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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
·les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

Welsh as a Specific Subject
for Elementary Schools (1890)

(llun 6540)


 xxxx Y tudalen hwn yn Gymraeg

 xxxx Aquesta pàgina en català


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The Welsh Elementary School Series
Welsh as a Specific Subject for Elementary Schools
Stage 1
Compiled by a Committee of Elementary School Teachers
Fifth Edition
Published for
The Society for Utilizing the Welsh Language
By D. Duncan and Sons, Cardiff
London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co.
Price 6d.; Cloth, 9d.

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The New Code for 1889, when first issued, created some disappointment in Welsh circles owing to the small amount of concessions which it appeared at first sight to make to the special needs if Welsh schools, and to the unanimous recommendations of the late Royal Commission on this subject, backed as they had been by the active private support of the leading Welsh members on both sides of the House of Commons and by several of the Welsh peers We are glad to say, however, that the fears on this score of those interested in Welsh education have been set at rest by a letter from Sir William Hart-Dyke, the Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education, to Sir John Puleston, M.P., who has taken a warm interest in the matter from the outset, and has been in close communication with the Education Department on behalf of the Welsh Utilization Society.

This important letter may be taken as an official interpretation of the New Code, the provisions of which, read in the light of the Vice-President’s explanation, will be found to concede, to all intents and purposes, the whole programme which was put forward in April, 1886, by the Welsh Utilization Society in their Memorial to the Royal Commission, and since then generally accepted by Welsh educationists.

{Letter from Sir WILLIAM HART-DYKE, Vice-president of the Committee of Council on Education) (COPY),

“My DEAR PULESTON, —First as to Welsh recognised as a specific subject. It has been so recognised for the last two years, and has been mentioned in the annual report submitted to Parliament. The forthcoming report of H.M. Inspector, Mr. Williams, in the Welsh district, will be published, as it was two years ago, in a separate form, so as to be generally accessible to the Welsli people, and, besides the statistical matter relating


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to Wales, will contain the figures for the last two years showing the number of departments and scholars who have taken Welsh as a specific subject. It is not included in Schedule III., because it is thought better to leave the scheme of instruction, as far as possible, to the initiative of the locality. . . The words “at the discretion of the inspector” (note to Schedule I.) refer to the substitution of dictation for composition in the upper standards geneially; and the Inspectors will certainly be instructed to give every encouragement to the translation of Welsh into English, or the rendering in English of a story read in Welsh.

We must not encourage the Welsh language at the expense of English, but rather as a vehicle for the sounder and more rapid acquisition of English, and with that object the use of bilingual leading books, sanctioned in footnote to page 23, will enable Welsh and English to be acquired pari-passu in all the standaids. It is clearly for the managers to decide upon the expediency of using these books; the concession being granted in the most unqualified terms, and being, indeed, the obvious antecedent of the new regulation as to composition in the upper standards.

“The first footnote to Schedule II. empowers managers to submit, and the Inspectors to approve, any progressive scheme of lessons in the subjects named. This will clearly enable the map of
Wales to be used in illustration of the terms taught in Standard II., and the Physical and Political Geography of Wales to be substituted for that of England in Standard III., under suitable conditions. It will also enable English as a class subject to be so handled as to adjust it to the special difficulties and needs of Welsh schools.

I venture on the whole to plead that all legitimate demands of those who are interested in Welsh education have been very fairly and completely met.— I remain, very truly yours,

(Signed) “W. HART-DYKE.”

The portions of the Code to which the foregoing letter refers are these:—

I.Elementary Subjects.

N.B.— “In Welsh districts translation into English of an easy piece of Welsh written on the blackboard, or of a story read twice, may be substituted (for English composition).”


SCHEDULE II.—Class Subjects.

Footnote I. If the managers desire, they may submit to the Inspector at his annual visit, and the Inspector may approve for the ensuing year, some progressive scheme of lessons in these subjects, providing for not less than three groups.

Footnote 2.— In districts where Welsh is spoken, the in­telligence of the children examined in any elementary or class subject may be tested by requiring them to explain in Welsh the meaning of passages read, and bilingual books may be used for the puipose of instructing the scholars.


A careful reading of the Code in the light of the official inter­pretation afforded in Sir William Hart-Dyke’s letter shows that the effects of apparently minor modifications are far-reaching, and of the highest importance as regards Welsh schools. In effect they will open the door to a thorough change in the whole system of Welsh elementary education. Summarized briefly they amount to this:—

1. Welsh grammar may be taught as a specific subject in Standards V., VI., VII,, and a grant of 4s. will be paid on account of each child who passes this examination.

2. A rational system of teaching English as a class subject by means of a graduated system of tianslations, and an appeal at each step to the intelligence of the children, may be sub­stituted for the present requirements in English grammar in all the standards, and a grant of two shillings per child on the average of the whole school will be paid if the results of the
examination be satisfactory.

3. In all standards and in all subjects taught in the school bilingual reading-books may be used, and bilingual copy-books may be used in teaching writing.

4. The geography of Wales may be taught up to Standard III., and the history of Wales may be taught throughout the whole school, by means of books partly Welsh partly English, and a grant of two shillings per head on the average of the whole school may be earned for each of these subjects if the results of the examination are satisfactory.

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5. Schools taking up the new method of teaching English as a class subject may also claim the right to substitute translation from Welsh to English for English composition in the elementary subjects, and thus reap a double benefit.

6. Finally, the small village and country schools, so numerous in the Principality, may, for the purposes of class teaching, re-arrange the standards into three groups, e.g., Group l,
Standards I., II.; Group 2, Standards III., IV.; Group 3, Standards V., VI., VII. This will be a material reliet to under-staffed schools.

Taken as a whole, the concessions made to Welsh demands are highly satisfactory, and
Wales is to be congratulated on having at last secured a sensible system of elementary education adapted to her special circumstances and needs.

All that now remains is for teachers and managers of schools to avail themselves largely of these new powers.

The Welsh Elementary School Series
Welsh as a Specific Subject for Elementary Schools
Stage 1
Compiled by a Committee of Elementary School Teachers
Fifth Edition
Published for
The Society for Utilizing the Welsh Language
By D. Duncan and Sons, Cardiff
London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co.
Price 6d.; Cloth, 9d.

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(x2) (x3)

THE Council of the Society for Utilizing the Welsh Language feels that there is now no apology needed for the movement set on foot by the Society to secure the official recognition and the rational utilization of the Welsh Language, in the course of Elementary Education in

The results of the first examinations in this subject held by Her Majesty’s Inspectors in the Schools of the Gelligaer School Board, afford a complete justification of the action taken by the Society.

