0877e Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia / Wales-Catalonia Website. The Welsh in Minnesota –
an online version of a book published in 1895 - “History of the Welsh in Minnesota, Foreston and Lime Springs, Ia. Gathered by the Old Settlers.
Edited by Revs. Thos. E. Hughes
and David Edwards, and Messrs. Hugh G. Roberts and Thomas Hughes”
0001 Y Tudalen Blaen / Home Page kimkat0001
....................2659e Y Porth Saesneg / English Gateway kimkat2659e
........................................2003e Y Barthlen / Plan of the website kimkat2003e
............................................................1804e Y Cymry Alltud / The Welsh in exile kimkat1804e
..........................................................................................··1927e Cyfeirddalen i Adran Gwladfa’r Glasbridd / Orientation page for the Welsh Blue Earth Settlement, Minnesota kimkat1927e
.........................................................................................................................y tudalen hwn / this page
TITLE OF THE
History of the Welsh in Minnesota, Foreston and Lime Springs, Iowa, gathered by the Old Settlers
Edited by the Reverends Thomas E. Hughes and David Edwards, and Messrs. Hugh G. Roberts and Thomas Hughes.
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(39) THE SIOUX WAR - BATTLE OF NEW ULM · FRIDAY AUGUST 22ND / SATURDAY AUGUST 23RD 1862)
Let us now return to New Ulm to trace the course of events there.
This town had not been molested since Tuesday and was wholly in the dark as to the movements of the enemy, expecting another attack at any moment. Guards were stationed around the town night and day, and as it rained much of the time this duty was anything but pleasant. Thursday a squad of men was sent out into the country to reconnoiter. They saw no Indians nor
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(x82) white refugees, but at every settlement, they came across scores of dead bodies of men, women and children, who had been butchered by the savages.
(On the American Museum of Photography website there is a photograph taken on Thursday, August 21, 1862 by Adrian J. Ebell, entitled “People Escaping from the Indian Massacre, At Dinner on a Prairie”. This is compared with a wood engraving entitled “The Breakfast on the Prairie” which appeared in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine in June 1863 which was based on this photo. http://www.photographymuseum.com/massacr2.html.)
(The same photo appears the Website of KTCA-TV (“Dakota Exile” (1996) page) http://www.ktca.org/dakota/stills.htm)
The departure for New Ulm of the Mankato and South Bend companies had taken from the latter towns most of the able bodied men and about all the guns and ammunition, so thatthese places were in quite a defenceless condition. There was nothing to prevent the Sioux from passing by New Ulm as they had passed by Ft. Ridgely and fall upon the country from the east.
The Winnebagoes were known to be on most intimate terms with the Sioux, and there was abundant evidence that the two nations intended to join in the massacre and that messages were being passed between them. The Winnebago reservation comprised the present towns of McPherson, Decoria, Rapidan, Lyra, Beauford and Medo, in Blue Earth County, and the four towns adjoining on the east in Waseca County. Thus they adjoined the townships of Mankato and South Bend. Friday morning the rumour came to New Ulm that the Sioux and Winnebagoes were going to unite in an attack on South Bend and Mankato. The horrible butchery and mutilation of women and children they had seen in their excursions west of New Ulm and upon bodies brought into town by burial parties had made our stout hearted volunteers shudder for their dear ones at home left in such a defenceless condition. The rumor that the savages were about to attack them, therefore, determined the South Bend company to return home immediately. There was a little opposition to their departure on the part of some of the other defenders, but with Judge Buck to champion their cause, they were allowed to depart in peace. About a dozen of the company remained at New Ulm and were incorporated into the Mankato company. Of this number were Joseph Wigley, John C. Jones, A.S. VanPatten (sic), Geo. Gilley and others. The balance of the South Bend company, about seventy-five strong, marched home. In passing through the woods and ravines of the Big Cottonwood they were in momentary expectation of an ambush by the Indians, and it was evident that there were Indians in the vicinity, for Indian dogs were noticed crossing the road a number of times.
This same Friday morning a refugee came to New Ulm seeking help to rescue eleven persons, who were hid in a big clump of bushes on the Big Cottonwood, near Sleepy Eye. An expedition of about 140 men was at once sent upon this mission; and they tok with them nearly all the best guns in New Ulm.
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(x83) Those left to guard the town were less than a hundred in number and very poorly armed. The expedition found the refugees and then decided, as it was late in the day and the distance back to New Ulm rather too much to undertake, to go on to Leavenworth and pass the night there and next day scour the country in that vicinity in the hope of saving other refugees. As they were marching, however, they thought they heard the boom of cannon in the direction of Ft. Ridgely. Climbing upon an eminence on the prairie, they could plainly hear the cannonading and knew that the Indians were then atacking the fort. A consultation was at once heard. Those expert in Indian customs had noticed Indian signs, consisting of small loops made of grass hung on the tallest bunches of grass on the prairie in such a way as to indicate to their comrades the direction in which they had gone. A number of times also they had caught glimpses of Indians skulking behind knolls. Dr. Daniels, of St. Peter, had been the Indian physician at the Lower Sioux Agency for years, and knew them well, and he and Dr. Ayres, of LeSueur, made strong speeches urging the return of the expedition to New Ulm at once, as they were sure there was mischief brewing. The matter was put to a vote and the majority favored returning. After a hard march they reached the town by 2 o’ clock in the morning.
That night, when Little Crow met his braves in council in the ravines of Ft. Ridgely, his spys (sic) brought important news. New Ulm was in a defenseless condition. Seventy to eighty of her defenders had returned home toward South Bend, while 140 others were wandering over the prairies near Leavenworth.
Now was a splendid opportunity to capture this important town, with all its rich spoil, slaughter its 1,500 to 1,800 inhabitants, including refugees, and then turn and annihilate the force out of Levenworth. The plan was admirable and doubtless would have succeeded had not the defenders, contrary to the Indian expectation, returned, as we have said, that night.
With the dawn next morning (Saturday, August 23) the Indians raised the siege of Ft. Ridgely, much to the relief of that garrison, worn out with fighting and constant guard duty and worse than all with ammunition nearly exhausted.
About 8 o’ clock the people of New Ulm noticed a number of fires breaking out on the opposite, or Nicollet, side of the Minnesota river. Through spy-glasses a few Indians could be seen going from farm to farm setting fire to the houses, barns and stacks of grain. A company of sixty-five to seventy men, well
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(x84) armed, mostly citizens of Nicollet County and interested in property on that side of the river, volunteered under Capt. Wm. Huey, of Traverse, to go across the river and drive the Indians away.
A few of the defenders, best posted in Indian warfare, protested against the move, claiming that this Indian demonstration was a mere feint to draw the men across the river and cut them off from the town. That the real attack would come from another quarter. The warning, however, was not heeded and the company passed over the river, leaving twenty men to guard the ferry. No sooner had they gone some little distance up the Nicollet side than a number of Indians concealed in the brush attacked the ferry guards, who fled for their lives. The Indians, after crossing over to the New Ulm side, cut the ferry loose.
Capt. Huey and his men then found that they could not get back to town, as the river much swollen with recent rains, could not be crossed without the ferry, and the Indians were firing upon them from the brush. They, therefore, retreated toward St. Peter.
The success of this part of the programme the Indians announced by means of fire signals, and the main body of Little Crow’s army was seen to issue from a point of timber about two or three miles northwest of town on the Brown County side of the river. As they kept pouring out of the timber and weaving in and out among each other like a great swarm of bees, it seemed as thought there were thousands of them. The whites marched out to meet them and formed in line of battle on the high table-land about a quarter of a mile west of town. The Indians made a very grand spectacle as they swarmed over the prairie in apparently countless numbers, with their weapons glistening in the sun. When within a quarter of a mile of the whites they spread out like a fan, advancing on a run, firing their guns, brandishing their tomahawks and yelling their war whoops.
The whites were only a crowd of raw, undisciplined recruits fresh from the farm and shop who had never been under fire before, and as the Indians outnumbered them more than two to one and approached in such a fierce manner, it is no wonder they were seized with a panic and fled into town as fast as their feet could carry them. Many hid in cellars and other places of concealment and nearly all got into houses. A few of the bravest, however, retreated in a more orderly manner, firing at the Indians as they retired and holding them a little in check.
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(x85) The Indians followed the rout to the edge of town and there paused as though afraid to enter. Had they then rushed in, there is no doubt but they might have taken New Ulm and slaughtered all the people without much resistance; but, as they afterwards explained, they thought the precipitate flight of the whites was a mere ruse to draw them into an ambush, hence they did not dare advance between the houses. The hesitation on the part of the Indians gave the whites the opportunity to rally. A squad of men under John F. Meagher, took possession of an unfinished brick building on the ridge west of town and opened a brisk fire on the enemy. As this position was too far out for the best service in defending the village they soon retired on the run, though in order, toward town and Mr. Meagher, with most of the Mankato company under him, was assigned to the southeast side of town, on the main street leading toward St. Peter and Mankato. Another squad in which were John C. Jones and Joshua Wigley got into another unfinished brick building on the top of the ridge just mentioned where they fought bravely, keeping the Indians at bay until 4 o’ clock p.m., when they retreated to the wind mill near by. This they found occupied by Evan T. Jones, of Le Sueur County, E.P. Freeman, of Mankato, J. B. Trogden, Rev. C. A. Stines and a number of other excellent shots.
