly the case of the Badger, and seems a more
appropriate etymology of the word, which on
that account alone (it being in Johnson) has a
place here. Gavin Douglas in his Translation
of Virgil, 146, 36, renders Frontem albam, by
bawsand-faced. Balzano in Italian, and Balzan in French, both mean a horse with a white
leg different from the general colour of the
horse. Can this be the origin of Douglas's
bawsand-faced ?

BEARDINGS, or a BEARD-HEDGE, s. the bushes
which are stuck into the bank of a new made
hedge, to protect the fresh planted thorns.

BEDEET, part, or adj. dirtied, seems to come from
the Scotch word Bedyit, dipped, and that from

> the A.S. word Deagan, tingere, imbuere. See
Jamieson. To deet is to dirty.

BEEN, or BIN, is the plural of the present tense of
the verb to be. Lan. formerly of the verb to
ben, to be.




(delwedd B2763)

An Attempt at a Glossary

BEEN, s. is the plural of Bee.

BEET the fire, v. to light, or, as we say, to make
the fire : from the Teutonic boeten het vier,
struere ignem. Kil.

BELLART, or BELLOT, as it is pronounced, s. a
bear-leader. There was an old family of that
name in Cheshire, now, I believe, extinct.

BERRY, s. a gooseberry.

BIDDING, s. an invitation to a funeral is so termed.
Bidding is also an O. W. for praying, from the
A.S. Biddan, to pray; so it may possibly be the
oflfering of prayers for the soul of the deceased.
A bidding is also an invitation to a weddingfeast, as well as to a funeral. Cowel, in his
Law Dictionary, in voce Bidale or Bid-all,
says, "It is the invitation of friends to drink at
some poor man's house, who thereby hopes to
receive some assistant benevolence from the
guests for his relief: written by some, Bildale,
and mentioned in Henry VIII. cap. 6. The
same is used also in the county palatine of
Chester by persons of quality towards the relief of their own or neighbour's poor tenants.

BIDE, or ABIDE, v. to endure : bide is also used
for to stay or remain.

BIGHT, '5. a projection in a river, a projecting or
receding corner. It is commonly used in sea
voyages : as, the Bight of Benin on the coast




(delwedd B2764)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 1 9

of Africa. It is an O. W. for the elbow. A.S.
bygan, flectere. Som.

BIGHT, or BOUGHT, is used for anything folded or
doubled : a sheet of paper is by Herman in his
Vulgaria called a bought of paper.

BiNGj v. to begin to turn sour, said of milk.

BIR, BIRRE, BER, BURRE, s. impetus : to take
birr is to run with violence as a person does
before taking a great leap. See the Glossary to
WiclifFe's New Testament by Lewis, Matt. 8.
" and lo in a great bire all the drove (of swine)
went heed-lyng into the sea." See also Apoc.
c. 1 8. Bir, ventus secundus. Hickes's Island.
Diet. See also Douglas's Glossary. From the
same source is derived what is called the Bore
or Eager in a tide-river. In Ellis's Early English Poets, vol. i. p. 389, we read, " And land
first rumbland rudely with sic bere." Mr. Ellis
explains Bere by noise ; but wrong, as I apprehend : it is rather violence.

BLOTEN, or BLOATEN, part. To be bloten of any
one is to be unaccountably fond of him. It is
used in the same sense as globed to, and is perhaps less common. It may be a kind of inflection of the participle Bloaten, swelled with, full
of. Or, perhaps it may be derived from the A.S.
word Blotan, immolare, that is, sacrificed, or
wholly given up to. N.B. Grose in his Proc 2




(delwedd B2765)

An Attempt at a Glossary

vincial Glossary attributes this word to Cheshire.

BLUFTED, part, a term used at the game of blindman's buff. It is your turn to be blufted. This
appears to be a mistake for buffeted, which is
occasionally the lot of the individual who personates the blind man.

BOBBER, adj. Bobberous, the same word ; sawcy,
pert. Bob, or dry-bob, is an old word for a
merry joke or trick. Dobson's Drybobs, is the
title of a merry story book. We still use the
phrases, to bear a bob, and bobbish, in familiar
discourse. In the Suio-Gothic we have Boffra,
to play tricks. See Ihre, in voce Bof.

BOGGY-BO, or BOGGART, s. a bug-bear or scarecrow. Bauw, Belgice, a spectre. To take boggart is to take fright, as a horse does when he
starts aside. See Skinner, in voce Bug, and
Ihre, in voce Puke. Also A.S. Bauw, larva.

BOGGARTY, or BucHARTY, adj. apt to start aside,
applied to a horse.

BOKE, v. to poke, or thrust out. Lan.

BOOSE, 5. O. W. a cow's stall. Cherry being a
favourite name for a red cow, which colour is,
among the country-people, the most esteemed
for milking, any person who is got into a comfortable situation is said to be " got into Cherry's Boose." Bosih, prsesepe. Som.




(delwedd B2766)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 21

BOOSY PASTURE, s. the pasture which lies contiguous to the cow stall or Boose.

BOOTY-HOUSE, s. is an expression used by children
for an old box or shelf, or any place ornamented with bits of glass or broken earthenware, in
imitation of an ornamented cabinet : probably
a corruption of Beauty.

BORSTEN, part, of the verb to burst, A.S.
Borsten. Som. It is used for ruptured. See
Barst or brast, in Hearne's Glossary to Robert
of Gloucester's Chronicle.

Boss, s. a hassock to kneel upon in church ; by
Grose erroneously, as I apprehend, called a
Doss or Poss.

BoTHaM, s. bottom.

BOUT, adv. or prep, without : " Better bad than
Bout," as I heard a woman say, when urged to
quit a bad husband. If a mother refuses any
thing her child asks for, she says, You mun be
bout, you must go without it. See Jam. under But and Ben, the outside and inside of a

BRACCO, or BRACCOW, used only when compounded with another word, as Work-bracco, diligent, laborious. Ray.

BRAD, s. a small nail.

BRADOW, v. to spread or cover. A hen bradows
her chickens: Teut. Broeden, incubare. Kil.





(delwedd B2767)

An Attempt at a Glossary

So that Bradow is either a kind of augmentative
of Brood, or an abbreviation of Brood over.

BRAN, s. or BRANT, part, burn, or burnt. Old

BRASS, is commonly used for copper coin. See
Shakspeare, Hen. V.

A BRAT, or A BISHOP, is a child's bib. Ruddiman
derives this word from the A.S. Bratan, conterere.

BRE, or BRAE, s. Brow. Eyebraes, eyebrows.
The old word is Bre.

BREAD (pronounced long), s. breadth or extent.
There is a great bread of corn this year, i. e. a
greater extent of land than usual, sown with
corn this year.

BREWES, or BROWIS, s. slices of bread, with fat
broth poured over them, O. W. but at present,
I believe, used only in Cheshire and in Lancashire. A.S. Broth, jus; or Brew, A.S. jus, jusculum.

BRICCO, adj. brittle. Brica, ruptor, A.S. Som.

BRID, s. bird, O. W. Wicliffe's New Testament.
P. P. C.

BRID-LEGGED, adj. The Cheshire farmer, who holds
that the perfect form of female beauty consists
more in strength than in elegance of limbs, often
uses this contemptuous appellation to any female whose limbs happen to be somewhat slen




(delwedd B2768)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 23

derer than he has in his own mind fixed upon
as the criterion of symmetry and taste.

BRIEF, adj. rife, prevalent ; said chiefly of disorders. Agoes been brief, agues are common.

BRIMMING, adj. or part. Lan. A sow when maris
appetens is said to be brimming. A.S.Bremend,
mugiens, fervens. Som. O. W. used by Philemon Holland.

BROCK, s. a badger, (common.)

BRORDS, or BRUARTS, s. the young shoots of corn
are so called: A.S. Brord, frumenti spicae, corn
new come up, or the spires of corn. Som.

BRORE, or BRORD, . to spring up, as corn does.

BROSIER, s. a bankrupt. It is often used by boys

at play, when one of them has nothing further

to stake. In the P. P. C. we have Brosyn or

Quashin, v. This is the origin of our modern

" word, to bruise.

BRUART, s. is the narrow thin edge of anything.
Hat-bruarts are the parings of the brim of a hat.

BRUART, v. to shoot out as newly sown corn does.
Bishop Kennet, in his M.S. vocabulary in the
British Museum, has to Brere, or to be brered,
as corn just coming up. Dunelm has Brord,
frumenti spicae.

BULL-HEAD, s. a tadpole.

BUR or BOR TREE, s. the elder, O. W. but common in Cheshire.





(delwedd B2769)

An Attempt at a Glossary

BURR, s. the sweet-bread.

BUSHEL, s. when applied to oats, means five ordinary bushels.


CADGER, s. a carrier.

CALE, or KALE, s. turn, chance, perhaps only Call.
It is used by persons doing any thing by rotation. It is my cale now. Kele, Lan. Kilian has
Kavel, sors, sortitio, sors in divisione bonorum,
rata portio, which is very nearly the sense in
which it is now used. Kavel is lot, and Kavelen to draw lots, in Flemish. See Halma.

CALL, v. To call a person out of his name, is to
abuse or vilify him.

To call all to pieces, is to treat with the most
opprobrious and abusive language.

CANT, adj. strong, lusty. Ash calls it local. Bailey has the word. In the Glossary to Langtoft's Chronicle by Hearne, Kant, adj. is explained by courageous.

CAP, or CAPPEL, v. to put a new cover over shoes
worn out at the toe.

CPERLASH, s. abusive language. To Cample is a
northern word for to scold. See Grose.

CAPO, s. a working horse, Ray. Corrupted from
Capyl or Capel, from Ceffyl, Welsh. O. W.




(delwedd B2770)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 25

CARVE, or KERVE, v. to grow sour : local, according to Ash.

CASE, adv. because, perhaps. In the first example
it seems to be an abbreviation of becase, so
pronounced in Cheshire ; and in the second instance it has the appearance of being shortened
from percase, a word used by Bacon, though
now of very rare occurrence.

CAUF-KIT, or CRIB, s. a place to put a sucking
calf in. A.S. Crybbe, praesepe, Som. The
same as Kidcrow.

CHEADLE DOCK, or KEDLE DOCK, is the Senecio

CHEM, or TCHEM, s. a team, a team of horses, a
team of wild ducks. Somner talks of a team
of young pigs.

CHILDER, s. children, Lan. The Ang. Sax. plural

CHIMLY, or rather CHIMBLEY, s. Lan. the chimney.

CHUNNER, v. to grumble : a chunnering ill-conditioned fellow. A.S. Ceonian, obmurmurare,
Ben. To chowre, is a good old word for to
scold. So in Turberville's translation of Ovid,

" But when the crabbed nurse
Begins to chide and chowre."

CLAP, v. to squat, to take her seat as a hare does
when pursued by the hounds, in order to escape





(delwedd B2771)

An Attempt at a Glossary

from them ; from the French se clapper, se tapir, se cacher dans un trou.
CLAMME, or CLAME, v. to dirty or plaster over.

A.S. Clamian, linire, oblinire, oblimare, to

anoint or smear over, to dawbe, to foule, to

Clamme. Som.
CLARGYMAN, s. a ludicrous appellation for a black

CLAT, s. To tell Clats of a person is to tell stories

of him.
CLAVER, s. idle talk ; Scotch, Jam. Claffer is

German for garrulus.
CLEA, s. a claw. It was anciently written Clea.

See Fleming's Dictionarie, et passim.
CLEM, v . Clem'd, part. Lan. starved with hunger.

Ash calls it local. Klemmen, Kil. Teut. strin
gere, coarctare, to shrink up : the bowels are

said to be clammed, to adhere together, by

CLOMB, perf. tense and part, of the verb to climb.

It is an old word, and used by Spencer in the

perfect tense.
CLOTS, or CLOUTS, burrs or burdock. A.S. Clate,

Som. et in Glossario jElfrici.
CLOUTS, Axle-tree Clouts, s. plaits of iron nailed

at the end of it. Clouted shoon, are shoes done

in the same way.
CLUSSUM'D, adj. clumsy, Lan. according to Ray,




(delwedd B2772)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 27

but it means more, i. e. a hand shut and benumbed with cold, and so far clumsy ; certainly
a corruption of closened, or closed.

COB, v. to throw, Lan. To cob is to lead or
domineer, also, to govern or surpass or excel
others in any art or skill.

COB, s. a blow. I believe always a blow on the
head. Cob is also a leader, a chief: This boy
will always be Cob. It is a good old word,
and used by Horman in his Vulgaria.

COBNOBBLE, v. to correct or chastize.

moved ; all, I believe, the same word.

GOGGLE, v. to move with great ease, to be unsteady.

COLDING, part, seems to be, shivering: To sit
colding by the fire-side is to sit idling by the

COLLOW, or COLLY, v. to blacken, to colour, to
make black with a coal. Charbonner. Pal.

COLLY WEST, adv. directly contrary.

COLLY WESTON is sometimes used when anything
goes wrong. It is aw along with Colly Weston.
This seems to be some personal allusion, and, I
should apprehend, very local, and by no means
general throughout the county.

COME. Sunday come se'night, the next Sunday but





(delwedd B2773)

An Attempt at a Glossary

one. This expression was formerly very common, not only in colloquial but in written language, and may be found in Foxe's Book of

Tomorrow come never
When two Sundays come together.
To a person less given to the fulfilling than to
the making of promises, these words are often
repeated by way of quip, when he engages to
do anything.

COME OUT, or rather COME EYT, an odd expression, used to a dog ; meaning, lie still, do not

COMMIN, s. the common, waste land.

CONNA, v. cannot.

CONNY, or CANNY, adj. is used as brisk, lively.
Their etymology may be found in all the dead
Northern languages.

COOTH, s. a cold. Coth, A.S. morbus, valetudo,

COSP, s. the cross bar at the top of a spade. It
is frequently used for the head. A person whose
head has been broken is said "to have had his
cosp broken." Randle Holme calls it Kaspe ;
and when enumerating the different parts of a
spade, has the head, or handle, or kaspe. Acad.
of Arm. B. 3, Ch. 8, p. 329. It can scarcely




(delwedd B2774)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 29

be a corruption of the German word Kopf, the

COWLICK, s. is that part of a cow's hide where the
hairs of it, having different directions, meet and
form a projecting ridge of hair. This is believed to be produced from the cow licking
herself. The same term is used when the same
thing occurs in the human h^ad.

COW-SHORN, or SHARN, as in Lan. s. the leavings
of the cow. Dung, in Teutonic, is Sharn ; in
Suio-Got. Skarn ; and a Shar Bud, an O. W. for
beetle, is so called rather from continually living under horse or cow dung, than for its being
found under shards or broken earthen-ware.
A.S. Scearn, fimus, stercus, cow-dung. Som.
Handle Holme, in his Academy of Armory, says
Shorn is the dung of a bull or cow. It is also
called Cowshot or Cowplague. In Philemon
Holland's translation of the Natural History of
Pliny, vol. 2. p. 327, we read : "They say that
bull's Sherne is an excellent complexion forsooth to set a fresh rosat or vermilion colour on
in the ball of the cheeke."