The fears entertained by practical educationists at the outset of the movement may be summarized thus:—

1. That the introduction of Welsh would add materially to the labour of teachers.

That in Schools containing an English element, the scheme would prove to be unworkable.


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3. That the teaching of Welsh would result in a lesser degree of proficiency in other subjects, and especially in English.

The experiment made by the Gelligaer School Board has, however, tended to show that all these fears were groundless. Not­withstanding that the teachers had no text­books to assist them, and that the labour of teaching was consequently greater in their case than it need be in future, neither teachers nor parents complain of any material addi­tional labour in the year’s work. In more than one School it has been shown that the children of English-speaking parents have passed a highly creditable examination in Welsh — one such child, indeed, standing third in the total number of marks earned. As to the injurious effect upon other subjects, it is sufficient to point out that where. Welsh has been taken up the uniform success of all classes has never been greater than now; that the children have improved in English, and that in one case the grant for English was doubled, on account of the increased proficiency in that subject which followed the teaching of Welsh as a specific subject. For further particulars, see the annexed reports.

These facts speak for themselves, and go
(x5) to show that BY TEACHING WELSH—
(1) An additional grant of four shillings per pass can be earned.
(2) The other subjects taught do not suffer.
(3) The English of Welsh children is improved, while English children learn an additional language; and the children thus learn two languages well, instead of learning one badly.
(4) The improved general efficiency of the school results in higher grants for other subjects.
(5) Parents and children are brought to take a more lively and intelligent interest in school work.

The Council feels confident that as these facts become generally known, managers and teachers will, in the best interests of their schools, take up this subject very extensively.

As regards the book itself, the Council has only to say that, the teachers of the Gelligaer Schools being the only ones who had the advantage of actual experience in teaching this subject, and having the results tested by Her Majesty’s Inspectors, it was felt that they were better fitted than any others for the task of preparing a text-book suitable for use in Elementary Schools. A Commission for preparing a series of these books was accordingly issued by the Society to:—- Mr. DAVID HOPKINS, Gelligaer Village School;


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Mr. THOMAS C. THOMAS, Bedlinog Board School; Mr. MATHEW OWEN, Pontlottyn Board School; Mr. THOMAS JONES, Bargoed Board School. To these gentlemen is due the credit for compiling the first text­book for teaching Welsh in Elementary Schools.

How well the work has been done, this little book — the first of the series — testifies. That the work admits of improvement, and that extended experience of the working of the scheme will necessarily suggest modifi­cations, is felt by the Compilers themselves, even more than by their friendly critics; but it will be generally admitted that as a first attempt to meet an existing pressing need, this little work will commend itself to general approval.

The acknowledgment of the obligations ot the Society would not be complete without special reference to the valuable services rendered by Mr. OWEN M. EDWARDS,
Balliol College, Oxford, in so kindly supplying the Stories in Welsh History as exercises for translation in the Third Part.

Though this little work is intended chiefly for use in Elementary Schools, it is at the same time suited for all persons commencing the grammatical study of the language in
(x7) either school or college. Its simplicity and careful gradation will recommend it to the favour of practical teachers and of private students.

The book for the Second Stage is now in active preparation, and will be very shortly issued.

July 1st, 1887.

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The expectations of the Council of the Society have been fully realized in the ready sale found for this little work, a second edition being called for within two months of the issue of the first. It is gratifying to know that the issue of a suitable text-book has had the effect of inducing a number of School Boards, as well as individual Schools, in North, Central, and
South Wales, to take up the subject at once, with the view of present­ing their classes in it at the next examination. This leads the Council to hope that the introduction of Welsh into the course of Elementary Education will, at no distant date, be the rule rather than the exception in Welsh Schools.

The criticisms on the work have hitherto all been friendly, and for the most part favourable. The defects pointed out ,have been few, and will be found to have been
(x9) remedied either in the present edition or in the more advanced stages which are now in the press. Acting on the advice of a num­ber of practical teachers, the matter in the present edition, while practically remaining the same in substance as in the first edition, has been re-arranged. There have been added, chiefly for the benefit of English Students, introductory chapters on Welsh Reading and Pronunciation, and on the Mutation of Initial Consonants, while the Vocabulary at the end of the Book has been so arranged as to include every word in the translation exercises, and to afford the student a ready gude to the use of all forms of the same root word. Some additional examples of Easy Conversational Sentences have also been added, while the worked translation exercise, showing the phrase translations, illustrating the difference in the idioms of the two languages, will be appreciated by English Students.

September 1st, 1887.

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NOTE.—The following Scheme has been submitted to W. Williams, Esq., H.M. Chief Inspector of Schools for the Welsh Division, and has been approved by him on behalf of the Education Department.


(a) Nouns and Adjectives with their inflexions (Number and Gender),
(b) The Personal Pronoun,
(c) Conjugation of the Verb “Bod” in the inflexional form only; also the Impera­tive and Infinitive of the same Verb.

2.—To translate from Welsh into English, and from English into Welsh, easy conversational sentences containing the Verb “Bod” only.

3.—To translate, or write from dictation, any short passage from a Welsh book approved by H.M. Inspector. (15 pages to be prepared.)


(a) Conjugation of the Active (Inflexional and Periphras­tic with “ Bod “) and Passive of the Regular Verb “Dysgu.”
(b) The Pronouns, Adverbs, Prepositions (simple and pronominal).

2. —
(a) To translate from Welsh into English, and from English into Welsh, easy conversational sentences containing the Verbs “Bod” and “Dysgu,” or any Regular Verb contained in the mat­ter prepared for translation in 3.
(b) To parse one of the Welsh sentences given in (a).

(a) To translate a short passage from a Welsh book ap­proved by H.M. Inspector. (15 pages, to be prepared.)
(b) To recite 40 lines of Welsh poetry with knowledge of meanings and allusions.

(a) Conjugation of Irregular Verbs, Compound Preposi­tions, Conjunctions, Interjections,
(b) A knowledge of the chief prefixes and affixes of words, and the leading rules for the mutation of initial consonants, as illustrated in the Welsh book (see 3).

2.—To write a short theme or letter in Welsh on an easy subject.

(a) To translate a passage from a Welsh book approved by H.M. Inspector. (25 pages to be prepared.)
(b) To recite 60 lines of Welsh poetry, with knowledge of meanings and allusions.

N.B.—1. The matter prepared for translation or recitation must be different in the several stages.
2. The scholars may be required to give written as well as oral answers to all questions (including those set in translation).

