kimkat2588e Welsh as a Specific Subject for Elementary Schools (1890)

 

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Welsh as a Specific Subject
for Elementary Schools (1890)





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(delwedd 3961A) (clawr blaen / front cover)

 

The Welsh Elementary School Series

Welsh as a Specific Subject for Elementary Schools

Stage 1

Compiled by a Committee of Elementary School Teachers

Fifth Edition

Published for

The Society for Utilizing the Welsh Language

By D. Duncan and Sons, Cardiff

London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co.

1890

(Copyright)

Price 6d.; Cloth, 9d.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3967B)

  (x0)

The Welsh Elementary School Series

Welsh as a Specific Subject for Elementary Schools

Stage 1

Compiled by a Committee of Elementary School Teachers

Fifth Edition

Published for

The Society for Utilizing the Welsh Language

By D. Duncan and Sons, Cardiff

London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co.

1890

(Copyright)

Price 6d.; Cloth, 9d.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3895B) (x1)

 

IMPORTANT MODIFICATIONS SANCTIONED BY THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.

The New Code for 1889, when first issued, created some disappointment in Welsh circles owing to the small amount of concessions which it appeared at first sight to make to the special needs if Welsh schools, and to the unanimous recommendations of the late Royal Commission on this subject, backed as they had been by the active private support of the leading Welsh members on both sides of the House of Commons and by several of the Welsh peers We are glad to say, however, that the fears on this score of those interested in Welsh education have been set at rest by a letter from Sir William Hart-Dyke, the Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, to Sir John Puleston, M.P., who has taken a warm interest in the matter from the outset, and has been in close communication with the Education Department on behalf of the Welsh Utilization Society.

 

This important letter may be taken as an official interpretation of the New Code, the provisions of which, read in the light of the Vice-President’s explanation, will be found to concede, to all intents and purposes, the whole programme which was put forward in April, 1886, by the Welsh Utilization Society in their Memorial to the Royal Commission, and since then generally accepted by Welsh educationists.

 

{Letter from Sir WILLIAM HART-DYKE, Vice-president of the Committee of Council on Education) (COPY),

 

“My DEAR PULESTON, —First as to Welsh recognised as a specific subject. It has been so recognised for the last two years, and has been mentioned in the annual report submitted to Parliament. The forthcoming report of H.M. Inspector, Mr. Williams, in the Welsh district, will be published, as it was two years ago, in a separate form, so as to be generally accessible to the Welsli people, and, besides the statistical matter relating

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3896A) (x2)

 

(x2a) to Wales, will contain the figures for the last two years showing the number of departments and scholars who have taken Welsh as a specific subject. It is not included in Schedule III., because it is thought better to leave the scheme of instruction, as far as possible, to the initiative of the locality. . . The words “at the discretion of the inspector” (note to Schedule I.) refer to the substitution of dictation for composition in the upper standards generally; and the Inspectors will certainly be instructed to give every encouragement to the translation of Welsh into English, or the rendering in English of a story read in Welsh.

 

“We must not encourage the Welsh language at the expense of English, but rather as a vehicle for the sounder and more rapid acquisition of English, and with that object the use of bilingual leading books, sanctioned in footnote to page 23, will enable Welsh and English to be acquired pari-passu in all the standaids. It is clearly for the managers to decide upon the expediency of using these books; the concession being granted in the most unqualified terms, and being, indeed, the obvious antecedent of the new regulation as to composition in the upper standards.

 

“The first footnote to Schedule II. empowers managers to submit, and the Inspectors to approve, any progressive scheme of lessons in the subjects named. This will clearly enable the map of Wales to be used in illustration of the terms taught in Standard II., and the Physical and Political Geography of Wales to be substituted for that of England in Standard III., under suitable conditions. It will also enable English as a class subject to be so handled as to adjust it to the special difficulties and needs of Welsh schools.

 

“I venture on the whole to plead that all legitimate demands of those who are interested in Welsh education have been very fairly and completely met.— I remain, very truly yours,

 

(Signed) “W. HART-DYKE.”

 

The portions of the Code to which the foregoing letter refers are these:—

 

SCHEDULE I.— Elementary Subjects.

 

N.B.— “In Welsh districts translation into English of an easy piece of Welsh written on the blackboard, or of a story read twice, may be substituted (for English composition).”

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(delwedd 3904B)

  (x3)

 

SCHEDULE II.—Class Subjects.

 

Footnote I.— If the managers desire, they may submit to the Inspector at his annual visit, and the Inspector may approve for the ensuing year, some progressive scheme of lessons in these subjects, providing for not less than three groups.

 

Footnote 2.— In districts where Welsh is spoken, the in¬telligence of the children examined in any elementary or class subject may be tested by requiring them to explain in Welsh the meaning of passages read, and bilingual books may be used for the puipose of instructing the scholars.

 

SUMMARY OF THE POWERS GRANTED BY THE NEW CODE.

 

A careful reading of the Code in the light of the official inter¬pretation afforded in Sir William Hart-Dyke’s letter shows that the effects of apparently minor modifications are far-reaching, and of the highest importance as regards Welsh schools. In effect they will open the door to a thorough change in the whole system of Welsh elementary education. Summarized briefly they amount to this:—

 

1. Welsh grammar may be taught as a specific subject in Standards V., VI., VII,, and a grant of 4s. will be paid on account of each child who passes this examination.

 

2. A rational system of teaching English as a class subject by means of a graduated system of tianslations, and an appeal at each step to the intelligence of the children, may be sub¬stituted for the present requirements in English grammar in all the standards, and a grant of two shillings per child on the average of the whole school will be paid if the results of the

examination be satisfactory.

 

3. In all standards and in all subjects taught in the school bilingual reading-books may be used, and bilingual copy-books may be used in teaching writing.

 

4. The geography of Wales may be taught up to Standard III., and the history of Wales may be taught throughout the whole school, by means of books partly Welsh partly English, and a grant of two shillings per head on the average of the whole school may be earned for each of these subjects if the results of the examination are satisfactory.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3897A) (x4)

 

(x4)

5. Schools taking up the new method of teaching English as a class subject may also claim the right to substitute translation from Welsh to English for English composition in the elementary subjects, and thus reap a double benefit.

 

6. Finally, the small village and country schools, so numerous in the Principality, may, for the purposes of class teaching, re-arrange the standards into three groups, e.g., Group l, Standards I., II.; Group 2, Standards III., IV.; Group 3, Standards V., VI., VII. This will be a material reliet to under-staffed schools.

 

Taken as a whole, the concessions made to Welsh demands are highly satisfactory, and Wales is to be congratulated on having at last secured a sensible system of elementary education adapted to her special circumstances and needs.

 

All that now remains is for teachers and managers of schools to avail themselves largely of these new powers

 

 

(delwedd 3898B) (x3)

PREFACE.

 

THE Council of the Society for Utilizing the Welsh Language feels that there is now no apology needed for the movement set on foot by the Society to secure the official recognition and the rational utilization of the Welsh Language, in the course of Elementary Education in Wales.

 

The results of the first examinations in this subject held by Her Majesty’s Inspectors in the Schools of the Gelligaer School Board, afford a complete justification of the action taken by the Society.

 

The fears entertained by practical educationists at the outset of the movement may be summarized thus:—

 

1. That the introduction of Welsh would add materially to the labour of teachers.

 

2. That in Schools containing an English element, the scheme would prove to be unworkable.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3899A) (x4)

 

(x4) 3. That the teaching of Welsh would result in a lesser degree of proficiency in other subjects, and especially in English.

 

The experiment made by the Gelligaer School Board has, however, tended to show that all these fears were groundless. Not¬withstanding that the teachers had no text¬books to assist them, and that the labour of teaching was consequently greater in their case than it need be in future, neither teachers nor parents complain of any material addi¬tional labour in the year’s work. In more than one School it has been shown that the children of English-speaking parents have passed a highly creditable examination in Welsh — one such child, indeed, standing third in the total number of marks earned. As to the injurious effect upon other subjects, it is sufficient to point out that where. Welsh has been taken up the uniform success of all classes has never been greater than now; that the children have improved in English, and that in one case the grant for English was doubled, on account of the increased proficiency in that subject which followed the teaching of Welsh as a specific subject. For further particulars, see the annexed reports.

 

These facts speak for themselves, and go

 

 

(delwedd 3899B)

 

 

 (x5) to show that BY TEACHING WELSH—

(1) An additional grant of four shillings per pass can be earned.

(2) The other subjects taught do not suffer.

(3) The English of Welsh children is improved, while English children learn an additional language; and the children thus learn two languages well, instead of learning one badly.

(4) The improved general efficiency of the school results in higher grants for other subjects.

(5) Parents and children are brought to take a more lively and intelligent interest in school work.

 

The Council feels confident that as these facts become generally known, managers and teachers will, in the best interests of their schools, take up this subject very extensively.

 

As regards the book itself, the Council has only to say that, the teachers of the Gelligaer Schools being the only ones who had the advantage of actual experience in teaching this subject, and having the results tested by Her Majesty’s Inspectors, it was felt that they were better fitted than any others for the task of preparing a text-book suitable for use in Elementary Schools. A Commission for preparing a series of these books was accordingly issued by the Society to:—- Mr. DAVID HOPKINS, Gelligaer Village School;

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3900A) (x6)

 

(x6) Mr. THOMAS C. THOMAS, Bedlinog Board School; Mr. MATHEW OWEN, Pontlottyn Board School; Mr. THOMAS JONES, Bargoed Board School. To these gentlemen is due the credit for compiling the first text¬book for teaching Welsh in Elementary Schools.