CRADANT and CRADANTLY, s. and adv. Crassant
and Crassantly, which two last words are admitted on the sole authority of Ray ; coward,
cowardly : To set cradants, among boys, is to do





(delwedd B2775)

An Attempt at a Glossary

something hazardous, to take any desperate
leap which cradants dare not undertake after

CRANNY, adj. pleasant, agreeable, or praiseworthy : A cranny lad. Bailey.

CREACHY, adj. crazy, out of order, in bad repair,
or sick.

CREEM, v. the same as Teem, to pour; also to put
slily into one's hand. Ash calls it local.

CREWDLE or CROODLE, v. to crouch together like
frightened chickens on the sight of a bird of

CREWDLING, s. a dull stupid person, a slow mover.

CROPE and CROPPEN, perf. tense and. part, of the
verb to Creep. Lan.

CRUEL, or CREWEL, adj. is still in use for worsted.
To work in crewels, is to work in worsted.

CRUNNER, s. Such is the pronunciation of Coroner.

CUMBERLIN, s. a troublesome worthless person;
from cumber.

CURRAKE, s. cowrake, used to clean the cowhouse from filth. In P. P. C. it is written

CUTE, adj. quick, intelligent ; probably an abbreviation of acute.




(delwedd B2776)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 31


DADDLE, v. to walk with short steps, Lan. much
the same as Dawdle. See Jam. Dwalen, Dutch,
hue illuc obambulare ; or perhaps only the diminutive of Dade.

DAGG, v. to moisten or wet the feet or lower clothing, Lan. ; generally used to females who wear
petticoats. Dagg is an O. W. for dew. In
Norfolk a shower of rain is called, a Dagg for
the turnips. Johnson calls it a low word ; it is
however in common use in Cheshire and elsewhere : daggle- tailed is also common. A.S.
Deagan, tingere.

DANDER, v. to wander about. It is also used for
to ramble in conversation, to talk incoherently.
Jam. explains one of its meanings, to bewilder
oneself on a way, generally including the idea
of a want of attention, or of stupidity.

DANDY COCK or HEN, are Bantam fowls.

DANGERLY, adv. possibly, by chance.

DEAF, adj. a nut without a kernel is said to be

DEAVE, v. to deafen, or stun by noise. Doof or
doove, Flem. deaf. Halma. Deave, v. Scotch.

DEAVELY, or DEAFLY, adj. lonely, retired; a
deavely place, a place where nothing is heard.





(delwedd B2777)

An Attempt at a Glossary

DOESOM, or DOSOM, adj. healthy, thriving upon
little. Lan. Bp. Kennet derives it from the A.S.
Dugan, valere.

DREE, adj. long in continuance, tedious, abundant in measure, more than it appears to be. A
dree rain is a close thick small rain. Ihre has
Draella, stillare, unde aliquid crebro decidit.

DREE, v. to continue or hold out.

DRUDGE-BOX, s. the flour-box. Dredge is the old
word for oats and barley mixed ; perhaps it
may have been originally the dredge-box.

DRUMBOW, or DRUMBLE, s. a dingle or ravin, generally with trees in it.

DUNCH, adj. deaf.

DUNGOW-DASH, or DRUMBOW-DASH, s. dung, iilth.
When the clouds threaten hail or rain, it is said,
There is a deal of pouse or dungo-dash to come

DUNNOCK, s. the hedge-sparrow ; from the very
dark or dusky appearance of that bird. Dun
was anciently a dark colour, very different from
what is now called a dun colour. See Shakespeare passim. Quere if not Dun-neck ? Bailey
in his Dictionary mentions a dun-neck as a bird.

DUZZY, adj. slow, heavy; perhaps a corruption of




(delwedd B2778)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 35


EALE, s. ale, pronounced as in the A.S. Eale.

EAM, or EEM, v. to spare time, to have leisure.
Lan. I cannoh earn now. A.S. ^mtan, quies,
otium, tempus, rest, leisure, spare time. Som.
Bailey has to eein, to be at leisure ; but I never
heard the word so pronounced.

EAMBY, adv. close by, at hand.

EASINGS of a house, s. the eaves. Lan.

EAVER, or EEVER, s. a quarter of the heavens.
The wind is in the rainy eaver. The Scotch
use in this sense Art, Arth, Airt, or Airth.
Jam. Bailey admits Eever, as a Cheshire
word. For the etymology of this word I am
tempted to look to the A.S. adverb Weard,
versus, in the direction of, as it is exemplified
in its derivatives toward, froward, forward,
backward. The sense corresponds perfectly,
and the v and w may be regarded as the same
letter. The whole difficulty consists in the first
short syllable of the word : but let it be remembered, that it is with considerable diffidence that
this etymology is suggested.

An EDDY, or a NEDDY, s. an idiot ; of which word
it may possibly be a diminutive or a corruption.

EDDERINGS, s. Radlings in a hedge are so called.
A.S. Edor or Edar, septum. Som. Bailey has





(delwedd B2779)

An Attempt at a Glossary

DOESOM, or DOSOM, adj. healthy, thriving upon
little. Lan. Bp. Rennet derives it from the A.S.
Dugan, valere.

DREE, adj. long in continuance, tedious, abundant in measure, more than it appears to be. A
dree rain is a close thick small rain. Ihre has
Draella, stillare, unde aliquid crebro decidit.

DREE, v. to continue or hold out.

DRUDGE-BOX, s. the flour-box. Dredge is the old
word for oats and barley mixed ; perhaps it
may have been originally the dredge-box.

DRUMBOW, or DRUMBLE, s. a dingle or ravin, generally with trees in it.

DUNCH, adj. deaf.

DUNGOW-DASH, or DRUMBOW-DASH, s. dung, filth.
When the clouds threaten hail or rain, it is said,
There is a deal of pouse or dungo-dash to come

DUNNOCK, s. the hedge-sparrow ; from the very
dark or dusky appearance of that bird. Dun
was anciently a dark colour, very different from
what is now called a dun colour. See Shakespeare passim. Quere if not Dun-neck ? Bailey
in his Dictionary mentions a dun-neck as a bird.

DUZZY, adj. slow, heavy; perhaps a corruption of




(delwedd B2780)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 35


EALE, s. ale, pronounced as in the A.S. Eale.

EAM, or EEM, v. to spare time, to have leisure.
Lan. I cannoh earn now. A.S. ^Emtan, quies,
otium, tempus, rest, leisure, spare time. Som.
Bailey has to eein, to be at leisure ; but I never
heard the word so pronounced.

EAMBY, adv. close by, at hand.

EASINGS of a house, s. the eaves. Lan.

EAVER, or EEVER, s. a quarter of the heavens.
The wind is in the rainy eaver. The Scotch
use in this sense Art, Arth, Airt, or Airth.
Jam. Bailey admits Eever, as a Cheshire
word. For the etymology of this word I am
tempted to look to the A.S. adverb Weard,
versus, in the direction of, as it is exemplified
in its derivatives toward, froward, forward,
backward. The sense corresponds perfectly,
and the v and TV may be regarded as the same
letter. The whole difficulty consists in the first
short syllable of the word : but let it be remembered, that it is with considerable diffidence that
this etymology is suggested.

An EDDY, or a NEDDY, s. an idiot ; of which word
it may possibly be a diminutive or a corruption.

EDDERINGS, s. Radlings in a hedge are so called.
A.S. Edor or Edar, septum. Som. Bailey has





(delwedd B2781)

An Attempt at a Glossary

" Eder breche, the trespass of hedge-breaking." Tusser has

" Save Edder and stake,
Strong hedge to make."

EDER, s. a hedge : a good old English word. See
dowel's Law Dictionary, folio edition.

ELDER, s. the udder of a cow. Lan. See Skinner,
Belgice Elder.

ELLER, s. the elder-tree.

ESHIN, or ASHIN, s. a pail. These pails are, I believe, always made of ash wood.

ESHINTLE, 5. an Eshin full.

Ess, or ESSE, s. ashes, or a place under the grate
to receive them in. Bailey calls it a Cheshire

EXPECT, u. to suppose, believe, or prognosticate ;
rather an extended sense of the word.


FANTOME corn is light corn. Fantome hay, light,
well-gotten hay. North.

FARAND, or FARRAND, s. manner, custom, appearance. O. W. We have, old farrand : farantly :
to do things in the right or wrong farand.

FARANTLY, adj. or as usually pronounced, farancly
or farincly, is supposed to be composed of the
two words fair and clean ; but it is simply the




(delwedd B2782)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 37

adjective of Farand, and means clean, decent,
orderly. In Scotland well- or ill-farand are used
for well- or ill-looking : To fare is there also to
go ; and a farand-man is a traveller or stranger.
Jam. In P. P. C. we read, comly or well farynge in shape ; elegans. In Hormanni Vulgaria we have, " He looked unfaringly, aspectu
fuit incomposito." A.S. Faran, to go. Fare, a
journey. Som. To a gentleman ordering a
pair of shoes of a Cheshire shoemaker, he answered, " I know what you would wish, sir ; you
would have a pair of shoes with a farantly toe
and a mannerly heel." Farantly and mannerly
have much the same meaning, except that to
the latter is attached rather more elegance than
to the former.

FARE, v. to go. To fare road is to trace the footsteps of a hare along the road. The fare of a
hare is her trace.

FARTHER, adv. expressive of repugnance. I will
be farther if I do that, means, I will never do it.

FASHOUS, adj. unfortunate, shameful ; either from
the verb to fash, to tease, or from the French
fascheux, unfortunate.

FAUGH, s. fallow ; an abbreviation of the word.

FAVOUR, v. to resemble, as one person does to
another : That child favours his father. To favour, though admitted in this sense into many





(delwedd B2783)

An Attempt at a Glossary

of our dictionaries, and though a good authority for the use of it be cited by Dr. Johnson,
yet I do not recollect to have ever heard it in
conversation, except in Cheshire, where it is
very common.

FAY, or FAIGH, s. the soil before you reach the
marl. To fay is to remove it. In other parts
of England to fie is to cleanse a ditch or pond.
Fowings, emundatio, in P.P.C.

FEABERRY, or FEEBERRY, s. a gooseberry.

FEND, v. to work hard, to struggle with difficulties. In hard times we must fend to live. Lan.
Fend is also used in the following sense. When
a person is not easily convinced, it is said, You
must fend and prove with him. It is probably,
in both senses, an abbreviation of Defend.

FJETTLE, s. order, good repair.

FETTLE, v. to repair, or put in order. Dr. Johnson explains this word, to do trifling business,
to ply the hands without labour ; and calls it a
cant word, from Fed. Mr. Todd says this is a
mistake, and that it probably comes from the
Suio-Gothic Fykt, studium. The sense in which
it is used in Cheshire and Lancashire is, however, different from that assigned to it by these
gentlemen. In both these counties it means,
to mend, to put in order any thing which is
broken or defective, as the substantive, Fettle,




(delwedd B2784)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 39

means order, good condition, proper repair.
Being used in this sense, it appears to me to be
derived from some deflection of the word Faire,
to do, which itself comes from the Latin Facere.
The nearest which occurs to me is the old
French word Faiture, which has exactly the
same meaning as our substantive Fettle, and is
explained by Roquefort, in his Glossaire de la
Langue Romane, by Facon, mode, forme, &c.

FEW, v. flew, perfect tense of the verb to fly.

FEW, adj. is not only a small number but also a
little quantity : a few broth. Fea, A.S. pauci.

FEWMOT, or FOOMOT, s. i. e. a foulmart, a polecat, or weasel.

FITCHET-PIE, s. a pie composed of apples, onions,
and bacon, served to labourers at harvest-home.

FLAKE, or FLEAK, s. a hurdle. It is used by
Harding in his Chronicle.

FLANGE, or FLANGE OUT, v. to spread, diverge, to
increase in width or breadth, like the mouth of
a trumpet or a French horn.

FLASH, or PLASH, s. a shallow piece of water.

FLASKER, v. to choke, or stifle. A person lying
in the mud and unable to extricate himself is
said to be flaskered. In Lan. it bears a different sense. ,





(delwedd B2785)

An Attempt at a Glossary

FLATTER DOCK, or BATTER DOCK, s. pond weed, or

FLEE, s. a fly.

of the refuse milk in the process of cheesemaking. Belg. Vlote-melck. Skinner. InP.P.C.
Flet of mylk or other like, despumatus.

Fleogan, to fly. Ben.

FLIG, or FLIGGE, adj. spoken of young full fledged
birds. Flygge, plumea. Pal. Fligge as bird,
maturus, P. P. C. Flig, volatilis. Junius, addenda.

FLIGGERS, s. young birds beginning to fly. From
the A.S. Fliccerian, motare alas ; or from Fliggheren, Teutonice volitare. Kilian.

FLOUGH, s. (pronounced gutturally) a flea. In
Lan. Fleigh.

FLY-DOD, s. (pronounced Flee-dod) Ragwort;
Seneclo Jacobtea, vulgarly called Mare f t.
It is generally covered with a dusky yellow fly,
which accounts for the first part of its name :
Dock is also a common termination of the
names of different weeds, by no means always
of the same class, so that perhaps it should be
Flee-dock. Gerard in his Herbal gives the
name of " Flea-docke" to a plant.




(delwedd B2786)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 41

Fow, adj. foul, ugly.

FRAMPOT, s. the iron ring which fastens the Sowl
or cow yoke to the iron range.

FREM'D, adj. strange, inimical. It is also used for
tender, and is sometimes pronounced Frim.
A.S. Frem'd, exterus. Som.

FRETTEN, part, rubbed, marked, O. W. used
chiefly in Pock-fretten. From the French Frot^
ter, and that from A.S. Frothian, fricare, Som.

FRIM, adj. tender or brittle* Lan.

FRORT, FROWART, or FROWARTS, adv. forward.

FORTHINK, v. to repent. O.W. Chaucer. Piers
Ploughman. Jam.

FORTHOUGHT, s. repentance. Forethought is forecast or prospective wisdom ; but our word has
quite a different sense, the little word For signifying privation, as for in forget, forgo (so it
ought to be written and not as it generally is,
forego). The pronunciation of Forthought is
very different from that of Forethought.

FUKES, s. the hair. Bailey has Fax for the hair,
and derives from it the names, Fairfax, Halifax.
A.S. Feax, coma, capilli. Som.


GAFTY, adj. doubtful, suspected. A gafty person

is a suspected person.
GATE, s. a road. " Gate heo goes," is the usual cry





(delwedd B2787)

An Attempt at a Glossary

of the huntsman when he pricks (i. e. traces) the
hunted hare along the high-road. Gate is not
onlyporta but also portus Sandgate, Margate.