(Approved) W. WILLIAMS, H.M. Chief Inspector for the Welsh Division.
April 2, 1887


THE Gelligaer School Board was the first to put the principles advocated by the Society into practical operation. Welsh, as a Specific Subject, was introduced into their schools in the year 1886. In November and December of that year, the First Examinations were held, with most satisfactory results, as the following


kindly supplied by the Chairman of the Board, will shew:—

“Welsh as a specific subject has proved an encouraging experi­ment.” 14 passed at this school.

“The fifth and sixth standards not only passed well in English Grammar, but also passed with credit in Welsh as a specific sub­ject.” 17 passed at this school.

“Great care has been bestowed on Welsh as a specific subject, yet the uniform success of all classes has never been greater.” 19 passed at this school.

“Welsh has been taken as a specific subject with advantage to English Grammar, the classes that have been learning Welsh being most decidedly successful in English.” 13 (girls) passed at this school.

“An improvement in English Grammar in the fifth and sixth standards accompanies a most encouraging success in Welsh as a specific subject: the higher rate may now be recom­mended for English.” 14 passed at this school.

Attention is especially directed to the fact that where Welsh has been taught, the children have improved in English. In one case the grant for English, was doubled on account of the increased proficiency in that subject which followed the teaching of Welsh as a Specific Subject.

Thus it will be seen that in addition to the special grant of four shillings per child earned for each pass, the effect of the introduction of Welsh into the schools is an improved general efficiency, resulting in a considerable money gain to the school.


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The following are samples of the Questions set at some of the first examinations.

Teachers of Schools where Welsh is taken as a Specific Subject, will materially aid the movement, as well us assist in securing uniformity of standards of examination throughout Wales, by forwarding to the Secretary copies of the Questions set in this Subject at the Government Examinations of their Schools.

NOTE.—It would be well to bear in mind that these papers were set before the foregoing scheme was submitted for approval, and so are not based upon it.


(a) Give the plural of the following words:—Dant, esgid, brân, asgwrn.
(b) What are the feminine forms of;-—Brawd, dyn, ewythr, bachgen da.
Add the corresponding English words.

2.—Write out—
(a) The Present Indicative of “Bod,” with the corresponding English tense.
(b) The Welsh names of the Days of the Week.

3.—Translate into English:—
(a) A welsoch chwi y gwaed coch ar wyneb y bachgen mawr?
(b) Beth yw pris y caws? Swllt y pwys. Mae’n rhy ddrud.
(c) Parse:—Beth yw pris y caws?

4.—Translate into Welsh—
(a) How old is your mother? Are you likely to see her soon?
(b) Have you any brothers? Yes; I have two — one at
Cardiff, and the other at Swansea.

5.—Read the Welsh words written on the blackboard (different words for each girl).

(a) Reading Welsh.
(b) Welsh Recitation, with knowledge of meanings, &c

2.—Translate into English:—
(a) Mae pren yn derbyn rhan o’i gynaliaeth o’r ddaear, a rhan arall o’r awyr drwy ei ddail.
(b) Yn fuan daeth y ci at y drws. Cafodd yno damaid o fara, ac aeth ymaith heb iddynt sylwi

3.—Parse the following Welsh sentence:- 0nd yr oedd yr haul yn rhy ddysglaer iddo edrych

4. —Translate into Welsh:—
(a) The shepherd took the girls with him to the mountains,
(b) The roots of a tree are in the ground, its leaves are in the air.

5.—Write out the Past Indicative of “Y mae genyf,” and the Future Indicative of “Bod,” with the corresponding English tenses.

(NOTE.—The Master .having taught these Verbs was anxious to have his work thoroughly tested.)


(a) Give the plural of the following words:—Dafad, asgwrn, tywysog, myfi.
(b) Give the feminine of;—Gwr, arglwydd, ceiliog, ceffyl gwyn.

(a) Give the Amser Anorphenol Modd Mynegol of the Verb “Bod,” with the corresponding English tense,
(b) Give the four degrees of comparison of:—Pell, drwg, melus, and tlawd, with their English equivalents.

3.—Translate the following sentences into English:—
(a) A ydyw yr eneth fach yn y tŷ?
(b} Afal melus iawn ydyw hwn.
(c) Y mae pump o wragedd yn y tŷ mawr sydd yn agos i’r afon,
(d) Byddant yma yn foreu iawn, cyn toriad y dydd, boreu yfory.

Point out the parts of speech in the last of the above Welsh sen­tences.

4.—Translate the following into Welsh:—
(a) Has the butcher a long knife?
(b) They will be happy at their aunt’s house?
(c) He was a young man then.
(d) A black dog and a white cat are close to my chair.

(a) Give the plural of the following words:—Bardd, estron, bryn, efe.
(b} Give the feminine of:—Ewythr, gwas, dyn, tarw du.

(a) Give the Future Indicative of “Bod,” with the corres­ponding English tense.
(b) Give the four degrees of comparison of:— Call, trwm, bach, and cyfoethog, with their English equiva­lents.

3.—Translate the following sentences into English:—
(a) A ydyw y fuwch fawr yn yr ardd?
(b) Yr oedd ef yno ddoe, ond ni fydd hi yma heddyw.
(c) Byddwch yn ferched da.
(d) A oes gwallt gwyn ar ben hen wr yn wastad?

Point out the parts of speech in the last sentence.

4.—Translate the following sentences into Welsh:—
(a) How do you do?
(b) The wicked boy is now far from his father’s house.
Cardiff is a big town.
(d) A soldier was here yesterday.

1.—Give the feminine of the following:—Ci gwyn, ceffyl, brawd bach, gwas.

2.—Give the plural of:—Afon, troed, careg, oen.

3.—Write the Perfect Tense of the Verb “Bod.”

4.—Translate into English:—
(a) Oedd y dyn a’i gi du yn yr ardd?
(b) Pwy yw perchen y tŷ mawr yna?
(c) Mae’n oer iawn heddyw.
(d) Parse:—Oedd yn yr ardd.

5.—Translate into Welsh:—
(a) Mary’s father is blind,
(b) Is William heavier than James?
(c) Philip was up in
London last April.
(d) When will they be going home?