The Indians were thick on the ridge when this first squad reached the mill and they had to pass through a shower of bullets. They all reached it, however, ahead of the Indians, and Rev. Stines was the only one hit, and he but slightly in the shoulder. Once inside they barricaded the door and from the windows quickly opened a deadly fire on the enemy and drove them from the ridge into the slough beyond.
New Ulm is beautifully located at the V of the high table land, where the valleys of the Minnesota and the Big Cottonwood come together and on the side of the V facing the Minnesota. The highway from South Bend, Mankato and points east passed through its principal street, in a north, northwesterly direction to Fort Ridgely, the Sioux agencies and points west. Most of the houses then, as now, were built along this street, called Broadway. Within a block to the right comes the bluff, sloping to the valley of the Minnesota one hundred and fifty feet below, while about two blocks distant to the left a rounded ridge rises forty of fifty feet, extending the entire length of the town. Not daring, as we hace stated, to charge into town, the Indians proceeded at once to surround it. Some passed
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(x86) down the river valley and were joined by those crossing from the Nicollet side, but the main body circled round the town back of the ridge, to the southwest until they came to the South Bend and Mankato road at the extreme southeast end of the town. In massing their main force here the Indians may have intended to cut off the retreat of the whites, or stop their communications and re-enforcements, or they may have thought this the most advantageous point of attack. However this may have been, here Little Crow fixed his headquarters in a small store building opposite where (an) old pottery stood. From this side now came the principal attack.
Taking shelter in the houses which the whites had hastily deserted the Indians began to work their way from house to house toward the center of town. Seeing this, the whites began to fire the buildings as the retreated from them. In the excitement, however, one large stone building on the main street was passed and twenty or thirty Indians seeing the advantage quickly got behind it . Just then the watchmen stationed on the flat roof of Crone’s store noticed a large number of men standing near the brow of the bluff where the road from Mankato and St. Peter enters town. As re-enforcements were expected from Col. Sibley, it was thought at once that they had come and on ascending the hill and seeing the houses burning all around were afraid to enter thinking the Indians had full possession. Capt. W. B. Todd, of St. Peter, who was next to Col. Flandrau (sic) in command, suggested to John F. Meagher that they take a detachment of men out to meet these people and bring them into town.
The captain was warned that there Indians back of the store building just mentioned. He wanted the men to charge and drive them away. This they refused to do, and, putting spurs to his horse, the captain galloped down the street, declaring he would drive them out himself.
The moment he passed the corner of the building he was met by a fearful volley. He managed to wheel his horse round and gallop back a short distance, when horse and rider fell dead riddled with bullets. The captain was a brave and able man, but had one failing - he was fond of liquor and this the people of New Ulm foolishly distributed in unlimited quantities to all the defenders free of cost. Mr. Meagher and his men, among whom were Thos. Y. Davis and two or thrree other Welshmen, crossed the street and got into a blacksmith shop which commanded the font of the building in question, while another squad covered the rear. Two men advanced toward the
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(x87) side of the building to fire it. The Indians then beat a hasty retreat followed by a volley from Mr. Meagher’s command. The supposed re-enforcements turned out tio be Little Crow and his chiefs in council.
As the wind blew from the southeast it drove the smoke of the burning buildings towards town, affording concealment to the Indians as they wormed their way in, and, therefore, to increase the smoke, they also fired houses. Fortunately, however, the wind changed and the advance of the Indians was then checked.
The greatest fear of the whites was that the savages would concentrate at one point and charge into town. During the afternoon te sentries on Crone’s building noticed a strong concentration taking place behind a clump of trees and brush on the brow of the hill to the northeast of the town, and a number of the whites were gathered to meet the attack, which soon came with much fury. The whites were now in good fighting temper and bravely charged to meet the enemy, routing them with much loss. The whites, however, lost one of the best shots and bravest men in this charge - Newell Houghton of the Mankato company. The Indians had completely invested the town in a short time after their first attack, as we before stated, and since that time they had slowly been working their way in from the outskirts toward the centre of town, where the whites soon concentrated all their force in the four principal blocks. The Indians had posted a strong force at the head of every street and alley and their bullets whistled through town in every direction, making it dangerous to cross any street. Most of the killed and wounded were shot in crossing the street. James Shoemaker, of Mankato, and the other officers were exposed to special danger in going ffrom place to place to encourage and direct the men. One of the most hazardous duties of all was that of distributing ammunition to the men at the front in the outside circle of houses. Thos. Y. Davis, now of Mankato, finally volunteered to perform this perilous work, and he tells of many a narrow escape he had that Saturday dodging Indian bullets on the streets of New Ulm. Once or twice he made his way through the midst of the enemy to supply ammunition to the garrison at the windmill.
The large quantity of ammunition and good guns which the Indians had secured at the Agencies, at the ferry from Capt.Marsh’s company and from the settlers they had killed, in addition to the rather plentiful supply they had themselves to
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(x88) begin with, gave them great advantage over the whites, who had very good rifles and a very limited supply of ammunition. So the firing of the Indians could be readily distinguished by the loud reports of their well loaded guns. During the fight the Indians also kept up a constant yelping and yelling like packs of wolves. This they did partly to communicate orders and encourage each other.
The summer of 1862 had been rather wet and hence all vegetation had grown luxuriantly. As in all western village, the houses of New Ulm, except a few stores and shops in the center, were quite scattering, each surrounded with an acre or two of land fenced in and overgrown with grass tall and thick. In almost every back yard there were one or more small stacks of hay and barns or sheds for cattle. On the river side of the town there were springs coming out of the bluff here and there causing boggy places where the grass and weeds grew especially rank. All this afforded the Indians a fine opportunity for their mode of fighting. Fixing turbans of grass on their heads the braves would crawl like snakes through the grass until close to town - pour a volley into it, then wiggle back without exposing themselves in the least to the aim of the whites. The whites now determined to burn all the town outside of the four center blocks. Soon after sundown the Indians withdrew after their custom to their camp which they pitched on the opn prairie in plain view on the northwest side of the town. The garrison at the wind-mill now set the mill on fire and retired into town. Men sallied forth and set all the outside buildings on fire. In all 192 houses, besides barns, sheds, haystacks, and fences were consumed.
A portion of the South Bend company - among them Wm. Jones and David and John S. Davies - had started back to New Ulm this Saturday (August 23). When they reached the bluffs of the Big Cottonwood they saw the smoke and flames of the houses burnt in the afternoon, and concluding the town had been captured beat a hasty retreat to South Bend.
Other Welshmen, who had gone up to Cambria to care for their stock, also, noticed the smoke in the afternoon and from the bluffs on D.J. Davis’ farm the flames of the burning houses were plainly visible. They at once hasted to South Bend and Mankato with the report that New Ulm had been taken and was being sacked and burned by them. The terrified people, who had been stopping four or five people together in farm houses along Minneopa Creek and elsewhere hastened with all speed to South Bend and Mankato. In South (x89)
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Bend the women and children, numbering some hundreds were all packed into the second story of the stone mill of Evans and Price, which still stands in that village, while all the men were pressed into service to defend the town. Hardly half of them had guns of any kind, the rest were armed with pitch forks, axes and scythes which had been procured ffrom the stores. It was an awful nught. The red glow of the burning city reflected upon the clouds was plainly visible from South Bend, makato and St. Peter. More than half the families in these three towns had husbands, sons or brothers among the New Ulm defenders and their sorrow and axiety was pitiful. Then the wildest rumours prevailed, adding to the anguish and dread. For instance, it was authentically stated that so and so had seen the Indians kill John Shields and the last he saw of his comrade, Thos. Y. Davis, he was running for his life with a dozen savages close at his heels. At Mankato a young man came rushing up Front street with his hair literally standing on end shouting that the Indians had come. That his father had just seen fifty canoes come down the river and land below the levee. As his father was a cool headed man and the Indians were expected, the story was not doubted, and the wildest terror and panic ensued. The marshall, A. N. Dukes, with John C. Wise, present editor of the Review, C. K. Cleveland and others hastily mustered about two dozen of the militia together (the rest were too busy just then, inspecting their cellers (sic), barns and other dark retreats for fear the Indians may have hid there, to hear the call to arms,) and marched quickly to the place and then crawled through the brush and behind wood piles, expecting every moment to hear the crack of Indian guns and feel the sting of their bullets, until at last they reached the river’s bank and it was discovered to the great relief of all that the fifty canoes of Indians consisted of only a half submerged log, over which the swashing of the current at regular intervals made a noise suggestive of the dipping of oars. These rumours had all the force, however, of realities for the time being. It was fully expected that the Sioux flushed with their victory over New Ulm and Fort Ridgely (for there was no question then but both had fallen into their hands,) were on their way to attack South Bend and Mankato and would be joined by the hordes of the Winnebagoes. It was a time to try men’s souls, and many a man renowned for courage in time of peace, lost it all now, while others unknown for bravery disclosed heroic hearts.
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(x90) The first news of the outbreak reached St. Paul late Tuesday afternnon and Governor Ramsey, after reading the dispatches sent him by Lieut. Gere, and Agent Galbraith at once went to Medota and commissioned Ex-Governor H. H. Sibley, commander-in-chief of all the forces with rank of colonel, to form an expedition against the Indians.
( Dakota Conflict Trials Website: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/dakota/sibley.html
Sibley was no Indian-hater. He had, in fact, made eloquent appeals to Congress for better treatment of Native Americans. As he learned details of uprisng, however, he had no sympathy for those participating in the massacres and attacks on civilians...)