GAWM, v. to comprehend. Gauwe, Teutonice acutus, attentus. Kil. Gaw, intelligent. Flem.
Halma. Palsgrave has, to awme, to guess,
which I suppose is nothing but to aim.

GAWN, s. a gallon.

GEE, v. to fit, suit, or agree together. Lan. from
the O. W. to gee or to gie, to go.

GEFF, or JEFF, adj. deaf.

GELL, or JELL, s. a great deal.

GESLING, s. a gosling.

GHEETEN, part, gotten.

To GO GIDDY is to go in a passion. A.S. Gidig,
stultus, vertiginosus. Som. a very trifling deflection from the common meaning of Giddy.

GILLER, or rather GUILLER, s. several horse hairs
twisted together to compose a fishing-line.

GIL-HOOTER, s. an owl.

GIRD, s. and v. a push, to push as a bull does.
Shakesp. Ash calls it a twitch, a pang, but I apprehend wrongly so. Gyrd, perce, or strike thorow with a spear or weapon, Pal. Johnson gives
it a different sense from what it bears in Cheshire. So in Shakespeare's Henry IV. act i.
sc. 2. Falstaff says, " Men of all sorts take a
pride to gird at me."




(delwedd B2788)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 45

GLAVER, or GLAFFER, v. to flatter, coax, or fondle.

GLIFF, s. a glimpse. Flemish Glimp, apparence.

GLOBED TO, part, wedded to, foolishly fond of.
In Ray alone ; from Glop, fatuus. Ihre.

GLOPPEN, v. to astonish, or stupify : from Glop

GNATTER, or NATTER, v. to gnaw to pieces. A.S.
Gnaegan, to gnaw. Som.

GOLDING, s. a marygold.

GOOD, s. a property of any kind. A.S. Gode, bona.

GOODY, s. goodwife ; a kind of familiar address
or title given to women rather in an inferior
station of life. It grows much out of use.

GORSE-HOPPER, s. the bird called a whinchat.

GOWD-NEFS, or GOLD-NEPS, s. a kind of small red
and yellow early ripe pear, the petit muscat or
sept en gueule of Duhamel.

GRADELY, GREADLY, GRAIDLY, adj. decent, orderly, good sort of man, thriving honestly in
the world ; gradus, Latin; or to gree, O.W. for
agree. A.S. Grith, peace, used by Chaucer.

GRAZIER, s. a young rabbit just beginning to
feed on grass.

GROSIER, s. a gooseberry.

GUEOUT, s. the gout ; it is also a soft spungy part
of a field, full of springs, a defective place, perhaps used in a figurative sense.





(delwedd B2789)

An Attempt at a Glossary

GUILL, v. to dazzle, chiefly by a blow.

GULL, 5. A naked gull ; so are called all nestling
birds in quite an- unfledged state. They have
always a yellowish cast, and the word is, I believe, derived from the Ang. Sax. geole, or the
Suio-Goth. gul, yellow. Som. and Ihre. The
commentators, not aware of the meaning of the
term " naked gull," blunder in their attempt to
explain those lines of Shakspeare in Timon of

" Lord Timon will be left a naked Gull,
Which flashes now a Phoenix."

GUTTIT, s. is, I am credibly informed, almost
the only name by which Shrovetide is known
among the lower orders in Cheshire. This
word seems to be a corruption of Good tide.
Shrovetide was formerly not only, (to use the
words of Mr. Warton,) " a season of extraordinary sport and feasting," but it was also the
stated time for repentance, confession, and receiving absolution. For either of the above reasons, it may fairly have obtained the name of
Good tide, in like manner as the day of the Crucifixion has obtained that of Good Friday.




(delwedd B2790)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 45


HAGG, s. To work by the Hagg is to work by the
great, in contradistinction to day-work. The
price of day-labour is pretty much fixed ; but to
work by the great or by the job must be subject to a bargain, i. e. to a Hagg or Haggle, the
frequent consequence of bargaining.

HAIGH, or HAY, v. to have. Lan.

HALOW, or HAILOW, adj. (Lan. healow,) awkwardly
bashful, or shy: from the A.S. Hwyl, bashful.

HAMES, s. horse collars, so called (according to
Phillips in his New World of Words) from
their likeness in shape to the hams of man.

HAN, the plural of the present tense of the verb
to have. It is an old word used by Wicliffe,
and seems to be a contraction of Haven.

HANTLE, or HANDTLE, s. a handful. Jamieson
rightly explains this word, as it is commonly
used in Scotland, by a great quantity ; but the
doubt which he expresses of its being derived
from handful, when we state that the two similar words of Piggintle and Noggintle are in
constant use in this county, is wholly done

HATTLE, adj. wild, skittish. Ash calls it local.

HAVIOURS, or HAVERS, s. behaviour. To be on one's





(delwedd B2791)

An Attempt at a Glossary

haviours is to be on one's good behaviour. Jam.
uses bavins, or havings, in the same sense.

HAWPENNY, s. HAWPORTH, s. halfpenny; halfpenny-worth.

HIDE, v. to beat.

HIDING, s. a beating.

HIDLANDS, s. concealment. When a person keeps
out of the way from the fear of being arrested,
he is said to be in Hidlands.

HIDNES is used in the same sense as Hidlands, in
the Glossary to Langtoft's Chronicle, by Hearne.

HILLING, or HEELING, s. the covering of a book,
the quilt or blanket. Lan. to hill, or hilling.
It is a good O. W. employed by Wicliffe in his
translation of the New Testament, but I never
heard it used in common conversation except in
Lancashire and Cheshire. See Ihre in voce
Hilja, operire. A.S. Helan, tegere. Som.

HIMSELL, or HISSELL, is used in the following
sense, He is not himself, he is out of his mind.

HINGE, adj. active, supple, pliant.

HOBBITY HOY, an awkward stripling, between
man and boy. Tusser calls it Hobart de Hoigh,
or Hoyh. I believe it to be simply Hobby the
Hoyden, or Robert the Hoyden, or Hoyt. The
word Hoyden is by no means confined to the female sex; indeed it is believed to have anciently
belonged to the male sex, and to mean a rude




(delwedd B2792)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 47

ill-behaved person. See Todd's Diet, in voce
Hoiden. Hoyt in the North is an awkward boy,
or a simpleton. Grose.

HOG, or HOGG, s. a heap of potatoes of either a
conical or roof-shaped form, probably so called
from its resemblance to a hog's back. It is always covered with straw and earth, to preserve
the potatoes from the frost ; such is the usual
mode in Cheshire.

HOGG, v. to put up potatoes in this way.
HOLLIN, or HOLLEYN, s. the holly-tree : an almost

literal adherence to the Anglo-Saxon Holayn.
HOLT, or rather HOULT, s. a holing, going into a
hole, or putting a ball into a hole, which is required at several games. I gained three points
at one hoult, i. e. at one holing.
Hoo, or rather Oo, pron. she. This word, which
is in common use in the counties of Chester and
Lancaster, is merely the Ang. Sax. Heo. See
Layamon of Ernley's translation of Wace's
Brut, Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle passim,
and Somner. Verstegan in his Glossary of the
Ancient English Tongue, at the end of his Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, has "Heo for
she ; " and in some places in England they yet
say Heo, or Hoo, instead of she.
BY HULCH AND STULCH, By hook and by crook.
Hulch is probably a corruption of Hutch, the





(delwedd B2793)

An Attempt at a Glossary

area frumentaria of the pantry; and Stulch may
be the beginning of the word Steal, with the
termination in ulch, in order to make it rime
with Hulch. It means, as well by saving as by
theft, by all possible means. The proverbial
expression is not, By hook and by crook, but
By hook or by crook ; meaning a determination
to obtain one's object either by direct or indirect ways, quocunque modo.

HULL, v. to throw.

HULLOT, or HULLART, s. an owlet or owl.

HURE, s. the hair. Lan.

HURE-SORE, when the skin of the head is sore
from a cold.

HURRY, s. a bout, a set-to, a scolding, a quarrel ;
perhaps from the old word to harry, or to


JACK NICKER, s. a goldfinch : why so called I
cannot conjecture. It is particular, however,
to observe the appropriation of Christian names
to many kind of birds. Thus all little birds
are by children called Dicky birds. We have
Jack Snipe, Jack Daw, Tom Tit, Robin Redbreast, Poll Parrot, a Gill-hooter ; a Magpie is
always called Madge, a Starling Jacob, a Sparrow Philip, and a Raven Ralph.




(delwedd B2794)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 49

JACK-SHARP, or SIIARPLING, s. a small fish called
a stickleback.

JAG, or JAGG, s. a small parcel, a small load of
hay or corn. In Norfolk it is called a bargain.

JAGG, or JAG, v. to trim up the small branches of
a tree.

JEE, or A-JEE, adv. awry.

JERSEY, or rather JAYSEY, a ludicrous and contemptuous term for a lank head of hair, as resembling combed wool or flax, which is called
Jersey. He has got a fine jaysey. " Jarsey, the
finest wool, separated from the rest by combing." Bailey's Diet.

INSENSE, v. to instruct, to inform : To lay open a
business to any one is to insense him. To insense is a word formed in a similar manner
with the old French word assagir, rendre sage.

INTACK, s. an inclosure on a common, waste, or
forest. An Intake.

JUMPS, s. a kind of stays worn by wet-nurses,
which are easily loosened in order to facilitate
her suckling the child.

JURNUT, or YERNUT, s. a pignut, Bunium Bulbocastanum.


KAILYARDS, or rather KELYARDS, the name of certain orchards in the city of Chester. Kailyard





(delwedd B2795)

An Attempt at a Glossary

in Scotch is a cabbage- or a kitchen-garden.
Jam. Yard and garden are both of them the
same thing, and derived from the A.S. Geard.
See Diversions of Purley, vol. 2. p. 275.

KALE. See in voce CALE.

KAZARDLY, adj. Lan. unlucky, liable to accident :
perhaps a corruption of Hazardly.

KECK, v. to put any thing under a vessel which
lifts it up and makes it stand uneven. In Lancashire to Keyke or Kyke, is to stand crooked.
Keck, v. is usually to heave at the stomach.
Keck is the same word, differently applied, and
means to lift up, or to heave.

KEEVE, v. to overturn or lift up a cart, so as to
unload it all at once. Ash calls it local. .

KENCH, s. a twist or wrench, a strain or sprain.
Kenks (a sea term), are the doublings in a cable
or rope when it does not run smooth.

KEOUT, s. a little barking cur-dog. Randle Holme,
in his Academy of Armoury, uses Skaut or Kaut
for the same, which seems to designate Scout
for its etymology ; and this is partly confirmed
by that line of Tusser

" Make bandog thy Scout-watch to bark at a thief."

KEOW, or sometimes Ku, s. sounding the it somewhat like ou, is used for Cow. KY, or KEY, s.
(the plural) Cows.




(delwedd B2796)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 51

KERVE, v. to turn sour.

KIBBO KIFT. Thus in Cheshire is called a proof of
great strength ; namely, for a man to stand in a
half-bushel and lift from the ground and place
on his shoulders a load of wheat, that is, 14 score
weight. This is called by the name of Kibbo
Kift ; why, I do not know : but I have some idea
of having seen somewhere the word Kibbo or
Kibbow used in the sense of strong. Should it
not rather be Kibbow Gift? and in that case the
feat above mentioned will be a gift of strength.

KID-CROW, or KIDCREW, s. a place to put a sucking calf in. Bailey has this word, but he writes
it Kibgrow. Crybbe being the A.S. word for
stall or stable, and Crebbe being the same in
Teutonic, Bailey's mode of writing the word,
though differing from the ordinary pronunciation of it, is probably right.

KIND, v. to kindle the fire.

KITLING, s. a kitten. Ash says it is not common.
It is Scotch, Jam. Kytlinge, catellus, P. P. C.

KIVER, v. and s. to cover, a cover, used by Wicliffe in his MS. translation of the Psalms.

KNICKY-KNACKY, adj. handy, adroit.

KNOCKER-KNEE'D, adj. said of those knees which
in action strike against each other. It is usually
called baker-knee'd.






(delwedd B2797)

An Attempt at a Glossary

When a man publicly declares he will not pay
any of his wife's debts, which have been contracted since some fixed day, she is said to be
knotchelled, a certain disgraceful imaginary
mark. Lan.

KNOTTINGS, s. thin corn, not well grown. Acad.


LAD'S LOVE, s. or OLD MAN, s. for by both these
names is the herb Southernwood called.

LADGEN, or LAGGEN, v. is to close the seams of
any wooden vessels which have opened from
drought, so as to make them hold water. This
is done by throwing the vessels into water,
which swells the wood and closes the seams.
P. P. C. has to laggen, or drabelen, palustro.
N.B. to drabble, to wet or dirty, is a word of
frequent colloquial occurrence, though omitted
by our best lexicographers.

LAITH, adj. loth, unwilling.

LAT, s. a lath. Lan.

LAT, adj. lattance, s. hindrance ; LAT, v. to hinder. Jam. has lattance, as well as to lat, v. to
hinder. Ang. Sax. Latian, to hinder or delay.
An old sense of the verb to Let was to defer or
put off. In Horman's Vulgaria we read, "I let
my journey for the lowrynge wether, Propter




(delwedd B2798a)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 53

nubilum distuli profectionem." To Let comes
either from the Gothic Latjan, tardare, or from
the Suio-Gothic Lattia, tardare, morari.

LAX -A- FOOT, adj. slow in moving. Letten, verletten, Dutch. Latjan, Goth, tardare.

LATHE, v. to ask, to invite, O. W. Lan.

LAWS YOU NOW, an exclamation. See you now ;
used as Lo ! The Ang. Sax. for Lo is La.

LEET, v. to let, also to light with a person, or meet
him. I connah leet on him, I cannot meet
with him.

LEET, LEETEN, v. to pretend or feign. You are
not so ill as you leeten yourself, as you suffer
yourself to appear. In Jam. Scotch Dictionary
we read to Leit, leet, let, to pretend to give, to
make a show of. Junius assigns Laeten, Belg.
for its origin. Laeeta, Icelandic, simulare, se
gerere, Late, gestus. Belgice, Laeten, videri,
simulare, gerere se hoc vel illo modo. Gothice,
Linter, dolus, Linta, hypocrita.

LESS is pronounced as if it was written Lass.

LICH-GATES, s. are the gates of the church-yard :
LICH-ROAD, s. the road by which the corpse
passes for interment: from the A.S. Lice, corpus. N.B. These gates are, I believe, never
opened but for funerals.

LICKSOME, or LISSOME, adj. lightsome, pleasant,
agreeable. Chiefly applied to places or situa





(delwedd B2798b)

An Attempt at a Glossary

tions. Lissome often means active, agile, the
same as hinge. A pretty girl is said to be a
licksome girl.

LIKE is used in the sense of obliged to do any
thing, forced to do it. Thou hast like to do it.