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SINCE the first edition of this little work appeared, the Education Department has issued in the form of a Blue Book, “The General Report for the Welsh Division for the year 1886, by W. Williams, Esq., Chief Inspector.” In this Report, Mr. Williams says:—

“A question of much interest has been brought prominently forward of late, viz., the Utilization of the Welsh Language (in the Elementary Schools), and has been taken up by an influential Society, the Council of which includes the names of most of the leading educationists in
Wales. The objects of this Society have been fully set forth in a Memorial to the Royal Commissioners on Elementary Education,*

*A copy of this Memorial will be sent free on receipt of a stamped Addressed wrapper. Apply to the Secretary of the Society.

and I shall not refer to them at length here. I wish, however, to state that it is not intended to try to retard the spread of the English Language, or to interfere with the teaching of English in Welsh Schools; on the contrary, one of the main objects is to make the teaching of English more intelligent and thorough. Mr. Edwards (H.M. Inspector for the Merthyr District) is strongly in favour of the movement, and I beg to refer to his reasons for it given in the Appendix to this Report. The actual result produced on the present system in many Welsh-speaking districts is, that the bulk of the scholars, it is to be feared, pass through the schools without acquiring sufficient know­ledge of English to understand or take pleasure in reading an English book, whilst their mere colloquial knowledge of Welsh is insufficient to enable them fully to appreciate a Welsh book. Welsh has been already taken as a specific subject in some schools, and I beg to refer to Mr. D. I. Davies’ account of it in the Appendix.”

The Appendix referred to is as follows:—

Reasons given by Mr. W. EDWARDS, Her Majesty’s Inspector, for the introduction of Welsh.

“They are chiefly these:
(i) That Welsh is the constant home language of a very large proportion of the inhabitants of
Wales, besides being the language of many newspapers and periodicals.

(2) That it is expedient that Welsh should be taught grammatically as long as it retains its position as the language of the majority.

(3) That many children who pass through the Elementary Schools will in after life fill positions in which a good grammatical knowledge of Welsh is extremely desirable, if not absolutely indispensable.

(4) That bilingual instruction is always useful in improving the faculties of thought and expression through the presentation of one idea in two different modes. By its means also the acquisition of a third language is rendered easier.

(5) That the spread of English will not be retarded by the teaching of Welsh. The latter will only be taught in connection with the former. Translations will be required not only from English into Welsh, but also from Welsh into English. Welsh children at present rarely have the power of composing in English. Translation is at once an aid and an exer­cise in composition.

(6) That in
Scotland, in Ireland, and in various Continental countries the necessity of bilingual instruction is conceded, and the advantages which accrue from it, e.g., in Switzerland, are acknowledged to be considerable.

(7) That as the subject is optional, there is no danger of its being introduced against the wishes of the parents.

(8) That the machinery for teaching Welsh already exists, although a little preparation may be required. Teachers of Welsh nationality are, as a matter of fact, already chosen in preference to English teachers for service in Welsh Schools. If Welsh teaching is required in schools conducted by Englishmen, it will be easy to provide the special instruction without unsettling the staff.

(9) The question of practicability will settle itself, if experiments are allowed to be made, without unnecessary restrictions.

Remarks by Mr. DAN ISAAC DAVIES, Her Majesty’s Sub-Inspector of Schools.

“Eight schools under the Gelligaer School Board have been examined in Welsh, as a specific subject, according to a scheme approved by her Majesty’s Inspector for the district of Merthyr, and, out of 110 presented, 89 passed. One of the schools was examined according to a scheme proposed by the Society for Utiliz­ing the Welsh Language, which possesses some advantages over that proposed by the School Board, especially for the children of English parents. In one school an English boy stood second, and an English girl third; and the success of the English children was greater than might have been expected.

“In one school, conducted by a master who did not know Welsh, the subject was well taught by an assistant mistress, an ex-pupil teacher. The master, seeing the progress made by his scholars,


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some of them from English homes, took to studying Welsh him­self, and soon made good progress.

“The English Grammar of Standards V., VI., VII, has beeo improved by the teaching of Welsh as a specific subject, and for this reason it might be advantageous to take Welsh as a specific subject when it would he unadvisable to take any other special subject. One strong reason for teaching Welsh is that the demand for bilingual officials is increasing in all parts of Wales, and es­pecially in the populous mining districts of East Glamorganshire, in which there has been of late years an immense increase of population (mainly Welsh), and to which districts several additional Members of Parliament, taken from the Anglicized Pembroke, Brecon, and Radnor Boroughs, have been assigned.”— From the Welsh Education Blue Book, 1886-7.


Letter / Name / English Word containing the sound. / Welsh Word containing the sound.

A / a / ah / father / bâd / fat / màn
B / b / bee / boy / bod
C / c / ek / can (always hard) / caws
Ch / ch / ech / (there is no English equivalent; the Scotch ch in loch is similar) / chwaer
D / d / dee / dog / dyn
Dd / dd / eth / then / modd
E / e / eh / fate / bedd / fell / pen
F / f / ev / vain / fel
ff / ff / eff / full / ffa
G / g / egg / gay (always hard) / gof
Ng / ng / ing / sing / angor
H / h / hatch / have / haul
I / i / ee / feel / llin / tin / pin
L / l / el / love / lili
LL / ll / ell / (there is no English equivalent) / llaw
M / m / em / mine / mam
N / n / en / nun / nef
O / o / oh / go / clo / not / tòn
P / p / pee / pan / pen
Ph / ph / ffee / phrase / phiol
R / r / err / run / mor
Rh / rh / rhee / r with h strongly sounded / rhaff
S / s / ess / snow / Sais
T / t / tee / time / tan
Th / th / ith / thin / cath
U / u / uh / (there is no English equivalent, the nearest being i in unique) / llun / syntax (a shortened broad i) / dull
W / w / ooh / shoot / tŵr / foot / dwl
y / y / yh / further / fy / ugly / n / clique (the nearest approach) /
dydd / syntax / bryn /

Mh, Nh, Ngh, called respectively Mhee, Nhee, and Nghee, being the aspirated forms of M, N and Ng, are regarded by some as additional consonants.


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The first difficulty to be surmounted by an English Student learning to read Welsh is to remember that—
1. Every letter in every Welsh word must be sounded.
2. Every letter in Welsh has always the same sound.

NOTE.—The Welsh vowels a, e, i, a, u, w, y, have a long and a short sound (see the table on preceding page). The only exception to the rule is y, which is pronounced somewhat like y in “syntax,” in most words of one syllable, and in the last syllable of words of more than one syllable, and like u in “ugly “ in all other places.

Remember that—
a is always sounded like a in father or fat, never like a in late.
e is always sounded like a in fate or e in fell, never like e in me.
i is always sounded like ee in feel, or i in tin, never like i in ice.
o is always sounded like o in go or not, never like o in to.
u is pronounced like the French u, and never sounded like u in up nor in use.
w is always sounded like oo in shoot or foot.
y is never sounded like y in by.