The companies, which had enlisted at Ft. Snelling the day before, had. for the most part, started home for short furloughs, except those of the Sixth Regiment. Col. Sibley immediately proceeded to the fort to prepare for the expedition. Word was sent directing the furloughed men to report for duty forthwith. The majority of Company E of the Ninth Regiment, containing a number of the Welsh volunteers from Blue Earth County, had reached Shakopee Tuesday evening, where the report of the massacre reached them. They were ordered to Carver and there await their arms and ammunition. They were obliged to wait for these until Thursday morning. They then took up their march for Mankato where they arrived Friday afternoon and went into camp on Van Brunt’s North Row addition on the westerly side of town. They had with them sealed orders, which were opened and found to instruct them to impress all the horses they needed and report for duty at Lake Crystal, to guard the Indian trail leading between the Winnebago and Sioux Agencies, which passed by the lake, and prevent a junction of the two tribes at New Ulm. The “boys” immediately sallied out and took possession of all the horses they could find in Mankato and vicinity, and all thus provided went with Capt. Dane to Lake Crystal Saturday morning. The rest of the company supplied themselves with horses during this day and under Lieutenants Keysor and Roberts reported at the lake Sunday afternoon. Late in the afternoon of the same Friday (August 22) that Capt. Dane’s company reached Mankato, Col. Sibley, with four companies of the Sixth Regiment arrived at St. Peter after a tedious march through the Big Woods, where the roads were in a terrible condition, owing to the continual rains. Sibley at once dispatched Lieut. E. St. Julian Cox, with seventy-four volunteers, and Lieut. Adam Buck, with forty-eight Henderson volunteers, to the relief of New Ulm. Many not being armed, fifty new Austrian rifles were issued to them.
Leaving St. Peter in the afternoon of Saturday they reached their destination Sunday afternoon (August 24). In the meantime the Indians had resumed their attack on New Ulm early Sunday morning. Finding the whites, however, well entrenched and
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(x91) concentrated in the four center blocks of town, with all the other buildings around burned to the ground, so they must approach over the open ground to make their attack, they soon retired, and gathering a large drove of cattle, they drove them up towards town and tried to approach in their shelter. As soon as they came within range the whites fired a volley into the cattle which caused them to stampede and the Indians stampeded with them.Three times the Indians tried the cattle breastwork experiment and each time with the same result. Discouraged of all hope to capture the town and doubtless learning through their scouts that large re-enforcements for the whites were coming close at hand, the savages, after a short consultation about 11 a.m., gave up the fight and withdrew in a body up the Minnesota valley whence they came. A few of the whites sallied out a short distance after them and cheered but the Indians hurried briskly forward driving the cattle before them. In a short time Jim Hooser rode into town with messages from Capt. Dane, and the defenders first learned that their families at South Bens were safe. Jim was a daring fellow, and that morning had volunteered to enter New Ulm or die. The loss of the whites at the battle of New Ulm was 29 killed and about 50 wounded. The Indian loss is not known, as only two or three of their dead fell into the hands of the whites. They made use of a building on a ridge southwest of the town as a hospital, and kept a white sheet floating over it as a flag all day Saturday. Within an hour or two after the Indians departed the re-enforcements undr Lieutenants Cox and Buck were seen approaching the town from the opposite direction. At first the people feared they might be Indians, but their orderly march soon convinced them to the contrary. Upon consultation held that afternoon it was found that both food and ammunition were nearly exhausted and the re-enforcements availed little without these necessities. There were nearly 2,000 people then at New Ulm, the great majority of whom were women and children, and all were packed into the few buildings left standing in the center of town. Then there were a large number of wounded and sick for whom it was impossible to properly care. In view of all these facts and the probability that the Indians would soon return, perhaps in larger numbers, to renew the attack, it was decided to evacuate the town early on the morrow
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(x92) and go to South Bend and Mankato. All were notified to be ready for the march and every team in town was put in requisition. Contrary to instructiions the people piled all manner of personal property on the wagons until there was no room for half the women and children, so the next morning th officers were obliged to dump from the wagons into the street, trunks, feather-beds, and all manner of household goods. The road for two or three miles from town was in fact lined with goods thrown from the too heavily loaded wagons and many a tear was shed by the thrifty German house-wives at the loss of their valuables. Before starting the stores were all thrown open and the people invited by the proprietors to take whatever they wished as it was supposed the Indians would get all there was left. Strychnine was placed in three barrels of whiskey and some flour and brown sugar for the benefit of the savages. At nine o’ clock this Monday morning the barricades were thrown down and the procession started. There were 153 wagons in line and 2,000 people. Only the women and children and the wounded and sick were allowed to ride. The defenders marched some in front, some in the rear, and the rest on both sides of the train with their guns ready to defend the women and children in any emergency. There was great fear of an ambush in the wooded ravines of the Big Cottonwood, Little Cottonwood and Cambria Creek and much precaution taken in crossing them. About a mile beyond Cambria Creek the train was joined by David J. and William J. Williams and their mother, whose home then was in an out of the way place in the wooded valley of the Minnesota, so they had not known of the outbreak until that day, though New Ulm was only about five miles away and people had been murdered in Nicollet, much nearer than that. As there were hundreds of refugees in South Bend already, the town could not accommodate this vast host and as many as could be induced to do so were sent on to Mankato. To feed the hungry multitude, two large oxen were killed in the street just back of D. P. Davis’ present store and their flesh cut up and boiled in four large iron kettles set over camp fires. John D. Evans, David D. Evans and Thos. J. Jones (Bryn Llys) (Bryn-llys) had charge of this out door meat shop. Just across the street in the big hotel still standing, Miss Elizabeth Davis (now Mrs. Richard Jones of Cambria) had charge of the bread department and four barrels of flour were converted into biscuits before the crowd were satisfied.
At Crisp’s store in Judson (where Mrs. Robert Roberts now
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(x93) lives) the rear guard consisting of the companies of Lieutenants E. St. Julian Cox and Adam Buck and a part of the Le Sueur company, under acting Lieutenant J. B. Swan, halted for the night to guard the rear in case the Indians should follow the retreat.
It was a very dark, rainy, cold night. Late after midnight one of the sentries noticed some object move ahead of him in the tall grass. He challenged it, but, instead of answering, it came straight toward him. He raised his gun and pulled the trigger but the rain had wet the cap so it did not fire. A weak, rembling feminine voice fell on his ear beging him not to shoot. It proved to be a poor woman, Mrs. Harrington by name, who eight days before had started to flee from her home on the Big COttonwood with a number of neighbors, but being overtaken by the Indians nearly all were murdered. She jumped fro the wagon with her little babe - a year old - in her arms. An Indian bullet sped through her babe’s little hand, which was resting onher shoulder, and passed into her body. She ran into the brush and hid. Even the little babe was conscious of danger and kept as still as a mouse, though its little hand had been severely lacerated by the cruel bullet. Since then she had spent the days hiding in bushes and swamps, and the nights wandering over the prairies, subsisting on roots, berries and raw vegetables, until this Monday night weak from hunger, loss of blood and pain, wet and shivering with the cold and her clothes torn almost to shreds, her feet cut by the grass, she saw the camp fires and determined to approach them rather than perish from exposure in the slough. The men kindly cared for her and her babe, and next morning took them to the hospital at Mankato and there the glad husband, who happened to be east at the time of the massacre, found them.
Judge Flandreau and some of the other officers, now that the women and children and wounded had been disposed of, and supplies of food and ammunition obtained, tried to induce the companies who had remained at Crisp’s farm to return to New Ulm and thus hold the Indians in check, but the men were anxious to go home and refused.
This same Monday Col. Sibley sent Col. Anderson from St. Peter with forty mounted men of the St. Paul Cullen Guards and twenty foot soldiers in wagons to succor New Ulm.
They reached the town Tuesday morning and finding it deserted they returned at once to St. Peter.
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(x94) Col. Sibley had left St. Peter this Tuesday afternoon (August 26) with all his force for Ft. Ridgely and Wednesday this company followed him. The advance consisting of 175 volunteer citizen horsemen under Col. McPhaill and Col. Wm. R. Marshall made an allnight march and reached the fort early Wednesday morning, being the first to arrive since the battle. Col. Sibley with the infantry entered the fort Thursday, August 28. In the meantime Judge Flandreau had been assigned to the command of all the military organizations in Blue Earth County and points south and west, with headquarters at South Bend. Commissionaries had been established at St. Peter, Makato and South Bend to feed the fugitives there gathered.
At the last named place John D. Evans’ shoe shop was the location of the commissary and Geo. Owens was in charge, under Sheriff D. Tyner. Martial law was everywhere in vogue, and private ownership of property little respected. Every horse that could be found was immediately seized and pressed into service by the soldiery. Cattle were taken by the authorities without compensation to the owners and slaughtered for food as public necessity required. Threshing crews were also formed and the stacks of the farmers threshed and the grain taken and ground, without asking the owner’s leave, to supply the common need.
On Tuesday, August 26, while Capt. Dane’s company were in their camp at Robinson’s place, at the out-let of Crystal Lake, they discovered a wagon coming from the west by Buffalo Grove. A detachment went out to meet it. The occupants proved to be refugees from Lake Shetek - Messrs. Everett, Chas. D. Hatch and Edgar Bentley and a Mrs. Meyers and her four little children. Mrs. Meyers had been carried from her home on her sick bed and her husband had left the party two days ago, when near New Ulm, to get help. He managed to elude the Indians and get into town but could not get out. As he failed to return the party puched on until they saw the soldiers coming and thinking them to be Indians, Hatch and Bentley fled into Buffalo Grove Lake and hid in the grass. Everett and the Mrs. Meyers could not flee and the fright threw the woman into convulsions. After much trouble the soldiers made the two men understand they were friends and they came out of the slough. Messrs. Everett and Hatch had been badly wounded. All were taken to the hospital at Mankato, where Mrs. Meyers died the next day. The hardships she had undergone proving too much for her enfeebled constitution.