 

How well the work has been done, this little book — the first of the series — testifies. That the work admits of improvement, and that extended experience of the working of the scheme will necessarily suggest modifi-cations, is felt by the Compilers themselves, even more than by their friendly critics; but it will be generally admitted that as a first attempt to meet an existing pressing need, this little work will commend itself to general approval.

 

The acknowledgment of the obligations ot the Society would not be complete without special reference to the valuable services rendered by Mr. OWEN M. EDWARDS, Balliol College, Oxford, in so kindly supplying the Stories in Welsh History as exercises for translation in the Third Part.

 

Though this little work is intended chiefly for use in Elementary Schools, it is at the same time suited for all persons commencing the grammatical study of the language in

 

 

 

(delwedd 3900B) (x7)

 

(x7) either school or college. Its simplicity and careful gradation will recommend it to the favour of practical teachers and of private students.

 

The book for the Second Stage is now in active preparation, and will be very shortly issued.

 

July 1st, 1887.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3901A) (x8)

 

(x8) PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

 

The expectations of the Council of the Society have been fully realized in the ready sale found for this little work, a second edition being called for within two months of the issue of the first. It is gratifying to know that the issue of a suitable text-book has had the effect of inducing a number of School Boards, as well as individual Schools, in North, Central, and South Wales, to take up the subject at once, with the view of present¬ing their classes in it at the next examination. This leads the Council to hope that the introduction of Welsh into the course of Elementary Education will, at no distant date, be the rule rather than the exception in Welsh Schools.

 

The criticisms on the work have hitherto all been friendly, and for the most part favourable. The defects pointed out ,have been few, and will be found to have been

 

 

 

(delwedd 3901B)

 

(x9) remedied either in the present edition or in the more advanced stages which are now in the press. Acting on the advice of a num¬ber of practical teachers, the matter in the present edition, while practically remaining the same in substance as in the first edition, has been re-arranged. There have been added, chiefly for the benefit of English Students, introductory chapters on Welsh Reading and Pronunciation, and on the Mutation of Initial Consonants, while the Vocabulary at the end of the Book has been so arranged as to include every word in the translation exercises, and to afford the student a ready gude to the use of all forms of the same root word. Some additional examples of Easy Conversational Sentences have also been added, while the worked translation exercise, showing the phrase translations, illustrating the difference in the idioms of the two languages, will be appreciated by English Students.

 

September 1st, 1887.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3902A)

 

(x10) SYLLABUS FOR WELSH AS A SPECIFIC SUBJECT.

 

NOTE.—The following Scheme has been submitted to W. Williams, Esq., H.M. Chief Inspector of Schools for the Welsh Division, and has been approved by him on behalf of the Education Department.

 

STAGE I.

 

1.—

(a) Nouns and Adjectives with their inflexions (Number and Gender),

(b) The Personal Pronoun,

(c) Conjugation of the Verb “Bod” in the inflexional form only; also the Impera¬tive and Infinitive of the same Verb.

 

2.—To translate from Welsh into English, and from English into Welsh, easy conversational sentences containing the Verb “Bod” only.

 

3.—To translate, or write from dictation, any short passage from a Welsh book approved by H.M. Inspector. (15 pages to be prepared.)

 

STAGE II.

 

1.—

(a) Conjugation of the Active (Inflexional and Periphras¬tic with “ Bod “) and Passive of the Regular Verb “Dysgu.”

(b) The Pronouns, Adverbs, Prepositions (simple and pronominal).

 

2. —

(a) To translate from Welsh into English, and from English into Welsh, easy conversational sentences containing the Verbs “Bod” and “Dysgu,” or any Regular Verb contained in the mat¬ter prepared for translation in 3.

(b) To parse one of the Welsh sentences given in (a).

 

3-—

(a) To translate a short passage from a Welsh book ap-proved by H.M. Inspector. (15 pages, to be prepared.)

(b) To recite 40 lines of Welsh poetry with knowledge of meanings and allusions.

 

STAGE III.

1.—

(a) Conjugation of Irregular Verbs, Compound Preposi¬tions, Conjunctions, Interjections,

(b) A knowledge of the chief prefixes and affixes of words, and the leading rules for the mutation of initial consonants, as illustrated in the Welsh book (see 3).

 

2.—To write a short theme or letter in Welsh on an easy subject.

 

3-—

(a) To translate a passage from a Welsh book approved by H.M. Inspector. (25 pages to be prepared.)

(b) To recite 60 lines of Welsh poetry, with knowledge of meanings and allusions.

 

N.B.—1. The matter prepared for translation or recitation must be different in the several stages.

2. The scholars may be required to give written as well as oral answers to all questions (including those set in translation).

 

(Approved) W. WILLIAMS, H.M. Chief Inspector for the Welsh Division.

April 2, 1887

 

 

 

(delwedd 3902B)

 

(x11) RESULTS OF THE FIRST EXPERIMENTS.

 

THE Gelligaer School Board was the first to put the principles advocated by the Society into practical operation. Welsh, as a Specific Subject, was introduced into their schools in the year 1886. In November and December of that year, the First Examinations were held, with most satisfactory results, as the following

 

EXTRACTS FROM H.M. INSPECTOR’S REPORTS,

 

kindly supplied by the Chairman of the Board, will shew:—

 

“Welsh as a specific subject has proved an encouraging experi¬ment.” 14 passed at this school.

 

“The fifth and sixth standards not only passed well in English Grammar, but also passed with credit in Welsh as a specific sub¬ject.” 17 passed at this school.

 

“Great care has been bestowed on Welsh as a specific subject, yet the uniform success of all classes has never been greater.” 19 passed at this school.

 

“Welsh has been taken as a specific subject with advantage to English Grammar, the classes that have been learning Welsh being most decidedly successful in English.” 13 (girls) passed at this school.

 

“An improvement in English Grammar in the fifth and sixth standards accompanies a most encouraging success in Welsh as a specific subject: the higher rate may now be recom¬mended for English.” 14 passed at this school.

 

Attention is especially directed to the fact that where Welsh has been taught, the children have improved in English. In one case the grant for English, was doubled on account of the increased proficiency in that subject which followed the teaching of Welsh as a Specific Subject.

 

Thus it will be seen that in addition to the special grant of four shillings per child earned for each pass, the effect of the introduction of Welsh into the schools is an improved general efficiency, resulting in a considerable money gain to the school.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3903A)

 

(x12) SAMPLE QUESTIONS.

 

The following are samples of the Questions set at some of the first examinations.

 

Teachers of Schools where Welsh is taken as a Specific Subject, will materially aid the movement, as well us assist in securing uniformity of standards of examination throughout Wales, by forwarding to the Secretary copies of the Questions set in this Subject at the Government Examinations of their Schools.

 

NOTE.—It would be well to bear in mind that these papers were set before the foregoing scheme was submitted for approval, and so are not based upon it.

 

FIRST PAPER.

 

1.—

(a) Give the plural of the following words:—Dant, esgid, brân, asgwrn.

(b) What are the feminine forms of;-—Brawd, dyn, ewythr, bachgen da.

Add the corresponding English words.

 

2.—Write out—

(a) The Present Indicative of “Bod,” with the corresponding English tense.

(b) The Welsh names of the Days of the Week.

 

3.—Translate into English:—

(a) A welsoch chwi y gwaed coch ar wyneb y bachgen mawr?

(b) Beth yw pris y caws? Swllt y pwys. Mae’n rhy ddrud.

(c) Parse:—Beth yw pris y caws?

 

4.—Translate into Welsh—

(a) How old is your mother? Are you likely to see her soon?

(b) Have you any brothers? Yes; I have two — one at Cardiff, and the other at Swansea.

 

5.—Read the Welsh words written on the blackboard (different words for each girl).

 

SECOND PAPER.

1.—

(a) Reading Welsh.

(b) Welsh Recitation, with knowledge of meanings, &c

 

2.—Translate into English:—

(a) Mae pren yn derbyn rhan o’i gynaliaeth o’r ddaear, a rhan arall o’r awyr drwy ei ddail.

(b) Yn fuan daeth y ci at y drws. Cafodd yno damaid o fara, ac aeth ymaith heb iddynt sylwi arno.

 

3.—Parse the following Welsh sentence:- 0nd yr oedd yr haul yn rhy ddysglaer iddo edrych arno.

 

4. —Translate into Welsh:—

(a) The shepherd took the girls with him to the mountains,

(b) The roots of a tree are in the ground, its leaves are in the air.

 

5.—Write out the Past Indicative of “Y mae genyf,” and the Future Indicative of “Bod,” with the corresponding English tenses.

 

(NOTE.—The Master .having taught these Verbs was anxious to have his work thoroughly tested.)

 

 

 

(delwedd 3903B)

  (x13)

THIRD PAPER.

1—

(a) Give the plural of the following words:—Dafad, asgwrn, tywysog, myfi.

(b) Give the feminine of;—Gwr, arglwydd, ceiliog, ceffyl gwyn.

 

2.—

(a) Give the Amser Anorphenol Modd Mynegol of the Verb “Bod,” with the corresponding English tense,

(b) Give the four degrees of comparison of:—Pell, drwg, melus, and tlawd, with their English equivalents.

 

3.—Translate the following sentences into English:—

(a) A ydyw yr eneth fach yn y tŷ?

(b} Afal melus iawn ydyw hwn.

(c) Y mae pump o wragedd yn y tŷ mawr sydd yn agos i’r afon,

(d) Byddant yma yn foreu iawn, cyn toriad y dydd, boreu yfory.

 

Point out the parts of speech in the last of the above Welsh sen¬tences.

