0898e Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia. An online version of Edward Anwyls 1897/1907 Welsh Grammar for Schools, first published
when he was 30/31 and Professor of Welsh at Coleg Prifysgol Cymru (University College of Wales) in Aberystwyth, Ceredigion,
Wales


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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Galles i Catalunya
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Gramadegau Cymraeg
Welsh Grammars

Welsh Grammar For Schools (1897 / 1907)
Edward Anwyl
79 o dudalennau / 79 pages

The grammar in jpg images: 100%
The grammar in electronic text: 18%



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EDWARD ANWYLS WELSH GRAMMAR FOR SCHOOLS (1897 / 1907)
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Page i
Parallel Grammar Series
Edited by E. A. Sonnenschein, M.A. Oxon.
Professor of Classics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts in the
University of Birmingham.

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Page i
Parallel Grammar Series
Edited by E. A. Sonnenschein, M.A. Oxon.
Professor of Classics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts in the
University of Birmingham.

(:ii)

Page ii
Parallel Grammar Series
A Welsh Grammar for Schools
Based on the Principles and Requirements of the Grammatical Society
by E. Anwyl, M.A., Oxon
Professor of Welsh at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth
Late Classics Scholar of Oriel College, Oxford
Vice-Chairman of the Central Welsh Board for Intermediate Education
Part 1 - Accidence
Third Edition
London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. Ltd
New York: The Macmillan Co.
1907

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Page iii
FIRST EDITION: November, 1897
SECOND EDITION: February, 1898
THIRD EDITION: March, 1901
FOURTH EDITION: August, 1907

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PREFACE
The present Welsh Grammar is designed to meet a long-felt want both for a short practical grammar of the language, and for a condensed and systematic summary of the results of Modern Comparative Grammar as applied to the study of Welsh.
The Author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to previous Welsh Grammars, and to the Report of the Committee upon Welsh Orthography, as well as the writings of Zeuss, Rhŷs and other Celtic philologists.

To Prof. Sonnenschein, the General Editor of the Parallel Grammar Series, the Author feels that he is specially indebted for the cordial and willing aid which he has given at all stages of the books progress. The Authors best thanks are moreover due to Prof. Rhŷs, Prof. Powel, and Prof. John Morris Jones for their many valuable suggestions and aid in the correction of proof sheets. To Prof. Rhŷs lectures on the Mabinogion at
Oxford the author owes his first scientific introduction to Welsh Philology, and many a conversation with him and with Profs. Powel and Morris Jones has been of valuable service in the composition of the present work.
E. ANWYL
ABERYSTWYTH
November 1, 1897

The Author has availed himself of the opportunity of a Second Edition, which has been called for almost immediately on publication, to make a few corrections and additions.
December 15th, 1897. E.A.


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Page vii
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION - Page 1

ACCIDENCE - Page 18
PARTS OF SPEECH - Page 18
NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES - Page 18
Number of Nouns - Page 19
Plural of Nouns - Page 20
Plural of Adjectives - Page 24
Gender of Nouns - Page 26
Comparison of Adjectives - Page 30
NUMERALS (ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS) - Page 32
PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES CONNECTED THEREWITH - Page 34
Personal - Page 34
Possessive - Page 35
Demonstrative - Page 36
Interrogative and Indefinite - Page 38
Relative - Page 39
Definitive - Page 40
ADVERBS - Page 40
VERBS - Page 41
The verb ŵyf - Page 44
The verb dysgaf - Page 48
Contracted verbs - Page 51
The Verb-noun - Page 54
Irregular Verbs - Page 57
QUESTIONS AND NEGATIONS - Page 69
PREPOSITIONS - Page 71

APPENDIX - Page 75
QUANTITY - Page 75
INITIAL MUTATION - Page 76
SPELLING - Page 79




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Page 1
INTRODUCTION

::1
Welsh belongs to the Celtic branch of the Indo-European family of languages

::2 The Celtic branch falls into two groups : -
1 the Goidelic, consisting of Erse or Irish Gaelic, Scotish Gaelic, and Manx Gaelic
2 The Brythonic, consisitng of Welsh, Breton, and Cornish (now extinct)

::3 The languages within each of these groups resemble one another closely, but the two groups themselves, in spite of thier kinship, present many important points of difference.
N.B. - The Welsh with which this grammar deals is that of the Modern Literary language.