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(x95) On Friday, August 29, Capt. Dane’s company were ordered from Lake Crystal to occupy New Ulm, which had been deserted since Monday, and presented a very desolate appearance. The houses were all burnt except for a few in the center. The streets were littered from end to end with household goods of every description, and here and there were the bloated carcasses of horses and cattle that had been killed in the fight, emitting a horrible stench. Little mounds of earth were frequent in the streets, where the dead had been hastily deposited in shallow graves. Barricades were left in several places across the streets, and the few buildings left were all loop-holed for musketry, and both barricades and buildings were riddled and splintered with bullets. Everywhere were evidences of the desperate conflict of Saturday and Sunday, and it was several days before the company could restore the town into any appearance of order.
Col. Sibley was now at Ft. Ridgely with a force of between 1,500 and 1,600 men - but all were raw recruits, who had received no military training, and were armed for the most part with rejected muskets, which the government had sent north to be used only in drilling new regiments. There was scarcity of ammunition also, and much they had did not fit the guns. Then rations had to be gathered to feed the army. Camping outfits and means of transportation had to be gathered to be procured. To secure all these necessaries at once for the expedition taxed Col. Sibley’s ability to the utmost.
Sunday, August 31, Col. Sibley detailed as a burial party, under Capt. H. P. Grant, Comapny A of the Sixth Regiment, and two volunteers from each of the other companies of the sixth, and sent the Cullen guards, a small detachment of citizen cavalry under Capt. Joe Anderson, with them to act as scouts.
In all there were one hundred and fifty-three men including infantry, cavalry and teamsters and ninety-six horses including twenty teams to carry luggage. They were instructed to inter the remains of Capt. Marsh and his command killed at the ferry and proceed to the Agency and bury all bodies found there and in thast vicinity: Major Joseph R. Brown, the famous Indian trader, went with this expedition, perhaps nominally as its commander, though Grant seems to have been in actual command.
During the first day they buried over fifty persons and camped about five miles up the river on the Renville county side. Early Monday morning, dividing the command, Capt. Anderson and the mounted men were sent across the river to explore the country toward the Yellow Medicine, while Capt. Grant and the
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(x96) infantry continued to march up the north side of the river to Beaver Creek. Every little while they had to stop to bury entire families of women and children who had been massacred. In the morning Capt. Grant noticed what he supposed was an Indian hiding in a slough near the road. Surrounding the spot they found a white woman. Thirteen days before, her husband and three little children were butchered before her eyes. The Indians then told her to run and just as she was starting they fired on her and put nine buckshot into her back. The fiends then took a knife and ripped her clothing all off, and in so doing cut a deep gash over her stomach and left her for dead. She revived but the shock had affected her brain and she had wandered over the prairies in a nude and demented condition subsisting on roots and water until then. A blanket was wraped (sic) around her and a bed of hay made for her in one of the wagons, while Dr. Daniels dressed her wounds.
(40) THE SIOUX WAR - BATTLE OF BIRCH COOLEY - TUESDAY SEPTEMBER 2ND 1862
Every little while two or three wagons would be seen standing in the road, and always in and around them would be found the remains of entire families, men women and children horribly mutilated. Among otheres they found the half burnt remains of Mrs. Henderson and her infant. She was sick, confined to her bed, on the awful morning of the outbreak. Her husband and friends carried her out on the bed to the wagon and while on the way to the fort the Indians overtook them and killed nearly all the party. Mrs. Henderson and her babe were tossed out of the wagon on the prairie by the wretches, the bed thrown over them and a match applied to it and thus the mother and child horribly perished. Burying all these remains the expidition (sic) pressed on to Beaver Creek where thirty more remains were buried. It was now to late to return to the fort that night, so they concluded to get back as far as Birch Cooley (coulee [kúuli], (1) (Western North America) a deep ravine or gulch, usually dry, that has been worn away by running watrer; (2) a small valley; (3) a low-lying area; (4) a small intermittent stream; from Canadian French < French = ‘a flowing’, nominative use of tthe feminine of coulé, the past participle of couler = to flow < Latin côlâre = to filter, strain, derivative of côlum = strainer, sieve; Webster’s Dictionary) a small stream, which empties into the Minnesota, from the north twelve miles north west of Ft. Ridgely. The camp was fixed on the bluff overlooking the Minnesota Valley where the cooley entered it. Capt. Anderson soon joined them with the mounted troops. Both he and Major Brown declared there were no Indians within twenty-five miles. Five hundred hostile savages, on the way to attack South Bend and Mankato had caught sight of the expidition (sic) that morning as it marched on the side of the bluff and all day their spies had watched it and at this very moment their eyes were fixed on the devoted little band as they pitched their camp in fancied security. The wagons were arranged in a circle about the tents and ropes
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(x97) stretched from wagon to wagon and the horses tethered to them forming a circle about the tents. Pickets were posted outside and the tired command turned in for a good night’s rest. About four o’ clock in the morning one of the pickets discovered some object crawling toward him in the grass. He challenged it and then fired. Immediately an awful yell from five hundred Indian throats rent the air and in the gloom five hundred Indian guns lit a circle of deadly flame round about the camp. The guards rushed in, firing at the enemy as they came. The startled soldiers rushed out of their tents in a half dazed condition and for a few moments there was much confusion. The soldiers mistook the command to “fall down” for “fall in” and so exposed themselves for a few minutes to the deadly aim of the foe, whose bullets whistled thick through the camp from every direction. The men soon got in the shelter of the wagons and dead horses and blazed back at the enemy with all their might. It was a fearful struggle at short range, but the whites fought with desperation, well knowing they could hope for no quarter from such a foe. After an hour of furious fighting the Indians were forced back to long range. The forty rounds of ammuntion apiece which the soldiers had brought in their cartridge boxes were now about exhausted. 3,000 extra rounds had been brought in the wagons, but, on opening the boxes, it was found that through some error all the balls were 62 caliber, while the guns were only 58 caliber. The soldiers were at once set to work whittling bullets and all took care to fire only when absolutely necessary. Fortunately, however, the Indians did not attempt another charge, but contented themselves with lying concealed in the ravines and tall grass around and firing the instant a soldier showed himself.
In the first encounter nearly one-fourth of the entire command had been killed or wounded, and all the horses had been killed save two or three. Another serious trouble now arose, there was not a drop of water in the camp and none could be had nearer than the bottom of the cooley, but this was full of Indians. The the two day’s (sic) rations, which they had brought, was all gone. The suffering of the men, especially of the wounded and dying, was terrible as they lay on the bluff all day in the hot sun. But how long was it to continue? Fortunately the guards at Fort Ridgely heard the firing in the early morning, and Col. Sibley dispatched Col. McPhaill with two hundred and forty men and two cannons to their aid. About four o’ clock in the afternoon, to the great joy of the beleaguered
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(x98) camp, McPhaill’s force was seen approaching two or three miles east of the cooley and the boom of the cannon heard. The Indians concentrated such a force in front of McPhaill that he was scared and instead of pressing forward and giving battle to the savages he dispatched a courier back to Ft. Ridgley for re-enforcements and entrenched his army on the prairie to await their coming. The disappointment of the besieged camp at the sudden disappearance of the relief they thought was at hand was great, and they spent a long night of intense suffering and anxiety. By morning the Indians were re-enforced and began to close in on the camp.
(Photo of Wambdi Tonka (Big Eagle) a chief who fought in this battle http://www.esu1.k12.ne.us/~santewww/)
A message was sent to the few half breeds in the white force offering them their lives if they would surrender, but with heroic courage and fidelity they answered, that they would never desert their friends and would die with the whites if need be. The arms of the dead and wounded were distributed so that nearly all had two or three loaded guns by their side and they defied the Indians to come. The savage horde, made bold by numbers, was drawing nearer, when a big Indian stood up and shouted in Sioux from the east side of the cooley (Dakota Language Homepage http://www.alliance2k.org/daklang/dakota9463.htm): “there are three miles of soldiers coming.” Gen. Sibley with his entire force was at hand and the boom of his cannon and the rattle of his musketry was the sweetest of music to the distressed command. The Indians soon beat a hasty retreat. A sad spectacle did that camp by Birch Cooley present. In a circle round the tents lay the swollen carcasses of ninety-one dead horses, behind them lay twelve dead men and forty-five wounded. For thirty-six long hours the camp had been without food, water or sleep in a desperate struggle for life. The dead were buried in one grave. One of the wounded died a day or two afterwards at the fort. The poor woman who had been picked up on the prairie had lain in the wagon during the entire time of the battle wihtout food or drink, and strange to say, though the wagons were riddled and splintered with bullets, she escaped with only a slight wound in her arm.
As Gen. Sibley had no cavalry to pursue the Indians, he returned to the fort. Appropriate monuments have been erected recently by the state to commemorate the battles of Birch Cooley and New Ulm.
