kimkat0926k Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia. Nodweddion y Wenhwyseg (tafodiaith de-ddwyrain Cymru). Un or nodweddion mwyaf trawiadol yw dileisior gytseiniau b,d,g ar gychwyn y sillaf olas - cadair > catar, digon > dicon, ayyb..

● kimkat0001 Yr Hafan www.kimkat.org

● ● kimkat2001k Y Fynedfa Gymraeg www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwefan/gwefan_arweinlen_2001k.htm

● ● ● kimkat2045k Tafodieithoedd Cymru www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_cymraeg/cymraeg_tafodieitheg_gymraeg_mynegai_2045k.htm

● ● ● ● kimkat0934k Y Wenhwyseg www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/gwenhwyseg_cyfeirddalen_0934k.htm

● ● ● ● ● kimkat0926kY tudalen hwn

 




.. 





 

Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia 
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya 


Y Wenwhyseg (tafodiaith y de-ddwyrain)
Nodweddion y dafodiaith

 

Adolygiad diweddaraf
27-10-2000, 17-03-2017



 

Nodweddion or Wenhwyseg wediu cymharu r Gymraeg safonol. Gellir tybio bod sawl un yn ddatblygiad ymhellach o nodweddion a welir yn nhafodieithoedd y de-orllewin.

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01) yr a hir (aa) [a:] yn () [:] (maen debg ir sain yn Saesneg safonaol fair, hare, wear)

Mewn ysgrifau tafodieithol, am nad oes sumbol arferol iddi, fei hysgrifennir , oherwydd maer cynaniad yn debg i e hir.

Fei ceir hefyd, fel yn y Wyddor Seinegol Ryngwladol, wedi ei gynrychioli gan y llythyren ash (hynny yw, ,  a i e gydai gilydd)

Yn y wefan hon y maen well gennm:

 pan fydd yn cynrychiolir (aa) [a:] sydd yn a unigol yn yr orgraff safonol (tad, bach)

 pan fydd yn cynrychiolir (aa) [a:] sydd yn llythyren unigol hirnod (tn, gln)

 pan fydd yn cynrychiolir (aa) [a:] sydd yn lleihad or ddeusain ae [ai] mewn geiriau unsill (traad < traed, maas < maes)

 

Cymraeg Safonol

Y Wenhwseg

bach                             

bch                            

tn

tn

traed

trd

gln

gln

i maes

ms

tad

td

cae

c

llaeth

llth

gwaed

gwd

 

ENWAU LLEOEDD:

Aber-dare

(man cyfarfod Dr a Chynon)

Aber-dr

(maer ffurf Saesneg - Aberdare wedii seilio ar gynaniad lleol yr enw)

Tre-gaer

(pentref yn sir Fynwy)

Tre-gr

(maer ffurf Saesneg - Tregare wedii seilio ar gynaniad lleol yr enw)

Nyth-brn. Fferm ym mhlwyf Llanwynno.

Nyth-brn

 

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02) Yn y goben, symlheir (ui) [ui] > w (u) [
ʊ]. 


gwbod (GUI-bod) [ˡguibɔd], gwbod (GU-bod) [ˡgʊbɔd]
cwmpo (KUIM-po) [
ˡkuimpɔ], cwmpo (KUM-po) [ˡkʊmpɔ]

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03) symleiddio ar y clwstwr cytseiniol cychwynnol chw (khw) [xw] > hw  (hw) [hw] (De-orllewin-west) > w (w) [w] (De-ddwrain) 
chwech (khweekh) [xwe:x] > (De-orllewin) hwech (hweekh) [hwe:x] > (De-ddwrain)   wech (weekh) [we:x]
chwarae
 (KHWAA-rai) [
ˡxwarai] > (De-orllewin)  (HWAA-rai) [ˡhwarɛ] > (De-dwrain)   wara (WAA-ra) [ˡwara]

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04)
symleiddio ar y clwstwr ddl > l (lleoliad terfynol) (yn y Gymraeg safonol dl)

anadl (AA-nadl) [ˡanadl], anaddl (AA-nadl) [ˡanadl] > anal (AA-nal) [ˡanal]

banadl (BAA-nadl) [ˡbanadl], banaddl (BAA-nadl) [ˡbanadl] > anal (BAA-nal) [ˡbanal]

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05) Simplification of aea [ei + a]  

aea [ei + a]  > ae [aai]  > a [a] 
haearn [HEI-arn] = iron > haern > harn [harn], or more usually arn [arn] (with the loss of the h)   

aea [ei + a]  > ae [aai]  > aa [aa] >  [] 
daear [DEI-ar] = foxs earth > daer > daar [daar] > dr [dr] 
traean [TREI-an] = third > traen > traan [traan] > trn [trn] (in place names in Tonyrefail)

related changes:
gaeaf [GEI-av] = winter > gaef, in the place name Gaefd [GEIV-di] winter house
cynhaeaf [k-NHEI-av] = autumn; Cynheidre = autumn farm, Lalnelli, Sir Gaernarfon 
maerd > mardi 
= various place names in the south-east
Llanilltud Faerdre > Llanilltud Fardre

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06) many disyllabic forms lose the first syllable (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh) 
yma [-ma] = here > ma [ma]

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07) loss of an initial vowel (especially initial y-) or an initial syllable (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh)
ymenn [-ME-nin] = mantega > menn [ME-nin] 
afalau
 [a-VA-lai] = pomes > (South-west) fale [VA-le] > (South-east) fala [VA-la]

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08) reduction of the diphtnong in the accented syllable ei [i] > i [ii] 
gweithio [GWITH-yo] = treballar > gwiitho [GWII-tho]

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09) in monosyllables, reduction of oe [i] > oo [oo]  
coed [kid] = wood > cood [kood]. "

PLACE NAMES:

Pen-coed 

< pen y coed ((the) end / side (of) the wood)

A village by Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr.  