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::
4 Alphabet

A (a)
B (bi)
C (ec)
Ch (ech)
D (di)
Dd (edd)
E (e)

F (ef)
Ff (eff)
G (eg)
Ng (eng)
H (aitsh or hi)
I (i)
L (el)

Ll (ell)
M (em)
N (en)
O (o)
P (pi)
Ph (ffi)
R (er)

S (es)
T (ti)
Th (eth)
U (u)
W (w)
Y (y)

OBS. - In the Welsh settlement of Patagonia, V is frequently used for F, and F for Ff.


::
5 On Sounds
Letters are signs of symbols representing sounds.

In Welsh, the symbols used in the written language represent the sounds of the spoken language far more accurately than in English: ch, dd, ff, ng, ll, ph, and th, being counted for this purpose as single letters. Welsh may, therefore, to all intents and purposes, be siad to be phonetically written. The only letters which have more than one sound are e, u, and y : - e has, in some diphthongs, the sound of y [In North Wales only], in others the sound o u; y has, under certain circumstances, the sound of u; and both u and y have in some words the sound of i.


::6 Classification of Sounds

Articulate sounds are of two kinds:-

I. Vowel Sounds, produced by vibration of the vocal chords, accompanied by the articulation proper to each vowel.

II. Consonant Sounds, produced by means of the lips (Labials), teeth (Dentals), palate (Palatals), throat or back part of the palate (Gutturals), tongue (Linguals), nose (Nasals), or some combination of these parts, with or without vibration of the edges of the vocal chords.

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::
7 Comparative Table of Welsh and English Sounds

(b) Simple Vowel Sounds

SOUNDS

 

ENGLISH EXAMPLES

WELSH EXAMPLES

A-SOUNDS

 

mmma
f
ther

short in mm
long in t
d

E-SOUNDS

(i) Open
(ii) Half-open

wt

short in nrth
long in ll

I-SOUNDS

(i) Open
(ii) Close

bt (nearly)
mach
ne

Short in cro / Long in cr
Long in bl
n / Short in pn

O-SOUNDS

(i) Open
(ii) Half-open

ht

Short in tn
Long in s
n

U-SOUNDS

 

rle, fool (nearly)
g
ood

Long in sŵn
Short in ll
w`m

NEUTRAL VOWEL

 

misry
c
rl

Short in ffy`ddlon
Long in f
ŷ

 
Observe that the symbols of a in English man, and of o in English no (close o); of open o as in cause; of open e as in there; of close e as in fate, are wanting in Welsh, or appear only in dialects.
Open means formed with a wide passage for the voice
Close means formed with a narrow passage for the voice

(b) Consonant Sounds

SOUNDS

 

ENGLISH EXAMPLES

WELSH EXAMPLES

LABIALS

 

bay
pay
way

byd
pen
g
wynt

LABIO-DENTALS

 

vine
fine

afon
ffol, gorphen

DENTALS





SIBILANT

do
to
thy
thigh
seal

dos
tan
a
ddaw
pe
th
s
el

PALATALS

SIBILANT

shoes
yes

eisio (in some dialects)
iaith

GUTTERALS

PALATAL
PALATAL
VELAR
VELAR
VELAR

get
(in some dialects)
good
could
lo
ch

ger
ceffyl
gwr
ca
th
achos

LINGUALS

 

low
(wanting)
row
(wanting)

alaw
llaw
e
rw
rhaw

NASALS

 

(wanting)
(wanting)
(wanting)
my
nigh
si
ng

mhen
nhad
nghael
mam
nes
ngwr

ROUGH BREATHING

 

house

hen

 

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::8 NOTE 1. - y is pronounced like Welsh u: -
(a) In monosyllables: e.g.
sŷdd, is; dyn, man; except in the proclitics yr (ydd); y; ys; fy, my; dy, they; and myn, by (used in asserverations). (A proclitic is a word which has no accent of its own, but is joined for the purpose of accentuation to the words which follows it)
(b) In the final syllable of a word of more than one syllable: e.g.
sefyll, standing; estyn, reaching; perthyn, belonging
(c) In the last syllable but one of a word, before a vowel: e.g.
hyawdl, eloquent; dyall, understanding.
(d) In the last syllable but one, or the last syllable but two of many words, when it is preceded by w: e.g.
gwyneb, face; gwyddau, geese; gwyntoedd, winds.