On the day of the main battle at Birch Cooley, September 2, a refugee from Lake Shetek, Thos. Ireland by name, came to New Ulm to Capt. Dane’s company. He had seven large buckshot wounds in his body - two of them in his left lung. In this
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(x99) condition he had for thirteen days suffered every hardship in dragging himself through the eighty miles of Indian invested (= besieged) country to New Ulm., and he was indeed a pitiful object to behold. He had left, however, the morning before, two women, Mrs. Hurd and Mrs. Eastlick, and their four children at the house of a Mr. Brown, thirty miles west on the Big Cottonwood. Capt. Dane called at once for volunteers to rescue these women and children.
Lieut. Roberts, one of the bravest men in the company at once offered to go and fourteen others promptly joined him, about half of whom were Welsh boys - among others besides Lieut. Roberts were Lewis P. Jones, David Y. Davis and Wm. E. Williams. It was a very hazardous journey. The country was known to be thickly invested by savages. It was already late in the afternoon, so the journey would have to be made mostly in the night. The boys were only raw recruits without any military practice. Their horses were untrained so the report of a gun would render them wholly unmanageable.Their guns were rejected Austrian rifles whose locks were too weak to fire the caps, and when bu chance they did fire, no one could tell where the bullet would go, but the rebound of the gun was always sure to lame the shoulder if it did not land the gunner on his back. About 6 p.m. the little squad started in charge of Lieut. Roberts, and it was past midnight before they reached their destination. Mrs. Eastlick, has published in pamphlet form, a most vivid description of her trials. As her experience was similar to hundreds of others we will condense and quote a few paragraphs of her narrative to give a glimpse of the horrors of that massacre:
The family comprised Mr. and Mrs. Eastlick and five children, the oldest, eleven years old, named Merton, and the youngest fifteen months, named Johnny. Wednesday morning, while the family were at breakfast on their farm at Lake Shetek, young Hatch, whom we met before at Buffalo Grove lake with Mr. Everett and Mrs. Meyers, came running, saying, “The Indians are upon us.” Leaving all they fled with the children - Mr. Eastlick carrying his two guns and ammunition with the youngest child. Meeting a number of neighbours on the road they all gathered into the house of a Mr. Wright and prepared to defend themselves. A few Indians, well known to the settlers, were at this house, pretending to be friendly and ready to fight the ‘bad’ Indians. One of them was called “Pawn”. The hostiles appearing in large numbers in the vicinity, they left the house on the advice of “Pawn” in a lumber wagon, thirty-four of them including men, women and children. Pursued and overtaken on the road by the Indians, they fled into a slough near by. Most of them were wounded before they got into the grass. We will now quote from her narrative:
“The balls fell around us like hail. I lay in the grass with my little ones gathered close around me; as it was very hot and sultry, I tried to move a little
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(x100) distance from them, but could not get a foot away from them, for they would follow me. Poor little dears! they did not know how much they were destined to suffer, and they seemed to think if they kept close to mother, they would be safe. I could now hear groans about me in the grass, in various directions, and Mrs. Everett told me she was shot in the neck; and in a few minutes more I was struck by a ball in the side. I told my husband I was shot. “Are you much hurt?” he asked. “Yes, I think I shall die,” I answered, “but do not come here, for you can do me no good; stay there, for you can do more good with your rifle.” I knew he could not come without being discovered by the Indians. Another ball soon struck me on the head, lodging between the skull and the scalp, where it still remains. I could tell if a ball struck anyone, by the sound. My husband then said he though he would move a little, as the Indians had discovered his hiding-place. He removed, reloaded his gun, and was watching for a chance to shoot, when I heard a ball strike some one. Fearing that he was the one, I called to him, saying: “John, are you hurt?” He did not answer. I called again, but there was no reply, save that I heard him groan twice, very faintly, than I knew he was hurt, and I thought that I must go to him, but Mrs. Cook begged me not to go. “Do not, for God’s sake,” said Mrs. Cook, “stay with your children; if you stir from that spot they will all be killed; your husband is dead already and you cannot possibly do him any good, so stay with your children, I beg of you.” I took her advice and stayed with them, for they were all I had left in the world.”
After detailing how the women and children were induced by old Pawn to come out of the slough and surrender themselves to the savages on promise of their lives being spared, and how a heavy thunder storm having come up, the Indians began to hurry them away. She proceeds:
“I stopped, however, and looked around to see if my children were coming, and to tell them to follow me. Little Freddy, one of my boys, aged five years, arose out of the grass, at my call, and started to come. Then, for the first time, I observed a hideous old squaw, who had just joined the Indians; she ran after him, and felled him to th ground, with a blow upon the head from something she carried in her hand. Weak, wounded, and tightly held by my captor, as I was, I could only stand and look on the scene which followed, while such anguish racked my soul as, I pray to God, that you, ye mothers who read this, may never feel. The old hag beat him for some minutes upon the back part of the head, till I thought she had killed him. She stepped back a few paces, when the little innocent arose, and again started for me; but, oh! what a piteous sight for a mother to behold! The blood was streaming from his nose, mouth and ears. The old squaw, not yet satisfied, again knocked him down, and pounded him awhile; then took him by the clothes, raised him as high as she could, and with all her force, dashed him to the ground. She then took a knife and stabbed him several times. I could not stop or return, for my captor was by this time dragging me away, but my head was turned around, and my eyes riveted upon the cruel murder of my defenceless little ones. I heard some one call out, “Mother! mother!!” I looked, and there stood little Ffrank, my next oldest child, on his knees, with hands raised toward heaven, calling “Mother!” while the blood was streaming from his mouth. O! who could witness such a sight, and not feel their hearts melt with pity! None but the brutal Indians could. He had been shot in the mouth, knocking out four of his teeth - once through the thigh, and once through the bowels. But what could I do? Nothing, but gaze in silent horror on my children while they were being murdered by savages.”
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(x101) She then gives an account of the horrible outrage and butchery of her companions. Most of the younger children were left by the fiends wounded on the prairie to perish a lingering death from cold and starvation. Mrs. Eastlick was taken a short distance when Pawn shot her in the back and she fell on her face. Another Indian came up to her and struck her on the head with all his might a number of times with his gun until her head bounded from the ground with each blow. She was then left for dead. Though her skull was broken she did not lose consciousness, but lay where she was too weak to move for hours. The crying of a child whom she thought was her Johnny aroused the mother’s heart.
“So I determined to try to go to them, thinking we could, perhaps, keep warm better, for the rain still fell very fast, and the night was settling in, cold and stormy. I rose upon my feet, and found that I could walk, but with great difficulty. I heard William Duly, whom I supposed dead long before this, cry out, “Mother! mother!!” but a few steps from me, and then he called “Mrs. Smith! Mrs. Smith!!” Having to pass close by him, as I left the slough, I stopped and thought I would speak to him; but, on reflecting that I could not possibly help the poor boy, I passed him without speaking. He never moved again from the spot where I last saw him; for when the soldiers went there to bury the dead, they found him in the same position, lying on his face, at the edge of the slough I was guided to where my children and neighbors were killed, by the cry of a child, which I supposed to be Johnny’s voice: but, on reaching the spot where it lay, it proved to be Mrs. Everett’s youngest child. Her eldest, Lily, aged six years, was leaning over him to shield him from the cold strom. I called her by name: she knew my voice instantly, and said, “Mrs. Eastlick, the Indians haven’t killed us yet?” “No, Lily,” said I, “not quite, but there are very few of us left!” “Mrs. Eastlick,” said she, “I wish you would take care of Charley? (sic)” I told her it was impossible, for my Johnny was somewhere on the prairie, and I feared he would die unless I could find him, and keep him warm. She begged me to give her a drink of water, but it was out of my power to give her even that, or to assist her in any way, and I told her so. She raised her eyes, and with a sad, thoughtful, hopeless look, asked the question, “Is there any water in heaven?” “Lily,” I replied, when you get to heaven, you will never suffer from thirst or pain.” On hearing this, the poor little patient sufferer, only six years old, laid herself down again, and seemed reconciled to her fate.”
After wandering among the dead and dying and failing to find either Johnny or Merton, she thought they might have escaped the savages and wandered out on the prairie. So she dragged herself away some distance in quest of them, imagining every few minutes she heard them crying here or there. All night and next day she wandered around in the vicinity, and all this time she could hear the agonizing cries of the poor little children that had not yet perished in the slough. After three nights and three days of wandering she was overtaken, only five miles from where she started, by a mail carrier, who helped her into his sulky, and they proceeded about ten or eleven miles farther to the house of a German, called Dutch Charley. The owners had deserted the place some days, but to the great surprise of Mrs. Eastlick she found there her old neighbor, Thomas Ireland, whom she supposed killed as she had last seen him in the slough in a dying condition, pierced with seven bullets. Be ha had revived and amaged to crawl thus far, though in a sorry plight. From him she received the first tidings of her two missing boys. Merton had left the slough the afterrnnon of the massacre with his baby brother on his back to go to “Dutch Charleys.” (sic). After resting a few minutes the mail carrier, Mrs. Eastlick and Mr. Ireland hurried
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(x102) on as well as they could. Next day (Sunday) a little before noon they overtook Mrs. Hurd and her two children in the road. They, too, were from Lake Shelek, but the pitiful story of her trials is too long for us. A short distance ahead Mrs. Eastlick found her two lost children. Merton had little Johnny on his back and had carried him thus for fifty miles, and they had sufferd terrribly from want of food and shelter, so their emaciated faces could hardly be recognized. Two miles further and they came to the deserted home of J.F. Brown, which stood in Section 22, of Burnstown, in Brown county, thirty miles west of New Ulm. Here Mr. Ireland and the women and children were left while the mail carrier went on to get help from New Ulm. He returend the following Wednesday with the disheartening news that New Ulm had nearly all been burnt, and wehn he got near it six Indians rose from the grass and chased him, and that settlers everywhere had all been killed. He then left to go to Sioux Falls, Dakota, for help. They waited at Brown’s house until the following Monday, when Mr. Ireland felt strong enought to make another attempt to reach New Ulm and succeeded in getting there Tuesday afternnon as we stated before.