 

4.—Translate the following into Welsh:—

(a) Has the butcher a long knife?

(b) They will be happy at their aunt’s house?

(c) He was a young man then.

(d) A black dog and a white cat are close to my chair.

 

FOURTH PAPER.

1.—

(a) Give the plural of the following words:—Bardd, estron, bryn, efe.

(b} Give the feminine of:—Ewythr, gwas, dyn, tarw du.

 

2.—

(a) Give the Future Indicative of “Bod,” with the corres¬ponding English tense.

(b) Give the four degrees of comparison of:— Call, trwm, bach, and cyfoethog, with their English equiva-lents.

 

3.—Translate the following sentences into English:—

(a) A ydyw y fuwch fawr yn yr ardd?

(b) Yr oedd ef yno ddoe, ond ni fydd hi yma heddyw.

(c) Byddwch yn ferched da.

(d) A oes gwallt gwyn ar ben hen wr yn wastad?

 

Point out the parts of speech in the last sentence.

 

4.—Translate the following sentences into Welsh:—

(a) How do you do?

(b) The wicked boy is now far from his father’s house.

(c) Cardiff is a big town.

(d) A soldier was here yesterday.

 

FIFTH PAPER.

1.—Give the feminine of the following:—Ci gwyn, ceffyl, brawd bach, gwas.

 

2.—Give the plural of:—Afon, troed, careg, oen.

 

3.—Write the Perfect Tense of the Verb “Bod.”

 

4.—Translate into English:—

(a) Oedd y dyn a’i gi du yn yr ardd?

(b) Pwy yw perchen y tŷ mawr yna?

(c) Mae’n oer iawn heddyw.

(d) Parse:—Oedd yn yr ardd.

 

5.—Translate into Welsh:—

(a) Mary’s father is blind,

(b) Is William heavier than James?

(c) Philip was up in London last April.

(d) When will they be going home?

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3904A)

 

(x14) WHAT THE GOVERNMENT BLUE BOOK SAYS.

 

SINCE the first edition of this little work appeared, the Education Department has issued in the form of a Blue Book, “The General Report for the Welsh Division for the year 1886, by W. Williams, Esq., Chief Inspector.” In this Report, Mr. Williams says:—

 

“A question of much interest has been brought prominently forward of late, viz., the Utilization of the Welsh Language (in the Elementary Schools), and has been taken up by an influential Society, the Council of which includes the names of most of the leading educationists in Wales. The objects of this Society have been fully set forth in a Memorial to the Royal Commissioners on Elementary Education,*

 

*A copy of this Memorial will be sent free on receipt of a stamped Addressed wrapper. Apply to the Secretary of the Society.

 

and I shall not refer to them at length here. I wish, however, to state that it is not intended to try to retard the spread of the English Language, or to interfere with the teaching of English in Welsh Schools; on the contrary, one of the main objects is to make the teaching of English more intelligent and thorough. Mr. Edwards (H.M. Inspector for the Merthyr District) is strongly in favour of the movement, and I beg to refer to his reasons for it given in the Appendix to this Report. The actual result produced on the present system in many Welsh-speaking districts is, that the bulk of the scholars, it is to be feared, pass through the schools without acquiring sufficient know¬ledge of English to understand or take pleasure in reading an English book, whilst their mere colloquial knowledge of Welsh is insufficient to enable them fully to appreciate a Welsh book. Welsh has been already taken as a specific subject in some schools, and I beg to refer to Mr. D. I. Davies’ account of it in the Appendix.”

 

The Appendix referred to is as follows:—

 

Reasons given by Mr. W. EDWARDS, Her Majesty’s Inspector, for the introduction of Welsh.

 

“They are chiefly these:

(i) That Welsh is the constant home language of a very large proportion of the inhabitants of Wales, besides being the language of many newspapers and periodicals.

 

 

 

(delwedd 3904B) 

  (x15)

(2) That it is expedient that Welsh should be taught grammatically as long as it retains its position as the language of the majority.

 

(3) That many children who pass through the Elementary Schools will in after life fill positions in which a good grammatical knowledge of Welsh is extremely desirable, if not absolutely indispensable.

 

(4) That bilingual instruction is always useful in improving the faculties of thought and expression through the presentation of one idea in two different modes. By its means also the acquisition of a third language is rendered easier.

 

(5) That the spread of English will not be retarded by the teaching of Welsh. The latter will only be taught in connection with the former. Translations will be required not only from English into Welsh, but also from Welsh into English. Welsh children at present rarely have the power of composing in English. Translation is at once an aid and an exer¬cise in composition.

 

(6) That in Scotland, in Ireland, and in various Continental countries the necessity of bilingual instruction is conceded, and the advantages which accrue from it, e.g., in Switzerland, are acknowledged to be considerable.

 

(7) That as the subject is optional, there is no danger of its being introduced against the wishes of the parents.

 

(8) That the machinery for teaching Welsh already exists, although a little preparation may be required. Teachers of Welsh nationality are, as a matter of fact, already chosen in preference to English teachers for service in Welsh Schools. If Welsh teaching is required in schools conducted by Englishmen, it will be easy to provide the special instruction without unsettling the staff.

 

(9) The question of practicability will settle itself, if experiments are allowed to be made, without unnecessary restrictions.

 

Remarks by Mr. DAN ISAAC DAVIES, Her Majesty’s Sub-Inspector of Schools.

 

“Eight schools under the Gelligaer School Board have been examined in Welsh, as a specific subject, according to a scheme approved by her Majesty’s Inspector for the district of Merthyr, and, out of 110 presented, 89 passed. One of the schools was examined according to a scheme proposed by the Society for Utiliz¬ing the Welsh Language, which possesses some advantages over that proposed by the School Board, especially for the children of English parents. In one school an English boy stood second, and an English girl third; and the success of the English children was greater than might have been expected.

 

“In one school, conducted by a master who did not know Welsh, the subject was well taught by an assistant mistress, an ex-pupil teacher. The master, seeing the progress made by his scholars,

____________________________

 

 

 

 

(delwedd 3905A)

 

(x16) some of them from English homes, took to studying Welsh him¬self, and soon made good progress.

 

“The English Grammar of Standards V., VI., VII, has beeo improved by the teaching of Welsh as a specific subject, and for this reason it might be advantageous to take Welsh as a specific subject when it would he unadvisable to take any other special subject. One strong reason for teaching Welsh is that the demand for bilingual officials is increasing in all parts of Wales, and es¬pecially in the populous mining districts of East Glamorganshire, in which there has been of late years an immense increase of population (mainly Welsh), and to which districts several additional Members of Parliament, taken from the Anglicized Pembroke, Brecon, and Radnor Boroughs, have been assigned.”— From the Welsh Education Blue Book, 1886-7.

 

 

 

(delwedd 3905B) 

 

(x17) THE WELSH ALPHABET

(YR ABIEC.)

 

Letter / Name / English Word containing the sound. / Welsh Word containing the sound.

 

A / a / ah / father / bâd / fat / màn

B / b / bee / boy / bod

C / c / ek / can (always hard) / caws

Ch / ch / ech / (there is no English equivalent; the Scotch ch in loch is similar) / chwaer

D / d / dee / dog / dyn

Dd / dd / eth / then / modd

E / e / eh / fate / bedd / fell / pen

F / f / ev / vain / fel

ff / ff / eff / full / ffa

G / g / egg / gay (always hard) / gof

Ng / ng / ing / sing / angor

H / h / hatch / have / haul

I / i / ee / feel / llin / tin / pin

L / l / el / love / lili

LL / ll / ell / (there is no English equivalent) / llaw

M / m / em / mine / mam

N / n / en / nun / nef

O / o / oh / go / clo / not / tòn

P / p / pee / pan / pen

Ph / ph / ffee / phrase / phiol

R / r / err / run / mor

Rh / rh / rhee / r with h strongly sounded / rhaff

S / s / ess / snow / Sais

T / t / tee / time / tan

Th / th / ith / thin / cath

U / u / uh / (there is no English equivalent, the nearest being i in unique) / llun / syntax (a shortened broad i) / dull

W / w / ooh / shoot / tŵr / foot / dwl

y / y / yh / further / fy / ugly / ỳn / clique (the nearest approach) /

dydd / syntax / bryn /

 

Mh, Nh, Ngh, called respectively Mhee, Nhee, and Nghee, being the aspirated forms of M, N and Ng, are regarded by some as additional consonants.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3906A)

 

(x18) WELSH READING AND PRONUN¬CIATION.

 

The first difficulty to be surmounted by an English Student learning to read Welsh is to remember that—

1. Every letter in every Welsh word must be sounded.

2. Every letter in Welsh has always the same sound.

 

NOTE.—The Welsh vowels a, e, i, a, u, w, y, have a long and a short sound (see the table on preceding page). The only exception to the rule is y, which is pronounced somewhat like y in “syntax,” in most words of one syllable, and in the last syllable of words of more than one syllable, and like u in “ugly “ in all other places.

 

Remember that—

a is always sounded like a in father or fat, never like a in late.

e is always sounded like a in fate or e in fell, never like e in me.

i is always sounded like ee in feel, or i in tin, never like i in ice.

o is always sounded like o in go or not, never like o in to.

u is pronounced like the French u, and never sounded like u in up nor in use.

w is always sounded like oo in shoot or foot.

y is never sounded like y in by.

 

DIPHTHONGS.