Welsh Diphthongs differ from the English in the fact that each of the vowels of which they are composed is sounded; for instance ai in Welsh would always be sounded like ay in “aye” and never like ai in “pail.” The following table will assist the learner-

Diphthong. / Sound. / English Word containing the sound. / Welsh word containing the sound.
ae / a and e / there is no English equivalent, the nearest being ay in “aye” / traed
ai / a and i / aye (never sounded like the English ai in “pail”) / paid
au / a and u / there is no English equivalent, the nearest being ay in “aye” / cau
aw / a and w / aye (never sounded like the English aw in “lawn”) / cawl
ei / e and i / long i as in ice / ein

eu / e and u / there is no English equivalent, the nearest approach being the long i in “ice” / beudy
ew / e and w / there is no English equivalent (never like the English ew in “dew”) / tew
*ia / ia and a / Yankee / ia
*ie / i and e / yet / Iesu
*io / i and o / yonder, yoke / Iot
iw / i and w / long u as in “use” / niwl
oe / o and e / no English equivalent, the near­est being oy in “boy” / oen
ow / o and w / how / trown
uw / u and w / no exact English equivalent, the nearest being ew in “dew” / Duw
*wa / w and a / wasp (!) / gwan
*we / w and e / well / wel
*wi / w and i / will / gwisg
wy / w and y / no exact English equivalent / bwyd (with first vowel prominent)
yw / y and w / nearest being wi in “wind” / gwynt (with second vowel prominent)
yw / y and w / long u in “use” / ydyw
yw / y and w / no exact English equivalent / clywsom

Strictly speaking, the first letter in each of the pairs marked with an asterisk (*) is not a pure vowel, being of the same character as the English y and w in “yet” and “with.”

In other instances, we have double vowels sounded separately, as:— .

ao, in parhaodd, pronounced par-ha-odd.
ea, in eang, pronounced e-ang.
eo, in deon, pronounced de-on.
and the exceptional ie in the word “ie” (yes) pronounced i-e.

NOTE.—Sometimes three, or even more, vowels come together, in which cases the first two are generally sounded together, and the third (with the vowel following it, if any) separately, as:—

A —
aea, daear, pronounced dae-ar.
aua, caead, pronounced cau-ad.
awe, awel, pronounced aw-el.
awy, awyr, pronounced aw-yr.


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E -
euo, euog, as in eu-og.
euw, deuwn, as in deu-wn.
ewy, newyn, as in new-yn.

O -
oio, troion, as in troi-on.

U -
uwiau, duwiau, as in duw-iau.

W -
wia, gwialen, as in gwi-al-en.
wiai, gwiail, as in gwi-ail.
A few of the treble vowels are monosyllables, as:—

I -
iaie, as in trin-iaieth.
iai, as in iaith.
iau, as in teith-iau.
iaw, as in iawn
iei, as in ieith-oedd.
ieu, as in ieu-anc.

W -
wae, as in gwaed.
wai, as in gwaith.
wau, as in gwau.
waw, as in gwawr.
wei, as in gwein-i.
wew, as in gwew-yr.
wiw, as in gwiw.

In each of these instances, however, it will be seen that the first letter is really only a semi-vowel.


The Welsh consonants present less difficulty than the vowels to the English student. With the exception of Ch and LI, they all have similar sounds in English. The Welsh ch is the same as the Scotch ch in “loch,” and the LI is an aspirated L.

It should be remembered that C, c, is always hard, like the English K (never soft, like c in “city”).

G, g, is always hard, like the English G in “go” (never soft, like g in “gin”).

F, f, is always soft, like the English F (never hard, like the English F).

Ff, ff, is always hard, like the English F.

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For the purposes of the Government requirements, the consideration of this important subject will be postponed until the Third Stage. It has been, however, suggested that it would be advisable, for the sake of English Students, that a short explanation of this, the English­man’s chief difficulty in mastering the language, should be prefixed to the First Stage.

It must strike an ordinary English Student as strange that the word tad (father) should be written in each of the following forms — tad, dad, nhad, thad; that gair (word) should be also spelt ngair, air; and that mam (mother) should be sometimes represented fam. And yet a little consideration of these changes will prove that they are all subject to rules which never vary.

The first thing to be borne in mind is that there is a fixed root for each word — that it is the root or radical form of the word alone which is found in an ordinary dictionary; and that the changes which the initial con­sonant of any word undergoes depend entirely upon the sense in which the word is used, or upon the word immediately preceding it.

The next thing to be remembered is that it depends entirely upon the initial consonant of the root word — what form the change may take under given conditions. Thus we have the words cân and gair, both beginning with g, but they are not subject to the same rule, for the reason that gân is only a modified form of cân, which begins with c, while gair is itself a root word.

If the examples given above be considered, it will be seen that the first word is given four forms, that is, the root word and three changes; the second word has the root word and two changes; the third word has the root word and one change. Our first work, then, is to classify



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Where is the office? It is a hundred yards further.
Pa le mae y swyddfa? Mae gan’llath ynmhellacb.

Which is the nearest road? This one on the left.
Pa un yw y ffordd nesaf? Hon ar yr aswy.

What is your occupation? Can you do this?
Beth yw eich galwedigaeth chwi? A ellwch chwi wneud hyn?

Have you been to the market? Yes, this morning.
A fuoch chwi yn y farchnad? Do, boreu-heddyw.

I shall be going again tomorrow morning. Will you come? Byddaf yn myned eto yfory. A ddeuwch chwi?

How much a pound is this VEAL? and the beef?
Pa faint y pwys yw y CIG LLO yma? a’r cig-eidion?

Here is a very good LOIN of lamb for you.
Dyma LWYN dda iawn o gig-oen i chwi,

What is the price of this goose? and that DUCK?
Beth yw pris yr wydd yma? a’r HWYAD yna?

You were not in school yesterday I believe.
Nid oeddych yn yr ysgol ddoe yr wyf yn credu.
(Literally, I am believing.)

I was at home all day. I was not well.
Yr oeddwn gartref drwy’r dydd. Nid oeddwn yn iach.

Have you written your lessons all to-day?
A ydych wedi ysgrifenu eich gwersi i gyd heddyw?

Yes. I have been showing them to the teacher now.
Ydwyf. Bum yn eu dangos nwy i’r athraw yn awr.

Shut the door and open the window, if you please.
Cauwch y drws ac agorwch y ffenestr, os gwelwch yn dda.