Lieut. Roberts and his squad reached Mr. Brown’s house about 1 o’ clock at night. The women thought they were Indians at first, but when they learned the truth their joy knew no bounds and there was not a dry eye in the room. After resting until dawn the soldiers put the women and children into a wagon, wh¡ch they had brought and started back. For fear of an ambush Lieut. Roberts returned by another road , and on the opposite side of the Cottonwood, from that on which they had come. One of the men, J.R. Gilfillan by name, tarried behind a few minutes to get some corn for his horse. He was not missed by his comrdes for a time. The men sent back to look for him failed to find him. It seems he took the same road he had come on, and searching parties, two or three days afterwards, found his headless trunk in a field near the road. The Indians afterwards said that they had seen the soldiers going out, but thought they were scouts and that the main army was coming right after them so they did not fire on them, but when the main army did not come they had fixed a good ambush for the soldiers when they returned, and it was only the foresight of Lieut. Roberts that saved the entire squad from sharing the fate of poor Gilfinnan.
Immediately after the occupation of New Ulm by Dane’s company, and Ft. Ridgely by Col. Sibley’s force the settlers living east of these places returned mostly to their homes to care for their stock and crops. Tuesday, September 2, the very day of the battle of Birch Cooley and the departure of Lieut. Robert’s squad from New Ulm to rescue Mrs. Eastlick and Mrs. Hurd, a band of eight Indians suddenly appeared in the town of Courtland, then called “Hilo,” on the other side of the
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(x103) Minnesota from Cambria, and adjoining the Welsh settlement of Eureka, in Nicollet county, on the west, and killed two men and a boy. Crossing the river they passed through the town of Cambria. In the afternoon David P. Davis and his boys were making hay on their farm, three quarters of a mile west of Horeb church. His son, Eben P. Davis, had just put a span of young horses into the pasture near by and was returning along a margin of grass between the fence and a field of standing grain. Suddenly an Indian jumped up amd made a grab for his shoulder, but Eben, with a mighty jump, eluded his grasp and fled for the woods like a deer. The Indian chased him a short distance, then fired. The ball passed through Eben’s left arm, between the elbow and the wrist (See biography of Eben P. Davis 0850e). The settlers soon heard of the shooting and hurried with their families to Jame’s Morgan’s house to learn the particulars and for mutual defence. A stampede of the settlers was prevented by the arrival, just before sundown, of a company of soldiers - belonging to the Twenty-fifth Wisconsin - who were on their way to New Ulm. They helped the settlers search for the Indians, but no trace of them could be found, nor of the two horses Eben had put into pasture. The soldiers camped by Horeb church that night with the Welsh settlers.
The Welsh people of Eureka with the rest of the settlers of that part of Nicollet county fled to Nicollet village where they fortified themselves. The bodies of the three men murdered in Courtland were brought there next day and buried.
Next day Col. Flandreau sent Capt. Rogers’s company of the Seventh Minnesota to relieve Capt. Dane’s company at New Ulm and the latter company were brought down and stationed in the midst of the Welsh settlement at the southwest corner of Evan Davis’ present farm in Judson - just half a mile west of Jerusalem cemetery. The camp was called “Camp Crisp,” from Mr. Crisp’s house just across the road from it. It was not the wisest location as subsequent events proved, , for it left half of the Welsh settlement to the west exposed to the Indians. A vigilant watch was now kept by the soldiers. Squads of mounted men were sent out every day from Camp Crisp and New Ulm to scour the country thoroughly. The Welsh settlers of Horeb neighbourhood were wont to gather for mutual protection every night at James Morgan’s house. Tuesday night, September 9, just one week after Eben P. Davis was shot, most of the families concluded, because the soldiers were searching the country every day, that the danger was over and so staid (sic) at their homes. A
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(x104) few, however, came together as usual. These were the families of David P. Davis, James Edwards, Lewis D. Lewis and Richard Morgan - twenty-two persons between men, women and children. David Price and family had also come with their neighbour, James Edwards, but at the invitation of Thomas Y. Davis they drove over to spend the night with him. His house (the present residence of Rev. Thos. E. Hughes) was only about fifty rods away, on the other side of a little knoll. A number of the men gathered at James Morgan’s house in the early evening to hear and talk over the news. Among others were John S. Jones (Prairie), David J. Davis and Henry Hughes. The latter spoke of an adventure he had just had in looking for his cow on the creek under his house - a suspicious noise in the brush, which kept moving away from him. Wm. Edwards was sure he had seen Indians down on the Minnesota river below their house that afternoon. Not much credence was given to stories about seeing Indians in those days, for everything then assumed the appearance of an Indian warrior, to the excited imagination.
(41) · THE SIOUX WAR - ATTACK ON BUTTERNUT VALLEY · WEDNESDAY SEPTEMBER 10TH 1862
Next morning, September 10th, at break of day, the people at James Morgan’s house were awakened by the furious barking of the dogs. Mr. Morgan opened the front door and saw some person in the road in front of the house with a dog barking viciously at his heels. He was dressed in citizen’s clothes and had a straw hat on, but as he turned to look at the dog, James Morgan recognized him to be an Indian and called the attention of Lewis D. Lewis, who had also stepped to the door, to him. Mr. Lewis raised his right hand to shield his eyes as he peered through the dusk of the morning in the direction of pointed by Morgan. Suddenly a bullet struck his hand, passed through its entire width, a little above the knuckles and hit his forehead a slight blow, then fell to the floor. His hand had saved his brain (See biography of Lewis D. Lewis 0850e ). Another bullet came whizzing through the north window on the east side of the front door, but though the room was full of people it passed between them doing them no harm. James Edwards had just jumped from his bed on the floor to reach for his gun, when a third ball came through the east window hitting him in the neck, severing the jugular vein. Without a word he fell dead across the bed, his blood spurting over the room (See biography of of his son, also called James Edwards 0850e ).The other men had now secured their guns and opened a brisk fire on the enemy and they retreated into Thos. Y. Davis’ corn field across the road. David P. Davis, Jr., thinks he hit one Indian as he passed over the fence, but no
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Jerusalem Church and Cemetery, Judson, Minn. By grove in centre stood Camp Crisp.
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View of Horeb Church and School House, from Southeast. By the trees in left foreground stood house of James Morgan, attacked by Indians Sept. 10, 1862.
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(x105) trace could be found of him afterwards. As soon as the Indians were driven off, John P. and Henry P. Davis started for Camp Crisp, six miles away, for help. Wm. Edwards and David P. Davis, Jr., followed in a short time on the same errand. Miss Mary Morgan, taking one of her young brother’s young children in her arms started, also, for the camp, The others staid (sic) in the house for a time and kept a watch from the upstair’s window. David P. Davis had been stacking grain the day before and had left his horses in the pasture over night. Not long after the shooting a number of Indians were observed chasing the horses. They soon corraled them in the corner of the field, where they had made a pen wit the wagons used in stacking. The Indians then congregated on Daniel P. Davis’ hill (a knoll or ridge on the southwest corner of the same farm). There were twelve to fifteen of them. After a short consultation the four mounted on David P. Davis’ and Richard Morgan’s horses and two on foot started down the hill eastward, the direction of Morgan’s house. Three or four went south, where they stole Rev. Jenkins’ horses, the rest passed beyond the hill to the west.
The people in Jame Morgan’s house, seeing a portion of the Indians coming again towards them, concluded they were bent on another attack, and all fled from the house. David P. Davis, Sr., got into Thomas Y. Davis’ corn field, Jas. Morgan hid in the grain stacks near the house. The rest ran down a little gully towards Cambria creek. When about eighty rods west of the house the two Indians on foot turned to the left into Thos. Y. Davis’ field; those mounted, evidently to avoid passing the house, turned on the right into Henry Hughes’ field, and passed down a branch of the same gully just mentioned and barely missed the women and children, who had just reached a clump of bushes, when the Indians passed within a few feet of them. Lewis D. Lewis, being unable to staunch the flow of blood from his hand, had left the house about fifteen minutes before, to go to the camp. When nearing Bennet’s creek he saw the Indians coming after him in the road. He ran and threw himself into a small clump of trees by the roadside. He found himself lying down within a foot or two of a monster prairie snake. Lewis concluded to trust the snake, however, rather than the Indians, and so remained where he was until the Sioux were gone, nor did his snakeship resent his den being made a city of refuge.
The two Indians who had turned into Thos. Y. Davis’ field went straight for his horses, which had been staked out to grass
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(x106) near the house. Mr. Davis thought they were soldiers, and ran out to stop them taking the horses, and when close to them perceived they were Indians. He ran back and then over to James Morgan’s house for help. The front door was locked and no one. to his surprise, answered his raps. He ran to the back door and opened it. Nothing but confusion and blood everywhere. A glance into that chamber of death was enough. Mr. Davis ran down the road to the house of Mr. Shields, whom he found at home. Taking Enoch, the youngest child, on his back Mr. Davis ran into the brush followed by the balance of the Shields family. Emerging from the woods where David E. Bowen’s house now stands, they saw not more than ten rods ahead of them, in the road, the four Indians mounted on D. P. Davis’ horses. The Indians glanced back over their shoulders at them, but did not stop. Half a mile further Wm. P. Jones, Hugh R. Williams, Stephen and David Walters, and Thos. D. Lloyd were approaching the Mankato road from Lloyd’s house with an ox-team and wagon. The Indians turned from the main road and approached the wagon on the full gallop, whooping and brandishing their weapons. The men scattered into the adjoining corn field, except Stephen Walters, who, mounted on Hugh Williams’ fleet mare tried to outrun the foe, but he gave up too soon, and ran into the cornfield, leaving the mare for the Indians. They plundered the wagons of a few articles and exchanged their poorest horse for the mare and then passed down the road.