Welsh Diphthongs differ from the English in the fact that each of the vowels of which they are composed is sounded; for instance ai in Welsh would always be sounded like ay in “aye” and never like ai in “pail.” The following table will assist the learner-

 

Diphthong. / Sound. / English Word containing the sound. / Welsh word containing the sound.

ae / a and e / there is no English equivalent, the nearest being ay in “aye” / traed

ai / a and i / aye (never sounded like the English ai in “pail”) / paid

au / a and u / there is no English equivalent, the nearest being ay in “aye” / cau

aw / a and w / aye (never sounded like the English aw in “lawn”) / cawl

ei / e and i / long i as in ice / ein

 

 

 

(delwedd 3906B) 

 

(x19)

eu / e and u / there is no English equivalent, the nearest approach being the long i in “ice” / beudy

ew / e and w / there is no English equivalent (never like the English ew in “dew”) / tew

*ia / ia and a / Yankee / ia

*ie / i and e / yet / Iesu

*io / i and o / yonder, yoke / Iot

iw / i and w / long u as in “use” / niwl

oe / o and e / no English equivalent, the near¬est being oy in “boy” / oen

ow / o and w / how / trown

uw / u and w / no exact English equivalent, the nearest being ew in “dew” / Duw

*wa / w and a / wasp (!) / gwan

*we / w and e / well / wel

*wi / w and i / will / gwisg

wy / w and y / no exact English equivalent / bwyd (with first vowel prominent)

yw / y and w / nearest being wi in “wind” / gwynt (with second vowel prominent)

yw / y and w / long u in “use” / ydyw

yw / y and w / no exact English equivalent / clywsom

 

Strictly speaking, the first letter in each of the pairs marked with an asterisk (*) is not a pure vowel, being of the same character as the English y and w in “yet” and “with.”

 

In other instances, we have double vowels sounded separately, as:— .

 

ao, in parhaodd, pronounced par-ha-odd.

ea, in eang, pronounced e-ang.

eo, in deon, pronounced de-on.

and the exceptional ie in the word “ie” (yes) pronounced i-e.

 

NOTE.—Sometimes three, or even more, vowels come together, in which cases the first two are generally sounded together, and the third (with the vowel following it, if any) separately, as:—

 

A —

aea, daear, pronounced dae-ar.

aua, caead, pronounced cau-ad.

awe, awel, pronounced aw-el.

awy, awyr, pronounced aw-yr.

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3907A) (x20)

 

(x20) E -

euo, euog, as in eu-og.

euw, deuwn, as in deu-wn.

ewy, newyn, as in new-yn.

 

O -

oio, troion, as in troi-on.

 

U -

uwiau, duwiau, as in duw-iau.

 

W -

wia, gwialen, as in gwi-al-en.

wiai, gwiail, as in gwi-ail.

 

A few of the treble vowels are monosyllables, as:—

 

I -

iaie, as in trin-iaieth.

iai, as in iaith.

iau, as in teith-iau.

iaw, as in iawn

iei, as in ieith-oedd.

ieu, as in ieu-anc.

 

W -

wae, as in gwaed.

wai, as in gwaith.

wau, as in gwau.

waw, as in gwawr.

wei, as in gwein-i.

wew, as in gwew-yr.

wiw, as in gwiw.

 

In each of these instances, however, it will be seen that the first letter is really only a semi-vowel.

 

CONSONANTS.

 

The Welsh consonants present less difficulty than the vowels to the English student. With the exception of Ch and LI, they all have similar sounds in English. The Welsh ch is the same as the Scotch ch in “loch,” and the LI is an aspirated L.

 

It should be remembered that C, c, is always hard, like the English K (never soft, like c in “city”).

 

G, g, is always hard, like the English G in “go” (never soft, like g in “gin”).

 

F, f, is always soft, like the English F (never hard, like the English F).

 

Ff, ff, is always hard, like the English F. (x21)

____________________________

 

 

 

(delwedd 3907B) (x21)

 

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

Ng,- ng, is always like the English ng in singer 

(never like the English ng in " finger," nor the English 

ng in danger "). 

Dd, dd, is always soft, as the English Th in that," 

this." 

then, 

moth. " 

Th is always like the English Th in thin, 

The other consonants Iklve precisely the same sound 

as in English. 

ACCENT. 

The invariable rule in Welsh Reading is to place the 

accent on the last syllable but one of the word ; and if a 

syllable be added to a word, the accent is moved in accord- 

ance with this rule. In this respect it differs materially 

from the English accent. This may perhaps be illustrated 

by giving side by side the English and the Welsh accent 

to an English word thus :— 

English accent. Welsh accent. 

intent, 

intention, 

inténtional, 

intent. 

intention. 

intentional. 

unintentionally. 

unintcntionally, 

There is also in Welsh frequently a sort of lighter accent 

on every alternate syllable backward from the chief 

accent, thus the word " unintentionally in the NVelsh 

accent would be shown thus :— 

tin-in-ten-tion-AL-ly. 

With the above explanation the accent on the follow- 

ing examples will be sufficiently clear :— 

Gtvirion, gwirionedd, gavirionEDDau. 

Mab Efrog, un o freninoedd y Gogledd, oedd Peredur. Vr oedd 

gan y Brenin Efrog saith o feibion dewrion, a Pheredur oedd yr 

ieuang•af ohonynt i gyd. Gydag anmhleidGARwch flentyn, ed • 

mygai y bachgenyn gefy/au &uan a phice//au hirion marchogion 

A rthur. 

3907B 

 

 

 

 

 

(delwedd 3908A)

 

(x22) THE MUTATION OF INITIAL CONSONANTS.

 

For the purposes of the Government requirements, the consideration of this important subject will be postponed until the Third Stage. It has been, however, suggested that it would be advisable, for the sake of English Students, that a short explanation of this, the English¬man’s chief difficulty in mastering the language, should be prefixed to the First Stage.

 

It must strike an ordinary English Student as strange that the word tad (father) should be written in each of the following forms — tad, dad, nhad, thad; that gair (word) should be also spelt ngair, air; and that mam (mother) should be sometimes represented fam. And yet a little consideration of these changes will prove that they are all subject to rules which never vary.

 

The first thing to be borne in mind is that there is a fixed root for each word — that it is the root or radical form of the word alone which is found in an ordinary dictionary; and that the changes which the initial con-sonant of any word undergoes depend entirely upon the sense in which the word is used, or upon the word immediately preceding it.

 

The next thing to be remembered is that it depends entirely upon the initial consonant of the root word — what form the change may take under given conditions. Thus we have the words cân and gair, both beginning with g, but they are not subject to the same rule, for the reason that gân is only a modified form of cân, which begins with c, while gair is itself a root word.

 

If the examples given above be considered, it will be seen that the first word is given four forms, that is, the root word and three changes; the second word has the root word and two changes; the third word has the root word and one change. Our first work, then, is to classify

 

 

 

(delwedd 3908B)

(x23) WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

23 

these changing consonants according to the number of 

changes they undergo. 

Before l)roceeding to do this, it would perhaps be well 

for the student to consider the following combined 

letters as being additional consonants 

Ngh, called nghee, being ng 

Mh 

mhee, 

„ m with the sound of h added. 

nhee, 

n 

Now, as to the classification referred to above, we 

place in 

THE FIRST CLASS, C, P, T, 

which take three changes each. 

C is changecl into G, Ngh, and Ch. 

B, Mh, and n. 

D, N/'l, and Th. 

These changes are illustrated thus 

Radical. First Remove. 

cam (step), 

Craig (rock), 

roen (pain), 

plaid (party), 

Tad (father), 

Tai (houses), 

his 

ei Gam, 

ei Graig•, 

ei Boen, 

ei Blaid, 

ei Dad, 

ei Dai, 

Second Remove. 

my 

fy NGHam, 

D' NGHraig, 

fy MHO"t, 

D' MHlaid, 

fy NHad, 

fy NHai, 

Third Remnw. 

her 

ei cyrane 

ei cHraig 

ei PI-IOC" 

ei PHIaid 

ei THad 

ei THai 

The next thing is to know when to use the radical, 

and when to use any particular form of the modifications 

to which it is subject. 

The following general rules may assist the student. 

It will be noted that, for facility of reference andecom- 

parison, the lettering and numbering of the rules follow 

the class of rule throughout the series. 

1. The Radical is always used in the First Class 

V) In the first word in a sentence. 

(b) After the Numerals tair (three, fem.), *dwar 

(four, m.), tedair (f.), &c. 

3908B 






 

 

 

(delwedd 3909A) 
(x24)
24

WEI Sil I*OR El SCHOOi.S. 

(c) 'After some Indefipite or Adjective Pronorans tob 

(every), Icth, and rhhi (some). 

(d) After the Plural Possessive Pronouns ein (ou; 

eit-h (your), cu (their). 

(e) For the Prepositional form of the Possessive Case. 

as dyn plaid (a man OF PARTY), tad can (the father 01 

SONG). 

(f) For the Nominative Case, following a Verb, rs 

s.vrthiodd craig (A ROSK fell), grvekvyd TY (A HOUSE was 

seen). 

(g) After these Prepositions—cyn (before), er (since), 

erbyn (against, by), wedi (after), Illewn (in), rhag (from), 

(between). 

(h) For Masculine Nouns following y, yr, 'r (the) or 

their Compounds a'r (and the), i'r (to the), O'r (of the). 

the numeral un (one). 

(i) For Masculine and all Plural Adjectives, as tal 

'1 yucr (TENDER father), creigiau ce/yd (HARD rocks). 

(j) For Verbs which are followed by their Nominatives, 

'as yna canodd Mair (then Mary SANG), prawe/a y 

(the sea WILL BECOME CALM) ; and for Participial Verbs 

following yn as, mae Victgria YN rreyrnasu (Victoria IS 

REIGNING). 