LIPP'N, v. to lippen, to expect. A. Sax. Leaf-an,

LITE, s. a little. A farmer, after enumerating the
number of acres he has in wheat and barley, will
often add, " and a lite wuts," i. e. a little oats.
It is an O. W. used by Chaucer. Danish Lidt,
a little. Wolf. Dan. Diet.

LITHE, v . To lithe the pot is to put thickenings
into it. A.S. Lithan, to lay one thing close to
another. Som. To Alyth is a good old word,
and used in this sense in the Forme of Cury,

LITHEII, adj^Lan. idle, lazy : long and lither is
said of a tall idle person. Ash calls it obsolete.
A.S. Lith, mollis, lenis. Chaucer uses it as
wicked. " There is no flatterer nor losyll so
lyther" is a line of Shelton in his Interlude of

LITHING, or LITHINGS, s. thickening for the pot,
either flour or oatmeal. Lyder,, Icelandic. To
alye, is an O. W. for to mix.

LITIGIOUS, adj. I have heard weather that impeded the harvest so called ; but I believe it




(delwedd B2798c)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 55

is only a cant term, and not a true county

LOCKED, part, a faced card in a pack is said to be

LOOM, s. a utensil, a tool, a piece of furniture.
Som. says Geloma, utensilia, supellex, utensils,
things of frequent necessary use, household
stuff. Belgis eodem sensu Alaem, alem. Hinc
jurisperitorum nostrorum Heir-lome, pro supellectili haereditaria.

cause, occasion. It is all along with such a person that this business does not proceed, he is
the occasion, &c. ; evidently from the A.S.
Gelang, ex culpa.

LOP, LOUP, LOPPEN, perf. tense and part, of the
verb to leap.

LORJUS, an exclamation. Lord Jesus!

LOUNT, s. a piece of land in a common field, perhaps a corruption of Lond.

LUCK, v. to happen by good fortune. If I had
lucked, if I had had the good fortune.

LUNGEOUS, adj. ill-tempered, disposed to do some
bodily harm by a blow or otherwise. Allonger,
French, to lunge. A lunge is common for a
violent kick of a horse, though Dr. Ash has
omitted it.

LURKEY-DISH, s. the herb Pennyroyal.





(delwedd B2799)

An Attempt at a Glossary


MACKEN UM BOOT, make them do it.

MADPASH, s. a madbrain. Pash is the head. See

MAIGH, or MAY, v. Lan. a corruption of to make.
Maigh th'dur or th'yate, shut it, or fasten it ;
perhaps an abbreviation of make fast. An
Italianism, Far la porta, is to shut the door.

MANY A TIME AND OFT is a common expression,
and means, frequently. This use of the word
Many in the singular number is by no means uncommon either in colloquial or in written language ; Many a man, and Many a day, are expressions fully justified by common usage. So, in
the Merchant of Venice, Shylock says " Many a
time and oft, on the Rial to you have rated me."
With which colloquial expression, though common through all England, Mr. Kean, the actor
in the part of Shylock, being unacquainted, always spoke the passage by making a pause in

the middle of it thus: "Many a time and

oft on the Rialto," without having any authority
from the text of Shakespeare for so doing.

MARA, the Forest of Mara, the old name of the
Forest of Delamere. Randle Holme, passim.

-F T, s. the name of the Yellow Ragwort,
Senecio Jacobcea.




(delwedd B2800)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 57

MARRY! COME UP, MY DIRTY COUSIN, is an expression used to those who affect any extreme
nicety or delicacy which does not belong to them ;
or to those who assume a distinction to which
they have no claim. This saying must have
had some local origin, which has not been transmitted to us.

MASKER, v. the same as Flasker. Jam. has to
mask, to catch in a net. Maske, mesh of a net.
Flemish, Halma.

MAW, s. the stomach. A.S. Maga, stomachus. Som.

MAW-BOUND, adj. said of a cow in a state of costiveness.

MAWKS, s. a dirty figure, or mixture. Ash calls
it colloquial.

MEAL, s. the appointed time when a cow is milked. She gives so much at a meal. A. S. Mael,
portio, aut spatium temporis. Som.

MEASTER, s. master.

MEASURE, s. a Winchester bushel of corn.

MEET, a kind of adverbial expletive, expressive
of something of late occurrence. Just meet
now, is just even now. See Junius in voce
Meet. A. S. Gemet, obvius, which Somner
translates Met, in English.

MELCH, adj. mild, soft ; perhaps from milk, either
through the medium of the A.S. Meolc, or the
Belgic Melk. Lan.





(delwedd B2801)

An Attempt at a Glossary

MICH, adj. MICHNESS, s. Scotch. Jam. Mich of
a miclmess, much the same. ^

MICKLES, s. size. He is of no mickles ; he is of
no size or height. Mickle is common in the
North, both as a substantive and as an adjective, but the word Mickles I believe peculiar
to Cheshire and Lancashire.

MID-FEATHER, s. is a narrow ridge of land left
between two pits, usually between an old marl
pit and a new one which lie contiguous to each

MITTENS, s. strong hedging-gloves containing the
whole hand, not leaving any distinct places for
the fingers.

MIXEN, s. a dunghill. A. S. Mixen. Somner.

MIZZICK, s. MIZZICKY, adj. a boggy place. Johnson has Mizzy.

MIZZLE, s. small rain ; rather Mistle, as derived
from Mist. Dr. Ash admits the verb to mizzle,
but rejects the substantive.

MONNY. Such is the vulgar pronunciation of Many.

MORTACIOUS,C?/. mortal ; mortacious bad, very bad.


MARE is a Cheshire adage, respecting which
Mr. Archdeacon Nares, in his Glossary, says :
"Who Moss was, historians have not recorded,"
&c. We have, however, one authority for its
being a gray mare :




(delwedd B2802)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 59

" Till daye come catch him as Mosse his grey mai'e."

Christmas Prince, p. 40.

This throws some light upon the adage, though
not sufficient for its perfect explanation. By
his gray mare is certainly meant his wife.
" The gray mare is the better horse " implies
that the Mistress rules; and in the low colloquial
style of the French, La jument grise, means the

MOT, s. moat, a wide ditch for defence, surrounding ancient country seats or castles.

MUCH, s. a wonder, an extraordinary thing. It is
much if such a thing happen.

MUCHNESS, s. is used for similitude in size, in number, or in value ; as for instance : it is said of
two things between which there is not any difference or ground for choice, They are much
of a muchness.

MUCKINDER, s. a dirty napkin or pocket handkerchief. In Ort. Voc. we have Muckeder, mete
cloth, or towel. Littleton has Muckinger, and
so has Bailey.

MUN, . must. Moune, or have a right, possum.
P. P. C. Mowe, for may, is common in Spenser.
Mowne is used by Wicliffe for must: not mown,
nequeo. Ort. Vocab.

MUNCORN, 6-. Blencorn, Mengecorn and Blendecorn, maslin, wheat and rye mixed together





(delwedd B2803)

An Attempt at a Glossary

as they grow. Mungril is mixed. See Minshew.

MURENGER, s. a superintendent of the walls of a
town or city. This word is in Ainsworth and
in Todd, but I never heard it used except in
the city of Chester, where two officers are annually selected from among the aldermen, who
are called the Murengers, and to whom the reparation of the city walls is confided. This
consideration seems to give the word Murenger
a title to a place in this little Glossary.

MyseLL, pron. so pronounced, myself.

NAAR, or NAR, near or nearer. Littleton has Narr

for nearer. Danish, Naehr, nigh. Wolf. Dan.

NATTER'D, adj. natured, i. e. ill-natured ; very

nattered is very ill-tempered. Knattle, in Lan.,

is cross, ill-natured. To natter, or gnatter, is

also to gnaw into small pieces.
NEELD, or NIELD, s. is in Cheshire in common use

for a needle. It is used by Shakespeare.
NEESE, v. to sneeze.
NEEST, s. nest. The boys say, To go a bird's

neezing ; that is, in search of birds' nests.
NEEZLE, v. to nestle, to settle oneself in a good





(delwedd B2804)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 6 1

NOBBUT, none but. Who was there? Nobbut

NOGGING, s. The filling up of the interstices between the timber work in a wooden building
with sticks and clay is called the nogging.

NOGGINTLE, s. a nogginful.

NOINT, v. to anoint ; figuratively, to beat severely.

A NOINTED ONE, adj. or part, an unlucky or mischievous boy, who may be supposed to have
been severely corrected, is so called ; a term corresponding with the French un reprouve.

NOOKSHOTTEN, adj. disappointed, mistaken, having overshotten the mark. Shakespeare uses the
word in Henry V. " That nook-shotten isle of
Albion;" and the commentators suppose it to
have reference to the jagged form of the English coast. Pegge explains the word by " bevel, not at right angles ; " and Randle Holme,
in his Academy of Armoury, among the glazier's
terms has, " a Querke is a nook-shoten pane,
whose sides and top run out of a square form:"
so that we may conceive what the artist meant
to be a quarry or right-angled pane, had, from
his want of skill, turned out otherwise ; and so
far Nook-shotten may mean mistaken, not measured by the square, not exact.

NOTE, s. A dairy of cows is said to be in good
note, when all the cows come into milking at
the best time for making cheese.





(delwedd B2805)

An Attempt at a Glossary

NOUGHT, or NAUGHT, adj. Lan. bad, worthless :
stark nought, good for nothing. It is often employed in the sense of unchaste, as explained by
Bailey. Sir Thomas More in his Apologye
uses nought in the sense of wicked.

NOUGHT, NAUGHT : to call to naught, to abuse very
much. To call to naught is in Hor. Vul. p. 1 34,
in tergo.

NUDGE, s. a jog or push.

NUDGE, v. to jog or push.


OCCAGION, s. for Occasion, used in the sense of
cause or motive, as " I was the occagion, or cagion, of his doing so."

OMMOST is the common pronunciation of Almost.

ON, adv. a female of any kind who is marjs appetens is said to be On.

ONLIEST, adj. pronounced ownliest, superlative of
Only : the best or most approved way of doing
any thing is said to be the onliest way.

OON, s. oven.

Oss, or OSSE, v. Lan. to offer, begin, attempt, or
set about any thing, to be setting out. Ash
calls it local. Holland in his translation of
Pliny has " Osses and Presages." To osse is
likewise to recommend a person to assist you.
Edgworth, in his Sermons in the time of Henry VIII. uses to osse for to prophesy, in the




(delwedd B2806)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 63

same sense in which Holland uses it ; but in
Cheshire it has the above meaning.

OWETHER, either. O. W. Piers Plouhman :
Whitaker's edition.

OWLER, s. the alder-tree. Aller and Eller are
Scotch. Jam.

OWNDER, or AUNDER, s. the afternoon. Undern
is used by Chaucer, and Yestronde is an O.W.
for yesterday. See Ellis's Ancient Poetry. Under was anciently used in the sense of Post, Lat.
See Skinner. Also in P. P. C. we have Undermele, post meridianum.


PALMS, s. branches of the willow in flower, with
which it was formerly the custom to decorate
churches on Palm Sunday, being substitutes for
branches of the palm-tree.

PAPER, s. is pronounced as if it was written with
a double p in the middle of it ; thus, Papper.

PERISHED, part, killed, or starved with cold. I
am welly (well nigh) perished.

PEWIT LAND, s. moist, spongy land ; such as the
Pewit usually frequents.

PIED-FINCH, a chaffinch.

PIGGINTLE, s. a pigginful.

PIKEHILL, s. a pitchfork ; such is the pronunciation of the word : but I should be inclined to





(delwedd B2807)

An Attempt at a Glossary

write it Pikel, and derive it from the French
Piquelet, a little pike. Randle Holme writes it

PILPIT, s. pulpit. A Cheshire farmer, on being
asked how he liked the new clergyman, replied,
" He is a pretty rough mon in the reading desk,
but when he gets into the pilpit, he goes off
like the smoke of a ladle."

PINK, or PENK, s. a menow, a small fish. Littleton has Penk.

PIP, or PEEP, s. a single blossom, where flowers
grow in bunches (as in the Auricula) : hence a
spot on the cards is called a pip, fiori in Italian,
flowers in English, being the name of one of the
suits of cards.

PIPE, s. a small dingle or ravin, breaking out from
a larger one.

PLAT, s. a small bridge over a stream or gutter,
probably from Flat. A plat of turnips or potatoes in a field or garden is a bed of them, merely
a variation of the common word Plot.

PLIM, v. to plumb or fathom with a plummet.

PLIM, adj. or adv. perpendicular. To plymme
down is used by Lady Juliana Barnes for
to pounce directly down as a falcon does upon
his prey.

POKLE, s. i. e. a pokeful, is a bagfull.

POLLER, or POWLER, v. properly, to beat in the




(delwedd B2808)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 65

water with a pole ; figuratively, to labour without effect.

POPPILARY, or PEPPILARY, s. the poplar-tree.
Poss, v. To poss is a jocular punishment common
among marlers when any one comes late to work
in the morning : he is held across a horse with
his posteriors exposed, and struck on them with
the flat side of a spade by the head workman,
called the lord of the marl pit. Possed, pushed,
tossed. Bailey.
POTE, or PAWT, v. Lan. to kick with one foot.

Jam. has to paut. Belgice, poteren. Jun.
Pow, s. i. e. poll, the head.

POWSE, Pous, or POUST, s. Lan. filth, dirt ; perhaps from the French Poussiere, dust. See
Skinner in voce Poust, also Piers Plouhman.
POWSELS and THRUMS are used to signify dirty
scraps and rags. Powsels, I suppose, comes
from Pouse ; and Thrums is a good old word,
signifying tags or ends of coarse cloths.
PROVE, v. To prove pregnant, spoken of cattle.
PUN, v. to pound or beat down. It is a good old


PUNGER, v. to puzzle or confound. A farmer in
distress said, " I am so pungered, I know not
which eaver to turn to." To punge in Scotch,
signifies to prick or sting, mentally speaking.
See Jamieson.





(delwedd B2809)

An Attempt at a Glossary


QUARRY, s. a square pane of glass set with the
point upright. Acad. of Arm. b. 3, ch. 9,
p. 385.

QUERKE, s. a nook-shoten pane of glass, or any
pane whose sides and top run out of a square
form. Acad. of Arm. ut supra. A QUIRKE, s.
is a rhomb ; in which shape (that is, with the
points uppermost) all panes of glass were anciently cut and placed. Holme's Acad. of Arm.

QUICK, s. quickset. Quicks are plants of quicksets.


RADLING, s. Lan. a long stick or rod, taken either
from a staked hedge, or from a barn wall made
with long sticks twisted together and plastered
with clay. See Ellis's Specimens of Early English Poetry, vol. i. p. 31 8. " Radyll of a carte,
Costee," Pal. Quaere if not a roddling ? Raddles are hurdles. In Fleming's Dictionarie we
read "a hartheled walle, or ratheled with hasell
roddes, wandes, or such other, Paries craticillus."