Leaving them at present let us return again to the west end of the settlement.
David J. Davis’ house then stood in Section 17, at the foot of the steep bluff descending to the river bottom. A path led up to the bluff, back of the house, to the tableland above, where was a corn field. At day break this tenth day of September, Mr. Davis’ 18 year old son, Thomas, went up this path to see if there were cattle in the corn. Just at the top he met two Indians and turned to flee, but they shot him in the back, through the heart. The father heard the shot and the piercing shriek of his son. He rushed to the door just in time to see his son fall and the two Indians standing at the top of the hill. Mr. Davis seized his ax, while his oldest son, David, who was an excellent shot, seized his trusty rifle and gathering the other eight children, most of whom were quite small, they fled on foot down the valley, while the Indians sat on the bluff watching them, not daring to pursue, from respect to David’s rifle. Thus they fled on foot, to Camp Crisp,
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(x107) a distance of six miles, warning Hugh R. Williams, Wm. P. Jones, John E. Davis, Wm. R. Lewis, and all they met.
John P. Davis, who we mentioned leaving James Morgan’s house, had caught on Bennett creek an old horse belonging to Richard Morgan and thus had been enabled to reach the camp ten or fifteen minutes ahead of David J. Davis and children, whom he had passed on the road. That morning Richard Wigley, Wm. J. Roberts and John C. Jones had left Camp Crisp with a threshing machine. On the knoll on the west side of Jonas Mohr’s farm, in Section 36, (now owned by Richard Jones), they met David J. and John P. Davis and other fugitives with news of the attack. Not knowing what to do they stopped there on the knoll for half an hour talking with fugitives as they came. Mr. Mohr came up the road to look for his horses. After learning the news at the threshing machine he started on west. In the slough west of the knoll J.W.Trask and John Page were making hay. Seven men on horseback were seen coming down the road full speed. As they had straw hats and citizens clothes on the people halted in doubt as to whether they were white fugitives or Indians.
One of them turned aside to persue (sic) Mr. Trask and they were then known to be Indians., Mr. Trask ran and the Indian fired after him, hitting him in the wrist. The other Indians made straight for the machine. Wigley and Roberts were unarmed and ran to hide in some sugar cane near by. Mohr had a Sharp’s rifle, and was a fine shot, but he ran back and past the machine wihtout firing, evidently trying to get home to protect his family. One of the Indians followed him past the machine and Mohr, seeing the Indian was nearly upon him, wheeled around to fire, but the Indian’s gun went off first and the ball penetrated his forehead. He fell over backward and soon expired. In the meantime the other Indians cut the harness off one of Roberts’ best horses and took it in place of a poor one they had, and, seeing the soldiers coming up the roadat full speed about a mile away, they fled in hot haste for the woods near by - four of them passing down the ravine near Morris Lewis’ house, barely missing Mr. Lewis and family(,) David A. Davis and family and David J. Thomas as they were coming with ox teams toward the road. The other three passed down the ravine by Geo. Owens place, and Owens and his children scarcely had time to get out of their way into the brush and corn by the roadside.
Let us again return to the Horeb neighborhood. Early this same morning John S. Jones (Prairie), living on the northwest
(delw 4146) (tudalen 108)
(x108) corner of section 32 bid his dear wife and six children goodbye to go and help Robert Jones (Indiana) stack grain. In passing along the westerly foot of Daniel P. Davis’ hill, near where the road from the south met the road running west from Horeb church, on John Rees’ farm, he was killed and scalped by the savages - probably by those seen going west from the hill. He was a brave and powerful man and the grass around bore evidence of a powerful struggle, his pitchfork was bent and bloody. Whether he wounded or slew any of the foe will never be known. These Indians then passed on to Jones’ (Indiana). He was on the stack and John B. Shaw on the load pitching, when the Indians rushed upon them. Both men jumped to the ground, and ran for the brush. Shaw escaped and reached the hiding place of the refugees from Jas. Morgan’s house, three miles away, which was in the brush on the south side of Cambria creek, on the James Morgan farm, in the spot where afterwards stood the house of Rev. Griffith Roberts.
The last seen of poor Jones alive was running into the brush with the Indians firing upon him. The following spring (April 6), when D. P. Davis was burning his meadow three-fourths of a mile west of the Horeb church, he found his bones in the edge of the slough. He also found his shoe caught in the fence where he had crossed into the meadow. Whether he was wounded while running into the brush and then had fled to this spot, a distance of two miles, before he fell exhausted, or whether he met the foe again near where he crossed the fence into the meadow, which was within a few rods of where Jones (Prairie) was killed, will never be known. His son, Evan Jones, fled to the sloughs south of their farm and remained in hiding for a week or ten days before being discovered by the soldiers. David Morris, living three quarters of a mile north-east of Horeb church, went down early the same morning towards David J. Davis’ house and came across the body of Thos. J. Davis lying beside the path. He hurried back home and with Mrs. Morris went over to Jas. Morgan’s house. Finding it deserted and the floor covered with blood they hastened on to the house of rev. Jenkin Jenkins. David Price and family went home early from Thos. Y. Davis’ house and finding that their neighbour, Jas. Edwards and family did not return by 9 o’ clock a.m., Mr. Price went up to Morgan’s house to see what was the matter. There was no one there. In the corner a quilt seemed to spread over something. He entered and lifted it a little when to his
(delw 4147) (tudalen 108a)
School House, District No. 11, Cambria, Minn.
(delw 4148) (tudalen 109)
(x109) horror he discovered the body of his murdered neighbour, Edwards. He imagined the foe were hid in the house and watching him and expected every moment to feel the sting of their bullets in his own body. Beating a hasty retreat, he started for Thos. J. Davis’ house , but just then saw Rev. Jenkin Jenkins and wife, David Morris and wife and George and Neal Porter coming down the road on foot. He joined them and induced them to go with him to get his family. All the men had their guns. At Price’s house, Mrs. Jenkins, Mrs. Morris, Mrs. Evan J, Davies and Mrs. Price and her children were put into Price’s wagon which stood ready at the door and they started. They had barely passed out of the Little Prairie up Thos. Lloyd’s hill, when the seven Indians who had shot Mohr and Trask came up the Minnesota valley and crossed the road our fugitives had just passed over.
Fifty rods southwest of Horeb church stood the cabin of Henry Hughes. Mr. Hughes and his family were at home attending to their usual duties this morning unconscious of danger. From their hiding placethe fugitives from Jaz. Morgans’s house could see the Indians passing and repassing close by, and finally Richard Morgan ventured over to warn them. The old man was bareheaded, barefooted and without a coat and a club was his only weapon. Soon after the Hughes family were gathered into the brush, the first detachment of soldiers arrived, half of them Welsh boys. Across Cambria Creek coming down the road from Rev. Jenkin Jenkins three mounted Indians were seen. Three detachments of Dane’s company were sent on different road (sic) through the settlement and they drove the Indians far out into Brown Co. The murdered settlers were gathered and buried in Jerusalem cemetery that afternoon. The living deserted their homes for many weeks staying in the vicinity of Camp Crisp and South Bend.
Sept. 20th twenty-two Welshmen of Cambria (then called Butternut Valley) enlisted as a militia company for thirty days and built a fort two or three rods west of David E. Bowen’s barn (which barn was then in existence and known as the “Big Barn”) in the center of Section 28, of Cambria. The state furnished the company arms, ammunition and rations and they rendered service in protecting the frontier, caring for the stock left at the deserted farms, and cutting hay for winter.
(42) · THE SIOUX WAR - BATTLE OF WOOD LAKE · MONDAY SEPTEMBER 23RD 1862
On Sept 23rd Col. Sibley with 1500 men met Little Crow with 800 braves at Wood Lake, three miles east of the ford of
(delw 4149) (tudalen 110)
(x110) the Yellow Medicine. The indians (sic) fled leaving 30 of their dead on the field. The whites lost only 4 killed. The battle proved quite decisive and made Sibley a Brigadier general.
Soon after this battle about 2,000 Sioux surrendered - the rest fled to Dakota and kept up a predatory war for three years.
(Dakota Conflict Trials Website - http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/dakota/LittleCrow.html - Little Crow - “The morning after the battle of Wood Lake, Little Crow sent word to father to come, he wanted to see him.”)
In all, about 1,000 whites perished in this massacre, and as many more were wounded. In the fall of 1864 the Butternut Valley settlement was visited by a grasshopper plague, which destroyed the crops of that section the following spring.