2. The First Remove is used— 

(a) After the Adverb mor (so), for Adverbs with 

as; mae Mair yn canu c,ywir (Mary is singing 

CORRECTLY), and where the Verb is placed after the 

subject, as eye Darawodd gyn/af (he STRUCK first), hi 

Godbdd (she ROSE). 

(b) After the Numerals dau (m.) and dtc6' (f.) (two). 

(q) After some Indefinite or Adjective Pronoune, 

ambell (some), holl (all), unrhytv (any), amryw (several), 

'fath, ty/rytcp (such), y nail/ (the one). 

(d) After the Masculine Possessive Pronoun ei (his) 

and its Combinations a'i (and his), i'w (to his), o'i (from 

his). 

3909A 



 




 

 

 

(delwedd 3909B)
 
 (x25)

 

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

25 

(e) For the Nominative Case following yn with the Verb 

To Be (apposition), as mae hon YN Gan dda (this is a good 

SONG), mae hwn YN D)' tlws (this is a pretty HOUSE). For the 

Objective Case after the Passive form of Verbs, as, 

gwelwyd craig gan Dad y bachgen (a rock was seen BY THE 

FATHER of the boy). For the Objective Case after Simple 

Active Verbs, as gwelodd craig (he saw a ROCK), but not 

.after Compound Verbs, which take the Radical, as mae eye 

TN GWELED craig (he is seeing a ROCK), CAF WELED 

craig (I SHALL SEE a Rock). 

(f) After the Prepositions am (about, for), ar (on, at), 

al (to), gan (with, by), lub (without), hyd (until), i (to, 

for), tros (over, for), trwy (through), with (by, at), o (out 

of, from), tan (until, under). 

(g) For Feminine Nouns following y, yr, 'r (the), or 

their compounds a'? (and the), (to the), O'r (of the), 

and the numeral un. 

(i) For Feminine Adjectives, as can ryner (TENDER 

song). 

3. The Second Remove is used— 

(d) After the Possessive Pronoun f (my). 

(g ) After the Preposition yn (in). 

4. The Third Remove is used— 

(a) After the Conjunction a (and). 

(b) After the Masculine Numeral tri (three). 

(d) After the Feminine Possessive ei (her), and its 

contbinations a'i (and her), i'w (to her), o'i (from her). 

THE SECOND CLASS, G, D, D. 

Do not confound the radical G, B, and D,' with 

the inflected G, B, D, which form the first remove of 

The radical initial consonants G, 3, D, take 

changes each. 

G is changed into .— and 

M. 

3909B 






 

 

 

(delwedd 3910A) 

(x26)
 
WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

Radical. First Renae. Second Remove. Third Remove ( & 

Gair (word), 

Gwlad (country), 

Brazed (brother), 

Bran (crow), 

Darn (piece), 

Dalen (leaf), 

his 

ei -air, 

ei -zvlad, 

ei Frazvd, 

ei Fran, 

ei DDarn, 

ei DDalen, 

my 

b NGair, 

NGzvId, 

fy Mrazvd. 

Mt-an, 

D' Nam, 

-fy Nah, 

same as the 

her 

ei Gair. 

ei Gtvld. 

ei Braw' 

ei Bran. 

ei Darn. 

ei 'Dalen. 

1. The Radical • always used in the Second Clasg 

under the same rules as apply to the First Class. 

2, 3. The First Remove and Second Remove 

are governed by the same rules as in the First Class. 

4. The Third Remove is precisely the same 

the Radical. 

THE THIRD CLASS, M, Ll, Rh. 

Do not confound the Radical M, in such words 

as mam, with the inflected M from B, in such words u 

fy mrawd (my brother). 

M, Ll, and Rh take only one change each. 

M is changed into F. 

L. 

R. 

Thus :— 

Radical. 

Mab (son), 

First 

Merch (daughter), 

LLO (calf), 

1.tÆZV (hand), 

RHIbgdd (notice), 

(rule), 

Remove. 

his 

ei Fab, 

ei Ferch, 

ei 1.0, 

ei Law, 

Second Remove 

(same as radical). 

my 

fy Mab, 

Merch, 

fy Ll..o, 

fy LLaw, 

ei R"bgdd, RHYbudd, 

RHeol, 

ei geol, 

Third Rem•æ 

(same as radicalÅ 

her 

ei Mab. 

ei Merch. 

ei LLO. 

ei Ll.aw. 

ei RHYb%U. 

ei RHeol. 

r. The Radical is uged in the Third Class under tbe 

same rules as in the First Class. 

3910A 





 

 

 

(delwedd 3910B) 

 (x27)

*EISH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

Exceptions Y (the) and its compounds, and 

(one) require the First Remove in all Feminine Nouns 

commencing with M, but take the Radical in both 

Masculine and Feminine in Ll and Rh, as 

Y Mab, m. 

the son, 

Y perch, f. 

the daughter. 

the calf, 

Y Ll,azv, f. 

the hand. 

Y LIM, m. 

Y RHYbgdd, m. the notice, Y RHeol, f. 

the rule. 

The First Remove is used in the same way as 

in the First Class, with the exception of (h), for which 

see the preceding rule; and (a) the adverb mor (so), and 

the Adverbial with yn ; and (e) the Noun and Adjective 

in apposition after yn, which take the First Remove in 

M, but the Radical in Ll and Rh, as 

Melus sweet, YN Fetus 

sweetLY, MOR FClus AS sweet. 

Ll.auwt merry, YN LLawen merriLY, MOR LLazven, AS merry. 

*Had, cheap, YN RHad cheapl,y, MOR RHad, AS cheap. 

Mae hon YN perch dda (This IS a good GIRL). 

Mae hon YN LLazv wen (This IS a white HAND). 

Mae hon YN RHawfazvr (This IS a large SHOVEL). 

3, 4. The Second and Third Removes are the 

same as the Radical. 

CAVT10N.—Never use the aspirated m and n 

(mh and nh) for words whose radical initial is •w 

or n. 

These forms are only used where the rad •cal 

initial is ort. Thus we say j' MHoen (my pain, from 

poen), j,' NHad (my father, from Tad), but never fy 

MHam (my mother, from Mam), nor ei MHerch (her 

daughter, from Merch), the correct forms being fy 

Nam, ei Merch ; nor do we say fy NEIai (my nephew, from 

Nai) nor ei NHYth (her nest, from NYI/I), the correct 

forms being f Nai, ei NYth. 

Use ngh only when the radical initial is c; 

never when it is g." Thus we say fy NGHån (my song 

from can), but never fy NGHair (my word, from Gair), 

the correct form is fy NGair. 

3910B 




 

 

 

(delwedd 3911A) 

(x28)
 


28

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOF. 

THE INFLECTED INITIAL H 

presents another slight difficulty. 

Words whose radical initial is a vowel have h 

prefixed when following the Feminine Possessive ei (her) 

and the First and Third Persons Plural -Possessives ein 

(our) and eu (their) ; and all their combination}, such as 

a'i (and her), O'n (from, or on our), i' w (to their). 

Thus 

her 

their 

our 

Arglzvydd (Lord), 

El HArWtvydd, EIN HArglzvydd, EU HArgkvydd. 

Esgid (shoe), 

El HEsg•id 

EIN HEsgid, 

EU HEsgid. 

railh (language)' 

El Hlaith, 

EIN Hlaith, 

EU Hlait/e. 

Oft (fear), 

El HOfn, 

EIN HOfiz, 

EU HOfn. 

uchelder (highness), El HUche/der, EIN Huchelder, EU HUchelder. 

Vnys (island), 

El HYnys, 

EIN Hynys, 

EU HY1zys. 

Mae hi A'I H arian 

O'N Hachos 

l'w Hofni. 

She 

AND HER Money ON OUR Account ARE to be Feared. 

CAUTION.—DO not say ein hwlad, as the radical initial 

is g and not w ; say ein gwlad. 

Verbs, with vowel radical initials, take h as their 

initial when their object is First Person Singular or 

Plural, the Third Person Feminine Singular, or the Third 

Perion Plural. Thus 

Mi A'M YIArzveinizvyd (I was led 

Ac A'N HArzveiniodd (And led us). 

Efe A'I HArzveinia (He will lead her). 

Tydi A'U HArzveini (Thou wilt lead them). 

All other Apostrophe Possessive forms of these words 

follow the same rule, as 

Nz"M IlanghoFvyd (I was not Forgotten). 

Cyhuddzvyd e/ O'N Hofni (He was charged WITH US). 

Dys,cayd ni z" w Hanzvylo (We were- taught TO love HER). 

L)ygwyd hwy i" w H0frymu (THEY were brought TO BE Sacrificed). 

3911A 



 

 

 

(delwedd 3911B) 
 (x29)


WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

PART 1. 

PARTS. OF SPEECH. 

In Welsh there are Nine Parts of Speech, 

viz.. 

Bannod, 

I. 

2. Ente, 

A nsoddair, 

3. 

Rhagenw, 

4. 

Berf, 

5. 

Rhagferf, 

6. 

A rddodiad, 

7. 

8. 

Cysylltiad, 

Cyfryngiad, 

9. 

ARTICLE. 

NOUN. 

ADJECTIVE. 

PRONOUN. 

VERB. 

ADVERB. 

PREPOSITION. 

CONJUNCTION. 

INTERJECTION. 

I—THE ARTICLE (Y BANNOD). 