::9 NOTE 2. - In the greater part of mid-Wales and South-Wales u is pronounced as i, and sometimes as y



::10 NOTE 3. - u is pronounced as i throughout Wales in
ugain,
de
ugain,
union,
rhw
un,
cynn
ull,
b
ugail,
d
uwiol,
ann
uwiol,
ie
uenctid,
dil
uw,
tr
ueni,
Dehe
udir,
c
uddio



::11 NOTE 4. - y is pronounced as i throughout Wales in - disgybl,
disg
yn,
diw
yg,
diw
ygio,
diw
ygwyr,
dil
yn,
gil
ydd,
meg
ys,
din
ystr,
disgw
yl,
g
yda,
medd
yg,
glo
ywi,
teb
yg,
cer
yg,
llew
yg,
llew
ys,
plisg
yn,
d
ychymyg,
amr
yw,
rh
ywun,
c
yw,
yw,
ydyw,
efeng
yl,
gw
ylio,
dr
yw,
c
yfryw,
ystryw,
distr
yw,
hedd
yw,
ben
yw,
rhel
yw,
llin
yn,
men
yg,
didd
ym.

This occurs either
(a) when the vowel of the preceding syllable is i; or
(b) when the y is preceded or followed by g; or
(c) when the y is followed by w.


NOTE 5. - ll seems to be pronounced by pressing the lower side of the front part of the tongue against the roof of the mouth and emitting the breath over its sides, without vibration of the vocal chords.

NOTE 6. - w and i are used both as vowels and as consonants: e.g., in gwynt and iaith w and i are consonants



(c) Diphthongs

::12 1. A diphthong is produced by running two different vowel sounds together so as to make a single syllable.



::13 2. The first of the two vowels of a diphthong may be short or long.



::14 3. The sounds e,o,y form diphthongs with i,u,w. The sounds i,u form diphthongs with w. The sound w forms diphthongs with u.

REMARKS.
IN
N. WALES. - In the diphthongs written ae, oe, e is pronounced as u. In the diphthongs written ei, eu, e is pronounced as y. (Except in a few words, chiefly monosyllables, where e has its own sound). In the diphthongs written wy, yw, y is pronounced as u.

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::15 Tables of Diphthongs

A-Diphthongs

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

i
i

gwaith
i

u
u
u
(In North Wales only)
u

aur
hiraeth
gw
udd
ce

w
w

awr
llw


E-Diphthongs

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

e

ein

u
u

 

gweu
teyrn (The name of the distict Lleyn is prnounced Lln)

w
w
(In North Wales only)

blewyn
llew


I-Diphthongs

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

w

lliw


O-Diphthongs

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

i

troi

u
u
u

ou
oe
rach
ed

w

dowch


U-Diphthongs

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

w
w

Duw
byw


W-Diphthongs

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

ŵu
ŵu

bwydo
rhŵyd


Y-Diphthongs

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

i (In North Wales only)

einioes

u (In North Wales only)

gweunydd

w

bywyd

NOTE. - yw is not infrequently pronounced as ow; e.g. Howel for Hywel

OBS. Rules for determining the quantity of a vowel or a diphthong are given in the Appendix
N.B. -In the sequel, the quantity of only long vowels and diphthongs will be indicated, where necessary, thus: - td, me, . Short vowels and diphthongs will be left unmarked.

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16 17 18 19 20 21 22

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1. ARTICULATION

::23
Care should be taken to pronounce the vowels, even of unaccented syllables, clearly. The consonants should be pronounced somewhat more lightly than in English, yet with perfect distinctness. The long vowels are never diphthongized as they are in English.