The Indian war and the war of the Rebellion being over and the grasshoppers having departed, the settlements entered on a period of great material prosperity. Immigration came pouring in from the east like a flood. It was the day of the “movers.” One could not lift up his eyes on any one of the principal thoroughfares without seeing a string of from six to a dozen white topped wagons (“Prairie Schooners” they were called) winding their way westward, each followed by its drove of cattle. Among others came the Welsh settlers to fill the wide prairies of Judson and Butternut valley. Richard Thomas from Pomeroy, O., and Rev. Joseph Rees from Cattaraugus, N. Y., had arrived in 1862. In 1863 Rev. Rich. W. Jones, John Meredith and John R. Owens came from Oneida county, N.Y. Hugh R. Hughes, Robert H. Hughes(,) Richard Lewis and John P. Jones came from Wisconsin the same year. These were followed in 1864 by John J. Highes, Griffith Griffiths, Ellis Owens, Wm. H. and Wim. R. Hughes; in 1865 by John James, James T. Davies, Richard Rowlands, Evan E. Jones, John J. Evans, Rober Jones; and in 1886 by Humphrey E. Jones, Jabez Lloyd, Rowland Pritchard, and a vast host too numerous to mention. At the close of the Indian war in 1865 a very bitter church war broke out. It started with a small matter of church discipline but grew until all the settlements were involved. One faction formed Presbyterian churches and for a few years this religious fight was furious, but it passed and religious harmony once more prevailed.
Then came the grasshopper war. For three years, 1875-6 and 7, the crops of the entire country were completely devasted (sic). Every device for their destruction failed. In April, 1887, a day of fasting and prayer was proclaimed by the governor, which was generally observed. A few weeks later the plague suddenly departed and no one to this day knows whither.
Since then our Welsh settlements have grown and prospered until today they are among the wealthiest and the most beautiful spots in our great commonwealth.
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LINKS TO OTHER PAGES IN THE "WALES-CATALONIA" WEBSITE:
Geirfa Lakota (Dakota)-Cymraeg-Saesneg
Lakota (Dakota)-Welsh-English vocabulary
Rhestr o gynnwÿs y llÿfr 'History of the Welsh in Minnesota...'
List of the contents of 'The History of the Welsh in Minnesota...'
Ein mynegai i'r llÿfr (heb ei orffen)
Our index to the book (incomplete)
ychwanegiadau diweddaraf o 'Hanes y Cymrÿ ym Minnesota...'
latest additions from the 'History of the Welsh in Minnesota
ein rhestr o'r enwau yn 'Hanes y Cymrÿ ym Minnesota...' (heb ei orffen)
our list of the names which appear in the 'History of the Welsh in Minnesota...' (incomplete)
y Cymrÿ yn erbÿn y Sioux a'r Winnebagos - gwrthryfel 1862
the Welsh against the Sioux and the Winnebagoes - the 1862 uprising
mynegai i'r hÿn sÿdd gennÿm yn y Gwefan 'Cymru-Catalonia'
index to the pages in the "Wales-Catalonia" website
adrannau'r Gwefan 'Cymru-Catalonia'
siteplan - list of sections in the "Wales-Catalonia" website
cyntedd croeso y Gwefan 'Cymru-Catalonia'
the reception area of the "Wales-Catalonia" website
tudalen blaen y Gwefan 'Cymru-Catalonia'
front page of the 'Wales-Catalonia' Website
EDRYCHWCH - VIEW
Edrychwch ar ein Llÿfr Ymwelwÿr!
View our Visitors' Book!
LLOFNODWCH - SIGN
Hoffech chi lofnodi ein Llÿfr Ymwelwÿr?
Would you like to sign our Visitors' Book?
LINKS TO OTHER WEBSITES:
(1) http://www.lakotaoyate.com/welcome.html Lakota Oyate
“To defend and preserve Lakota culture from exploitation.”
(2) http://www.enter.net/~drutzler/intro.htm Welcome to Spirit’s Place
“So yeah, I am Native American. Lakota actually. I do “Indian stuff”, but I am a human being first and foremost. I created this set of pages for many reasons. First, to help keep Native information easily available for all... The Lakota Language Page will be updated monthly with a new subject. This month’s lesson: “Animals”. Check it out for basic grammar and phonetics. There is no charge for these lessons, no club to join or anything else to “buy”. This is for you, the curious, the seeking and the informed”
(3) http://22.214.171.124/language1.htm Introduction to Lakota
(4) Hau! Tima hiyu wo! ‘Greetings! Come inside!’ Hokahe, hel iyotaka. ‘Welcome’ to the Lodge of šung’manitu-Išna, ‘ Lone Wolf ‘. The intent of these pages is to honor a proud and noble people, the Oglala Lakota, of Pine Ridge, South Dakota. http://126.96.36.199/i-welcome.htm#sitemap
(5) Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe’s Homepage http://swcc.cc.sd.us/homepage.htm
(6) Sota Iya Ye Yapi - http://www.earthskyweb.com/news.htm - bringing news of the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe / Dakota Nation and Lake Traverse Reservation to the World Wide Web. Weekly, with updates when appropriate during the week.
(7) KILI Radio, the Voice of the Lakota Nation. http://www.lakotamall.com/kili/schedule.htm
KILI Radio (pronounced “KEE-lee”) is the largest Indian-owned and operated public radio station in America. We broadcast in English and Lakota 22 hours each day to homes on three reservations in the Black Hills. Our listeners are spread out over 10,000 square miles, an area larger than the state of Delaware. KILI means “cool” or “awesome” in the Lakota language. KILI Radio is cool, but it’s much more than that. It’s a vital force of preservation for Lakota people and our culture.
(8) Lakota newspaper. EYAPAHA - allies of the Lakota. http://www.lakotamall.com/allies/Eyapaha/99F/
(9) Links to Lakota-Dakota-Nakota (Sioux) Indians Sites http://members.tripod.com/~PHILKON/links12lakota.html
In Their Own Words: Excerpts from Speeches & Letters Concerning the Dakota Conflict
SPEECH OF HDAINYANKA IN FAVOR OF CONTINUING WAR
LETTER FROM GENERAL POPE DECLARING HIS GOAL OF EXTERMINATING SIOUX
LETTER FROM BISHOP WHIPPLE CONCERNING DEGREES OF GUILT
ADDRESS TO CONDEMNED PRISONERS BEFORE THEIR EXECUTIONS
STATEMENT OF TAZOO AT THE TIME OF HIS EXECUTION
LETTER OF HDAINYANKA WRITTEN SHORTLY BEFORE HIS EXECUTION
LETTER FROM REV. THOMAS WILLIAMSON TO REV. STEPHEN RIGGS
LETTER FROM COL. HENRY SIBLEY
LETTER FROM REV. STEPHEN RIGGS
LETTER FROM COL. HENRY SIBLEY TO HIS WIFE
GEORGE CROOK’S (WAKANAJAJA’S) ACCOUNT OF JOURNEY TO PRISON CAMP
CALL OF JACOB NIX, COMMANDANT OF NEW ULM, FOR DAKOTA BLOOD
The above is a section form
(11) The Dakota Indian Conflict http://www.ic.mankato.mn.us/reg9/nul/tour/dakota.html
(12) http://www.nara.gov/exhall/originals/sioux.html “The Black Hills of Dakota are sacred to the Sioux Indians. In the 1868 treaty, signed at Fort Laramie and other military posts in Sioux country, the United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people. However, after the discovery of gold there in 1874, the United States confiscated the land in 1877. To this day, ownership of the Black Hills remains the subject of a legal dispute between the U.S. government and the Sioux...”
(9) The Ho-Chunk (‘Winnebago’) Nation http://www.ho-chunk.com/index.htm
(10) (Ho-Chunk History - http://www.ho-chunk.com/culture_history_page.htm For example, 1856 Winnebago mission founded at Blue Earth and is attended by diocesan priest residing at Saints Peter & Paul Church in Mankato).
(11) Ho-Chunk newspaper http://www.ho-chunk.com/dept_newspaper_page.htm
(16) Indian Circle Web Ring, maintained by the Seminole Tribe of Florida. List of websites of federally acknowledged tribes in the contiguous 48 states and in Alaska. http://www.indiancircle.com/links.shtml
(1) http://indiancountry.com Indian Country - America’s Leading Indian News Source. Weekly online edtion
(2) http://airos.org/grid.html Programme Schedule for AIROS (American Indian Radio On Satellite)
“The AIROS network is a national distribution system for Native programming to Tribal communities and to general audiences through Native American and other public radio stations as well as the Internet. Alter*Native Voices / California Indian Radio Project / Different Drums / Earthsongs / National Native News / Native America Calling / Native Sounds-Native Voices National / New Letters on Air / Voices from the Circle / Wellness Edition
(3) Minnesota Indian Affairs Council http://www.indians.state.mn.us/stats.htm
0876 Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia / Wales-Catalonia Website. The Welsh in Minnesota – an online version of a book published in 1895 - "History of the Welsh in Minnesota, Foreston and Lime Springs, Ia. Gathered by the Old Settlers. Edited by Revs. Thos. E. Hughes and David Edwards, and Messrs. Hugh G. Roberts and Thomas Hughes"
Adolygiad diweddaraf / Latest update: 25 09 2001, 2005-11-11, 2006-11-10
Ble’r wyf i? Yr ych chi’n ymwéld ag un o dudalennau’r Gwefan “CYMRU-CATALONIA”
On sóc? Esteu visitant una pàgina of the Web “CYMRU-CATALONIA” (= Galles-Catalunya)
Where am I? You are visiting a page from the “CYMRU-CATALONIA” (= Wales-Catalonia) Website
Weø(r) àm ai? Yùu àa(r) víziting ø peij fròm dhø “CYMRU-CATALONIA” (= Weilz-Katølóuniø) Wébsait