Rule I.—The Definite Article takes three 

forms in Welsh, viz., y, yr, and 'r. These 

are always translated into " the " in Eng- 

lish. Yis used before a consonant and the 

semi-vowel w. Yr is used before a vowel 

and the aspirate h. The form '1 is often, 

used When the word before it ends in a 

vowel. Examples . 

y dyn, 

r&raig. 

yr åfa/, 

Yr heo(, 

tiref, 

the man 

the wife 

the apple 

the road 

the town 

yr yvol, 

ddinas, 

yr haul, 

yr aderpe, 

the school 

the city 

the sun 

the house 

the bird 

3911B 



 

 

 

(delwedd 3912A) 
(x30)




 
30

efe, 

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

yr oeddzen, 

mazvr, fazvr, 

mae, 

nyth, 

we have been 

he 

I was 

large 

IS, are 

on 

nest 

oedd, 

gan, 

hwn, 

sydd, 

wrth, 

maent, 

was 

with 

this 

is 

by 

is 

they are 

EXERCISE 1. 

Translate into English . 

1 Buom yr 1 ddinas. 

2 Efe yw y dyn. 3 Y wraig 

esydd wrth y urws. 4 Caerdydd yw y dref. 5 Maent 

yn yr ysgol. 6 Yr oeddwn yn y t'. 7 Yr haul sydd 

9 Yr afal 

S Mae yr aderyn ar y 119th. 

fawr. 

10 Mae plant yr ysgol ar yr heoL 

oedd gan y wraig. 

12 Hwn yw'r afal.' 

11 Mae'r dyn ar yr heol. 

Rule 2.—The English Indefinite Articles 

a and an are not expressed in Welsh. 

Examples : 

He is a boy, 

A lamb is in the field, 

My brother is an infant, 

yzv. 

Mae oen yn y cae. 

Baban yzvfy mrazvd. 

There is an apple on the tree, Mae anal ar y Iren. 

Bren ines udd Elisabeth. 

Elizabeth was a queen, 

EXERCISE 11. 

a child, 

a market, 

the market, 

egg, 

the egg, 

the iron, 

thou, 

with, 

Ilentyn 

marchnad 

Y farchnad 

yr wy 

yr haiarn 

ti 

Uda 

a table, 

the table, 

the bell, 

church, or 

a church, 

the church, 

where, 

bwrdd 

Y bwrdd 

y gloch 

eglwys 

yr eghws 

Translate into Welsh : 

1 Thou art a child. 2 1 was in the market. 3 An 

egg is on the table. 4 The iron is on a table in the 

church. 5 Where is the bell? 6 It is •th the child. 

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY scqoots.

2.—THE NOUN (ENW). 

A NouN (Enw) is the name of anything, 

There are three kinds of Nouns . 

Proper Nouns (Enwau Priodol). 

Common Nouns (Enwau Cyffredin). 

Abstract Nouns (Enwau Dansoddol). 

I. A Proper Noun (Enw Priodol) is the 

narne given to a particular individual, as dis- 

tinguishecl from one belonging to a class, as, 

Daf.ydd (l)avid), lago (James), Hafren 

(Severn), Cymru (Wales). 

2. A Common Noun (Enw Cyffredin) is a 

name which may be applied to all individuals 

of a class, as, tad (father), ceLyl (horse), pen- 

tref (village), bwrdd (table). 

3. An Abstract Noun (Enw Dansoddol) 

is the name of a quality considered apart from 

the thing in which it is found, or of an action 

considered apart from the doer of it, as, 

gwynder (whiteness), gwirioncdd (truth), 

cyLroad (motion). 

NOTE.—A Collective Noun (Enw Cynulliadol) ex- 

presses a collection of many individuals. 'I'hough meaning 

many individuals, these words are used in the sense of 

one body. Most of tfem can take a plural form, thus 

Singular. 

tyrfa, 

b)'ddin, 

crowd 

multitude 

an aril))' 

Plural. 

tyrfaocdd, 

crowds 

lluoedd, 

multitudes 

lyddinoe,id, armies 

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

NUMBER. 

By Number (Rhif) we distinguish between 

words which stand for one object and those 

which stand for more than one. 

If the 

name stands for only one it is in the Singu- 

lar Number (Rhif Unigol) ; 

if it stands for 

more than one, it is in the Plural Number 

(Rhif Lluosog). 

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL (LLUOSOG). 

Rule 3.—There are three ways of forming 

the plural of Nouns. 

r. By changing a vowel or vowels : 

a into ai, as brAi2 (crow), plural brAI't. 

as $Ant (sant), 

.fAInt. 

a into ei, as Arth (bear), 

Elrth. 

as bArdd (bard), 

bE1rdd. 

a into y, as bustAch (bullock), plural buslYch. 

i, as draEn (thorn), plural drarn. 

e „ y, as cyllEll (knife), 

„ cyliY11. 

o „ y, as corf(body), plural cyrff. 

as corn (horn), 

cyrn. 

a and e into e and y, as AstEll (board), plural ESIYI/. 

as bAchgEn (boy), 

bp.chgvte- 

as CArF„g (stone), 

a and a into e and ai, as dAfAd (sheep), lüural dEfAId. 

a and a 

e and y, as ArAdr (plough), 

Erydr. 

as AlArch swan), 

Elyrcå. 

a and w into e and y, as Asgwrn (bone), 

ETYM. 

EXCEPTIONS. 

OPM (lamb), plural WY". 

crOEtz (skin), 

crwyu. 

(foot), 

tr,xrd. 

ty (house), plural tAI. 

IlYSAd (eye), „ 

Cl (dog), plural cwN. 

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33

2. 

3. 

WEI.SIJ FOR ELEMENTARV SCHOOLS. 

Dv adding a syllable : 

ain, asych (ox), plural ychAIN. 

au, as pen (head), 

tenAU. 

iau, as bryn (hill), plural dnynIAU. 

edd, as bys (finger), 

bvsEDD. 

i, as llwyn (bush), 

llwynl. 

iaid, as cstron (stranger), plural estronlAID. 

on, as 1,4v (oath), plural /lzvON. 

ion, as dyn (man), 

dyn10N. 

od, as cryr (eagle), 

eryrOD. 

oedd, as (mountain), plural mynyddOEDD. 

ydd, as afon (river), plural afonYI)D. 

IBv changing a vowel or vowels, and 

adding a svllable : 

a into e add ycld, as nAnt (brook), plural /ZE'IIVDD. 

ei 

a 

ei 

ae 

eu „ 

ai 

ei 

az 

a 

au„ eu 

acv, , o 

tv „ y „ 

ion, as mAb (son), plural 1,'1EIbION. 

i, as SAEr (carpenter), plural sEIrI. 

ydd, as lilAES (field), plural mEUSVDD. 

iau, as g•AIv (word), 

edd, as {'XMAI'(wife), 

au, as.CAU (cave), plural LEU AU. 

iau, as A Wr (hour), 

OPIAU. 

au, as bwrdd (table), plural bYrddAu. 

w and w into y and y add au, as evvmw/(cloud), plural cv;nv/AU. 

From the foregoing tables we find that all 

the vowels, except i, admit of being changed 

into other vowels to forni the plural of 

nouns, thus : 

a is changed into ai, e, ei, y. 

DOUBLE PLURALS. 

Rule 4.—Some Nouns have two or 

more Plural Forms. 

(a) One plural is forrnecl bv a vowel 

c 

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34

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

change, and another is formed by adding 

a termination, as : 

astell (board), plural EstYll or aste110D. 

castell (castle), 

cEstYll or castelll. 

padell (pan), 

PEdYll or padelll. 

(b) One plural is formed by a vowel 

change, and +nother by a vowel change and 

bv adding a termination, as : 

bardd' (bard), plural l)EIrdd or bEIrddION. 

cloch (bell), plural clych or clychAU. 

sant (saint), 

saint or sE1nt1AU. 

(c) The singular sometimes takes different 

terminations to form its plural, as : 

b/ynedd (year), plural blynYdd0EDI) or blynyddAU. 

eelwys (church), „ eglzvysr or eglwysYDD. 

//ythyr (letter), 

, , llythyrAtJ or llythyrON. 

meistr (master), 

meisO•I, meislFIAID or meistrADOEDD. 

mynydd (mountain), plural mynyddOEDD or mynyddAU. 

(parish), pluralllzvyfl or /hvyjYDD. 

trey (town), plural trefl or trefY1)D. 

(a) Some Nouns have two plurals with 

different meanings, as : 

cynghor (counsel, or advice), plural cynghorION. 

(council), plural cynghorAU. 

llwyuh (a tribe), plural llzvythA(J. 

(a load), 

llzvythl. 

Rule 5 —The plural number is wanting in 

Proper Nouns, in some Abstract Nouns and 

Diminutives ; and in Nouns denoting sub- 

stance, mass, etc., as . 

Kind of Noun. 

Proper Noun 

Abstract Noun 

Diminutives 

Nouns denoting subst. 

Nouns denoting mass 

English W,xd. welsh Word Pima,' 

James 

gladness 

lambkin 

silver 

ashes 

(Singular). ( wantiæg). 

fago 

diazvenydd 

oenig• 

arian 

lludzv 

3914A 



 




 

 

 

(delwedd 3914B) 

 (x35)
WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

35 

EXERCISES ON THE PLURALS OF NOUNS. 

EXERCISE 111. 

Give the plural of the following : 

(The figure or letter following a word denotes the rule from those 

given above, which suits the case.) 