Did you see the red blood on the face of the big boy?
A welsoch chwi y gwaed coch ar wyneb y bachgen mawr?.

The shepherd took the girls with him to the mountains.
Cymerodd y bugail y merched gydag ef i’r mynyddoedd.

(x67) When will they return? I cannot say. Sometime to-night.
Pa bryd y dychwelant?
Nis gallaf ddweyd. Rhywbryd heno.

They will be happy at their AUNT’S house with the children. Byddant yn ddedwydd yn nhŷ eu MODRYB gyda’r plant.

He was there yesterday, but SHE will not be here to-day.
Yr oedd ef yno ddoe, ond ni bydd HI yma heddyw.

Is the little girl in the house now? No.
A ydyw yr eneth fach yn y tŷ yn awr? Nac ydyw.

Where is she? She has gone down to the town.
Pa le y mae hi? Mae wedi myned i lawr i’r dref.

What time will she return? About five o’ clock.
Pa amser y dychwela? Oddeutu pump o’r gloch.

I will come in at
six o’clock. Very good.
Deuaf i fewn am chwech o’r gloch. Da iawn.

She will be glad to see you. I am sure.
Bydd yn dda ganddi eich gweled. Yr wyf yn sicr.

Who is the owner of that BIG house on the hill?
Pwy yw perchen y tŷ MAWR yna ar y bryn?
Is the big red cow in the garden again to-day?.
A ydyw y fuwch fawr goch yn yr ardd eto heddyw?


[Mae] llawer rhan o Gymru yn gyfoethog iawn mewn glo,
Many parts of Wales [are] very rich in coal,

ac [enilla] NIFER fawr o ddynion eu bywoliaeth wrth dori
and a large NUMBER of men [earn] their living by cutting

y glo hwn yn y PYLLAU dyfnion.
Nis gall GOLEU gyrhaedd
this coal in the deep PITS. No LIGHT can reach

yno oddi allan, a [rhaid] i’r glowyr, fel y gelwir y
there from outside, and the colliers, as these men


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dynion hyn wneud eu gwaith wrth oleu
are called [have] to do their work by the light of

eu canwyllau neu eu lampau. [Mae] gwaith y GLOWR
their candles or of their lamps. The COLLIER’S work [is]

yn aml yn un peryglus IAWN. Weithiau [daw]
often a VERY dangerous one. Sometimes large

darnau mawrion o lo a phridd yn rhydd,
pieces of coal and earth [become] loose,

a syrthiant ar y dynion sydd yn gweithio,
and fall upon the men who are working,

gan eu lladd neu eu niweidio. Ond gelyn gwaethaf
killing or injuring them. But the worst enemy

y glowyr yw y nwy sydd yn dyfod o’r glo.
of the colliers is the gas which issues from the coal.

[Mae] y nwy hwn weithiau [yn casglu] mewn SYMIAU
This gas sometimes [collects] in large QUANTITIES

mawrion yn y pwll-glo, ac yn ffrwydro fel pylor,
in the coal-pit, and explodes like gunpowder,

gan ddryllio ochrau a nen y manau
shattering the sides and roof of the places

lle [mae] y dynion yn gweithio, a gwenwyno yr awyr.
where the men [are] working, and poisoning the air.

[Lleddir] nifer fawr o ddynion weithiau
A large number of men [are] sometimes [killed]

gan y ffrwydriadau hyn, a [gwneir] eu gwragedd a’u plant
by these explosions, and their wives and children

yn weddwon ac amddifaid. Allforia Caerdydd mwy
are made widows and orphans.
Cardiff exports more

o lo i wledydd ereill nag unrhyw dref yn y byd.
coal to other countries than any town in the world.


‘Rhen Flwydd ar ben thaith
Yn fuan fydd,
Ei heira dôdd, a daeth
Ei holaf ddydd!
Aed gyda hi o’th fron
D’ofidiau oll;
Ac it, fel eira hon,
Aed poen ar goll.

Y Newydd Flwydd sy’n d’od!
Fe gwyd ei haul!
Dy obeith, gwnaed o’i chod,
Gyflawni’n hael!
Rho’ed eurglych hon yn rhwydd
Pob hoen yn lli,
Pob cysur rho’ed, pob llwydd,
Fy ffrynd, i ti!

The Old Year quickly goes,
It fades away:
All melted are its snows
Dawned its last day!
May with it fade for thee
All pain, all woe;
And all the troubles be
Gone, like its snow!

The New Year comes! Soon will
Its sun now shine!
May it for thee fulfil
All hopes of thine!
May gold-bells gladly ring
Joy without end;
May it all comfort bring
To thee, my tnend!

‘Rhen Flwydd (yr Hen flwyddyn), the Old Year
ar ben ei thaith, at the end of its journey
dodd (toddodd}, melted
eira, snow
daeth, has come
aed, let them go
bron, breast
D’ (dy), thy
it (i ti), to thee
y Newydd Flwydd. (y Flwyddyn Newydd}, the New Year
cwyd (cyfyd), will rise
gobeith (pl. of gobaith, gobeithion), hopes
cod, purse, store
‘n hael (yn hael), freely, generous
rho’ed (rhodded), let it or them give
hoen, joy
lli, plenty
myned, go
, dawn
gwae, woe
dysgleirio, shine
llawenydd, joy


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o’r diwedd, (literally, from the end), at last
gan hyny, therefore
yr un, the same

Un diwrnod poeth yn yr haf, daeth blaidd ac oen at yr un nant i dori eu syched. Ar ol yfed, dechreuodd y blaidd deimlo yn newynog. Syrthiodd ei lygaid ar yr oen oedd yn yfed yr ochr isaf iddo. Meddyliodd ynddo ei hun y buasai yr oen yn giniaw foethus.

Yna dechreuodd chwilio am achos cwerylu â’r creadur diniwed. O’r diwedd, meddai ef wrth yr oen:—

“Paham y meiddi gynhyrfu y dwfr wyf fi yn ei yfed?”

“Syr,” ebai yr oen, mewn llais crynedig, “sut y gall hyny fod? Nid yw y dwfr yn rhedeg oddiwrthyf fi atoch chwi, ond daw oddiwrthoch chwi ataf fi.”

Yr oedd yr ateb mor rhesymol, ac mor amlwg, fel na feiddial hyd yn nod y blaidd ei amheu.

Ond nid oedd y blaidd yn myned i roddi i fyny ei ginaw am ddim. Felly efe a geisiodd am ryw achos arall i gyfiawnhau ei fwriad drwg, ac meddai:—

“Tydi yw yr hwn a amcanodd dori fy nghymeriad i oddeutu blwyddyn yn ol.”

