HEN WLAD FY NHADAU / Anthem Genedlaethol Cymru / lhimne nacional del Pas de Galles. 2707e

 

 

http://www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_caneuon/canu_hen_wlad_fy_nhadau_2707e.htm

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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya

The Wales-Catalonia Web

Caneuon gwerin ac emynau yn Gymreg
Folksongs and hymns


HEN WLAD FY NHADAU
(the old country of my forefathers)

 

Anthem Genedlaethol Cymru
Welsh National Anthem





(delw 7316)


Adolygiad diweddaraf - darrera actualitzaci latest update
2009-02-06, 2001-06-11

 

http://kimkat.org/amryw/gwefan_gwegynllun_0010e_archivos/image008.jpg 0196c Aquesta pgina en catal lhimen nacional de galles (Hen Wlad fy Nhadau)

 

There are four sections:
1 The words and the pronunciation (IPA - International Phonetic Alphabet)
2 The words with an English translation

3 The wrods, the translation, and the pronunciation
4 Notes on the history of the anthem

 

 

1 Words and pronunciation

The syllables in red letters take the stress

 

HEN WLAD FY NHADAU

1____________________________________

Mae Hen Wlad fy Nhadau yn annwyl i mi
maɪ heːn ʊlɑːd və nhɑˑdaɪ ən ɑˑnʊɪl iː miː


Gwlad beirdd a chantorion, enwogion o fri
gʊlɑːd bəir ɑː xantɔrjɔn, ɛnwɔgjɔn vriː


i gwrol ryfelwyr, gwladgarwyr tra mad
əɪ guˑrɔl rəvɛlwɪr, gʊladgarwɪr trɑː mɑːd


Dros ryddid collasant eu gwaed
drɔs ɪd kɔɬasant əɪ gwaɪd


Y GYTGAN_____________________ (= the refrain / ə gətgan )


Gwlad! Gwlad!
gʊlɑːd gʊlɑːd


Pleidiol wyf im gwlad
pləɪdjɔl ʊɪv m gʊlɑːd


Trar mr yn fur

trɑːr
moːr ən viːr


Ir bur hoff bau
iːr biːr hoːf baɪ


O bydded ir heniaith barhau

ɛd iːr hɛnjaɪθ barhaɪ

2____________________________________


Hen Gymru fynyddig, paradwys y bardd

heːn
gəmrɪ vəɪg, parɑˑdʊɪs ə bar


Pob dyffryn, pob clogwyn, im golwg syn hardd

poːb
frɪn, poːb klɔgwɪn, iːm goˑlʊg siːn har


Trwy deimlad gwladgarol mor swynol yw si

trʊɪ
dəimlad gʊlɑdgɑˑrɔl, mɔr sʊɪnɔol ɪʊ siː


Ei nentydd, afonydd i mi

əɪ
ntɪ, avoˑnɪ iː miː

Y GYTGAN_____________________ (= the refrain / ə gətgan )


Gwlad! Gwlad!
gʊlɑːd gʊlɑːd


Pleidiol wyf im gwlad
pləɪdjɔl ʊɪv m gʊlɑːd


Trar mr yn fur

trɑːr
moːr ən viːr


Ir bur hoff bau
iːr biːr hoːf baɪ


O bydded ir hen iaith barhau

ɛd iːr hɛnjaɪθ barhaɪ

3____________________________________


Os treisiodd y gelyn fy ngwlad dan ei droed
ɔs trəɪsjɔ ə geˑlɪn və ŋʊlɑːd dan əi drɔɪd


Mae heniaith y Cymry mor fyw ag erioed

maɪ
hɛnjaɪθ ə kəmrɪ mɔr vɪʊ ɑːg ɛrjɔɪd


Ni luddiwyd yr awen gan erchyll law brad

niː
juid ər ɛn gan ɛrxɪɬ laʊ brɑːd


Na thelyn berseiniol fy ngwlad

nɑː
θlɪn bɛrsəɪnjɔl və ŋʊlɑːd


Y GYTGAN_____________________ (= the refrain / ə gətgan )


Gwlad! Gwlad!
gʊlɑːd gʊlɑːd


Pleidiol wyf im gwlad
pləɪdjɔl ʊɪv m gʊlɑːd


Trar mr yn fur

trɑːr
moːr ən viːr


Ir bur hoff bau
iːr biːr hoːf baɪ


O bydded ir hen iaith barhau

ɛd iːr hɛnjaɪθ barhaɪ

2 The words and the translation

In the column with the
literal translation there are indicated the mutations - (la initial consonant of a word may undergo a change within a sentence).
soft mutation
spirant mutation
nasal mutation

 

 

HEN WLAD FY NHADAU

Literal translation

 

 

 

Mae Hen Wlad fy Nhadau yn annwyl i mi
The old land of my [fore]fathers is dear to me