Llech,2 cloch,3 blwch,3 cwch,3 hwch,2 båd,2 gwlad,8 

mab,8 cwd,3 grudd,2 dydd,2 gWydd,2 coed,2 ffydd,a 

nef,2 tref,2 gof,2 rhaff,2 ceg,2 brio,2 Ilong,2 pél,2 (161,2 pwll,8 

twll,3 flam, 2 gem,2 Ilen,2 ffon,l tbn,2 cae,2 bryn,2 dyn,2 cår,2 

mör, gwr,l cath,2 maen,3 crwth,3 troed,l chwaer,3 saer,8 

maes,3 caib,3 braich,3 craig,3 llais,3 brawd,3 Ileidr,3 neidr,* 

march,l Ilew,2 oen,l coes,2 wy,2 llwyn,2 trwyn,2 bwrdd,3 

dwfr,$ bardd,l arf,2 dwrn,3 corn,l hwrdd,3 ffordd,l porth,l 

post,3 clust,2 llyfr.2 

EXERCISE IV. 

Give the plural of the following : 

Enw,2 llun,2 angel,2 bwch,3 chwaer,3 awr,3 gwisg,2 gwraig,S 

ysog„2 brenin,2 cyfaill.3 can,2 Ilong,2 

anifail,3 

geneth,2 arglwydd,2 yddyn,3 tarw,l cig,2 brig.2 

Rule 6.—The Singular is sometimes 

formed from the Plural or Collective, 

as . 

adAr (birds), singular adE/YN 

CAWS (cheese), 

COSYN 

P/A'" (children), , 

PIE','IVN 

„ SWEIIIYN 

(hai. ), 

mes (acorns), singular mesEN 

dent' (oaks), 

denteLN 

yd (a grain of corn), sing. ydEN 

hA1dd (barley), sing. hE!ddEN 

NOTE.—'I'he affix yn indicates the Masculine Gender. 

en 

Feminine 

3914B 






 

 

 

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36

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARV SCHOOLS. 

EXERCISE V. 

Give the singular of the following, accord- 

ing to the above rule : 

(NOTE.-—m. masculine ; f. feminine.) 

Rhos m. (roses), gwenith f. (wheat), bedw f. (birch), 

blodeu m. (flowers), tywys f. (ears of corn), ceirch f. 

(oats), glaswellv". (grass), gwelltf. (straw), coed/ (trees). 

PLURALS OF COMPOUND NOUNS. 

Rule 7.—Compound Nouns forin their 

plurals like the last of their coinponent 

parts, as 

barn-wR (judge), plural barn-WVR (like gwr, man). 

mil-Gl (greyhound), plural mil-GWN (like ci, dog). 

cloch-IDY (steeple) plural cloth-DAI (like O', house). 

i which comes before -zer in some com- 

pounds of gzvr, is not kept in the plural, as : 

gat'ith-H'CR (workman), plural gcveit/1-WYR. 

EXERCISE VI. 

Write out ten Nouns in English, and give 

their MY els11 equivalents. 

EXERCISE v 11. 

Give the plurals of the Nouns in the last 

Exercise, in English and in Welsh. 

GENDER (CENEDL). 

BV Gender (IRhvw or Cenedl) is meant the 

distinction of sex. NVelsh differs fronl English 

as regards Gender, inastnucl) as •in English 

3915A 



 

 

 

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

37 

Gender relates only to those words which 

denote living creatures, while in Welsh 

every name is considered as denoting either 

Masculine or Feminine Gender. 

Rule 8.—1n the Welsh language there 

are only two genders, viz. :—Mascu1ine 

(Gwrywaidd) and Feminine (Benywaidd). 

NOTE.—T. All names of things without life, which are of 

the neuter gender in English, are in NVelsh either mascu- 

line or feminine. 

2. A few nannes of living beings, some masculine 

and some feminine, are used to denote both the male and 

the female, when no distinc tion of sex is intended. 'l'hese 

may be called Common (Cyffredin). tSuc11 are . 

Plc ntyn, 

acieryn , 

eryr, 

a child 

a bird 

an eagle 

co/omen, 

cwmngcn, 

ysgyfarnog•, 

a dove 

a rabbit 

a hare 

Rule 9.—The gender of nouns is distin- 

guished, 

1. By adding the terinination es to the 

Masculine Gender : 

Masculine. 

argttvydd 

dyn 

brenin 

Ilew 

llanc 

meistr 

car, cy/A111 

Feminine. 

arg/zvyddES 

dynES 

breninF.s 

IlewEs 

llancEs 

meistrF,s 

carES, CJfE1//ES 

Mascutine. 

lord 

man 

king 

lion 

lad 

master 

friend (male) 

Feminine. 

lad' 

woman 

queen 

lioness 

lass 

mistress 

friend (femal• 

3915B 






 

 

 

(delwedd 3916A)

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38

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

2. By changing the termination yn into 

en, as t—- 

Masculine. 

asyN 

hogYN 

crwtYN 

Feminine. 

asEN 

hog-EN 

crotEN 

Masculine. 

he ass 

young lad 

3. By different words :—— 

Masculine. 

bachgew 

hrazvd 

bustach or eidion 

cefnder 

ceryl 

ceiliog 

ewythr 

ovas 

gwr 

h wrdd 

mab 

nai 

tad 

'aid 

tadcu 

tarw 

Feminine. 

Masculine. 

geneth or merci boy 

h zvch 

chtvaer 

aner 

cyfnither 

caseg 

iar 

gast 

modryb 

morzvyn 

dafad 

merch 

n ith 

mam 

nain 

ma mgt' 

buzvch- 

boar 

brother 

bullock 

cousin (male) 

horse 

cock 

dog 

uncle 

man-servant 

husband 

ram 

son 

nephew 

father 

grandfather 

bull 

EXERCISE Vlll. 

Feminine. 

she ass 

young lass 

Feminine. 

girl 

sow 

sister 

heifer 

cousin (female) 

mare 

hen 

bitch 

aunt 

maid-servant 

wife 

ewe 

daughter 

niece 

mother 

grandmother 

cow 

State what gender each qf the following 

words is, and give the plural number and 

the English for each word (see Rule 6) : 

Aderyn, bedwen, blodyn, ceirchen, cosyn, coeden, 

derwen, glaswelltyn, gwellten, gwelltyn, gwenithen, heidd- 

en, mesen, plentyn, rhosyn, tywysen, yden. 

3916A 




 

 

 

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

39 

Rule The Proper Names of 

countries, cities, towns, rivers, and trees 

are of the Feminine Gender, as :-— 

Name of a country, Lloegr (England). 

city, Llandaf( Llandaff). 

town, Caerdydd (Cardiff). 

river, Taf(Tafl). 

tree, onen (ash). 

(b) The Proper Names of months and 

days are of the Masculine Gender. 

EXERCISE IX. 

Give the names of the months and days 

in Welsh and English. 

EXERCISE X. 

State the gender and give the plural num- 

bers of each of the following words :— 

gwlad, 

dinas, 

tref, 

afon, 

country 

city 

town 

river 

coeden, 

mis, 

dydd, 

Teifi, 

tree 

month 

day 

Teivy 

Rule Il 

(a) The following words are 

Masculine in North Wales, but Feminine in 

South Wales 

Ciniaw (dinner), clorian (balance), cyflog (wages), 

går (ham or shank), gwniadur (thimble), troed (foot), 

mynud (minute). 

(b) In some parts of North Wales, the 

following are regarded as Feminine, while 

they are Masculine in South Wales :— 

Canwyllbren (candlestick), cwpan (cup), clust (ear), 

penill (stanza or verse). 

3916B 




 

 

 

(delwedd 3917A)

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40

WELSH FOR ELEMEN't•.ARV SCHOOLS. 

3.—THE ADJECTIVE (ANSODDAIR). 

An ADJECTIVE is a word added to a Noun, 

in order to mark or distinguish it more 

accurately, as, mawr (large), llawer (many). 

NOTE.—The student should remember that Adjectives 

admit of precisely the same classification in Welsh as in 

English. The clas•sification adopted in this book must 

not be regarded as peculiar to Welsh Adjectives. 

There are two kinds of Adjectives. 

1. Adjectives of Quality (Ansoddeiriau 

Nodwecldol), including all words which de- 

note any distinguishing feature of an object, 

coch , 

melyn, 

doeth , 

Plater , 

tlazvd, 

red 

yellow 

wise 

big 

poor 

gü'Y'1, 

du, 

annoeth, 

iychan, 

cyfoeth 0', 

white 

black 

unwise 

small 

rich 

2. Adjectives of Number (Ansoddeiriau 

Rhifol), and these are sub-divided thus :— 

(a) Cardinal Numbers (Y Prif Rifau), 

as, tin, dau, tri (one, two, three). 

(b) Ordinal Numbers (Y Rhifau Trefnol), 

as, cyntaf, ail, frydydd (first, second, third). 

Indefinite and Distributive Numerals, 

such as some, few, every, have their exact equivalents in 

Welsh, as, Thai, ychydig, pob. These are classed by some 

grammarians as Adjectives, and by others as Pronouns. 

3917A 






 

 

 

(delwedd 3917B)

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

NUMBER (RHIF). 

Sotne Welsh Adjectives have a distinction 

of Nutnber (Rhif) like Nouns, and may be 

Singular (Unigol) or Plural (Lluosog), as, 

gwyn s. , etc')'llion (white) pl. 

Rule 12.—S01ne Adjectives have Plural 

forrns to agree with Plural Nouns, as :—- 

dyn du (a black man), plural dynion duON (black men). 

Rule 13.—There are three ways of form- 

ing the plural of Adjectives. 