‘‘ Nid ydwyf fi ond tri mis oed, Syr; gan hyny, sut y gallaswn amcanu dori eich cymeriad naw mis cyn fy ngeni?” oedd ateb yr oen.

Pan welodd y blaidd fod yr oen yn well rhesymwr nag ef, efe a ffyrnigodd yn fawr iawn, ac meddai:—

“Os nad tydi ydoedd, dy dad oedd, ac y mae yn rhaid i ti dalu am bechod dy dad.”

Ar hyn neidiodd ar yr oen, a llarpiodd ef mewn eiliad.


bod eisieu bachgyn
arno (literally, that the want of a boy was on him), that he wanted a boy
gan ddanfon, sending
gan gyfaill, by a friend
i’m, to my

Anfonodd cyfreithwr i newyddiadur i ddweyd fod eisieu bachgen
arno i’w gynorthwyo yn ei swyddfa. Daeth haner cant o fechgyn i gynyg eu hunain. O’u plith dewisodd un, gan ddanfon y lleill i ffwrdd. Gofynwyd iddo gan gyfaill oedd yn y swyddfa ar y pryd, paham y dewisodd y bachgen hwnw yn hytrach na’r lleill, gan nad oedd ganddo un llythyr cymeradwyaeth fel yr oedd gan bob un o’r bechgyn ereill.

“Nid oedd ef heb gymeradwyaeth,’’ oedd yr ateb.

“Pan ddaeth i mewn, sychodd ei esgidiau, a chauodd y drws ar ei ol. Yr oedd hyn yn brawf ei fod yn fachgen cryno a threfnus.

“Rhoddodd ei gadair i’r hen wr cloff a ddaeth i mewn ar ei ol. Yr oedd hyn yn profi ei fod yn fwyn ac yn feddylgar.

“Cododd ei het pan ddaeth i mewn, ac atebodd fy ngofyniadau yn barchus, yr hyn a brofai ei fod yn foesgar.

“Cododd y llyfr a osodais yn fwriadol ar y llawr, yn lle camu drosto fel y gwnaeth y lleill. Profodd wrth hyn ei fod yn fachgen gofalus.

“Arosodd ei dro yn amyneddgar, yn lle gwthio fel rhai o’r lleill, a dangosodd ei fod yn wylaidd.

“Sylwais fod ei wisg yn lân, ei wallt yn gryno, ei ddanedd yn wynion, a’r ewinedd wedi eu glanhau.

“Onid yw y pethau hyn yn gymeradwyaethau? I’m tyb i y maent, ac yn well na llwyth o lythyrau.”


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aeth â hwynt
, went with them, took them.

Clywodd dau blentyn eu mam yn dywedyd unwaith wrth gyfeilles iddi, bod crochan o aur i’w gael yn y fan lle y cyffwrdd yr enfys a’r ddaear. Un diwrnod gwlyb, fel yr oedd y brawd a’r chwaer yn gwasgu eu trwynau yn erbyn y ffenestr, gofynodd Ioan (dyna oedd enw y brawd) i Mair, ei chwaer, a garai hi ddyfod gydag ef i chwilio am y crochan a’r aur.

Atebodd Mair y huasai yn falch iawn i fyned gyda Ioan, a rhedodd i geisio ei het fel y gallent fyned heb oedi.

“Na,” meddai Ioan, “awn ni ddim heno. Y mae y nos ar ddyfod. Nyni a godwn yn gynar boreu yfory, cyn i nhad a mam ddeffro, ac fe ddeuwn yn ol erbyn boreufwyd. O, fel yr agorant eu llygaid pan welant y crochan mawr yn llawn o aur melyn!”

Curodd y plant eu dwylaw wrth feddwl am y cyfoeth oedd yn eu haros.

Tranoeth, fel yr oedd y wawr yn tori, yr oedd Ioan yn curo yn ddystaw wrth ddrws ystafell ei chwaer. Neidiodd Mair o’i gwely, ac yr oedd y ddau yn barod i gychwyn mewn ychydig fynudau. Aethant i lawr y grisiau ar flaenion eu traed, rhag deffro eu rhieni. Wedi agor a chau y drws yn ddystaw, dechreuasant redeg am y cyflymaf, pob un yn meddwl ynddo ei hun am fed y cyntaf i osod ei law ar y crochan.

Nid oedd enfys i’w harwain mor foreu a hyn, ond cofiodd Ioan mai ar ben y bryn oedd o’u blaen y gwelodd yr enfys y tro diweddaf, ac i ben y bryn y penderfynasant fyned.

Ond mae yn hawddach dweyd bryn na’i ddringo, ac felly cafodd. y ddau bleutyn hyn.
Wedi dringo am beth amser, ac eto yn mhell o ben y bryn, dechreuodd (x81) Mair deimlo’n flinedig. Nid oedd ei brawd mor fywiog ag oedd pan yn cau drws tŷ ei dad.

Yr oeddynt hefyd yn teimlo chwant bwyd, a chafodd y plant nad oedd y gwaith oeddynt wedi ymgymeryd ag ef mor hawdd ag y meddylient ei fod.

Pan welodd Ioan ei chwaer yn llefain, torodd yntau allan i wylo, ac eisteddodd y ddau ar ymyl y ffordd, a gofidient eu bod wedi cychwyn ar neges mor anhawdd ei gwneuthur.

Daeth amaethwr heibio i’r fan lle yr eisteddent, a chymerodd hwynt gydag ef i’w dŷ. Rhoddodd ei wraig fara a llaeth i’r plant, a phan gawsant eu digoni, dechreu­asant siarad.
Nis gallai yr amaethwr beidio a chwerthin pan glywodd natur y neges ar yr hon yr oedd y plant wedi cychwyn o’u cartref.

Wedi iddynt orphwys ychydig, aeth y ffermwr â hwynt yn ol i dŷ eu tad. Mawr oedd llawenydd y fam pan welodd y crwydriaid yn dyfod at y tŷ. Ni fu Ioan a Mair mor ffol a myned i chwilio am y crochan aur yr ail waith.


yn mhen tipyn, in a little while
er mwyn, for the purpose of

Fel yr oedd dyn yn ymdeithio yn un o’r gwledydd poethion, daeth i le cysgodol, a gorweddodd ar y ddaear i orphwys. Cyn gwneuthur hyny, agorodd sypyn o gapiau cochion oedd yn gario, a dododd un o honynt ar ei ben, i’w amddiffyn rhag gwres yr haul.