RAKE UP THE FIRE, is not only to rake the bottom
of the grate, but also to supply it well with coals,
that it may continue burning all night, a custom regularly observed by the kitchen-maid to




(delwedd B2810)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 67

the kitchen fire in all the northern counties,

where coals are abundant.
RAME, REAM, or RAWM, v. to stretch out the arm

as if to reach any thing : from the Teutonic

Raemen, extendere. Kil.
A RAMPICKED tree is a stag-headed tree.
RANK, adj. in a passion : Ranc, A.S. superbus,

acediosus. Somner.
RANK RIPE, or RONK RIPE, full ripe.
RAPPIT, a rabbit.

RAPPIT IT, or ROT IT. A trivial exclamation expressive of dissatisfaction.
RASE-BRAINED, adj. violent, impetuous ; perhaps

only rash-brained, though Rasend in German is

mad. Also in Flemish Razen, enrager. Halma.
RAUGHT, perf. tense of the verb to reach ; used by

READY, v. to comb the head with the wide-toothed

comb. Jam. has " to red the head or the hair,

to loosen or disentangle it."
REEAN, s. Lan. a small gutter. A.S. Rin, a stream.

Som. Randle Holme calls a Ree-an, the distance between two buts.
REEF, s. a rash on the skin : the itch, or any

eruptive disorder ; from its being rife or reef,

i. e. frequent on the skin.
REET, i. e. right. A common augmentative : Reet

nought, good for nothing.





(delwedd B2811)

An Attempt at a Glossary

REEVE, v. to separate corn that has been winnowed, from the small seeds which are among
it : this is done with what they call the reeving
sieve. Acad. Arm.

RENDER, v. Lan. to separate or disperse. It is
commonly used as in the phrase To render suet,
which is to break it to pieces, cleanse it, and
melt it down. See Jam. in voce Rind. Islan.
Raenn-a, rinde, liquefacere, to melt.

RID, v. in the sense, get rid of. It is used for to clear
a hedge or bushes on a piece of land, chiefly to
rid gorse. A.S. Areddan, to rid away. Som.

RIPER, s. a certain number of sheaves of corn put
up together.

RIGATT, s. a small channel made by the rain, out
of the common course of the water. Rigols,
old French, petit canal, Roquefort Glossaire de
la Langue Romane.

RIGG, s. a strong blast of wind. The storms which
usually prevail about the time of the autumnal
equinox are called Michaelmas Riggs.

RINER, s. a toucher. It is used at the game of
quoits. A Riner is when the quoit touches the
peg or mark. A Whaver is when it rests upon
the peg and hangs over, and consequently wins
the cast. " To shed riners with a whaver" is
a proverbial expression, from Ray, and means,
to surpass any thing skilful or adroit by some




(delwedd B2812)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 69

thing still more so. Rinda, Ost. Got. Ihre.
Rennen, tangere. Wach.

RISE, or RICE, s. a twig or branch. O. W. Chaucer. In our county it is still retained in the
compound Pea-rise, for pea-sticks. Ash calls
it obsolete. Danis Riisz est virga. Jun. Teutonic Riis, surculus. Kilian. A.S. Hris, long
and small boughes to make hedges, rise-wood.

RISK, s. a rush. It was anciently written Rysch,
or Rysshe. P.P.C. and Ort. Voc. Sir Thomas
More in his Apologie writes it Ryssche.

RISOME, or RISM, s. the head of the oat. Well
risom'd is well headed. Some think it comes
from Racemus ; but probably it has the same
origin as Rise. Randle Holme, in his Acad.
of Arm. has " Rizomes, the sparsed ears of
oats in the straw. A Rizome head, a chaffy
sparsed head ; the corn in the oats are not called
ears, but rizomes."

ROCHE, s. refuse stone. French, Roche.

RONK RIPE, i. e. rank ripe, quite ripe: said of fruit
in a perfect state of maturity.

ROTTEN, s. Lan. a rat, or rats ; Rotta is Swedish
for a rat. See Serenius's Swedish Dictionary.
" Thanne ran ther a route of ratones."

Piers Plouh. pass. 1.

RUCK, v. to get close or huddle together as fowls do.





(delwedd B2813)

An Attempt at a Glossary

RUCK, s. Lan. a heap ; not quite peculiar to this
county. Scotch. Jam. Ruga vel Ruka, SuioGot. cumulus, acervus. Hire. See Horne Tooke,
Diversions of Purley, 4to, vol. ii. p. 229, in voce

RUCKLING, s. the least of a brood, or of a ruck.

RUTE, v. to cry with vehemence, to strive as children do sometimes in crying to make as much
noise as they can ; to bellow or roar. Ash calls
it obsolete. It is admitted here on the sole
authority of Ray. The rut of the sea is the
dashing of the waves against any thing. A.S.
Hrutan, to snort, snore, or rout, in sleeping.

RYFE, adj. is in the P.P.C. translated by publicus,

RYNT, ROYNT, RUNT, v. Lan. in voce Rynty, to
get out of the way. Rynt thee, is an expression
used by milkmaids to a cow when she has been
milked, to bid her get out of the way. Ash calls
it local. It is used by Shakespeare, and puzzles
the commentators. Possibly it may owe its
origin to the old adverb Arowne, found in
P.P.C. and there explained by remote, seorsum ; or from Ryman, or Rumian, A.S. to get
out of the way. " Rym thysum men setl, Give
this man place." Saxon Gospels. Luke, ch. 1 4,
v. 9. Arowme is used by Chaucer in his House




(delwedd B2814)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 71

of Fame, book 2, ver. 32, and is there explained by Speght, roaming, wandering ; and
by Tyrwhitt, at large: perhaps remote, seorsum,
might be a more appropriate explanation. The
MS. copy of the P.P.C. among the Harleian
MSS. in the British Museum has Arowne or
more otter (i. e. more outer), remote, seorsum.
Areawt is in the Lancashire dialect, out of


SAFE, adj. sure, certain. He is safe to be

SAHL, SOHL, SOLE, Sow, s. an ox yoke. A.S. Sol,
orbita. A Sowle to tye an ox in the stall. Som.
A.S. Sahle, fustis, sudes.

SAIN, SAYN, or rather SEN, the plur. of the present tense of the verb to say : as, They sen so,
Folk sen so. To add a final n or even the little
syllable en to many words when used in the
plural number, as helpen for help, fighten for
fight, driven for drive, is a common usage.

SAN JAM PEAR, s. the green Chiswell pear, usually
ripe about the 25th of July (i. e. St. James's
day), is so called.

SAPY, adj. foolish : perhaps only sappy ill-pronounced. Sap-scull is common.

SAEMONT, s. a sermon.





(delwedd B2815)

An Attempt at a Glossary

SAUGH, s. the sallow-tree, as Faugh is from fallow.

SBLID, an oath ; by his blood.

SCHARN, s. cow-dung. A.S. Scearn, fimus, stercus.
Holland, in his translation of the Natural History of Pliny, uses "bull's sherne," vol. ii.
p. 327.

SCRANNY, adj. thin, meagre. In Lancashire, a
Scrannel is a miserable emaciated person. Milton uses the word Scranel. In Kilian, we have
Schrael, gracilis, tenuis ; as well as Schraepel,
macer, pertenuis : and in Speghel's Suio-Gothic
Dictionary we find Skrinn, adj. macer, gracilis.

SCRATCH, s. the itch. It may seem extraordinary
to seek the etymology of this word in the old
French language ; and yet in Roquefort's Glossaire de la Langue Romane, we find Escrache,
gale, rogne.

SCRATTLE, v. to scratch as fowls do.

SCUTCH, v. Lan. a rod, a whip, perhaps Switch
corrupted. Ash admits the substantive and rejects the verb.

SCUTTLE, s. a small piece of wood pointed at both
ends, used at a game like trap-ball : perhaps
from Scute, O. W. for a boat, it being exactly
of that shape. Johnson explains the word in a
different sense.

A SEAVE, s. a rush. It is generally used for a rush




(delwedd B2816)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 73

drawn through melted grease, which in the
northern counties serves for a candle. Todd.

SEECH, v. SEECHED, part, to seek : sought. To
Seech, v. is clearly derived from the Teutonic
word Suchen, quaerere, as to Seek is from the
A.S. Seccan, quaerere.

SEECH, SECH, SIKE, or SYKE, s. Lan. a spring in
a field, which having no immediate outlet
forms a boggy place. Sich, Ang. Sax. a furrow or gutter. Som.

SEECHY, adj. boggy.

SEET, s. sight, a great many, or a great quantity.
What a sect of birds is in the air !

SEETLY, adj. i. e. Sightly, is generally used in the
sense of handsome. A seetly wench, is a handsome girl.

SEGG, s. a bull castrated when full-grown. Lan.
Scotch. Jam.

SELL, pron. self, in the compounds mysell, yoursell, hissell.

SELT, s. chance, a thing of rare occurrence :
hence, seldom and selcouth (a northern term).
Ang. Sax. Seld, rarus. Som.

SEN EVE, v. A corpse which begins to change is said
to seneve ; so is joiners' work which begins to
warp. Senade is A. S. for signed, marked,
noted : but I dare not assign it as the etymology
of Seneve.





(delwedd B2817)

An Attempt at a Glossary

To SET, or TO GIVE A SET, is to lease, or give a
lease of a house or farm. It is the same as to
let. In Cornwall, a set of a mine is a lease or
grant of it for a specified number of years. I
believe it is common.

SHAPE, v. to begin, to set about any thing ; to be
shaping, is to be going away. Shape me ; prepare me, make me ready, m'apprester, Pal.
" To shape one's course " is a common expression either in nautical or familiar discourse. See
Ort. Voc. in voce Evado. To shape is a good
O.W., used precisely in this sense by Lidgate
in his Historic of Thebes :

" And shope him forth upon his journie."
Shop is used in Piers Plouhman for went.

SHATTERY, adj. harebrained, giddy.

SHED, s. difference. " There is no shed between
them," is a common saying. It is also used for
the separation of the hair on the head, falling
to the right and left.

SHED, v. to surpass, or divide ; perhaps it should
be written sched. Scotch. Jam. to shed hair,
to separate it in order that it may fall on each
side. "As heaven's water sheds or deals" (to
deal is to separate) is a northern expression for
the boundary of different districts, generally the
summits of a ridge of hills ; from the Teut.




(delwedd B2818)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 75

Scheeden, separare. Kil. or A.S. Sceadan, dividere ; Lancastrensibus To sheade. Som.
Schad, part, distinguished, shaded, shadowed,

SHED, or rather SHEED, v. to spill; it is used
equally for liquid as for dry substances.

SCHEDE, v. to depart; i.e. to divide or separate:
it is also, to pour out or spill.

To SHEAD is also to slope down ground regularly.

SHEPSTER, s. the starling, a bird which frequents

SHEWDS, s. quasi Sheds, Lan. the husks of oats
when separated from the corn.

SHIM, adj. a clear bright white. A.S. Scima,
splendor. Sciman, splendere. Som.

SHIPPIN, SHIPPEN, or SHIP'N, s. the cow-house :
I suppose it is originally sheep-pen ; from the
A.S. Scipene, stabulum, bovile. Som.

SHOAT, s. in some places a SHOT, a young pig between a sucker and a porker ; it is also a term
of contempt, when applied to a young person.

SHONNA, or SHONNAH, shall not.

SHOO, or SHOOL, s. a shovel. Tusser uses shovel
as a monosyllable.

SHOOL, SHOO, or SHU, v. To shoo, to drive away
any thing, particularly birds from the corn or
garden. Lan. Scheuchen, Germ, to drive away.

SHRED, v. To shred suet is to break it into small





(delwedd B2819)

An Attempt at a Glossary

pieces. In the southern counties it is used for,
to spread manure. A.S. Screadan, resecare,

To GET SHUT OF A PERSON is to get rid of him.
See Diversions of Purley, in voce Shoot.

SHUTTANCE, s. riddance, delivering from any troublesome person or thing. A good shuttance of
such a one is, I suppose, the door shut upon

SIBBED, adj. related to, of kin to. Lan. Sib or
Sibbe is a good O. W. for relationship, still retained in gossip, i. e. God's Sib. Sibbe, affinitas,
Teut. Kilian. Sibberets, or Sibberidge, is the
bans of marriage.

SIN, adv. or prep, since.

SIRRY, s. sirrah ; a contemptuous term often used
to dogs.

SKEER, v. To skeer the esse, is to clear the grate ;
separating the ashes from the live coals : possibly only to scour.

SKELLERD, adj. crooked, out of the perpendicular;
from Scheel. Teut. obliquus, transversus. Kil.

SKELP, v. to leap awkwardly, as a cow does.
Skelp, Scotch. Jam.

SKEN, v. to squint.

SKEW, or SKEW-BALD, adj. a bay or brown and
white horse is so called. Piebald is black and
white, like the magpie.




(delwedd B2820)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 77

SKITTERWIT, s. a foolish, harebrained fellow.

SKREEN, s. A wooden settee or settle, with a very
high back sufficient to screen those who sit on
it from the external air, was with our ancestors
a constant piece of furniture by all kitchen fires,
and is still to be seen in the kitchens of many
of our old farm-houses in Cheshire. So in Tusser's Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry,
we read,

" If ploughman get hatchet or whip to the Skreene,
Maids loseth their cocke if no water be seen."

Note in Tusser redivivus. " If the ploughman
can get his whip, his plough-staff, hatchet, or
any thing that he wants in the field, to the fireside (Observe here that Screene and fire-side
are one and the same thing), before the maid
hath got her kettle on, then the maid loseth her
Shrovetide cock, and it belongs wholly to the

SKRIKE, v. to shriek out loud. Lan. O. W. Skraik
is Scotch, Jam. In P.P.C. we have Scrykinge
of childer, vagitus.

SLACK, s. small coal, Lan. sometimes pronounced
sleek. Also a low moist place between two hills.
Scotch. Jam. It is admitted by Todd.

SLATHER, or SLUR, v. to slip or slide. Slidder is
a good old word.

SLEAK, v. (so pronounced, for probably it should





(delwedd B2821)

An Attempt at a Glossary

be Slake,) to protrude the tongue. To Sleak out
the tongue, is to loll it out ; only that to loll
might proceed from weakness, whereas to sleak
it out is an act of volition.

SLECK, v. to extinguish, Lan. to slake ; from the
Isl. Slagi, humiditas.

SLINK, s. the untimely foetus of a cow when killed,
being in calf; the veal of this is called Slink

SLIPPY, adj. abbreviation of Slippery.

SLOOD, s. Cart sloods are deep cart-ruts. A.S.
Slog, a slough. Som.

SMEETH, v. to pass the iron over crumpled linen ;
A.S. Smsethe, smooth. Som.