2. ACCENT (TONIC)
(a) Word Accent

::24 1.
The Accent or Tonic Accent is the stress laid upon a particular syllable in a word. As in English, the Accent may be Principal ( ) or Secondary ( ` ), or the syllable may be unaccented: e.g. bndigdig, d-lywdraeth.
{OUR NOTE: bendigedig = wonderful, dilywodraeth = ungoverned, uncontrolled}

::25 1. The Principal Accent, in Welsh, almost invariably falls on the last syllable but one. This syllable is generally called the penult or penultima; the syllable before it is called the antepenultima, and the last syllable the ultima.
NOTE. - Some small words (except when emphatic) have no accent: e.g. a, yr, y, yn, fy, dy, etc. If joined for purposes of accentuation to the word which follows it, such a word is called proclitic; if joined to the words which precedes it, it is called enclitic.


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Words Accented on the Last Syllable

::
26 The accent falls on the last syllable: -
.....1. In words whose last syllable is the result of contraction:
..........e.g. ymdri (for dr-i); Cymreg (for --eg); bywhnt (for h-ant).
{OUR NOTE: ystn = pitcher, ystnc = stake, ymlŷn = it sticks itself, it binds itself, ymwl = he / she visits}

::27 2. In some words the first syllable of which is ys- or ym- :
..........e.g. ystn, ystnc, ymlŷn, ymwl
{OUR NOTE: ymdri = turn, rotate; Cymreg = Welsh language; bywhnt = they eat}

::28 3. In the emphatic reduplicated pronouns, myf, tyd, etc. (Rarely myfi, tydi, etc)
{OUR NOTE: myfi = I, tydi = you}

::29 4. In some combinations of prepositions with nouns:
..........e.g. heblw, islw, drachfn.
{OUR NOTE: heblw = besides, islw = below, drachfn = again}

::30 5. In some English words, as apl, appeal, and somtiems in dyld, debt

Words Accented on the Last Syllable but Two
These are:-

::31 1. Words in which an w`, the remnant of the Old Brythonic termination, -uos, -u, -uon, has become a separate syllable:
..........e.g. mddw-dod, gwddw-dod, bdw-lwyn. In spoken Welsh w in such words is frequently elided.
{OUR NOTE: meddwdod = drunkenness, gweddwdod = widowhood, bedwlwn = birch grove}

::32 2. Words ending in l and r after b, d, or g. Here l and r are practically treated as vowels, or as consonants accompanied by a very slight vowel sound: e.g. bnadl, ffnestr. In spoken Welsh they are often elided.
..........e.g. perig (for perygl), ffenest (for ffenestr).
{OUR NOTE: banadl = broom bushes, broom as a material, ffenestr = window; pergl = danger}

::33 3. Certain words borrowed from English, which preserve the English accent: e.g. mlodi, hresi, philsophi.
{OUR NOTE: mlodi = melody, hresi = heresy, philsophi = philosophy}

H before the Accented Syllable.

::34 1. When the syllable before that which bears the accent ends i a vowel, or in m, n, ng, or r, the accented vowel is often preceded by h: e.g. cenhdloedd, oherwydd, cynghnedd.
{OUR NOTE: cenedl = nation, cenhedloedd = nations; oherwdd = because, cynghanedd = alliteration}

::35 2. As this takes place somewhat irregularly and dialectally, care should be taken to observe carefully in what words h is thus used.
.........N.B. - For the same use of h before individual words see @68.

The Accent in Compound Words.

::36 1. Most compound words are accented regularly:
.........e.g. trymlais, blnfyd.


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::
37 2. In some compounds, chielfy those having for their first element a prepositional prefix, the component parts have not perfectly coalesced, and the prefix in consequence bears a strong secondary: e.g. cy`n-lwydd, d-fdio, rhg-arwiniad, cy`d-fned.

 (b) Group-Accent

::38 1.
Owing to the tendency in Welsh to rhythmical intonation, the correct pronuncaition of breath-groups is not easily acqured.

::
39 2. This intonation varies very considerably with different districts, but it usually causes the last syllable of a breath-group to be pronounced with a higher tone than the rest, while the chief stress-accent of the group tends to fall upon the last accented syllable.

 (b) Thought-Accent

::40 1.
The Thought-Accent is the stress or emphasis laid upon a word or syllable, in order to bring out the meaning of the sentence. In corresponds to italics in print:
e.g. Dengys ef wybodaeth, ond ei frawd anwybodaeth. He shows knowledge, but his brother lack of knowledge.