Pen-cood

 

Nant-y-moel 

 ((the) valley (of) the bald man / the tonsured man / the monk)

A village by Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr.  

Nant-y-mool

 

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10) metathesis, or transposition of sounds - in some words, this is common to the whole of Wales; in others, restricted to the south-east, such as - l-dd > dd-l) 
cywildd [k-WI-lidh] = shame > cwildd [KWI-lidh] > cwiddl [KWI-dhil]  
gildd
 [GI-lidh] = companion > giddl [GI-dhil]  (in the expression i gildd / i giddl - each other)
PLACE NAME: Llanhiledd [lhan-HI-ledh]> Llanhiddel [lhan-HI-dhel]

casglu [KA-skli] = collect > clasgu [KLA-ski] 

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11) in monosyllables in the South-west and South-east, retention of the diphthong ou [oi] from Middle Welsh, which in other parts of Wales has become eu [ei] > au [ai]  
clou [kloi] = quick > (Standard Welsh) clau [klai] 
dou
 [doi] = twos > (Standard Welsh) dau [dai]

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12) In monosyllables, aa [aa] >  [long open e, rather as in English face]  
haf [haav] = summer, f [v]

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13) Also in monosyllables, which in the south are reductions of ae [i] > aa [aa]  >  [] 
i maes [i MIS] = outside, maas [maas] (South-west) > ms [ms]

 

_______________________________________

14) loss of intial h [h]  
hen [heen] = old, en [een] 
chwech
 [khweekh] = six > (South-west) hwech [hweekh] > (South-east) wech [weekh]  
Typical of the English of this part of Wales - on the ill, in the Igh Street

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15) Unvoicing of the initial consonant of a final syllable if it is g, d, b
g 
[g] > c [k], 
d 
[d] > t [t],  
b [b] > p [p]


eglws [E-gluis] = church > (South-west) eglws [E-glus] > (South-east) eclws [E-klus] 
cadair
 [KA-dair] = chair > (South-west) cader [KA-der] > (South-east) catar [KA-tar]

 

PLACE NAMES:

b > p

Llanfable

a village in the parish of Llan-arth Fawr, Sir Fynw

This would have been *Llanfapla

(as suggested by the English form of the name - Llanvapley)

Final e would have become a (Llanfaple > Llanfapla)

t > d

Llangadog (as in the Sir Gaerfyrddin village name). the church of Cadog

Llangatwg - name of five villages in the south-east,

 

 

 

Final o has become w [u]

b > p

Yr Aber - the local name of Abertyleri

Yr Rapar > Rapar

Final e has become a

 

_______________________________________
16) Any final e [e] > e [a]. 
(this happens too in the North-west) 
mesen [ME-sen] = acorn, mesan [ME-san]

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17) (South-west Wales) In polysyllables, in the final syllable, ae [aai] , ai [ai] , au [ai] > e [e]. In the south-east there is a further change of e > a


chwarae [KHWA-rai] = play, hware [HWA-ra] > hwara [HWA-ra]
cadair
 [KA-dair] = chair, cader [KA-der] - in the South-east > catar [KA-tar]
pedair
 [PE-dair] = four (feminine form), peder [PE-der] - in the South-east > petar [PE-tar]
pethau
 [PE-thai] = thing, pethe [PE-the] > (South-east) petha [PE-tha]
parthau [PAR-thai] = places, area > partha [PAR-tha]

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19) loss of the final f [v] in polysyllables (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh) 
cyntaf [KN-tav] = first > cynta [KN-tav]

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20) loss of final r [r] or final l [l] in polysyllables after a consonant (t, b, g) (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh) 
ffenestr [FEN-nestr] = window > (South-west) ffenest [fe-nest] > (South-east) ffenast [fe-nast] 
posibl [PO-sibl] = possible > posib [PO-sib]

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21) in a pretonic suyllable, loss of a vowel between some combinations of consonants, espellay the loss of y [] (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh)
cywildd [k-WI-lidh] = shame > cwildd [kwi-lidh] 
Caradog
 [ka-RA-dog] = (mans name; surname) > Cradog [KRA-dog]

_______________________________________
22) palatalisation; s [s] > sh [sh] before and after the vowel i 
eistedd [I-stedh] = sit down > ishte [I-shte] (South-west) > ishta (South-east)
llais
 [lhais] = voice > llaish [lhaish] 
mis
 [miis] = month > mish [miish] 
Lleision formerly [LHIS-yon] = mans name > Lleishon / Lliishon [LHII-shon] (Leyshon is the Englished form)

_______________________________________
23) colled yr i gytseiniol ar ddechrau sillaf derfynol, sydd iw gweld yn yr olddodiad lluosog -iau (yai) [jai], ar olddodiad berfol -io (yo) [j
ɔ]

Maer nodwedd hon iw gweld trwy Dde Cyrmru yn gyffredinol

bryniau [BRN-ye] > brynne [BR-ne] (South-west) > brynna [BR-na] (South-east) 
As in the village name (Y) Brynna
stopio [STOP-yo] = parar > stopo [STO-po]
Einion [EIN-yon] > Einon [EI-non] (mans name)

This is probably also the reason for English Brecknock for the county of Brycheiniog, via Brycheinog

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24) in a final syllable, reduction of [ui] > w  [u]. 
ofnadw [ov-NA-dui] = terrible, > (South-west) ofnadw [ov-NA-du] > (South-east) ofnatw [ov-NA-tu] 
Ebw > Ebw [E-bu] (river name)
Mynw > Mynw [M-nu] (river name, origin of the English form Monnow)


(iw barhau)

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