Mae (it-is) / Hen (old) / Wlad (land) / fy (my) / Nhadau (fathers / forefathers) / yn (linking particle) / annwyl (dear, belovd) / i (to) / mi (me)
 

 

Gwlad beirdd a chantorion, enwogion o fri
A country of poets and singers, prominent people of renown

Gwlad ([a] land, [a] country) / beirdd (poets, bards) / a (and) / chantorion (singers), / enwogion (prominent people) / o fri (of renown)

 

Ei gwrol ryfelwyr, gwladgarwyr tra mad
Its valient warriors, excellent patriots

Ei (its) / gwrol (valient, manly) / ryfelwyr (warriors, fighters), / gwladgarwyr (patriots) / tra (very) / mad (good)
 

 

Dros ryddid collasant eu gwaed
For freedom they spilt (lost) their blood

Dros (on behalf of, for) / ryddid (freedom, liberty) / collasant (they lost) / eu (their) / gwaed (blood)

 


 

 

Y GYTGAN

THE REFRAIN

 

Gwlad! Gwlad!
(My) land!

Gwlad! ([my] country) / Gwlad!
 

 

Pleidiol wyf im gwlad
I support my land

(it-is) (omitted in modern Welsh) Pleidiol (supportive, favourable) / wyf (that-I-am) / im (to my) / gwlad (country / land)

 

Trar mr yn fur
While the sea is a wall

Trar (while [it-is]) / r (the) / mr (sea) / yn (linking particle) / fur (a wall)

 


Ir bur hoff bau
To the much loved country [NOTE: Wales is shaped like an upturned rectangle, and is bounded on three sides by the sea; the eastern side is the boundary with England)


 
Ir (to the) / bur (very, truly) / hoff (loved; favourite) / bau (country)

 

O bydded ir heniaith barhau
Oh, may the old language endure

O (o!) / bydded (may it be) / ir (to the) / heniaith (old language) / barhau (endure, continue, carry on)

 



 

 

Hen Gymru fynyddig, paradwys y bardd
Old mountainous Wales, the paradise of the poet

Hen (old) / Gymru (Wales) / fynyddig (mountainous), / paradwys (paradise) / y bardd ([of] the poet)

 

Pob dyffryn, pob clogwyn, im golwg syn hardd
Every valley, every precipice, is beuatiful to my eyes

Pob (every) / dyffryn (valley), / pob (every) / clogwyn (precipi), (it-is) (omitted in modern Welsh) im (to my) / golwg (sight) / sy (which-it-is) / n = yn (linking perticle) / hardd (beautiful, pretty)

 

Trwy deimlad gwladgarol mor swynol yw si
Through patriotic feeling (it-is) so enchanting (that-is) the whispering

Trwy (through) / deimlad (sentiment, feeling) / gwladgarol (patriotic) / mor (so) / swynol (enchanting) / yw (is) / si ([the] whispering [of])
 

 

Ei nentydd, afonydd i mi
De les seves rieres i els seus rius

Ei (its) / nentydd (streams), / afonydd (rivers) / i mi (to me)

 




 

 

Y GYTGAN

THE REFRAIN

 




 

 

Os treisiodd y gelyn fy ngwlad dan ei droed
If the enemy conquered and trampled underfoot my country

Os (si) / treisiodd (conquered, vanquished, violently attacked. oppressed) / y gelyn (the enemy) / fy ngwlad (my country) / dan (under) / ei droed (his foot)

 

Mae heniaith y Cymry mor fyw ag erioed
The old language of the Welsh people is as alive as it ever was

Mae (it-is) / heniaith ([the] old language [of]) / y Cymry (the Welsh people) / mor (as) /  fyw (alive) / ag (as) / erioed (ever) (NOTE: the anthem was written in 1856, when the vast majority spoke Welsh, and a great proportion of the Welsh-speaking population knew no other language)
 

 

Ni luddiwyd yr awen gan erchyll law brad

The muse was not impeded by the terrible hand of teachery

Ni (not) / luddiwyd (it has been impeded) / yr awen (la musa) / gan (per) / erchyll (terrible) / law (m) / brad (traci, perfdia) /

 

Na thelyn berseiniol fy ngwlad
Neither [was] the melodious harp of my country

Na (neither, nor) / thelyn ([the] harp) / berseiniol (melodious) / fy ([of] my) / ngwlad (country)
 



3 The words, the translation, the pronunciation


A siplified pronunciation system

The syllables in capital letters take the accent

Double vowels indicate a long vowel; single vowels indicate a short vowel

 

NH is n + h

 

DH is the TH of English THIS, THAT, THE

 

TH is the TH of English THINK

 

HL is the aspirated L of Welsh a VERY approximate pronuncation is H followed by L

 

The ə is an obscure vowel a sound which is abundant in Welsh, as it is in English (the a of around, about, alive, awake, etc)