Wedi gorwedd, ni fu yn hir cyn syrthio i drwmgwsg. Anghofiodd gau y sypyn cyn myned i gysgu.

Tra yr oedd ef yn cysgu, daeth heibio haid o fwnciod. Tynodd y capiau eu sylw. Cymerodd pob un o honynt


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gap o’r sypyn, gan ei roi ar ei ben. Yna dringasant i frig y coed, o dan gangenau y rhai y cysgai perchenog y capiau. Pan gyrhaeddasant frig y coed, dechreuasant ysgrechain a gwneuthur y seiniau mwyaf erchyll. Fel hyn y dangosent eu llawenydd.

Deffrodd y teithiwr yn mhen tipyn, a mawr oedd ei syndod pan welodd fod pob cap wedi myned.

Nis gallai wneuthur allan pwy oedd y lleidr neu’r lladron. Edrychodd i fyny at frigau y coed, er mwyn cael allan beth oedd achos y cynhwrf oedd yn mhlith y mwnciod. Yr oedd ei syndod yn fwy fyth. Gwelodd mai y mwnciod oeddynt y lladron. Y pwnc a lanwodd ei feddwl nesaf oedd, sut i gael ei eiddo yn ol. Cynygiodd gnau ac afalau iddynt. Gwnaeth bob ymgais ag a allai feddwl am dani i geisio denu y lladron i ddisgyn, ond yn ofer.

Cofiodd o’r diwedd mai creadur hynod am ddynwared dyn ydyw y mwnci. Ar hyn, cymerodd y cap oedd am ei ben a bwriodd ef a’i holl nerth ar y llawr, gan ddysgwyl yn bryderus pa beth a wnaethai y mwnciod. Ar unwaith, wele pob mwnci yn cymeryd y cap oddiar ei ben ac yn ei daflu â’i holl egni tua’r llawr.

Rhedodd y teithiwr i’w casglu, ac wedi gwneud ei sypyn i fyny aeth ar ei ffordd yn llawen, gan benderfynu, os byth y cysgai eto mewn lle o’r fath, na fyddai mor esgeulus a gadael ei sypyn yn agored.


Pan oedd prinder gwaith, ac mewn canlyniad prinder bwyd, mewn cymydogaeth, gwahoddodd gwr boneddig caredig oedd yn byw yno, ugain o blant tlodion i’w dŷ, a
(x83) dywedodd wrthynt ei fod yn bwriadu rhoddi torth bob un iddynt yn ddyddiol, tra y parhaai yr amser tlawd.

“Mae y torthau yn y fasged acw,” meddai ef; “ewch, a chymerwch hwynt, a deuwch yma yfory ar yr un amser.”

Rhedodd y plant am y cyntaf at y fasged, er mwyn sicrhau y dorth fwyaf; ac yna aethant allan, heb feddwl am ddiolch i’r gwr boneddig am ei rodd amserol.

Yn mhlith y rhai a ddaethant i dderbyn y torthau yr oedd geneth, yr hon a safai o’r neilldu tra yr oedd y lleill yn gwthio y naill y llall.

Pan aethant allan, neshaodd at y fasged, a chymerodd y dorth a adewid. Yr oedd y dorth hon y lleiaf o’r holl dorthau; eto, cyn myned allan, crymodd yr eneth yn foesgar, a diolchodd i’r gwr boneddig am ei garedigrwydd.

Aeth y boneddwr at y pobydd i roddi gorchymyn am y torthau erbyn tranoeth. Dywedodd wrtho am wneuthur un o’r torthau yn llawer llai na’r lleill, a gosod haner coron yn ei chanol.

Tranoeth daeth y plant, ar yr awr benodedig, i geisio y bara. Yr oeddynt yr un mor awyddus am y dorth fwyaf ag oeddynt y dydd o’r blaen. Ysgytient eu gilydd yn arw, a throent y torthau yn ol a blaen yn y fasged, fel y gallent gael gafael yn y fwyaf; ac wedi llwyddo yn ei ymgais, elai pob un o honynt allan ar redeg, heb gymaint ag edrych ar y gwr boneddig.

Arosodd yr eneth fach, fel y gwnaeth y dydd o’r blaen, hyd nes i’r plant eraill gymeryd pob un ei dorth.

Yr oedd y dorth a adewid y tro hwn yn llawer llai na’r dorth a gafodd y diwrnod cyntaf; er hyny, diolchodd am dani yr un mor galonog.

Pan gyrhaeddodd gartref, cymerodd ei mam y dorth er mwyn ei rhanu rhwng y plant. Pan ddaeth at y canol, gwelodd rywbeth yn dysgleirio. Cafodd mai darn haner coron oedd yno. Galwodd ar ei merch, a rhoddodd y


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darn arian iddi gan orchymyn iddi ei gymeryd ar unwaith i’r boneddwr.

“Dyma, Syr,” meddai, pan ddaeth at y boneddwr, “ddarn o arian a gafodd fy mam yn y dorth a gefais i heddyw.” 

“Cedwch ef, fy merch i,” meddai y boneddwr. “Gwobr ydyw am eich ymddygiad moesgar pan yn dyfod i geisio eich torth.”

Clywodd y plant eraill am yr haner coron oedd yn y dorth fach a adawyd ganddynt hwy yn y fasged; a phan ddaethant i ymofyn torthau ar ol hyn, ymddygent yn debyg i’r eneth fach.



NOTE:— This Vocabulary will be found to contain every word given in the exercises. By a careful study of the following rules the student may without difficulty find for himself any inflectional form which a word may take.

1. NOUNS.—(a} Number.—
The root part of the word given before the period (.)
The singular is the whole of the word before the dash (-). The plural is formed by adding the part after the dash to the root. Thus:—

Achos.-ion / cause-s.
Achos / the root part.
Achos / the singular : cause.
Achos.-ion / the plural : causes.

Amaeth.wr-wyr / farmer-s.
Amaeth / the root part.
Amaeth.wr / the singular : farmer.
Amaeth.-wyr / the plural : farmers.

Blod.yn or euyn.-au / flower-s.
Blod / the root part.
Blod.yn or Blod.euyn / the singular : flower. / the plural : flowers.

(b) Gender.—The Gender of Nouns is marked by m. for masculine and f. for feminine after the Welsh word.

2. VERBS.—The root part is given before the period. The Infinitive is the whole of the word before the first dash. The Perfect Third Person Singular is formed by adding the part after the dash to the root. The Present and Future First Person Singular


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Adolygiad diweddaraf / Latest update: 2006-11-02

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