3. WORD BINDING

::41
(a) Within the breath-group which is the unit of speech, there is no perceptible pause. Word binding of this kind is common to English and Welsh.

::42 (b) In Welsh, however, the close connexion of the words which form a breath group, has caused the initial consonants of many words to undergo phonetic changes similar to those which have taken place in individual words:
e.g. Old Welsh o pen, from a head, has become o ben; just as Old Welsh aper, estuary, has become aber.

::43 (c) These changes of initial consonants, which play a very importnat part in Welsh, as in the other Celtic languages, will be given under Initial Mutations. @@57, 58, 59, etc.

::44 NOTE. - In their origin, these changes were phonetic, but, as is often the case, the working of analogy has played an importnat part in determining their modern employment.

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PHONETIC LAWS AND TENDENCIES

Changes of sound are due-

::45 A. To phonetic causes proper, depending on the mechanism of the organs of speech and hearing. These causes mainly operate in bringing about assi,ilation:
..........(a) Of vowels to vowels, (b) of vowels to consonants, (c) of consonants to vowels, (d) of consonants to consonants, all with a view to economy of effort.

::46 B. To mental causes, whereby one sound is sometimes substituted for another, when some real or fancied analogy seems to require it, mainly in order to bring about greater regularity. The mind continually tries to classify the facts of the language, namely, sounds and forms, on the basis of certain characteristics,which they have in common. The basis of this classification often changes, so that what was regular under the old classification may be irregular under the new, and hence a frwuent tendency to bring that which is tiiregular into accordance with rule.

Vowel-Changes

::47
The vowel-changes which take place in Welsh may be seen from the following tables: -

1. change due to the influence of the vowel of the following syllable
 

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES




u
w




y
w

nant
gardd
cn
men
tw

nentydd
gerddi
ceni
meini
tewi

 
{OUR NOTE: nant = stream, nentydd = streams; gardd = garden, gerddi = gardens; cn = song, or the root of canu = to sing; ceni = you shall sing; men = stone, meini = stones; tw = silence, or the root of tewi, tewi = shut up}

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2. change due to the influence of a lost vowel
 

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES


w`


byr
trwm

ber
trom

 
{OUR NOTE: byr = short, trwm = heavy; ber = feminine form of byr; trom = feminine form of trwm }

3. change due to the influence of a lost consonantal i
 

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES



u


u
(u)

i
i
i


w
(u)

bychan
sarff
men
hn
porth
en
(tred)

bychain
seirff
main
hŷn
pyrth
ŵyn
(tred)

 
{OUR NOTE: bychan, plural: bychain = small; sarff, plural: seriff = serpent; maen, plural: main = stones; hen = old, hŷn = older; porth, plural: pyrth = gateway; oen, plural: wyn = lamb; troed, plural: traed = foot)

4. change in one vowel due to change in that following it
 

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES


w`

i
y

dafad
cwmwl

defaid
cymylau

 
{OUR NOTE: dafad, plural: defaid = sheep; cwmwl, plural: cymylau = cloud)


5. change due to the simplificarion of a diphthong in an unaccented syllable
 

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

u
w
i



caffael
marchawg
busteich

caffel
marchog
bustych

 
{OUR NOTE: caffael (old form/ caffel = to get; marchawg (old form) / marchog = knight; busteich, bustch = two plural forms of bustach = bullock)

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6. change due to the addition of an ending
 

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES





w
`^u
i
u
u
w
w
w
w

*



y
`y
y`i
y`u
y`u


y`w
w

plant
mn
gwn
mr
bwrdd
ffŷdd
main
haul
mes
llawr
buwch
llyw
bŵyd

plent-yn
man-ach
gwen-u
mor-oedd
byrdd-au
ffydd-lon
mein-ach
heul-iau
meus-ydd
llor-io
buch-od
llyw-ydd
bwyd-o

*(only when the ending contains the vowel i or y). See @47.1

NOTE 1. - In words borrowed from Latin accented has become w, and later ; has become ŵy: close has become u:
e.g. ymherawdr (impertor), cardod (caritt-em), cŵyr (cra), urdd (rdo).