 

AI as in mine, light, sign, spy

AU as in mountain, town

UI as in chop suey

EI as in cane, late, stain, weight, way

Y as in yes

U as in put, look



 

HEN WLAD FY NHADAU

Pronunciaci

 

 

 

Mae Hen Wlad fy Nhadau yn annwyl i mi
The old land of my [fore]fathers is dear to me

mai HEEN ulaad və NHAA-dai ən AA-nuil ii MII
 

 

Gwlad beirdd a chantorion, enwogion o fri
A country of poets and singers, prominent people of renown

gulaad BEIRDH aa khan-TOR-yon, en-WOG-yon oo VRII

 

Ei gwrol ryfelwyr, gwladgarwyr tra mad
Its valient warriors, excellent patriots

ei GUU-rol rə-VEL-wir, gulad-GAR-wir traa MAAD

 

Dros ryddid collasant eu gwaed
For freedom they spilt (lost) their blood

dros -dhid ko-HLA-sant ei GWAID

 

 

 

Y GYTGAN

 

 

Gwlad! Gwlad!
(My) land!

GULAAD, GULAAD

 

Pleidiol wyf im gwlad
I support my land

PLEID-yol UIV im GULAAD

 

Trar mr yn fur
While the sea is a wall

traar MOOR ən VIIR

 


Ir bur hoff bau
To the much loved country [NOTE: Wales is shaped like an upturned rectangle, and is bounded on three sides by the sea; the eastern side is the boundary with England)

iir BIIR hoof BAI

 

O bydded ir heniaith barhau
Oh, may the old language endure

o -dhed iir HEEN YAITH bar-HAI

 


 

 

Hen Gymru fynyddig, paradwys y bardd
Old mountainous Wales, the paradise of the poet

heen GƏM-ri və--dhig, pa-RAA-duis ə BARDH

 

Pob dyffryn, pob clogwyn, im golwg syn hardd
Every valley, every precipice, is beuatiful to my eyes

poob -frin, poob KLOG-win, iim GOO-lug siin HARDH

 

Trwy deimlad gwladgarol mor swynol yw si
Through patriotic feeling (it-is) so enchanting (that-is) the whispering

trui DEIM-lad gulad-GAA-rol mor SUI-nol iu SII

 

Ei nentydd, afonydd i mi
De les seves rieres i els seus rius

ei NEN-tidh, a-VOO-nidh ii MII

 



 

 

Y GYTGAN

 

 



 

 

Os treisiodd y gelyn fy ngwlad dan ei droed
If the enemy conquered and trampled underfoot my country

os TREIS-yodh ə GEE-lin və NGULAAD dan ei DROID

 

Mae heniaith y Cymry mor fyw ag erioed
The old language of the Welsh people is as alive as it ever was

mai HEN-yaith ə KƏM-ri mor VIU aag er-YOID

 

Ni luddiwyd yr awen gan erchyll law brad

The muse was not impeded by the terrible hand of teachery

nii LIDH-yuid ər AU-en gan ER-khihl lau BRAAD

 

Na thelyn berseiniol fy ngwlad
Neither [was] the melodious harp of my country

naa THEE-lin ber-SEIN-yol və NGULAAD




4 The story of the anthem

The composer was Evan James (1809-1878) (he used the Welsh form of his name Ieuan ab Iago as his bardic name or presudonym in the 1800s the Welsh used the English forms of their names officially, as is the case today, though today many use Welsh genuine Welsh forms either as hybrids with English forms, or combinations which are exclusively Welsh)

He wrote the words for Hen Wlad fy Nhadau in the year 1856 (at the age of 46/47 anys). The tune was apparently composed by his son James James (Iago ap Ieuan) (who was 22/23 years old).

Ieuan ap Iago was born in Caerffili, but worked as a weaver in the town of Pont-ty-pridd, not far from Caerffili. He was the owner of a woollen mill and also a tavern keeper.

Commentary on the anthem Welsh nationality is defined more than anything else by the language. In the 1800s poetry and music were popular manifestations of Welsh culture (and also song, greatly encouraged as an aspect of religious worship). The traditional musical instrument was the harp.

There was a long struggle against English invaders over the centuries. Although internecine battles also took place, the real enemy was the English, who had penned the Welsh into the south-western mountainous peninsula of the island, having conquered 60% of the area of the island. In 1535 Wales was effectively annexed to England, and the Welsh became a subjugated people in their own land. The memory of past battles and the desire for freedom for their nation remained among the ordinary people. (The upper classes having abandoned their Welshness to become a kind of provincial English, and had little in common with their non-Anglicised compatriots).

The Breton national anthem (Bro Gozh va Zado) is an adaptation of the Welsh anthem, in Breton, and dating from the year 1894...................................

 

 

.......................

(delw 7381)

 

 

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