1. By changing the vowel, as : 

a into a; , as trztA7Z (wretched), plural /rttA11t. 

ei, as hArdd (beautiful), 

//EI,-dd. 

a 

a and a into e and y, as cAdArn (strong), plural cEdyrn. 

a and e 

c and 3', as cAlEd (hard), plural cÉ.lYd. 

2. By adding the affix on or ion, as : 

du (black), plural duos. 

gtvyn (white), plural FC'YI,'ION. 

3. By changing a vowel, and adding the 

affx on or ion, as . 

a into ei add on, as mArzv (dead). plural 

a into Cl add ion, as bAlch (proud), 

hE[/ch10N. 

ei 

ai 

ei 

acv, , o 

Rule 14. 

plural? as . 

as //AES (loose), 

SION. 

as mAtn (slender), plural 1"EIn10N. 

as tlAWd (poor) plural tlod10N. 

as WII' (heavy), , 

trvm10N. 

—-Most Adjectives have no 

da 

gldn 

good 

old 

clean 

teg 

ise/ 

rchel 

fair 

low 

high 

3917B 





 

 

 

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WEI SH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

GENDER (CENEDL). 

Adjectives take the same Genders as 

Nouns, viz., Masculine (Gwrywaidd) and 

Feminine (Benywaidd), while some words 

are Common (Cyffredin) to both. 

Råle 15.—The Feminine Gender is formed 

from the Masculine in two ways. 

1. By changing the vowel : 

w into.o 

Masculine, 

årwnt 

llwm 

trW m 

byr 

gzvY1c.'_ 

Feminine. 

btont 

110m 

trom 

overdd 

dirty 

bare 

heavy 

short 

green 

2. By changing the initial consonant, as : 

I buzvch Goch, 

red bull 

tarw coch, 

red cow 

Rule 16.—Adjectives are generally placed 

after the Nouns in Welsh. Examples : —- 

dynion da, 

ty gwyn, 

bzvrdd uche/, 

geneth dlos, 

good men 

pretty girl 

white house 

brenin doeth, wise king 

high table 

milzvr dezvr, brave soldier 

N0TE.—The Personal Pronouns and the Parts of the 

Verb To Be used in the following Exercises may be 

found on pages 56 to 59. 

EXERCISE Xl. 

kind, 

poor, 

wild, 

people, 

to, 

cared* 

tlawd 

gavy/lt 

beautiful, Irydfer/h 

rich miser, 

cybydd cyfoelåog 

large garden, gardd /kztvr 

in, 

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

Translate into Welsh : 

43 

1 She is a good girl. 2 They will be kind children. 

3 He has been a wild boy. 4 Be kind to the poor 

people. 

5 The wise king was in his beautiful house. 

6 The man is a rich miser. 

7 1 shall be a brave 

soldier. 8 They are in the large garden. 

EXERCISE Xll 

seren, 

llyfr, 

cares, 

star 

book 

horse 

stone 

ovalll, 

cadair, 

hair 

school 

chair 

(a) Write a suitable Adjective after each 

of the following Nouns 

Seren ( 

dyn ( 

llyfr ( 

ceffyl ( 

careg ( 

gwallt ( 

ysgol ( 

), cadair ( 

(b) Translate these sentences into English. 

Rule 17.—Adjectives of Number and 

the following Adjectives of Quality, viz. 

hen, prif, gwir, and uni., are placed generally 

before the Nouns. When unig signifies 

solitary, it follows the Noun, as ly unig (a 

solitary house). Exarnples . 

tri drn, 

trrdydd Person, 

hen ufei/lion, 

prif ath raw, 

gzvir oleuni, 

unig fob, 

tedtvar cety/, 

three men 

third person 

old friends 

head teacher 

true light 

only son 

four horses 

ystabl, 

Duw, 

Dafydd, 

lie, 

metun, 

stable 

God 

where 

David 

place 

an 

3918B 



 

 

 

(delwedd 3919A)

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

EXERCISE Xlll. 

Translate into English : 

2 Efe oedd y prif 

1 Yr ydym yn hen gyfeillion. 

4 Yr oedd 

athraw, 3 loan yw y trydyd(l pa-son. 

5 1)uw yw y gwir oleuni. 

pedwar ceffyl yn yr ystabl. 

6 Dafydd yw yr unig tab. 7 Pa le mae y tri dyn? 8. 

Mae y ty mewn Ile unig. 

EXERCISE xtv. 

days, 

years, 

child, 

list, 

father, 

poet, 

people, 

clothes, 

for, 

old, 

before, 

diwrnotiau 

b _'vnyddoedd 

Plentyn 

rhestr 

tad 

bardd 

di lad' 

oedran 

O'r ålaen 

chwech 

si.x, 

llawer 

many, 

wicked, 

Jnr 

long, 

u gain 

twenty, 

Welsh (Adj. Cymreig 

best, 

gareu 

rhydd 

free, 

y rhai pta 

those, 

yn 01 

ago, 

here, 

yma 

brawd 

brother, 

without food, heb fü')'d' 

Translate into VVelsh . 

1 The child is six years old. 2 The people were 

3 My father is 

without food for twenty days. 

5 Are those 

a Welsh poet. 4 i,Ve are free people. 

your best clothes? 6 Many years ago, I was here be- 

8 Are you the only 

fore. 7 It will be a long list. 

son? 9 My brother is a wicked child. 

Rule 18.—In Welsh the Adjective 

sometilnes agrees with the iNoun in 

Number. Examples :-— 

Singular. 

tArzv du, 

dyn gwyn, 

creadur mArtv 

black bull 

white man 

dead creature 

Plural. 

black bulls 

IE1rzv du0N, 

dyn10N gzvyn10N, white men 

dead creatures 

creadurIAID 

111E1rzvoN, 

3919A 







 

 

 

(delwedd 3919B)

 (x45)
WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

45 

mater, 

PIENTYN ('Ach, 

bAchgEn cry/, 

BUWCH Goch, 

l/estr , 

brawd, brodyr, 

and, 

large clog 

little child 

strong boy 

red cow 

emptv vessel 

CWN matvr10N, 

WANT ivchAIN, 

bpchgvn cry/!0N, 

BUCIIOI) cochion, 

l.'cslrl SQEI(YION 

EXERCISE XV. 

brother-s 

but 

larg. -er-est, 

inore, most 

-nan 

nenych , 

d;zvo 

zazcv,' 

large dogs 

little childrene 

strong boys 

red cows 

empty vessels 

with 

with you 

wicked, bad 

very 

kardd s. , hcirdd pl. pretty 

Translate into English : 

1 Dynion duon sydd yn Affrica. 2 Bechgyn cryfion 

YW fy mrodyr. 

3 Heirdd yw plant ond hardd yw'r 

plentyn. 4 Ceffyl du sydd gan fy nhad. 5 Buchod 

cochion sydd genych chwi. 6 Llestri gweigion sydd 

fwyaf eu sWn. 

7 IMae y plant bychain yn ddrwg iawn. 

8 Creaduriaid meirwon oeddynt. 

EXERCISE x VI. 

son, 

lion, 

road, 

leaves, 

birds, 

moun tain, 

way, 

hair, 

book, 

blackbird, 

mab 

llcw 

hcol, dd 

dail 

adar 

my nydd 

-nordd 

gwallt 

llyfr 

mwya.lchen, 

aderrn du 

ild, 

dry, 

ide, 

rough, 

guy l/t 

svch 

/lydan 

sarzv 

great, big, mawr 

high, 

like, 

tree, 

uchcl 

fed, yu elebyg i 

cocden 

ho•vi many, fa saw/ or pa faint 

on, 

Snowdon, Yr Wyddfa 

Translate into Welsh 

1 It is a big lion. 2 The dry leaves are on the wide 

road, 3 The rough ways are before us. 4 Snowdon 

is a high mountain. 

5 The wild creature was 

like a red cow. 6 'I'he poet's hair is white. 

7 Our 

son is a strong boy. 8 The blackbird's nest is on a 

high tree. 9 How many leaves are there in your large 

book ? 

3919B 







 

 

 

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46

WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

Rule 19.—The following Adjectives are 

not inflected for Number, and are used 

both with the Singular and the Plural 

ouns, viz.. 

l'J'tv, 

call, 

clodfazvr, 

da, 

dedzvydd, 

aelod-au, 

afon -ydd, 

Cymru, 

salad, 

living 

wise 

praiseworthy 

good 

happy 

guilty 

EXERCISE 

member-s f 

river-s 

Wales 

country 

hyJryd, 

uchel, 

hen, 

glån, 

go/alus, 

XVII. 

menyg, 

fynon, 

leasant 

old 

clean 

careful 

pure 

gloves 

well 

dzvfr, dyfrocdd, water-s 

llais, 

voice 

(a) Translate into English . 

1 Maent yn greaduriaid byw. 2 Hen wlad y menyg 

gwynion " yw Cymru. 

3 Dyn da ydych chwi, ond 

dynion drwg ydynt hwy. 4 Mae llais hyfryd ganddo ef. 

5 1)wfr glån sydd yn y ffynon. 6 Mae dyfroedd pur 

yn yr afonydd. 6 Mae aelodau y ty yn ddynion call a 

gofalus. 7 Yr ydym yn hen bobl. 8 Maent yn ddynion 

b• 9 Yr wyf yn ddyn euog. 

(b) Translate into Welsh : 

1 The rivers of YVales are pleasant. 

2 The water in 

the well is pure. 

3 The members are very careful. 

4 r Phese gloves are old, but they are clean. 5 The 

voice of the guilty man was rough. 

Rule 20. —In Welsh the Adjective 

agrees with the Noun in Gender, but 

in the Singular Number only. 

3920A 



 

 

 

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WELSH FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

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