NOTE 2. - The terminationof borrowed Latin words, like the termination of old Brythonic words, have now been lost in Welsh.

{OUR NOTE: plant
= children, plent-yn = child, mn = small, man-ach = smaller, gwn = a smile, gwen-u = to smile, mr = sea, mor-oedd = seas, bwrdd = table, byrdd-au = tables, ffŷdd = faith, ffydd-lon = faithful, main = slim, mein-ach = slimmer, haul = sun, heul-iau = suns, mes = field, meus-ydd = fields, llawr = floor, llor-io to floor (somebody), buwch = cow, buch-od = cows, llyw = helm, llyw-ydd = leader, bŵyd = food, bwyd-o = feed)

Consonant-Changes

::48 1. The consonant-changes of Welsh are mostly of mutes, when preceded and followed by continuous letters, either in individual words or in breath-groups. They arise from a tendency to preserve an unbroken continuity of sound within the word or breath-ggroup. Fro example, a voiceless sound may become voiced, when it stands between two vowels, i.e. the vibration of the vocal chords continues, while the consonant is being articulated. If the mute be already voiced, it tends to pass into the corresponding spirant, i.e. instead of momentarily stopping the flow of breath, as is done in the case of a mute, we allow the flow to continue.

::49 2. The consonant-changes of Welsh should be carefully observed, not only because they illustrate the phonetic tendencies of the language, but also on account of their practical application in the formation of compound words and in initial mutation.

::50
3. These changes can often be conveniently illustrated by means of words borrowed from Latin during the Roman occupation of
Britain.

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::
51 A. Assimilation of Mutes to Continuous Letters. 1. To vowels.

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

p
t
c
b
d
g
pp
pt
ct
cc

b
d
g
f
dd
(lost)
ff
th
th
ch

capistrum
pater
locus
taberna
prdens
sagitta
cippus
captus
doctus
pecctum

cebystr
pader
llg
tafarn
prdd
seth
ff
ceth
deth
pechod


{Our note: cebystr = halter, pader = Lords Prayer, padernoster, llg = interest, tafarn = tavern, prdd = gloomy, seth = arrow, cŷff = tree stump, ceth = slave; enslaved, addicted, deth = wise, pechod = sin }

2. To spirants

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

p
t
c

ph
th
ch

is *pen
is tafod
is calon

ei phen
ei thafod
ei chalon

*The precise sound of this sibilant is uncertain. It has now been everywhere assimilated
{Our note: ei phen
= her head, ei thafod = her tongue, ei chalon = her heart }

3. To nasals

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

mp
nt
nc
mb
nd
ng-g

mh
nh
ngh
mm
nn
ng

tempor-
contend-
cancell-
ambiguus
candla
angelus

tymhor*
cynhen*
canghell*
ammeu**
cannwyll
angel

*h in these words is now fequently opmitted, except on the addition of an ending, when the syllable which it introduces becomes accented
**Now frequently written ameu {Our note: Now amau}
{Our note:
tymhor- (penult form of tymor = season), cynhen- (penult form of cynne = contention, dispute), canghell- (as in canghellor = chancellor), ammeu (now amau, = to doubt), cannwyll = candle, angel = angle}

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4. To l (lingual)

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

lp
lc
lb
ld
ld

lff
lch
lf
ll
lld, llt

Alpinus
calc-
gilbin (Old Welsh)
caldrium
sol(i)d-

Elphin
calch
gylfin
callawr
(sŵlld) sŵllt

{Our note: tymhor- (Elphin (modern spelling Elffin; nowadays obsolete, replaced by Alpau), calch = lime, gylfin = beak, callawr = cauldron, swllt = shilling}

5. To r (lingual)

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

rp
rt
rc
rb
rd
rg

rft
rth
rch
rf
rdd
ri

serpens
part-em
arca
turba
rdo
argentum

sarff
parth
arch
torf
urdd
arian

{Our note: sarff = serpent, parth = part, district, arch = coffin, torf = crowd, urdd = religious order, arian = silver}