SNAGG, or SNIG, v. to draw away by the hand
branches of trees ; also to cut off the lateral
branches. A.S. Snidan, secare. Som.

SNIDDLE, or HASSOCKS, s. that kind of long grass
which grows in marshy places. Lan. The Air a
ccespitosa of Linnaeus.

SOXGOW, SONGAL, s. gleaned corn. Songow,
Songoe, Sangow, to go Sangowing, v. To glean,
or go gleaning ; generally supposed to be so
named from picking up the single straws, i. e.
singleing. The explanation given by Kilian,
Etym. Teuton., is however far preferable : he
says, Sangh, Sanghe, fasciculus spicarum, Germ.
Sax. Sicamb. Sang, gsang : Ang. Songe. The




(delwedd B2822)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 79

same word Sanghe, manipulus spicarum, is found
in Scherzius's German Dictionary. In Bailey's
Diet. 8vo, 1735, we have, "Songal, Songle, s. a
handful of gleaned corn. Herefordshire ;" so that
Kilian is certainly right in saying that Songe is
an English word, which doubtless may be found
in some old English authors, though it has hitherto escaped my observation. P.S. In Hyde,
de Religione Persarum, p. 398, we read, " Pauperiores puellae virgines tempore messis triticese spicas legunt casque in parvum fasciculum,
seu manipulum, (Anglice, a Songall) colligatas,
domum reportant."*

SOPE, s. a sup. A sope of rain is a great deal of

Soss, s. a heavy fall.

SOWGER, s. is the pronunciation of soldier.

SPACT, adj. quick, comprehensive, also in one's
senses. He is not quite spact, means he is under
some alienation of mind. Ash calls the word
local, and does not give this last meaning.
Spaca, Islandic, sapiens. Spak, Ost. Got. Ihre.

SPEER, s. the chimney-post on each side of the
fire-place. A.S. Speare, hasta, spams. Som.

SPOCKEN, participle of the verb to speak.

* Hyde was a Cheshire man, being of the family of the
Hydes of Norbury in that county.





(delwedd B2823)

An Attempt at a Glossary

SPRINGOW, adj. nimble, active. Littleton has

SQUANDER, v. to separate or disperse : to squander

a covey of partridges.

given by butchers to very young calves. When

in that state their hoofs are yellow.
To STAND A PERSON ON, is to be incumbent on him.

It stands every one on to take care of himself.
STARE, s. a starling. In ^Elfric's Glossary we have

Beacita vel Sturnus, Stearn. He has also Tur
dus, Stser.
STAW, v. i. e. to stay : a cart stopped in a slough,

as not to be able to proceed, is said to be stawed.
STE-AN, s. (pronounced as a dissyllable) is used

for a jug of that kind of earthenware called

stone ; a stone jug. STONE is also often pronounced as a dissyllable, Stee-an or Sto-an.
STELE, or STEAL, the stalk of a flower, or the

handle of a rake or broom. Stele, Ang. Sax.

Ash calls it local.
STEPMOTHER'S BLESSING, s. a little reverted skin

about the nail, often called a back friend.
STIRROW, s. or STIR-ABOUT ; a hasty pudding.
STOCKPORT COACH, or CHAISE ; a horse with two

women riding sideways on it is so called ; a

mode of travelling more common formerly than

at present.




(delwedd B2824)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 81

To STOUK, or STOWK, v. to put ears or handles to
such vessels as require them.

STOWK, s. stalk or handle of a pail ; it is also a
drinking-cup with a handle. A stowk of ale,
from the participle of the A.S. Stican, figere.
See Home Tooke, Diversions of Purley, 4to,
vol. 2, p. 220.

STRACT, adj. abbreviation of Distracted.

STRAIN, v. expressive of the union of the sexes in
the canine race. A. S. Strynan, gignere, generare, procreare. Som.

STREEA, s. a straw. One who goes out of the
country for improvement, and returns without
having gained much, is said to have left it to
learn to call a Streea a straw.

STRUSHION, s. destruction. Lan.

STUBBO, or STRUBBOW, s. stubble.

STUBBO, or STUBBED, adj. thick, short.

STTJT, v. to stutter or stammer.

SWAT, s. sweat.

SWAT is the perfect tense of the verb to sweat.

SWIFPO, or SWIPPOW, adj. supple.

SWIPPO, s. The thick part of a flail is so called.
Acad. of Arm. In Norfolk it is called the
Swingel. In Scotch Swap is a sharp stroke,





(delwedd B2825)

An Attempt at a Glossary


T ACHING END, s. i. e. attaching end, a shoemaker's

waxed string.

TACK, s* a lease, or part of a lease, for a certain
time is called a Tack, i. e. simply a take. A Tack
is a term of the Scotch law, and a farmer is

called a Tacksman.
TACK, s. hold, confidence, reliance : There is no

tack in such a one, he is not to be trusted.

Johnson has this word, but not in this sense.
To TACK ONE'S TEETH to any thing, is to set about

it heartily. To Tack a stick to one, is to beat

TAFFY, s. what is called coverlid : this is treacle

thickened by boiling, and made into hard cakes.

Tafia, or taffiat, sugar and brandy made into

cakes. French.
TAIGH, or TAY, v. Scotch, to take. Jam. ; to tack

is also to take.
TAIN, or TANE, is in common use, for taken, the

part, of the verb to take. In the very old metrical description of the salutation of Vortigern

by Rowena, tane is so used.
TANTRELLS, or rather TANTRUMS, s. freaks, whims.

It is often said of a child when he is peevish

and cross, that he is in his tantrums.
TCHEM, s. Vide in CHEM.




(delwedd B2826)

of some Words used in Cheshire. $3

TEEN, s. When any one is in misfortune or bad
plight, he is said to be in fowteen.

TEEN, s. anger. Ray, Lan. Tynan, A.S. incitare.

TENT, v. to attend to or guard ; also to hinder or
prevent. Lan.

TETHER-DEVIL, the plantWoody Nightshade ; supposed to be so called from the complicated
growth of its branches.

THACK and THACKER, s. thatch and thatcher.
Thekia, Islandic, thatch. A.S. Thecan, tegere.

THATCH-PRICKS, s. (or simply the latter word,)
sticks used in thatching.

THAT'N, A THAT'N, adv. in that manner.

THINK ON, v. to remind.

THIS'N, qdv. in this way. In Hearne's Glossary to
Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle we have
thisne for this. THISNE being the accusative
case of the Anglo-Saxon pronoun This, this.
I apprehend it would not be proper to say
This'n man or This'n horse, or even That'n
man or That'n horse, using it only adjectively ;
but when used as a substantive, a That'n or
a This'n (the word manner being understood),

it is in common use. In Norfolk a-this-ne,

a-that-nej are commonly used for in this manner,
in that manner.

THISTLE-TAKE, s. a duty of a halfpenny, anciently





(delwedd B2827)

An Attempt at a Glossary

paid to the lord of the manor of Halton, in
the county of Chester, for every beast driven
over the common, suffered to graze or eat but
a thistle. Bailey.

THRIPPA, or THRIPPOW, v. to beat : which may
mean either to beat with the geers or thrippows,
in the same way as to strap and to leather signify
to beat with a strap or leathern thong ; or it may
derive its origin (as well as the verb to drab)
from drapa, to strike or beat severely. Ihrehas
Drapa,percutere. Also to labour hard. Stubbes,
in his Anatomie of Abuses, p. 97, has "This
makes many a one to thripple and pynche."

THRIPPOWS, s. the harvest geers of carts and waggons, which are moveable, and put on only
when hay and corn are to be carried.

A THRIPPOWING PUNGOWING LIFE, is a hard laborious life. Pungow may be derived from the
A.S. Punian, conterere.

THROPE, THROPPEN, the perf. tense and the part.
of the verb to threap.

THRUNK, adj. thronged, crowded. "As thrunk
as three in a bed " is a common saying.

THRUTCH, Lan. v. to thrust or squeeze. Squeezing or pressing the cheese is called thrutching it.
Palsgrave says, "Threche, pynche, pincer, this
is a farre Northern term."

THUNNA, s. and v. thunder.




(delwedd B2828)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 85

TICE, v. per aphseresin, to entice.


TIN, or TYNE, v. Lan. to shut. Tinn the dur,
shut the door.

TIN, adv. till.

To TIN, TINE, TEND, or TIND the fire, is to light
the fire. A.S. Tynan, accendere. Som. The
word tinder has the same etymology ; taender,
to light or kindle, Dan. Wolff, or from Islandic Tendra, accendere. Hald. They are all
good old words. Herman, in his Vulgaria,
translates "About candle tending" by primis tenebris. Tende, accendere, Danish.

TIT, s. a common name for a horse, and generally
one of an inferior kind, in all the Northern
counties. A Cheshire carter seeing one of
the horses he was driving in some danger of
falling down, cried out to his assistant driver,
Tittle j aw. The assistant answered, What tittle f aw ? Baw, was the reply, i. e. The tit will fall.
-What tit will fall ? Ball.

To TINE A HEDGE is to repair it with dead wood.

TINING, s. the dead wood used to repair a hedge.

TOATLY, or TOADLY, adj. quiet, easily managed ;
apparently only a corrupt pronunciation of the
adjective Towardly.

TOART, Tow ART, towards, this way.

TON, the one; TON AND TOTHER, the one and the





(delwedd B2829)

An Attempt at a Glossary

other. So in Hearne's Glossary to the Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester, the ton is used for
the one ; and in Sir Thomas More's Apology,
p. 88, back, edition of 1553, we have " Of the
tone or of the tother."

TOOT, v. to pry curiously or impertinently into
any little domestic concern. Toten, O.W. for
to look out. Chaucer has toteth for looketh,
passim. A tote-hill is an eminence from whence
there is a good look-out.

TURMIT, s. Lan. a turnip.

TWARLY, adj. peevish, cross.

To TWIN A FIELD, to divide it into two parts.

TWITCHEL, s. i. e. tway child, twice a child. A,

person whose intellect is so weakened by age
as to become childish, is called a twitchel.

TWITCHEL, v. to geld a bull or ram by forcing
the chords of his testicles into a cleft stick, so
that the chords rot and the testicles fall off.
A.S. Twiccan, vellicare. See Skinner. To
twitchell, in a more general sense, is to tie any
living creature, a horse or a dog, with a sharp
tight cord to confine him.

V. U.

VALUE, s. amount, as well in measure as in quantity ; circiter, when you come to the value of
five feet deep.




(delwedd B2830)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 87

VARIETY, s. a rarity.

VEW, or VIEW, s. Lan. a yew-tree. A.S. iw.

UNBETHINK, v. to recollect ; often implying a
change of opinion. Ash calls it local. Unbethink is used as a verb reflective, to unbethink
oneself. It is a good old word, made use of in
Sir Robert of Knaresborough, one of the Roxburghe Club reprints.

UNCO, UNCOW, or UNKeRT, adj. Lan. awkward,
strange, uncommon. Cockeram in his Dictionary has " Uncoe, unknown, strange ;" merely

UNDENIABLE, adj. good, with which no fault can
be found. An undeniable road is not only a
long established road, but also one in perfect

UP AND TOLD, or rather UPPED AND TOLD, making
a verb of up ; to tell with energy or animation.
Perhaps merely, rose up and told.

UPHOLD, v. to warrant or maintain ; pronounced

UPSIDES, adv. To declare you will be upsides with
any one, is to threaten severe vengeance for
some supposed injury or affront.


WAGE, s. in the singular is often used instead of
Wages in the plural. Wage in the singular is




(delwedd B2831)

An Attempt at a Glossary

used for wages in the New Notbrowne Mayd,
by John Scott : no date.

WAITER, s. water. The A and the JE were interchangeably used in the Anglo-Saxon language,
as we see in Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Grammar,
p. 51. Hence the Cheshire pronunciation of
Water as if it were written waeter or waiter.
WALL, s. a spring of water, O.W. Walle, Teut.

ebullitio, Kil. Weallan, bullire, A.S.
WALL UP, v. to spring up as water does. Old word

used by Gervase Markham.
WANGLE, v. to totter or vibrate. See Junius in

voce Wanckle.
WARCH, s. pain, Lan. Scotch. See Jam. under

Wark. Ware, A. S.

WARRE, or WORRE, worse : A.S. Wo, bad, wo-er.
Warre and warre, worse and worse. Vserre,
Danish, worse : Wolff, Danish Diet. The Danish
v is equivalent to the English TV. A.S. Wirse,
Wirs. In the Suio-Gothic, Warre, is worse.
WART, or rather WALT, v. In Lan. to wawt, is to
overturn; chiefly used of carriages. To waiter,
in Scotch, is to overturn ; and a sheep await, is
a cast sheep. Skinner derives it from the
Islandic Valter. A.S. Wealtian, wealtigan, titubare. Som. Kilian has Walian, wellen, volvere,
A THREEWEEK, s. So in the Cheshire dialect is




(delwedd B2832)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 89

generally designated three weeks, making a
singular substantive of it, as is customary in
the word a fortnight.

WEET, s. wet weather. Lan.

WEET, v. to rain rather slightly. Lan.

WELLY, adv. well nigh. A.S. wel neah, pene,
almost, well nigh. Som.

WERN, v. abbreviation of neren, the plural of the
perfect tense of the verb to be : used only when
the following word begins with a vowel.

WETSHET, or WETCHED, adj. wetshod, wet in the
feet. Whetshod is used in Piers Plouhman,
passus 18.

WEVER, s. river, from the Welsh Wy or Wye, a river, and Fawr, great.

WHARRE, s. crabs, or the crab-tree. Sour as wharre.

WHAVE, v. to hang over. Hvaelve, Dan. hwelfi,
Island, to arch, hang over, or overwhelm : hv in
those Northern languages are equivalent to our
rvh, hvid in Danish being white in English.

WHAVER, s. See in voce RINER.

WHEADY, adj. that measures more than it appears
to be. Dr. Asjh explains it ill by Tedious, and
calls it local.

WHEAM, adj. lying near, convenient, ready at
hand; Lan. perhaps from home, here pronounced whome. Bp. Kennet derives this word
from the A.S. Geweene, gratus, commodus.





(delwedd B2833)

An Attempt at a Glossary

WHEAMOW, adj. nimble, active. Ray. Bailey.

EVERY WHILE STITCH, is, every now and then, at

x times.

WHINSTONE, s. a coarse-grained stone ; toadstone,
ragstone. Jam.

WHITE, v. to quit or requite; cited by Bailey, as
belonging to Cheshire. God white you !

WHOAVE, v. Lan. to cover or overwhelm. Ray
has the same etymology as, Whave, above.

WHOME, or WHOAM, s. home. Lan.

WHOOKED, adj. broken in health, shaken in every
joint. Ash calls it local. Perhaps merely, shook.

WHOT, adj. hot. Hot was formerly writtenWhot.
So in the Christen State of Matrimonye, 1 2mo,
p. 8. b. we read " Then shall the indignacion of
the Lorde wax whot over you."

WIBROW, WYBROW, s. the herb Plantain. The
old English name for plantain (see Dodoen's
Herbal by Lite) is Waybrede, of which word
I take Wibrow to be merely a corruption.

WICH, orWycH. s. Several places in Cheshire and
elsewhere terminate in nick ; which when it is
pronounced long is supposed to designate a
salt-work ; and when short, to come from the
A. S. Vic. Wich is also a hut or hutch, and
so used in different parts of England, and particularly in the little island of Canvey in




(delwedd B2834)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 9 1

WILL-JILL, or WILL-GILL, s. an hermaphrodite.

WITHERING, adj. strong, lusty : a great withering
fellow. To wither, is in the North of England
used for to throw any thing down violently ; it
is also used substantively, to throw down with a
wither : perhaps from the A.S. Witherian, certare, resistere.

To WIZZEN or WISSEN AWAY, v. to fade or wither
away : a poor sickly wizzened thing. Weornian
A. S. decrescere, tabescere. Hence also comes
the common word to wither.

WOOAN, orWoNE, v. to dwell ; Wooant, did dwell.
Lan. Ash calls it obsolete. Woonen, habitare.
Kil. A. S. Wimian, the same. Som. The word
Wone may be found in the P. P. C. and in the
Ort.Vocab., and also in Skinner, but is not admitted by Todd. Junius among his addenda
has the word Woan, and cites Chaucer for the
use of it. Woant, s. a mole. Want is an old
word for the same.

WUT THOU, is Wilt thou.

WUTS, WHOATS, s. oats.

WYCH-WALLER, s. a salt-boiler at one of the wyches
in Cheshire. Wice, Sax. sinus, or the bend of
a river. " To scold like a wych-waller "is a
common adage.

WYZELS, s. the green stems of potatoes. Randle
Holme, in his Academy of Armory, calls them




(delwedd B2835)

An Attempt at a Glossary

turnips. Weize is the German for corn, as Holm
is for straw. Peas-holm is still in use. Strawberry Wises are Strawberry Runners in Lanca shire. In jElfr. Gloss, we have Framen, Streaberie-wisan.


YAFF, v. to bark. A little fow yaffing cur, is a
little ugly barking cur. Scotch. Jam. Gaf,
Ang. Sax. a babbler. Som. To yaff, is to
make a short shrill bark: to yaff would be improperly applied to the barking of a great dog.
From the French japper. The j long and the
y are convertible letters.

YATE, s. gate. Lan.

YED, or YEAD, s. head.

YEJ>WARD, YETHART, s. Lan. Edward. In
Islandic Jatvardr is Edward.

YELVE, s. a dung fork, or prong.

YELVE, . to dig chiefly with the yelve.

YERN, or YARN, s. a heron.


YEWKING, YEWKINGLY, adj. and adv. having a
sickly appearance.

YIELD, v. reward. God yield you ! or rather as it
is pronounced, God eeld you ! God reward you !
Gialld, money, reward, Islandic. Giaellder, to
be of value, Danish, Wolff. Gelda or Jelda in
the Frisic. " Sa gelde the Redieva," " so let
the Reeve pay." (Leges Hansigiae.) SeeWiarda




(delwedd B2836)



of $ome Words used in Cheshire. 93


Some further Words, which though of common use
in Cheshire yet do not seem to belong exclusively to that county, but are heard in several
of the adjoining counties, and particularly in
the northern ones. Perhaps, indeed, the same
objection may be made to some of the words
which have been admitted into the preceding
List ; but it is hoped they are not numerous,
considering the great difficulty, if not almost
impossibility, of perfectly avoiding this error.


ADDLE, or YEDDLE, v. to thrive or flourish, to
merit by labour : admitted by Todd in his edition of Johnson's Dictionary. A.S. ^Edlean,
a reward, or to reward.

ADDLINGS, s. earnings from labour.

ADOE, s. much to do, hurry, bustle, difficulty,

AGREEABLE, adj. complying, consenting.





(delwedd B2837)

An Attempt at a Glossary

ALLEGAR, s. vinegar made of Ale, generally used
with the adjunct Vinegar.

ANAN, adv. is made use of in vulgar discourse by
the lower order of persons addressing a superior, when they either do not hear or do not
comprehend well what is said to them, and is
equivalent to " what did you say ?" or " have
the goodness to repeat or explain what you
said." Mr. Boucher, in his supplement to
Johnson's Dictionary, of which the words beginning with the letter A only were printed,
distinguishes very properly between the colloquial pronunciation Anan, and the more common adverb Anon. He thinks the former a
reduplicative of the Saxon or Gothic particle
An, which is defined to be " particula interrogationibus praemissa." In common discourse
the first letter is often omitted, and Nan is used
for Anan.

APPO, s. an apple.

ARRH, s. a mark or scar. Todd.

ASK, or ASKER, s. a land or water newt.

ASTOUND, part, astonished.


BADGER, s. a dealer in corn. O.W. In the Law
Latin Dictionary it is rendered by Emax. Junius calls it Frumentarius, sive Mercator mag




(delwedd B2838)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 95

narius, fruges undiquaque coemens atque in
unum comportans.
BAITH, pron. both.

BANG, v. to beat ; figuratively, to excel or surpass.
BANG-BEGGAR, s. a beadle.
BANGLE, v. to waste, or consume. Teut. Benghe
len, caedere fustibus. Kil.
BARMSKIN, s. a leathern apron. Barm, O.W. the

breast. A.S. Barme, sinus.
BEASTINGS, or BEESTINGS, s. the first milk given
by a cow after calving. Biest, Flemish, the
same thing. See Halma's Flemish Dictionary.
BEDEET, adj. bedirtied.
BEESOM, s. a broom. Todd. A.S. Besm, scopa.


BLEAR, or BLARE, v. to roar or cry vehemently, as

children occasionally do. Todd. Dutch, Blaren.

BLISSOM, v. to tupp. How many ewes will a ram

blissom ?

BIGGENING, the recovery of a woman after lying in.
BILBERRY, s. whortleberry. Todd. Sued. Blabaer.

In the North, Blaeberry.

BIN, BINNE, or BING, s. the place where the fodder for cattle is put. A. S. Binne, praesepe.
Bo AC, or BOKE, v. to retch, keck, or kick at the


BORST and BORSTEN, perf. tense and part, of the
verb to burst.





(delwedd B2839)

An Attempt at a Glossary

BOTHOM, s. bottom.

BRAGGET, s. spiced ale. Good old word, still in
use in the Northern counties. Bragod, the
same thing. Welsh.

BRATT, s. a small bib or apron worn by children
to keep their clothes clean. A.S. Bratt, a blanket. This name is also given to young children, probably from wearing bratts.

BRIMMING, part, or adj. spoken of a sow who is
maris appetens.

BRIZZ, s. the gadfly, OEstrus equi aut boms. The
common dragon-fly is generally but erroneously
called the Brizz.

BUCKOW, v. to buckle.

BUTTY, s. in those parts of Cheshire adjoining to
Staffordshire and Shropshire is used as a companion in any work or labour. As the word Boot
signifies in general advantage, profit, help ; so
I take Butty to be merely a helpmate. To play
booty, is to play false, as at cards where those
who cheat have often associates in their knavery ; or it may mean to play false for the stake,
calling it the Booty.

BY LAKIN, BY LEAKINS, diminutive of By our

BYSPELL, s. a natural child.

* .




(delwedd B2840)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 97


CAAS, adv. because.

CADGE, v. to carry. Bailey calls it a country

CADGER, s. a carrier.

CANKER'D, adj. ill-tempered.

CARLINGS, s. gray peas boiled ; so called from
being served at table on Care Sunday, which is
Passion Sunday, as Care Friday and Care Week
are Good Friday and Holy Week ; supposed
to be so called from that being a season of particular religious care and anxiety. See Brand's
Popular Antiquities, 4to, vol. i. p. 93 : also
Ihre, Dictionarium Suio-Gothicum in voce
" Kaerusunnadag."

CAWN, for Callen.

CLIP, v. to embrace. A.S. Cleopan, cleafan, to
cleave or stick to.

COCKER, v. to fondle or spoil a child.

CONNA, cannot.

CONNOH, can not.

COPPET, adj. pert, saucy : perhaps a corruption 01

COT, s. probably only an abbreviation of Cotquean; any man who interferes with female
domestic employment, and particularly in the
kitchen, is so called. The usual punishment to





(delwedd B2841)

An Attempt at a Glossary

children so interfering, is to pin a dishclout to

their clothes.
COTTER, v. to mend, repair, or assist with little


COWE, v. to depress or intimidate.
CREWE, s. a coop to shut up fowls in.
CREWE, v. to shut up fowls.
CRINCKLE, v. to recede from an engagement.
CRUD, s. curd ; a transposition of letters very



DAB, s. a blow.

DAB, v. to give a blow.

DACITY, s. intelligence, quickness ; an abbreviation
of Audacity.

DADE, v. to lead children beginning to walk.
Todd ; but not common.

DADING-STRINGS, s. leading-strings.

DANG, v. to throw carelessly or violently : hence
the term of Dangwallet for a spendthrift.

DAWB, v. to plaster with clay.

DAWBER, s. a plasterer in clay.

DAZE, v. to dazzle, or stun by a blow. Dased,
vertiginosus, P.P.C. Sir Thomas More in his
Apologye talks of making men's eyes adased.

DECK, s. a pack of cards. It is used by Shakespeare.




(delwedd B2842)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 99

DEE, v. to die.

DEBT, part, dirtied.

DELF, s. a stone quarry. Todd. from to delve, to
dig. The words mines, delfs, quarries, often
occur in old deeds.

DOFF, v. to pull off.

DOLE, or DOALE, s. a distribution of alms, generally on the death of some considerable person ;
from the A.S. Daelan, distribuere.

DON, v. to put on.

DOWK, or DOUK, v+ to duck or bow down the

DUG, s. a dog.

DUR, s. a door, or DURRE. See the Glossary to
Langtoft's Chronicle.


EDGE, v. to make room, or go aside. To edge off

is common.
EEND, s. end.


FAIN, adj. glad. Breet a rd rain makes foos
fain : that is, when a rainy cloud is succeeded
by a little brightness in the sky, fools rejoice,
thinking it will soon be fair weather ; whereas
that brightness is often of short duration, and
H 2





(delwedd B2843)

An Attempt at a Glossary

is followed by another rainy cloud, and the
wet weather still continues.

FASH, v. to trouble, tease, shame, or cast down.
To fash turnips, is to beat down their leaves.
The rain has fashed the flowers.

FAW, s. or v. a fall, or to fall.

FAWSE, adj. false, cunning, quick, intelligent.

FEART, adj. afraid.

FECK, or FECKS, an exclamation; probably a corruption of Faith.

FITTER, v. to move the feet quickly, as children
do when in a passion.

FLET-MJLK, s. skim milk. A.S. Flete, cremor

FLIT, v. to remove, or change one's habitation.
Todd. Flyter, Danish, to remove.

FLITTING, s. a removal.

FLITE, or FLYTE, v. to scold. A.S. Flytan, contendere, rixare.

FLUKE, s. a fish, the flounder. A.S. Floe, a plaice,
a fish, or sole. Som.

FLUMMERY, s. oatmeal boiled in water till it becomes a thick gelatinous substance. Todd admits the word ; but I believe that only in
Cheshire and some other northern counties it is
in that sense in common use.

FOGG, s. rank eddish, or aftergrass.

FOIN, adj. fine.




(delwedd B2844)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 101

Fow, adj. fowl, ugly. To have a fow life to do

any thing, is to have a great difficulty in doing


FOW-DRUNK, very drunk.
FOWK, or FOKE, s. folk or persons. You hinder

folk, is often used for You hinder me in my

FRIDGE, v. to rub to pieces.


GAD, v. to go. To be on the gad, to be just on

the point of going or setting out.
GAD, *. setting out, starting.
GANDER-MONTH, s. the month in which a man's

wife is confined in lying-in.
GAWP, v. to gape, or stare with open mouth.

Wachter says, "li qui rem aut exitum rei

avide praestolantur plerumque hiscentes id fa
BROWN GEORGE, s. the common sort of brown


GIZZERN,V*. the gizzard.
GLAFFER, or GLAVER, v. to flatter. Todd. A.S.

Gleafan, adulari. Som.
GLENT, s. a glimpse.
GLOUR, or GLOWER, v. to have a cross look.

When the clouds threaten bad weather, we call

them glowering. Todd.





(delwedd B2846)

An Attempt at a Glossary

Throughout many parts of Lancashire, the children in all the villages salute you with what
sounds exactly to my ears, " GOODY GOOD EEN,"
or " GOODY GOOD EEL ;" the meaning of which
expression may perhaps be, " God give you good
den" i. e. good day : or otherwise it may be,
" May God good yld or yield to you:" but from
the sound of the words, I rather incline to the
first explanation, " May God give you good
den." In Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio says to the
Nurse, "God ye good den, fair gentlewoman ;"
to which salutation the Nurse replies, " Is it good
den ? " Mercutio answers, " Tis no less, I tell
you," c.

GRAITH, s. riches.

GROUT, or GROWT, s. poor small beer. Todd has
it, but not quite in this sense.

GUEST, s. instead of guise. Another guest person, is a different kind of person.


HAIGH, v. to have.

HAN, v. They han, for they have.

HANNAH, v. have not.

HAPPENS, adv. perhaps, possibly, or haps. Hap
peley is an old word used in this sense.
HAUF, or HAWF, s. half.
HAW, s. hall.




(delwedd B2847)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 103

HEAZE, v. to cough, or hawk.

HEAZY, adj. hoarse.

HIE, or HYE, v. to hasten. Todd.

HIE, or HYE, s. haste. Todd. A.S. Higan, festinare. Som.

HOVE, v. to take shelter. Hovel, as a shelteringplace for cattle, is common. O. W. Todd has
it, but does not give exactly this meaning to it.
To hove is a common sea term.

How DONE YOU ? for How do you ? or How do you
do ? Done is used as the plur. of do ; they
done well.

HOYK, v. to lift up or toss, as a bull does with his

To HOYND, or To HOIND, v. to make a hard bargain, to screw up. A landlord who behaves
in this manner with, his tenants, is said to hoynd
them. A.S. Hiened, humbled, subdued, vanquished ; Som. or perhaps from his treating
them as his hinds or slaves.

HULL, v. to pick peas or beans out of the hulls or
pods. Todd.

HURE, s. the hair.

HUBN, s. a horn.


JURR, s. a blow or a push : a corrupt pronunciation of jarr.

1 04




(delwedd B2848)

An Attempt at a Glossary


KEEVE, v. to overturn.
KEOW, s. a cow. Key, or kye, the plural.
KEOWER, v. to cower down.
KICKLE, adj. uncertain, the same as Tickle.
KILL'T, adj. killed. Todd.