B. Other Changes

::52 1. m
has become f : e.g. rmus, rhŵyf, oar

lt has become llt : e.g. altum, llt (also ll: e.g. altre, allawr)
lm has become lf : e.g. palma, palf
rm has become rf : e.g. arma, arf
rl has become rll : e.g. iarl, iarll
mn has become rdd : e.g. lam(i)na, llafn
thb has become thp : e.g. daethpwyd for daethbwyd
{Our note:
rhŵyf = oar, llat = hill, allawr (now allaor) = altar, palf = palm of the hand, arf = arm, weapon, iarll = earl, llafn = blade, daethpwyd = it has been brought}

2. f has been lost in pl for plf*
f has been lost in llw for llwf
f has been lost in cel for cafel
dd has been lost in rhoi for rhoddi
*The loss of final f is one of the most marked characteristics of the colloquial Welsh of N. Wales.
{Our note:
plu= feather, llaw = handcael = get, receive, rhoi = give}

3. By dissimilation we have caffel for cafel
{Our note:
caffel = (old form) (v) get, receive, (n) acquisition}

4. Initial v has become gw in Welsh e.g. gwener from vener-is
{Our note: Gwener = Venus, Friday}

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Consonant Changes i Compound Words

::53 1.
If the first element of a Compound be that which gives it its distinctive meaning - in other words, if it be of the nature of an attribute - the initial letter of the second element undergoes the changes described in @51, A, 1.

::54 2. The second element of a some few compounds undergoes the changes described in @51, A, 2.

::55 3. These changes, due originally to phonetic causes, are now treated as signs of composition, and mustbe made whenever a new compound is formed:
e.g. arf-bais, coat of arms (from pais)
gwerth-wr, seller, from gŵr
palas-dy, palace, from tŷ
{Our note: pais = petticoat, gŵr = man, tŷ = house}

::56 4. The spirant change is hown in dy-chryn, terror; tra-chas, exceedingly hateful, and a few more words.

NOTE:- For the purpose of compostion the voiceless sounds ll and rh are often voiced to l and r. 

Consonant Changes in Breath-Groups
(Initial Mutation)

::57
The Consonant changes which take place in breath groups are analogous to those, which, in course of time, have taken place in individual words and in the first elelment of compounds. These changes, like those of individual words and compounds, are, in their origin, the result of purely phonetic causes, operating when the consonant at the beginning of a word included in a breath-group followed and was follwed by a continuous letter. This would occur for instance in the case of an adjective following a fem. noun ending in .

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TABLE OF INTIAL MUTATIONS

::
58 1. The unchanged consonant is called the Radical

::59 2. Mutations, from the point of view of sound-change, are of three types, Voiced, Spirant and Nasal.

::60

SOUNDS

EXAMPLES

 

RADICAL

VOICED

SPIRANT

NASAL

p
t
c

pren
td
cam

bren
dd
gam

phren
thd
cham

mhren
nhd
ngham

b
d
g

baich
dŷn
gŵr

 

faich
ddŷn
#ŵr*

maich
nŷn
ngŵr

ll
rh

llais
rhe^s

lais
re^s

 

 

m

mam

 

fam

 

*The sound here lost resembled the soft g of German
{Our note: pren = tree, tad = father, cam = step, baich = load, burden, dyn = man, gwr = man or husband, llais = voice, rhes = row (of houses, etc), mam = mother}

Employment of the Initial Mutations

::61
(a) Certain types of mutation correspond i usage to each other:
The spirant mutation in the case of b, d, g and m corresponds in usage to the voiced mutation in the case of p, t, c, ll and rh.

(b) Where p, t, c undergo the spirant mutation, b, d, g, ll, rh, m undergo no change.
(Except after ni, na, not; here
b, d, g become f, dd, #;
ll, rh, m become l, r, f)

(c) Where p, t, c, b, d, g undergo the nasal mutation, ll, rh, m undergo no change.
Mutation
of p, t, c, into b, d, g
of b, d, g into f, dd, #
of ll and rh into l and r
of m into f

::64
This is the most common form of mutation, and is commonly known as the soft mutation; for a list of the cases where it occurs, see Appendix (Initial Mutations).

::69 The following points should be noted at the outset:-
(1) After a verb or noun (including the verb-noun) a pronoun is mutated.

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