KIT, s. a set or company, generally in a contemptuous sense The whole kit of them.


LAKE, v. a good old word, to play. We see in a
MS. copy of the P.P.G. among the Harleian
MSS. in the British Museum, Laykin used for a
child's plaything. Skelton in his interlude of
Magnificence has "By Lakin it hathe cost me
pence :" but here I apprehend Lakin to be the
diminutive of our Lady.

To LAM, LAMME, LEATHER, or LICK, are all cant
words, used for to beat.

LAWKIN, LADYKIN. By Lawkin or Ladykin, by
our blessed Lady.

LEATH, s. leisure, cessation from labour, remission
of pain.

LEY, s. the law.

LIG, v. to lie, in utroque sensu verbi, according
to Junius. Todd.




(delwedd B2849)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 105

LYTHE, adj. supple, pliant. A.S. Lyth, a joint.


MAL, or MALLY, for Moll, or Molly.
MARROW, s. mate, companion. The following
metrical adage is common in Cheshire :

The Robin and the Wren
Are God's cock and hen,
The Martin and the Swallow
Are God's mate and marrow.

MEASY, adj. I suppose mazy, giddy.

MEET, s. might.

MEETY, adj. mighty.

MEG-HARRY, s. a tomboy, a young girl with masculine manners.

MESS, s. the mass.

MON, s. man.

MORT, s. a great deal, a great number. Todd has
the word, and assigns an Icelandic etymology
for it.

MOTTY, s. talk. " None of your motty," no verbal interference on your part. Mot is used
commonly in this sense, from the French mot,

MOULDY, adj. moldy.

MOULDY-WARP, s. the mole; from the A.S. Molde,
the earth, and Weorpan, to cast. Som. Todd.





(delwedd B2850)

An Attempt at a Glossary

Molworp, or Mulworp, Teutonice, talpa. Ki
MULLIGRUBS, s. To have the mulligrubs is to be

in an ill humour. Todd.
MUNNAH, v. must not.
MUN, s. the mouth, Sued. Mun. Serenius.


NERE, s. the kidney. O.W. P.P.C. Lady Juliana

Barnes uses it.
NESH, adj. tender, delicate, O.W. Chaucer. A.S.

nice, soft, tender. Som.
NESHIN, v. to make tender. P.P.C.
NETHER, s. an adder. A nether and an adder

are pronounced much the same.


OAF, s. a fool. This word is not peculiar to
Cheshire, but it is here introduced on account
of the singular mode of spelling it by Cockeram
in his Dictionary. It is there written Gnoflfe,
which is an old word for a miser, and presents
a different etymology of the word from Ouph,
which is usually assigned to it.

OLD, adj. is often used in the sense of great, famous. Such as was practised in old times. Old
doings, signify great sport, great feasting, an
uncommon display of hospitality.




(delwedd B2851)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 107

OLD MAN, s. a name for the plant Southernwood.

OVERGET, v. to overtake.

OVERWELT, part, a sheep overthrown and lying

on its back is said to be overwelt, i. e. it is

over waited.
OURN, for ours.
OUTING, s. a going from home.


PEE, v. to look with one eye. This seems nearly
the same thing as to peep.

PEE'D, part. adj. having only one eye. Todd.

PECKLE, v. to spot or speckle, chiefly used in the
part, peckled.

PEERK, or PERK, adj. seems to be a corruption of
Pert, brisk, lively, convalescent from sickness.
Dr. Ash admits it, and cites Spenser for the use
of it, but calls it obsolete.

PERISHED, part, starved with cold.

PEEWIT, s. a lapwing. Littleton has Peewit, vanellus. The black-headed gull, which frequents
some of the lakes in Shropshire, and is there
called a Peewit, though a very different bird
from the common lapwing. Dr. Jamieson explains Peu or Pew as a kind of imitative word,
expressing the plaintive cry of birds. This affords a probable etymology for the word Pewit,
expressive of its cry, as Lapwing is of its pecu





(delwedd B2852)

An Attempt at a Glossary

liar method of flying. My etymological conjecture is confirmed by what Kilian says in
voce Kievit, vanellus, avis Teutonice dicta a
sono vocis quam edit.

PIEANNOT, s. a pie ; pieannet, French. In Scotch,
Pyeot, or Pyeat.

PINGLE, s. a small croft. Todd.

PITSTEAD, s. the place where there has been a pit.

POTTER, v. to disturb or confound.

POTTERD, part, confused, disturbed. Poteren,
agitare. Dutch.

POUK, s. a pustule or pimple ; possibly a coarse
pronunciation of Pock.

POWER, s. a great quantity ; in old French, force;
and in Latin, vis : est hederse vis. Horace.

Poo, v. to pull.


QUEEZE, s. quasi quest, from its plaintive tone, a
wood-pigeon or ring-dove. Littleton has the

QUILT, v. to beat.


RECKON, v. to suppose, conjecture, or conclude.

I reckon he '11 come.
RHEUMATIZ, s. rheumatism.
RICK, s. a stack.




(delwedd B2853)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 109 '


SCRAT, s. an hermaphrodite, is in Huloch. Littleton has the word, and so has Todd. A. S.
Scritta. Som.

SCRAT, s. the itch.

SEET, v. to sit.

SHALE, or SHULL, v. to clear peas or beans from
their pods. Todd.

SHEAR, or SHEER, v. to cut corn with the sicklehook. P.P.C. Todd. Scir, or Scyre. A.S.

SHIVE, or SHIVER, s. a slice. Dutch, Schyf. Todd.
O.W. Ort. Vocab. in voce Lesca.

SHOAF, or SHOFE, s. a sheaf of corn.

SHONNA, or SHANNA, shall not.

SHOON, s. shoes.

SICH, adj. such.

SIN, adv. or prep, since.

SINK, s. the sewer of a house.

SKEW, v. to squint. Todd has it not in this sense
of the word, but only in that of, to walk obliquely.

SKITTER, v. to scatter.

SKUFF, s. hinder part of the neck. Gothic, Skuft,
the hair of the head. Glossary to the translation of the Ulphilan Codex.

SLAB, s. the outside board sawed from a piece of





(delwedd B2854)

An Attempt at a Glossary

SLAT, v. to throw, or to spill.

SLIVE, v. to cut off.

SLIVER, s. a slice.

SLOVEN, part, of the verb to slive, divided.

SLOTTEN, part, divided. Slot and Slotten are the
participles of the A. S. word Slitan, to slit.
When at the game of Whist the honours are
equal on each side, they are said to be sloven,
or slotten.

SNIG, s. an eel, generally a small one.

SNITE, s. mucus nasi.

SORRY, adj. vile, worthless. Dr. Johnson assigns
an Anglo-Saxon origin to the word sorry in the
sense of grieved, afflicted, and an Icelandic one
when in the sense of vile or worthless. I am
inclined, however, to think that they are one
and the same word, and that the latter sense is
only a figurative one, just as in Italian the
word tristo, derived from the Latin tristis, not
only signifies sorrowful or afflicted, but also
vile, or in no estimation.

SOULING. To go a-souling, is to go about as boys
do, repeating certain rigmarole verses, and begging cakes or money, in commutation for them,
the eve of All Souls day. These cakes are
called Soul cakes. In Letters from Spain, by
Leucadio Doblado, p. 70, we read as follows :
" We heard the church bell toll what in Spain




(delwedd B2855)

of some Words used in Cheshire. Ill

is called ' Las Animas,' The Souls. A man
bearing a large lantern with a painted glass representing two naked persons enveloped in
flames, entered the court, addressing every one
of the company in these words ' The holy
Souls, brother ! Remember the holy Souls.'
Few refused the petitioner a copper coin, worth
about the eighth part of a penny. This custom
is universal in Spain." Our Cheshire custom
of going a-Souling is somewhat similar to this.

So WRING, s. vinegar or verjuice taken with meat.

SPARKLE, v. to disperse. Disperkleth is used in
this sense in the English translation of Bartholomseus, De proprietatibus rerum.

SPARLING, s. a fish, the smelt ; from the French
eperlan. Todd.

SPARROW-BILLS, s. small nails, of a particular kind.

SPEER, s. the chimney post.

SPER, or SPEER, v. to inquire ; from A.S. Spyrian,
to inquire. Todd. It is a good old word, used
by Harding in his Chronicle.

STARK, augmentative. German, Stark, strong; or
perhaps more legitimately from the A.S. Stare,
fortis. It is generally used in a bad sense, as
Stark bad.

STROKINGS, s. the last milk that can be drawn
from a cow. The same as Afterings.

SWALE, or SWEAL, v. to burn to waste, as candles





(delwedd B2856)

An Attempt at a Glossary

often do when the melted substance runs down

the candle. O.W. A.S. Swselan. Som. Todd.
SWALER, s. a dealer in corn, or rather one who

buys corn and converts it into meal before he

sells it again.
SUPPINGS, s. the refuse milk after the cheese is


SUMMAT, somewhat.
STRIKE OF CORN, a common bushel of corn.


TANTONY PIG : To follow any one like a Tantony
Pig, is to stick as close to him as Saint Anthony's
favourite is supposed to have done to the saint.

To TARR ON, to excite to anger or violence, is
still used in Cheshire. It is a good old word,
used by Wicliffe in his Path Waye to Perfect
Knowledg; and also in a MS. translation of the
Psalms by Wicliffe, penes me : " They have
terrid thee to ire."

TATOE, s. a potatoe.

TEEM, v. to pour out, is in common use in the
north of England. Swift having used it, it has
become a legal English word. In P.P.C. we

, have to tamyn, to tap or broach a vessel of
liquor. It is used in the " Informac'on for Pylgrymes to the Holy Land," an old poem in 4to,
among the Roxburghe Club reprints.




(delwedd B2857)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 113

THRAVE, s. is generally twelve, but sometimes

twenty-four, sheaves of corn.
THREAP, v. to maintain with vehemence, or, to

TIKE, or TYKE, s. a little dog. Sui.-Got. Tik,

canicula. Islandic Tijk or Tijg, Ihre. A cross

child is often called a cross Tike.
TOM-TIT, s. the bird called a tit-mouse.
TUMMUZ, s. Thomas.


UMBER, OUMBER, or OUMER, s. shade : from the
French ombre. Corn does not ripen well if it
is in the umber.


VARMENT, s. vermin.

VAST, s. a great quantity or number. There is a
vast of corn this year.


WALM, v. to seethe or boil. This word is used by
Gervase Markham and by Handle Holme. It
seems to be derived from the old word to wall,
to spring up.

WALM, s. a bubble up in boiling.

WARD, or WARLD, s. world.

WHAP, s. a blow. A Whapper or Whapping is not





(delwedd B2858)

An Attempt at a Glossary

uncommon in colloquial language for anything

very large.
WHAPPED, part, or verb. When any one goes

away suddenly he is said to have whapped


WHEINT, adj. quaint.
WHICK, adj. quick, alive.
WHICKS, s. quickset plants.
WHIG, s. whey. A. S. Hwaeg, serum. Som.
WHITESTER, s. a bleacher of linen.
WHIZZEN, v. to shrivel or shrink. Todd. It is

chiefly used in the participle, Whizzened.
WINNA, or WONNA, will not.
WON, WONE, or WOAN, v. to dwell or inhabit.
WONNA, will not.


YARTH, s, the earth. Such is the pronunciation
of this word throughout all the northern counties of England ; and it seems to be derived
from the Danish Jord, Isl. Jorth, the earth.

YATE, s. a gate.

YED, or YEAD, s. the head.

YEDWARD, or YETHART, Edward. Isl. latvardr.

YEUK, or YOKE, s. the itch. Among the Suffolk
Letters in 2 vols. 8vo, 1 824, there is one written
by a very lively correspondent, Mrs. Bradshaw,
dated 28th May 1722, from Gosworth Hall in




(delwedd B2859)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 115

Cheshire, ,in which she says, " All the best families in the parish are laid up with what they call
the yoke, which in England is the itch." Of
this word, however, in Cheshire I could find no
trace ; and therefore it may appear strange to
admit it into this Glossary on the authority of
a court lady ; but when I find in Mr. Trotter
Brockett's Glossary of North Country Words,
published in 1 825, " Yeuk, v. to itch," and in the
Glossary annexed to the Praise of Yorkshire
Ale, "Toyeauke, v. to itch," I have no doubt
but that the word was in common use in Cheshire
about a century since. By finding also in
the P.P.C. " Yekin, s. pruritus," it turns out to
be a good old English word, of which the etymology is doubtless from the Teutonic Joocken,
Jeucken, prurire.
YOY, yes. Ja, pronounced yau, German.





(delwedd B2860)

An Attempt at a Glossary


Page 21, Bowk, s. a pail. This seems to be the
origin of the common word Bucket.

Page 41, Forkin Robin, s. an earwig.

Page 46, Hirple, v. to limp.

Page 46, Hitch, s. To have a hitch in his gait, is
to be lame.

Page 48, in voce Jack Nicker, at the end, " and
the name for the common black-and-white water wagtail in the North of England is a Billy

Page 51, Kindle, v. to bring forth: chiefly used
when speaking of hares, rabbits, or cats. Skinner admits the word, and derives it from the
A.S. Cennan, parere. In the old terms enumerated by Lady Juliana Barnes, and others, a
litter of cats is called a kendel of cats.

Page 52, Kype, s. an ugly distorted face, a grimace.
To make kypes, is to make faces. [Quere, if it
be anything more than an erroneous provincial
pronunciation of Gibe ? The g pronounced
harsh, and the k, are in old English often used
the one for the other.]

Page 57, Melder (of oats), s. a kiln full, as many




(delwedd B2861)

of some Words used in Cheshire. 117

as are dried at a time for a meal. This word
is admitted as a Cheshire word by Jamieson,
who assigns for his authority, Grose's Provincial

Page 65, Pride, s. To have a pride in his pace or
manner of going, is a ludicrous way of expressing that a person is lame.




/ J>


PE Wilbraham, Roger




(delwedd B2862)







a A / / e E / ɛ Ɛ / i I / o O / u U / w W / y Y /
Ā / ǣ Ǣ / ē Ē / ɛ̄ Ɛ̄ / ī Ī / ō Ō / ū Ū / w̄ W̄ / ȳ Ȳ /
ă Ă / ĕ Ĕ / ĭ Ĭ / ŏ Ŏ / ŭ Ŭ /
ˡ ɑ ɑˑ aˑ a: / : / e eˑe: / ɛ ɛ: / ɪ iˑ i: / ɔ oˑ o: / ʊ uˑ u: / ə / ʌ /
ẅ Ẅ / ẃ Ẃ / ẁ Ẁ / ŵ Ŵ /
ŷ Ŷ / ỳ Ỳ / /
ˡ ɬ ŋ ʃ ʧ θ ʒ ʤ / aɪ ɔɪ əɪ uɪ ɪʊ aʊ ɛʊ əʊ /

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